Sample records for backup utility applications

  1. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)


    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  2. Utilizing data grid architecture for the backup and recovery of clinical image data. (United States)

    Liu, Brent J; Zhou, M Z; Documet, J


    Grid Computing represents the latest and most exciting technology to evolve from the familiar realm of parallel, peer-to-peer and client-server models. However, there has been limited investigation into the impact of this emerging technology in medical imaging and informatics. In particular, PACS technology, an established clinical image repository system, while having matured significantly during the past ten years, still remains weak in the area of clinical image data backup. Current solutions are expensive or time consuming and the technology is far from foolproof. Many large-scale PACS archive systems still encounter downtime for hours or days, which has the critical effect of crippling daily clinical operations. In this paper, a review of current backup solutions will be presented along with a brief introduction to grid technology. Finally, research and development utilizing the grid architecture for the recovery of clinical image data, in particular, PACS image data, will be presented. The focus of this paper is centered on applying a grid computing architecture to a DICOM environment since DICOM has become the standard for clinical image data and PACS utilizes this standard. A federation of PACS can be created allowing a failed PACS archive to recover its image data from others in the federation in a seamless fashion. The design reflects the five-layer architecture of grid computing: Fabric, Resource, Connectivity, Collective, and Application Layers. The testbed Data Grid is composed of one research laboratory and two clinical sites. The Globus 3.0 Toolkit (Co-developed by the Argonne National Laboratory and Information Sciences Institute, USC) for developing the core and user level middleware is utilized to achieve grid connectivity. The successful implementation and evaluation of utilizing data grid architecture for clinical PACS data backup and recovery will provide an understanding of the methodology for using Data Grid in clinical image data backup for

  3. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan;


    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  4. An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara


    Full Text Available This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operation of the wearable robotized arm, controlled through acceleration and electromyography (EMG sensor signals, even in the case of battery failure, thanks to the embedded energy backup unit. To prove the configurability and scalability of the proposed solution, experimental results related to the electric actuation of the car door latch and of a robotized gearbox in vehicles are also shown. The reliability of the energy backup device has been assessed in a wide temperature range, from −40 to 130 °C, and in a durability test campaign of more than 10,000 cycles. Achieved results prove the suitability of the proposed approach for ACUs requiring a burst of power of hundreds of watts for only a few seconds in safety-critical applications. Alternatively, the aging and temperature characterizations of energy backup units is limited to supercapacitors of thousands of farads for high power applications (e.g., electric/hybrid propulsion and with a temperature range limited to

  5. Backup & Recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, W


    Packed with practical, freely available backup and recovery solutions for Unix, Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X systems -- as well as various databases -- this new guide is a complete overhaul of Unix Backup & Recovery by the same author, now revised and expanded with over 75% new material.

  6. Efficient Multi-Resolution Compression Algorithm for Disk-Based Backup and Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dejun; WANG Lina; WANG Hui


    In this paper, we deal with the problem of improving backup and recovery performance by compressing redundancies in large disk-based backup system. We analyze some general compression algorithms; evaluate their scalability and applicability. We investigate the distribution features of the redundant data in whole system range, and propose a multi-resolution distributed compression algorithm which can discern duplicated data at granularity of file level, block level or byte level to reduce the redundancy in backup environment. In order to accelerate recovery, we propose a synthetic backup solution which stores data in a recovery-oriented way and can compose the final data in back-end backup server. Experiments show that this algorithm can greatly reduce bandwidth consumption, save storage cost, and shorten the backup and recovery time. We implement these technologies in our product, called H-info backup system, which is capable of achieving over 10x compression ratio in both network utilization and data storage during backup.

  7. Reliability considerations of a fuel cell backup power system for telecom applications (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil


    A commercial fuel cell backup power unit is tested in real life operating conditions at a base station of a Turkish telecom operator. The fuel cell system responds to 256 of 260 electric power outages successfully, providing the required power to the base station. Reliability of the fuel cell backup power unit is found to be 98.5% at the system level. On the other hand, a qualitative reliability analysis at the component level is carried out. Implications of the power management algorithm on reliability is discussed. Moreover, integration of the backup power unit to the base station ecosystem is reviewed in the context of reliability. Impact of inverter design on the stability of the output power is outlined. Significant current harmonics are encountered when a generic inverter is used. However, ripples are attenuated significantly when a custom design inverter is used. Further, fault conditions are considered for real world case studies such as running out of hydrogen, a malfunction in the system, or an unprecedented operating scheme. Some design guidelines are suggested for hybridization of the backup power unit for an uninterrupted operation.

  8. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System (United States)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi


    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  9. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.


    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  10. Enterprise systems backup and recovery a corporate insurance policy

    CERN Document Server

    de Guise, Preston


    The success of information backup systems does not rest on IT administrators alone. Rather, a well-designed backup system comes about only when several key factors coalesce-business involvement, IT acceptance, best practice designs, enterprise software, and reliable hardware. Enterprise Systems Backup and Recovery: A Corporate Insurance Policy provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding of the principles and features involved in effective enterprise backups.Instead of focusing on any individual backup product, this book recommends corporate procedures and policies that need to be established for comprehensive data protection. It provides relevant information to any organization, regardless of which operating systems or applications are deployed, what backup system is in place, or what planning has been done for business continuity. It explains how backup must be included in every phase of system planning, development, operation, and maintenance. It also provides techniques for analyzing and impr...

  11. Backup in Windows 7

    CERN Document Server


    Creating backups (or safety copies) of files has become increasingly important for many computer users. A growing number of people save important and vital information on their computer. Often this will be business, tax or financial information, but it also can include photos and videos. Nowadays, lots of fond memories and unforgettable moments are recorded onto digital media with photo and video cameras. A few years ago backups were usually created on storage media such as floppy disks, CDs, or DVDs. These types of storage media had one major disadvantage, in that you could only store a s

  12. Backup in Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Steps, Studio Visual


    Creating backups (or safety copies) of files has become increasingly important for many computer users. A growing number of people save important and vital information on their computer. Often this will be business, tax or financial information, but it also can include photos and videos. Nowadays, lots of fond memories and unforgettable moments are recorded onto digital media with photo and video cameras. A few years ago backups were usually created on storage media such as floppy disks, CDs, or DVDs. These types of storage media had one major disadvantage, in that you could only store a s

  13. Cloud Computing Utility and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Tiwari


    Full Text Available Cloud Architecture provides services on demand basis via internet (WWW services. Application design in cloud computing environment or the applications which support cloud paradigm are on demand on the basis of user requirement. Those applications provide the support on various hardware, software and other resource requirement on demand. API used in the cloud computing provide the greater advantage to provide industrial strength, where the complex reliability and scalability logic of the underlying services remains implemented and hidden in the cloud environment. Cloud Computing provide the highest utilization in terms of utilization, resource sharing, requirement gathering and utility to the other needful resources. In this paper we discuss several utility and their applications. We provide a broad discussion which is useful for cloud computing research.

  14. Redundancy Management for P2P Backup

    CERN Document Server

    Toka, Laszlo; Dell'Amico, Matteo; Michiardi, Pietro


    We design and analyze the performance of a redundancy management mechanism for Peer-to-Peer backup applications. Armed with the realization that a backup system has peculiar requirements -- namely, data is read over the network only during restore processes caused by data loss -- redundancy management targets data durability rather than attempting to make each piece of information availabile at any time. In our approach each peer determines, in an on-line manner, an amount of redundancy sufficient to counter the effects of peer deaths, while preserving acceptable data restore times. Our experiments, based on trace-driven simulations, indicate that our mechanism can reduce the redundancy by a factor between two and three with respect to redundancy policies aiming for data availability. These results imply an according increase in storage capacity and decrease in time to complete backups, at the expense of longer times required to restore data. We believe this is a very reasonable price to pay, given the nature...

  15. 数据泵逻辑备份在地震前兆数据库中的应用%Application of data pump backup on earthquake precursor database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴红云; 李罡风; 朱生水; 李发


    数据库备份与恢复是地震前兆台网数据库维护的一项重要工作,目前普遍使用冷备份方法.给出数据泵逻辑备份的新方法,并结合地震前兆数据库特点,介绍数据泵备份在地震前兆数据库中的应用以及备份与恢复中常见问题的解决方案.%Database backup and recovery is one of the most important parts of earthquake precursor network database maintenance. Now the common method is cold backup which preserves the information on hard disk. Under this situation, here a new backup method, logical data pump backup is provided. Combined with the characteristics of earthquake precursors database, it shows the application of data pump backup on earthquake precursor database and the method to solve problems which happen commonly.

  16. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.


    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  17. Development and Application of Pressure-Equalizing Back-Up Roll Contour in Hot Strip Mill%宽带钢热连轧机组均压支承辊辊形开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 李飞; 李本海; 张宝辉; 王磊; 陈超超


    CVC(Continuous Variable Crown) work roll contour technology since its invention was applied in more than 150 hot rolling mills throughout the world for controlling strip shape.However,in actual application,there were uneven wear on rolls or even roll spalling problems because contact pressure concentrations existed between work and back-up rolls when flat or CVC back-up roll was used for configuration with CVC work roll during the rolling.For solving these defects,a pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour with combination of VCR(Variable Crown Back-up Roll) and CVC back-up roll contours was designed and applied on a hot rolling mill.It not only has the feature of VCR back-up roll contour,but also can improve the contact condition between work and back-up roll.After the application of pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour,roll spalling problem was solved,and strip profile quality was also improved.%CVC工作辊辊形自发明以来在全球150多条热连轧生产线上得到应用,以控制带钢的板形。实际应用中,与CVC工作辊配对使用的支承辊无论采用平辊还是CVC辊形均存在非均匀磨损甚至轧辊剥落失效的问题,主要原因是CVC支承辊辊形和平支承辊与CVC工作辊配置时存在接触压力集中。为了解决此问题,设计并应用了一种均压支承辊辊形与CVC工作辊配置使用。此辊形是变接触支承辊辊形(VCR)与CVC支承辊辊形的组合,具有变接触辊形的优点,同时又能更好地与CVC工作辊配置使用。均压支承辊辊形应用后,改善了CVC工作辊与支承辊辊间接触状态,解决了轧辊剥落问题,并改善了带钢凸度质量。

  18. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian


    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  19. CanDan 2, phase 2. Final report. [Fuel cell systems for back-up power and materials handling applications]; CanDan 2, fase 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    CanDan 2 Phase 2 is the second phase of a research and demonstration project for fuel cell backup power systems and fuel cell powered material handling equipment. In the Backup Power segment the fuel cell units have been developed, certified and delivered. A total of 32 fuel cell backup power systems have been delivered for EnergiMidt and in operation since early 2011. Following this project EnergiMidt has purchased another 31 systems in order to make a full transition from battery backup to fuel cell backup in their entire broadband network. In the material handling segment a 10 kW fuel cell system has been fully integrated in the fork lift truck, Dantruck 3000 Power Hydrogen. The result was a much more commercially mature product than expected from the beginning of the project. The result is a finished 2,5T fork lift truck which was presented at the CE-mat fair in April 2011. (LN)

  20. Accountability for network backup failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, W.H.


    Regular hard disk backups for workstations are widely recommended. The necessity of backups -- akin to one`s own mortality -- is something most people would rather not think about. This attitude has two consequences. When people do subscribe to automated network backups, they expect the system to perform at a high level of reliability and that their files will be there for them when they need them. Second, they usually fail to appreciate that reliability is a shared responsibility. Although ostensibly their only responsibility is to keep the computer powered on overnight, there are actually many more opportunities for failure within the user`s jurisdiction than in other parts of the infrastructure. High reliability is almost a sine qua non for backups. We describe a strategy for enhancing reliability based on the principle of accountability. This strategy involves monitoring the system, gathering statistics, detecting problems, anticipating problems, troubleshooting, and finally determining where failure occurred within the infrastructure and who should be accountable. We describe a specific backup system in a specific network environment to illustrate the value of accountability. This system, macdumps, backs up Macintosh disks over an AppleTalk network. The original software was written by Dan Tappan of BBN in the early years of the Mac and is available by ftp for noncommercial use. It has proven reliable and robust. Despite the high quality of the fundamental software, there are still many opportunities for failure within the infrastructure. We first discuss accountability in the context of network backups, then briefly describe how the backup system operates, the components of the infrastructure, types of failures experienced, and then summarize our experience.

  1. 用U盘启动G4L备份还原linux系统%Using Usb Start the Application of G4L to Back-up Copy and Restore Linux System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    人们用Ghost备份还原Windows操作系统由来已久,版本较多,而且应用得心应手。Linux也有其备份还原工具,G4L就是其中的一种。现在的版本是V0.38,主要是光盘版,需要刻录成光盘来运行。本文介绍如何制作G4LU盘,用u盘启动G4L完成Linux系统的备份还原的操作方法。%Ghost for Back-up Copying windows system has been applied widely and perfectly in many different versions.G4L is one of Back-up Copying And Restoring in Linux System.V 0.38 mainly CD,requiring to be recorded CD.This paper introduces how to make G4L USB,start application of G4L by USB,complete the operation of Back-up Copying And Restoring in Linux System.

  2. 47 CFR 12.2 - Backup power. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Backup power. 12.2 Section 12.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL REDUNDANCY OF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS § 12.2 Backup power..., must have an emergency backup power source (e.g., batteries, generators, fuel cells) for all...

  3. Take control of easy Mac backups

    CERN Document Server

    Kissell, Joe


    Joe walks you through these important steps: Identifying backup hardware that matches your needs and budgetUnderstanding the pros and cons of Time Machine, including nine situations where you'll want to go beyond Time MachineSetting up your backup drive (or Time Capsule)Configuring Time MachineMaking a bootable duplicateStoring a backup offsiteRecovering your data You'll also get tips for setting up ChronoSync, CrashPlan, Data Backup, QRecall, Retrospect, and Synk; find out how an online sync is (and isn't) like a backup; and find coupons for 10% off CrashPlan and a 30 discount on Data Backup

  4. Operating and Managing a Backup Control Center (United States)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Pirani, Joseph L.; Bornas, Nicholas


    Due to the criticality of continuous mission operations, some control centers must plan for alternate locations in the event an emergency shuts down the primary control center. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the Mission Control Center (MCC) for the International Space Station (ISS). Due to Houston s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, JSC is prone to threats from hurricanes which could cause flooding, wind damage, and electrical outages to the buildings supporting the MCC. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the capability to be the Backup Control Center for the ISS if the situation is needed. While the MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) does house the BCC, the prime customer and operator of the ISS is still the JSC flight operations team. To satisfy the customer and maintain continuous mission operations, the BCC has critical infrastructure that hosts ISS ground systems and flight operations equipment that mirrors the prime mission control facility. However, a complete duplicate of Mission Control Center in another remote location is very expensive to recreate. The HOSC has infrastructure and services that MCC utilized for its backup control center to reduce the costs of a somewhat redundant service. While labor talents are equivalent, experiences are not. Certain operations are maintained in a redundant mode, while others are simply maintained as single string with adequate sparing levels of equipment. Personnel at the BCC facility must be trained and certified to an adequate level on primary MCC systems. Negotiations with the customer were done to match requirements with existing capabilities, and to prioritize resources for appropriate level of service. Because some of these systems are shared, an activation of the backup control center will cause a suspension of scheduled HOSC activities that may share resources needed by the BCC. For example, the MCC is monitoring a hurricane in the Gulf of Mexico. As the threat to MCC

  5. Utility applications program. Annual report for 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doherty, T.J.; Loscutoff, W.V.


    The purpose of the Utility Applications Program is to provide information and assistance to interested utilities on central station energy storage systems. Compressed air and underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage are the primary technical focus. Smaller utilities are the primary targets of this program, as they may not have resources to track and utilize new energy conservation developments. The program, initiated during this year-long period, consists of a series of tasks integrating and supporting energy storage implementation. Program management and technical coordination activities monitor the wide range of research ongoing both under government support and in industry and provide a locus for dissemination of results. Recently completed DOE demonstration studies provide the central data base and the DOE CAES and UPH Technology Program activities provide another major resource. In addition a UPH preliminary feasibility study in coorination with Central Vermont Public Servie (CVPS), a Northeast utility, was carried out. The major program activity this period was a comprehensive technology assessment and environmental siting study, performed in coordination with the Soyland Power Cooperative in Decatur, Illinois. The reports from this work established solid siting precedents for CAES application in the US and jointly assisted the utility in assembling the required baseline information for ongoing technical and financial development of the first US compressed air energy storage facility.

  6. Notice of construction for proposed backup package boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Hanford Site steam plant consists of coal-fired boilers located at the 200 East and the 200 West Areas. These boilers have provided steam to heat and cool facilities in the 200 Areas since the early 1940`s. As part of Project L-017, ``Steam System Rehabilitation, Phase II``, the 200 West Area coal-fired boilers will be permanently shut down. The shut down will only occur after a proposed package backup boiler (50,000 pounds per hour (lb/hr) steam, firing No. 2 oil) is installed at the 200 West Area. The proposed backup boiler will provide back-up services when the 200 East Area steam line, which provides steam to the 200 West Area, is down for maintenance or, when the demand for steam exceeds the supply available from the 200 East Plant. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the package backup boiler. This request is being made pursuant to Washington Administration Code (WAC) Chapter 173-400, ``General Regulations for Air Pollution Sources``, and Chapter 173-460, ``Controls for New Sources of Toxic Air Pollutants``.

  7. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.


    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  8. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y. [and others


    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  10. Planning manual for utility application of WECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.L. (ed.)


    A two-part approach for evaluating the feasibility of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) for utility application is presented and explained. Assessment of wind energy potential, sites, interconnection, and capital and production costing is included. The first part is a brief preliminary procedure used to determine whether the expense and effort of a detailed investigation is justified. The preliminary procedure requires assumptions which limit its accuracy. If the result indicates that WECS have probable potential for a specific utility application, then a set of modifications to detailed conventional planning procedures is developed. The modifications include discussion of wind velocity estimation and effects of site features on wind velocity, institutional problems, siting, choosing generation cases with WECS, reliability considerations, production costing, and operating problems. Appendices include an annotated bibliography, wind measurement methods, procedure for estimating WECS capacity factor, and a method for generating correlated wind velocity samples for use in production cost programs.

  11. Utility applications of power electronics in Japan


    Akagi, Hirofumi


    Since the late 1950s, power electronics has been developing by leaps and bounds without saturation into the key technology essential to modern society and human life, as well as to electrical engineering. This paper is focused on utility applications of power electronics technology in Japan, and on the state of the art of power semiconductor devices for high power applications. For instance, attention is paid to a ±500 kV, 2.8 GW high-voltage DC transmission system under construction, and to ...

  12. Social Backup and Sharing of Video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokking, H.M.; Klos, V.B.; Jiang, J.; Casetti, C.


    This paper is on social backup, sharing and remote access of video using HTTP Adaptive Streaming. A social backup is a backup at the location, and thus on the equipment, of (close) friends and family. Backups are created at friends’ locations, matching the hosting user’s interest with the content an

  13. Exploring the iPhone Backup made by iTunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Piccinelli


    Full Text Available The iPhone mobile from Apple Inc. is one of the most notable phones on the market thanks to its simple and user-friendly interface and ever growing pool of available high quality applications for both personal and business use. The increasing use of iPhone mobiles leads forensics practitioners towards the need for tools to access and analyze the information stored in the device. This research aims at describing how to forensically analyze a logical backup of an iPhone made by the Apple iTunes utility, understanding its structure and creating a simple tool to automate the process of decoding and analyzing the data. It was found that significant data of forensic value such as e-mail messages, text and multimedia messages, calendar events, browsing history, GPRS locations, contacts, call history and voicemail recordings can be retrieved using this method of iPhone acquisition.

  14. Fiber optic transmissions in electrical utility applications (United States)

    Lamarche, Louis


    The application of optic and photonic technology in electric networks in many cases is subject to constraints that differ from telecommunication or commercial applications. Starting by an overview of the quality of service (QoS) needed, in the first part of this paper we summarise some issues that confronted Hydro-Quebec in applying fibre optic technologies to its network. We explore by presenting lab and field trials some issues related to optical ground wires (OPGW) design and network architecture. We present temperature, vibration, ageing and short circuit current effects. We submit the results and analysis of a first field trial of and OC-48 link over a 265 km OPGW line, PMD measurements and an overview of the final design that is being implemented presently using Raman amplification. In the last section of the paper, we will discuss shortly of non-conventional photonic based technologies, local and distributed sensors and optical phenomenon that are used or have been discovered in utilities optical networks.

  15. [Backup territorial coordination, nursing roles and skills]. (United States)

    Benyahia, Amina; Abraham, Éliane


    Backup territorial coordination provides accompaniment and support for professionals who work with the fragile elderly people in an area. It aligns the sanitary, medical-social and social approaches, and mobilizes useful resources to optimize the treatment pathway. It has been implemented in the Nancy urban area by an operational team including nurses and a geriatric physician.

  16. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher


    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  17. Empirical Analysis of High Efficient Remote Cloud Data Center Backup Using HBase and Cassandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang


    Full Text Available HBase, a master-slave framework, and Cassandra, a peer-to-peer (P2P framework, are the two most commonly used large-scale distributed NoSQL databases, especially applicable to the cloud computing with high flexibility and scalability and the ease of big data processing. Regarding storage structure, different structure adopts distinct backup strategy to reduce the risks of data loss. This paper aims to realize high efficient remote cloud data center backup using HBase and Cassandra, and in order to verify the high efficiency backup they have applied Thrift Java for cloud data center to take a stress test by performing strictly data read/write and remote database backup in the large amounts of data. Finally, in terms of the effectiveness-cost evaluation to assess the remote datacenter backup, a cost-performance ratio has been evaluated for several benchmark databases and the proposed ones. As a result, the proposed HBase approach outperforms the other databases.

  18. 氢燃料电池在电力系统后备电源的应用研究%Research on Application of H2 Fuel Cell Backup Power System at Transformer Stations for Electric Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富刚; 樊越甫; 刘方; 刘海东


    笔者针对变电站直流系统,应用新型氢燃料后备电源替代蓄电池组作为后备电源产品.旨在将氢燃料电源作为直流系统整体后备电源,氢燃料应急移动直流电源,直流技改中氢燃料后备电源的可行性和解决方案进行测试研究,提出新型后备电源设计、采取措施以及提出一整套系统的解决方案.结果显示,将氢燃料电池供电系统代替铅酸蓄电池组作为停电期间的后备电源,只保留少量的铅酸蓄电池作为系统启动过程中的支撑,停电时自动启动、市电恢复时自动进入待机状态,铅酸电池随即进入浮充状态.大量减少铅酸蓄电池的使用,能减少对环境的污染.氢燃料电池供电系统若包含DC/AC逆变设备,即可为通信站的交流负载供电,替代汽柴油机,降低噪音和振动,减少二氧化碳等气体排放.%This article is aiming to illustrate the replacement of traditional lead-acid battery stacks with Hydrogen fuel cell products as backup power products to provide electricity for substation DC system. The article researches how to use H2 fuel cell power system as a integrated backup energy for DC system, as a removable DC power supply for emergency use, and tests the feasibility of using H2 fuel cell as backup power system during DC technological transformation. The author also proposes new backup power supply design and new solutions for the whole power system. According to such research and analysis, using H2 fuel cell to replace lead acid batteries as backup power system during blackout period can largely reduce CO2 pollution to the environment.

  19. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Zrnec


    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database using Amazon S3 and EC2 cloud services. The costs estimation was performed on the basis of the prices published on Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2 sites.

  20. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.


    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  1. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism


    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  2. Backup of earthquake rapid reporting network and its application%利用“十五”中国数字地震观测网多链路备份进行大震速报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫俊义; 罗词建; 舒优良


    以西安基准地震台为例,介绍利用地震台站现有设备资源和当前较为实用的网络接入方式,对地震速报网络进行备份和技术改造.结果表明,3种网络备份方案可以保证地震台站日常数据报送和大震速报工作对网络通信需求,降低大震速报时间延迟和网络不通次数,对其他地震观测台站具有借鉴作用.%Aiming at providing a stable network communication, and improving the speed of earthquake rapid report, the technical reformation of the earthquake rapid reporting network was carried out in Xi'an Seismic Station, using the available network equipments in the station and the current network accessing ways, e. G. , ADSL, fiber and wireless network. The results indicate that the network backup projects can successfully guarantee the network demands of daily data-delivery and earthquake rapid report in the station, and lower the delay of earthquake rapid report and the block of network. Therefore, these network backup plans have important significance and referential value for such seismic station, which are always located in the remote mountain area.

  3. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.


    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  4. Backup roll contour of a SmartCrown tandem cold rolling mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui Yang; Jianguo Cao; Jie Zhang; Shenghui Jia; Renwei Tan


    SmartCrown was a new system developed by VAI for improving the strip profile and flatness control first applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills at Wuhan Iron & Steel (Group) Corporation (WISCO). After tracing and testing, the application of the conventional crown backup roll matching the SmartCrown work roll of the production mill led to heavy and nonuniform wear, and the edge spalling of the backup roll often occurred. A 3-dimension finite element model of roll stacks was established, which was used to analyze the above-mentioned problems, and it was found that the main reason was the highly nonuniform contact pressure distribution between the work roll and the backup roll. A new FSR (flexible shape backup roll) was developed and applied in 1700mm tandem cold rolling mills. A lot of good actual effects of FSR, such as evident improvement in profile and flatness of strips,non-occurring edge spalling, wear uniform, and remarkable decrease in roll consumption were validated by long-term industrial applications.

  5. Uses and Applications of Climate Forecasts for Power Utilities. (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Changnon, Joyce M.; Changnon, David


    The uses and potential applications of climate forecasts for electric and gas utilities were assessed 1) to discern needs for improving climate forecasts and guiding future research, and 2) to assist utilities in making wise use of forecasts. In-depth structured interviews were conducted with 56 decision makers in six utilities to assess existing and potential uses of climate forecasts. Only 3 of the 56 use forecasts. Eighty percent of those sampled envisioned applications of climate forecasts, given certain changes and additional information. Primary applications exist in power trading, load forecasting, fuel acquisition, and systems planning, with slight differences in interests between utilities. Utility staff understand probability-based forecasts but desire climatological information related to forecasted outcomes, including analogs similar to the forecasts, and explanations of the forecasts. Desired lead times vary from a week to three months, along with forecasts of up to four seasons ahead. The new NOAA forecasts initiated in 1995 provide the lead times and longer-term forecasts desired. Major hindrances to use of forecasts are hard-to-understand formats, lack of corporate acceptance, and lack of access to expertise. Recent changes in government regulations altered the utility industry, leading to a more competitive world wherein information about future weather conditions assumes much more value. Outreach efforts by government forecast agencies appear valuable to help achieve the appropriate and enhanced use of climate forecasts by the utility industry. An opportunity for service exists also for the private weather sector.

  6. Backup agreements with penalty scheme under supply disruptions (United States)

    Hou, Jing; Zhao, Lindu


    This article considers a supply chain for a single product involving one retailer and two independent suppliers, when the main supplier might fail to supply the products, the backup supplier can always supply the products at a higher price. The retailer could use the backup supplier as a regular provider or a stand-by source by reserving some products at the supplier. A backup agreement with penalty scheme is constructed between the retailer and the backup supplier to mitigate the supply disruptions and the demand uncertainty. The expected profit functions and the optimal decisions of the two players are derived through a sequential optimisation process. Then, the sensitivity of two players' expected profits to various input factors is examined through numerical examples. The impacts of the disruption probability and the demand uncertainty on the backup agreement are also investigated, which could provide guideline for how to use each sourcing method.

  7. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  8. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  9. Application-Controlled Parallel Asynchronous Input/Output Utility (United States)

    Clune, Thomas; Zhou, Shujia


    A software utility tool has been designed to alleviate file system I/O performance bottlenecks to which many high-end computing (HEC) applications fall prey because of the relatively large volume of data generated for a given amount of computational work. In an effort to reduce computing resource waste, and to improve sustained performance of these HEC applications, a lightweight software utility has been designed to circumvent bandwidth limitations of typical HEC file systems by exploiting the faster inter-processor bandwidth to move output data from compute nodes to designated I/O nodes as quickly as possible, thereby minimizing the I/O wait time. This utility has successfully demonstrated a significant performance improvement within a major NASA weather application.

  10. Utilizing Windows Azure to Support Geo-science Applications (United States)

    Xia, J.


    Windows Azure is a cloud computing platform and infrastructure, created by Microsoft for developing, deploying and managing applications through global networks. It provides Platform as a service (PaaS) which have been widely used in different domains to support scientific studies. This paper experiences the feasibility of utilizing Windows Azure to support different type of geo-science applications. Specially, the load balancing feature of Azure is used to address intensive concurrent access for geo-science data; cloud-based database is utilized for support Big Spatial data management; and the global deployment feature is used to improve the evaluation accuracy for geo-science services.

  11. Oracle Database 12c backup and recovery survival guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Francisco Munoz


    The book follows a tutorial-based approach, covering all the best practices for backup and recovery. The book starts by introducing readers to the world of backup and recovery, then moves on to teach them the new features offered by Oracle 12c. The book is full of useful tips and best practices that are essential for any DBA to perform backup and recovery operations in an organization.This book is designed for Oracle DBAs and system administrators. The reader will have a basic working experience of administering Oracle databases. This book is designed for Oracle DBAs and system administrators.

  12. Market Design for a P2P Backup System (United States)

    Seuken, Sven; Charles, Denis; Chickering, Max; Puri, Sidd

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) backup systems are an attractive alternative to server-based systems because the immense costs of large data centers can be saved by using idle resources on millions of private computers instead. This paper presents the design and theoretical analysis of a market for a P2P backup system. While our long-term goal is an open resource exchange market using real money, here we consider a system where monetary transfers are prohibited. A user who wants to backup his data must in return supply some of his resources (storage space, upload and download bandwidth) to the system.We propose a hybrid P2P architecture where all backup data is transferred directly between peers, but a dedicated server coordinates all operations and maintains meta-data. We achieve high reliability guarantees while keeping our data replication factor low by adopting sophisticated erasure coding technology (cf., [2]).

  13. Independent backup mode transfer and mechanism for digital control computers (United States)

    Tulpule, Bhalchandra R. (Inventor); Oscarson, Edward M. (Inventor)


    An interrupt is provided to a signal processor having a non-maskable interrupt input, in response to the detection of a request for transfer to backup software. The signal processor provides a transfer signal to a transfer mechanism only after completion of the present machine cycle. Transfer to the backup software is initiated by the transfer mechanism only upon reception of the transfer signal.

  14. 在命令行中运行Backup Exec

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    我需要在Windows Server 2003和Windows 2000 Server上使用VERITAS软件的Backup Exec for Windows Servers。问题是我对这两种操作系统都不熟悉.而且我喜欢在命令行中执行任务。我能够使用命令行或者脚本来操作BackupExec吗?

  15. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.


    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  16. Eco-friendly fly ash utilization: potential for land application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.; Thapliyal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi (India)


    The increase in demand for power in domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors has increased the pressure on coal combustion and aggravated the problem of fly ash generation/disposal. Consequently the research targeting effective utilization of fly ash has also gained momentum. Fly ash has proved to be an economical substitute for expensive adsorbents as well as a suitable raw material for brick manufacturing, zeolite synthesis, etc. Fly ash is a reservoir of essential minerals but is deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. By amending fly ash with soil and/or various organic materials (sewage sludge, bioprocess materials) as well as microbial inoculants like mycorrhizae, enhanced plant growth can be realized. Based on the sound results of large scale studies, fly ash utilization has grown into prominent discipline supported by various internationally renowned organizations. This paper reviews attempts directed toward various utilization of fly ash, with an emphasis on land application of organic/microbial inoculants amended fly ash.

  17. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.


    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  18. Construction and Application of Network Equipment Emergency Backup System in Power Supply System%网络设备应急与备份系统在供电系统中的建设与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐擒彪; 文涛


    With the rapid development of computer industry , information technology has gradually gained popularity in many industries .Power industry as the support industry of national economic development , the stability of its information network is very important , and the information equipment system is the key to the stability of information network .How to manage and maintain the current network more reasonably and effectively , and how to make the network managers can more easily manage and maintain the network , be-come a brook no delay problem .This article begins from the network operation and maintenance manage-ment of Xuancheng Power Supply Company , discusses the existing problems of the current network manage -ment system of Xuancheng Power Supply Company , through the deployment of network equipment emergen-cy backup system to strengthen the network management system , to guarantee the network infrastructure of Xuancheng Power Supply Company , to build a safe and reliable electric power information network .%随着计算机产业的迅猛发展,信息化逐渐在各行业得到普及,电力行业作为国民经济发展的支撑行业,信息网络的稳定性非常重要,而信息设备体系是信息网络稳定性的关键。如何更加合理、有效地对当前的网络进行管理和维护以及怎样让网管人员能够更加轻松地对网络进行管理和维护,成为一个亟待研究的问题。文章从宣城供电公司当前网络运维管理着手,探讨宣城供电公司现有网络管理系统存在的问题,通过部署网络设备应急与备份系统来加强宣城供电公司的网络管理体系,保障宣城供电公司的基础网络架构,以便构建一个安全可靠的电力信息网络。

  19. On Modeling CPU Utilization of MapReduce Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rizvandi, Nikzad Babaii; Zomaya, Albert Y


    In this paper, we present an approach to predict the total CPU utilization in terms of CPU clock tick of applications when running on MapReduce framework. Our approach has two key phases: profiling and modeling. In the profiling phase, an application is run several times with different sets of MapReduce configuration parameters to profile total CPU clock tick of the application on a given platform. In the modeling phase, multi linear regression is used to map the sets of MapReduce configuration parameters (number of Mappers, number of Reducers, size of File System (HDFS) and the size of input file) to total CPU clock ticks of the application. This derived model can be used for predicting total CPU requirements of the same application when using MapReduce framework on the same platform. Our approach aims to eliminate error-prone manual processes and presents a fully automated solution. Three standard applications (WordCount, Exim Mainlog parsing and Terasort) are used to evaluate our modeling technique on pseu...

  20. Application of TQM principles to the utilization management process. (United States)

    Miller, J B; Rose, M S; Milakovich, M; Rosasco, E J


    Application of the philosophy and principles of TQM and CQI to utilization management within an institution necessitates an in-depth review of the systems and processes of the flow of inpatients throughout their stay. This encompasses a total systems perspective, beginning with the admitting process and going through the discharge process. TQM and CQI philosophies identify that the most significant and costly inefficiencies are due to faulty systems and processes, not individuals. Applying this management strategy to a health care institution requires a detailed review and analysis of processes by which service is delivered and requires evaluation of the outcomes of patient care and patient satisfaction.

  1. Enhanced networked server management with random remote backups (United States)

    Kim, Song-Kyoo


    In this paper, the model is focused on available server management in network environments. The (remote) backup servers are hooked up by VPN (Virtual Private Network) and replace broken main severs immediately. A virtual private network (VPN) is a way to use a public network infrastructure and hooks up long-distance servers within a single network infrastructure. The servers can be represent as "machines" and then the system deals with main unreliable and random auxiliary spare (remote backup) machines. When the system performs a mandatory routine maintenance, auxiliary machines are being used for backups during idle periods. Unlike other existing models, the availability of auxiliary machines is changed for each activation in this enhanced model. Analytically tractable results are obtained by using several mathematical techniques and the results are demonstrated in the framework of optimized networked server allocation problems.

  2. RELAP5-3D Restart and Backup Verification Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. George L Mesina


    Existing testing methodology for RELAP5-3D employs a set of test cases collected over two decades to test a variety of code features and run on a Linux or Windows platform. However, this set has numerous deficiencies in terms of code coverage, detail of comparison, running time, and testing fidelity of RELAP5-3D restart and backup capabilities. The test suite covers less than three quarters of the lines of code in the relap directory and just over half those in the environmental library. Even in terms of code features, many are not covered. Moreover, the test set runs many problems long past the point necessary to test the relevant features. It requires standard problems to run to completion. This is unnecessary for features can be tested in a short-running problem. For example, many trips and controls can be tested in the first few time steps, as can a number of fluid flow options. The testing system is also inaccurate. For the past decade, the diffem script has been the primary tool for checking that printouts from two different RELAP5-3D executables agree. This tool compares two output files to verify that all characters are the same except for those relating to date, time and a few other excluded items. The variable values printed on the output file are accurate to no more than eight decimal places. Therefore, calculations with errors in decimal places beyond those printed remain undetected. Finally, fidelity of restart is not tested except in the PVM sub-suite and backup is not specifically tested at all. When a restart is made from any midway point of the base-case transient, the restart must produce the same values. When a backup condition occurs, the code repeats advancements with the same time step. A perfect backup can be tested by forcing RELAP5 to perform a backup by falsely setting a backup condition flag at a user-specified-time. Comparison of the calculations of that run and those produced by the same input w/o the spurious condition should be


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this paper we address the whole backup and recovery process of HP-UX operating system in terms of system backup and recovery,and bring forward a new system backup strategy,namely key-full backup strategy,in combination with work practices.In end of the paper,we expound the specific implementation of the key-full backup strategy and the whole backup and recovery process of HP-UX operating system via application instances.%从系统备份及恢复的角度论述了 HP-UX 操作系统备份恢复的整个过程,并结合工作实际提出一种新的系统备份策略———点面备份策略。最后通过应用实例论述了点面备份策略的具体实现以及 HP-UX 操作系统的整个备份及恢复过程。

  4. A Multi-Backup Path Protection scheme for survivability in Elastic Optical Networks (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Manoj, B. S.


    Two important challenges in designing a survivable optical network are minimizing backup spectrum allocation and ensuring spectrum assignment constraints. Allocating backup spectrum is one important approach for survivable optical network design. Connection requests which are rejected due to the unavailability of a single backup path can be survived using multiple backup routes. Multiple backup routes not only increase connection acceptance rate, but also improve backup resource sharing. In this paper, we present a strategy for survivability which optimizes primary and backup spectrum allocations and multiple backup route assignments for surviving a connection request. In our strategy, named as Backup Spectrum Reservation with MultiPath Protection (BSR-MPP), multiple backup routes are searched over advance reserved backup resources when an optical connection is concerned. Simulation results show that confinement of backup resources result in higher resource sharing and assignment of multiple backup lightpaths. It can also be observed that BSR-MPP has lower Bandwidth Blocking Probability and higher spectrum efficiency as compared to conventional Shared Path Protection (SPP) and MultiPath Protection (MPP) strategies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering.

  6. Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations. (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B


    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modification underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article.

  7. Photovoltaic concentrator application experiment, Phase I: a 150 KW photovoltaic concentrator power system for load-center applications with feedback into the utility grid. Final report, June 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G T; Alexander, G; Stember, L H; Stickford, G H; Smail, H E; Broehl, J H; Carmichael, D C


    A 150-kW-peak concentrator-type photovoltaic power system to supply a multiple building load application in the Columbus, Ohio area was designed and analyzed by a Battelle-led team. The system will operate in parallel with the utility grid (which provides backup power) to supply either or both of two service/commercial buildings and will feed surplus power into the utility grid. The array consists of fifteen 10-kW carousel-mounted subarrays which are two-axis tracking. The subarrays each consist of 40 passively cooled concentrating modules which incorporate a primary parabolic trough reflector and a secondary compound-elliptic concentrator to achieve a geometric concentration ratio of approx. 26. The power conditioning subsystem is microprocessor controlled, with maximum-power-point tracking and automatic control capabilities. The system performance analysis indicates that the system will supply approximately 147,000 kWh/year to the primary load and an additional 55,000 kWh/year to the utility grid, in the single-load operational mode. The system design and the daily and seasonal match of system output with the load are described in detail. Plans are also discussed for installation and for operational evaluations of performance, economics, and institutional issues.

  8. Leveraging MPLS backup paths for distributed energy-aware traffic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, Frederic; Wang, Ning; Moessner, Klaus; Georgoulas, Stylianos; O. Schmidt, de Ricardo


    Backup paths are usually pre-installed by network operators to protect against single link failures in backbone networks that use multi-protocol label switching. This paper introduces a new scheme called Green Backup Paths (GBP) that intelligently exploits these existing backup paths to perform ener

  9. Mathematical defense method of networked servers with controlled remote backups (United States)

    Kim, Song-Kyoo


    The networked server defense model is focused on reliability and availability in security respects. The (remote) backup servers are hooked up by VPN (Virtual Private Network) with high-speed optical network and replace broken main severs immediately. The networked server can be represent as "machines" and then the system deals with main unreliable, spare, and auxiliary spare machine. During vacation periods, when the system performs a mandatory routine maintenance, auxiliary machines are being used for back-ups; the information on the system is naturally delayed. Analog of the N-policy to restrict the usage of auxiliary machines to some reasonable quantity. The results are demonstrated in the network architecture by using the stochastic optimization techniques.

  10. A Fully Computerized Method to Backup the Router Configuration File

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan H.Majeed


    Full Text Available This paper presents a fully computerized method to backup the router configuration file. The method consists of a friendly graphical interface programmed by Java programming language The proposed method is compared with the two existing methods, namely: TFTP server method and Copy/Paste method. The comparison reveals that the proposed method has many advantages over the existing ones. The proposed method has been implemented on Cisco routers (series 2500, 2600 and 2800

  11. Back-Up/ Peak Shaving Fuel Cell System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda L.


    This Final Report covers the work executed by Plug Power from 8/11/03 – 10/31/07 statement of work for Topic 2: advancing the state of the art of fuel cell technology with the development of a new generation of commercially viable, stationary, Back-up/Peak-Shaving fuel cell systems, the GenCore II. The Program cost was $7.2 M with the Department of Energy share being $3.6M and Plug Power’s share being $3.6 M. The Program started in August of 2003 and was scheduled to end in January of 2006. The actual program end date was October of 2007. A no cost extension was grated. The Department of Energy barriers addressed as part of this program are: Technical Barriers for Distributed Generation Systems: o Durability o Power Electronics o Start up time Technical Barriers for Fuel Cell Components: o Stack Material and Manufacturing Cost o Durability o Thermal and water management Background The next generation GenCore backup fuel cell system to be designed, developed and tested by Plug Power under the program is the first, mass-manufacturable design implementation of Plug Power’s GenCore architected platform targeted for battery and small generator replacement applications in the telecommunications, broadband and UPS markets. The next generation GenCore will be a standalone, H2 in-DC-out system. In designing the next generation GenCore specifically for the telecommunications market, Plug Power is teaming with BellSouth Telecommunications, Inc., a leading industry end user. The final next generation GenCore system is expected to represent a market-entry, mass-manufacturable and economically viable design. The technology will incorporate: • A cost-reduced, polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack tailored to hydrogen fuel use • An advanced electrical energy storage system • A modular, scalable power conditioning system tailored to market requirements • A scaled-down, cost-reduced balance of plant (BOP) • Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS), UL

  12. Strategy of HIS Data Backup%HIS系统数据备份的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晖; 熊志强


    随着计算机技术的飞速发展,数据安全显得日益重要,数据备份是保障数据安全的重要手段之一.医院信息系统(HIS)的数据有多样性、保存年限长、用户对数据的需求不确定性等特点,其备份策略也不太一样.从备份的分类谈到备份策略的选择,简述各种备份方式的实现方法,重点谈到HIS系统数据备份的策略,包括完全备份、差异备份、日志备份的建立以及本地备份、异地备份、磁带备份的选择等,尝试给中小医院的数据备份提供一种合适的备份方案.%With the rapid development of computer technology, the data security is more and more important, so data backup is one of the significant measures to guarantee the data security. The data of hospital information system (HIS),with features of variety, long hold time, and user' s uncertain demand to data, has different backup strategies. From the classification of backup to selection of backup strategy, it briefly states the realization ways of backup methods,especially the strategy of HIS data backup, including setup of full backup, differential backup, and log backup, as well as selection of native backup, remote backup, and tape backup, so as to provide a suitable backup plan to data backup for the small- and-medium sized hospital.

  13. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction (United States)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  14. Usability and Utility of a Mobile Application for Marksmanship Training (United States)

    utilize anytime, anywhere self-directed training and to determine the utility and usability of embedding small arms coaching training in future weapons...necessarily conduct anytime, anywhere self-directed training. Usability questionnaires and focus group discussions indicate that the soldiers prefer a

  15. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)


    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  16. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John


    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  17. Battery energy storage and superconducting magnetic energy storage for utility applications: A qualitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Butler, P.; Bickel, T.C.


    This report was prepared at the request of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management for an objective comparison of the merits of battery energy storage with superconducting magnetic energy storage technology for utility applications. Conclusions are drawn regarding the best match of each technology with these utility application requirements. Staff from the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program and the superconductivity Programs at Sandia National contributed to this effort.



    Johnny Bolden; Taher Abu-Lebdeh; Ellie Fini


    More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nationâs landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take a...

  19. In-Network Redundancy Generation for Opportunistic Speedup of Backup

    CERN Document Server

    Pamies-Juarez, Lluis; Oggier, Frédérique


    Erasure coding is a storage-efficient alternative to replication for achieving reliable data backup in distributed storage systems. During the storage process, traditional erasure codes require a unique source node to create and upload all the redundant data to the different storage nodes. However, such a source node may have limited communication and computation capabilities, which constrain the storage process throughput. Moreover, the source node and the different storage nodes might not be able to send and receive data simultaneously -e.g., nodes might be busy in a datacenter setting, or simply be offline in a peer-to-peer setting- which can further threaten the efficacy of the overall storage process. In this paper we propose an "in-network" redundancy generation process that leverages on the self-repairing property of the novel SRC codes. This in-network redundancy generation allows storage nodes to generate new redundant data by exchanging partial information among themselves, improving the throughput ...

  20. The Improved Overhearing Backup AODV Protocol in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zamani


    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc network (MANET is one of the most widely used networks, which has attracted attentions, having features such as limited energy resources, limited bandwidth, and security weaknesses due to lack of a central infrastructure. Safe and suitable routing is one of the research aspects of MANET. In this paper, a proposed method, called M-AODV, which is a type of overhearing backup protocol, based on AODV, is presented. The simulation results of this protocol, applied by NS2 simulator, showed the improvement of packet delivery rate and reduction of overhead and delay. Moreover, to assess the security of the proposed protocol, we simulated M-AODV and AODV protocols under black hole and wormhole attacks, using no security solution. The results showed that M-AODV had been improved in terms of packet delivery ratio, and the delay had been reduced as well, but the amount of overhead had been increased.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1101-21 - Back-up water system. (United States)


    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-21 Back-up water system. One fire hose outlet together with a length of hose capable of extending to the belt drive... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-up water system. 75.1101-21 Section...

  2. Applying Utility Functions to Adaptation Planning for Home Automation Applications (United States)

    Bratskas, Pyrros; Paspallis, Nearchos; Kakousis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, George A.

    A pervasive computing environment typically comprises multiple embedded devices that may interact together and with mobile users. These users are part of the environment, and they experience it through a variety of devices embedded in the environment. This perception involves technologies which may be heterogeneous, pervasive, and dynamic. Due to the highly dynamic properties of such environments, the software systems running on them have to face problems such as user mobility, service failures, or resource and goal changes which may happen in an unpredictable manner. To cope with these problems, such systems must be autonomous and self-managed. In this chapter we deal with a special kind of a ubiquitous environment, a smart home environment, and introduce a user-preference-based model for adaptation planning. The model, which dynamically forms a set of configuration plans for resources, reasons automatically and autonomously, based on utility functions, on which plan is likely to best achieve the user's goals with respect to resource availability and user needs.

  3. Utilization of commercial communications systems for space based research applications (United States)

    Overmyer, Carolyn; Thompson, Clark


    With the increase in utilization of space for research and development activities, the need for a communication system which improves the availability of payload uplink and downlink with the ground becomes increasingly more critical. At the same time, experiment developers are experiencing a tightening of their budgets for space based research. They don't have the capability to develop a unique communication interface that requires unique software and hardware packages. They would prefer to use commercial protocols and standards available through off-the-shelf components. Also, the need for secure communication is critical to keep proprietary data from being distributed to competing organizations. In order to meet the user community needs, SPACEHAB is currently in the process of developing and testing a system designed specifically for the user community called the SPACEHAB Universal Communication System (SHUCS). The purpose of this paper is to present customer requirements, the SHUCS design approach and top level operations, terrestrial test results, and flight testing scheduled for STS-91 and -95.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Bolden


    Full Text Available More production equals more waste, more waste creates environmental concerns of toxic threat. An economical viable solution to this problem should include utilization of waste materials for new products which in turn minimize the heavy burden on the nation’s landfills. Recycling of waste construction materials saves natural resources, saves energy, reduces solid waste, reduces air and water pollutants and reduces greenhouse gases. The construction industry can start being aware of and take advantage of the benefits of using waste and recycled materials. Studies have investigated the use of acceptable waste, recycled and reusable materials and methods. The use of swine manure, animal fat, silica fume, roofing shingles, empty palm fruit bunch, citrus peels, cement kiln dust, fly ash, foundry sand, slag, glass, plastic, carpet, tire scraps, asphalt pavement and concrete aggregate in construction is becoming increasingly popular due to the shortage and increasing cost of raw materials. In this study a questionnaire survey targeting experts from construction industry was conducted in order to investigate the current practices of the uses of waste and recycled materials in the construction industry. This study presents an initial understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the practice intended to support construction industry in developing effective policies regarding uses of waste and recycled materials as construction materials.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull


    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  6. Utilizing steel slag in environmental application - An overview (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Chew, L. H.; Choong, T. S. Y.; Tezara, C.; Yazdi, M. H.


    Steel slags are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel making industries.The potential environmental issues which are related with the slag dump or reprocessing for metal recovery are generally being focused in the research. However the chemistry and mineralogy of slag depends on metallurgical process which is able to determine whether the steel slag can be the reusable products or not. Nowadays, steel slag are well characterized by using several methods, such as X-ray Diffraction, ICP-OES, leaching test and many more. About the industrial application, it is mainly reused as aggregate for road construction, as armour stones for hydraulic engineering constructions and as fertilizers for agricultural purposes. To ensure the quality of steel slag for the end usage, several test methods are developed for evaluating the technical properties of steel slag, especially volume stability and environmental behaviour. In order to determine its environmental behaviour, leaching tests have been developed. The focus of this paper however is on those applications that directly affect environmental issues including remediation, and mitigation of activities that negatively impact the environment.

  7. RELAP5-3D Resolution of Known Restart/Backup Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, Nolan A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The state-of-the-art nuclear reactor system safety analysis computer program developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), RELAP5-3D, continues to adapt to changes in computer hardware and software and to develop to meet the ever-expanding needs of the nuclear industry. To continue at the forefront, code testing must evolve with both code and industry developments, and it must work correctly. To best ensure this, the processes of Software Verification and Validation (V&V) are applied. Verification compares coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions. A form of this, sequential verification, checks code specifications against coding only when originally written then applies regression testing which compares code calculations between consecutive updates or versions on a set of test cases to check that the performance does not change. A sequential verification testing system was specially constructed for RELAP5-3D to both detect errors with extreme accuracy and cover all nuclear-plant-relevant code features. Detection is provided through a “verification file” that records double precision sums of key variables. Coverage is provided by a test suite of input decks that exercise code features and capabilities necessary to model a nuclear power plant. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. It can test RELAP5-3D performance in both standalone and coupled (through PVM to other codes) runs. Application of verification testing revealed numerous restart and backup issues in both standalone and couple modes. This document reports the resolution of these issues.

  8. Bumpy Application of Utility Code for Genomic Inventions: With Special Reference to Express Sequence Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sreenivasa Murthy


    Full Text Available Genomics, a new bough of biotechnology responsible for gene mapping has acquired a rapid significance in the field of patents. Brisk growth of patent filing in genomic subject matter is raising serious concerns about their utility from the perspective of societal benefit. Though the genomic related patent application qualifies the criterion of invention and non-obviousness in major instances, the inventors are unable to satisfy the utility criterion. Some instances such as patent application for ESTs have no utility at all. The patent regulators constructed various tests to deal with the situation such as specificity, substantiality (real world credibility tests etc. Hoverer, it is noteworthy that an attempt to uniform the standard of utility test for genomic inventions especially in the field of ESTs, cloning and creation of chimeras, has been made by America and Europe through specific regulations. Thus, the objective of this paper is firstly, to explain the importance of biotechnology and genomic inventions for mankind and significance of ESTs for future research. Secondly, to analyze the application of Utility code prior to the emergence of Utility code in America and Europe. Thirdly to scrutinize the Utility code in both countries and their implication on aftermath cases, and. fourthly and finally, to critically evaluate the both countries utility pathways in the light of societal benefit.

  9. Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone


    Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit

  10. Isobolographic analysis of interactions: an update on applications and utility. (United States)

    Gessner, P K


    Isobolographic analysis provides a fundamental basis for assessing whether biological responses induced by mixtures of agents are greater, equal or smaller than would have been expected on the basis of the individual activities of the component agents and the concept of dose additivity. Limited in its direct application to binary mixtures, isobolographic analysis provides a conceptual framework and an unambiguous terminology, as well as an algebraic paradigm for the analysis of the interaction of ternary and higher order mixtures. A library of examples generously illustrated graphically is provided to facilitate the understanding of the methodology and serve as a guide for investigators who are unfamiliar with the approach. Also discussed are the theoretical derivation of the isobologram, the representation of various dosage combinations, the derivation of the principle of dose additivity, supra-additivity, infra-additivity, antagonism, the methods for probit analysis of mixture potency, effect addition and the consequences of peak effect coincidence in time or lack thereof, and the role of isobolographic analysis in the various aspects of dose-response surface methodology.

  11. A Reliable Primary-Backup Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Netwrok (United States)

    Weipeng, Jing; Qu, Wu; Yaqiu, Liu; Qianlong, Zhang

    Fault-tolerance is one of important issues in wireless sensor network (WSN) since it is critical in real deployed environments to realize network stability and reduce demand times. In this paper, we propose primary-backup technique by creating a backup path for every sensor on a primary path of data transmission. Especially, we take high reliability path as selected primary or backup path method. The experimental results show that the algorithm not only has the low packet delivery ratio characters, but also ensures the reliability of topology paths and extends the network life-cycle efficiently.

  12. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.


    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  13. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection... (United States)


    ..., Communications common carriers, Communications equipment, Radio, Telecommunications, Telephone, Television... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land...

  14. STS-47 crew and backups at MSFC's Payload Crew Training Complex (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SLJ) crewmembers and backup payload specialists stand outside SLJ module mockup at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SpaceFlight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. From left to right are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS N. Jan Davis, backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee. The MSFC-managed mission is a joint venture in space-based research between the United States and Japan. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). View provided with alternate number 92P-142.

  15. STS-47 crew and backups pose for portrait in SLJ module at KSC during training (United States)


    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers and backup payload specialists, wearing clean suits, pose for a group portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) module. The team is at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC's) Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) to inspect SLJ configuration and OV-105 preparations. Kneeling, from left, are backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai; Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis; and backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi. Standing, from the left, are Pilot Curtis L. Brown,Jr; MS and Payload Commander Mark C. Lee; MS Jerome Apt; Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri; Commander Robert L. Gibson; MS Mae C. Jemison; and backup Payload Specialist Stanely L. Koszelak. Mohri, Mukai, and Doi represent the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). View provided by KSC with alternate KSC number KSC-92PC-1647.

  16. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)


    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 75.1101-9 - Back-up water system. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-up water system. 75.1101-9 Section 75.1101-9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-9 Back-up water system. One fire hose outlet together with...

  18. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications


    Akinosho, Hannah; Yee, Kelsey; Close, Dan; Ragauskas, Arthur


    First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes toward the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermoc...

  19. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources]. (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin


    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  20. Exploring the Utility and Application of Framing Devices in College/University President Speeches (United States)

    Young, Ira George


    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and application of the framing devices identified by Fairhurst (1993) and Fairhurst and Sarr (1996) in the college/university setting as evidenced through college/university presidents' speeches. Fifty-seven college/university presidents' speeches were collected from institution…

  1. Battery energy storage systems for electric utility, industrial and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N.W.; Zrebiec, R.S.; Delmerico, R.W. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hunt, G. [GNB Industrial Battery, Lombard, IL (United States)


    Voltage depressions and power interruptions are rapidly becoming two of the hottest topics in the field of power quality. Of particular interest is the need to supply a dependable, efficient and controllable source of real and reactive power, which is available instantly to support a large (> .5 MVA) load, even if the utility connection is lost. This paper describes a versatile solution to this problem for utility, industrial and commercial applications using battery energy storage systems (BESS). BESS has the potential to provide other substantial benefits in terms of improved voltage and energy management in conjunction with this protection from interruptions.

  2. SysProp: A Web-based Data Backup, Synchronization and System Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salekul Islam


    Full Text Available From the inception of computer based computing, preventing data loss or data corruption is considered as one of the difficult challenges. In early days, data reliability had been increased by replicating data in multiple disks, which were attached with the same system and later located inside the same network. Later, to avoid potential risk of single point of failure, the replicated data storage has been separated from the network from which the data has been originated. Thus, following the concept of peer-to-peer (P2P networking, P2P storage system has been designed, where data has been replicated inside multiple remote peers’ redundant storages. With the advent of Cloud computing, a similar but more reliable Cloud-based storage system has been developed. Note that Cloud storages are expensive for small and medium enterprises. Moreover, users are often reluctant to store their sensitive data inside a third-party’s network that they do now own or control. In this paper, we design, develop and deploy a storage system that we named SysProp. Two widely used tools—Web applications and UNIX daemon—have been incorporated in the development process of SysProp. Our goal is to congregate benefits of different storage systems (e.g., networked, P2P and Cloud storages in a single application. SysProp provides a remotely accessible, Web-based interface, where users have full control over their data and data is being transferred in encrypted form. Moreover, for data backup, a powerful UNIX tool, rsync has been used that synchronize data by transferring only the updated portion. Finally, SysProp is a successful demonstration of the concept that UNIX daemons can be remotely executed and controlled over the Web. Hence, this concept might be exploited to build many system administrative applications.

  3. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.


    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems.

  4. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.


    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  5. Access, utilization, and interest in mHealth applications among veterans receiving outpatient care for PTSD. (United States)

    Erbes, Christopher R; Stinson, Rebecca; Kuhn, Eric; Polusny, Melissa; Urban, Jessica; Hoffman, Julia; Ruzek, Josef I; Stepnowsky, Carl; Thorp, Steven R


    Mobile health (mHealth) refers to the use of mobile technology (e.g., smartphones) and software (i.e., applications) to facilitate or enhance health care. Several mHealth programs act as either stand-alone aids for Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or adjuncts to conventional psychotherapy approaches. Veterans enrolled in a Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment program for PTSD (N = 188) completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed Veterans' access to mHealth-capable devices and their utilization of and interest in mHealth programs for PTSD. The majority of respondents (n = 142, 76%) reported having access to a cell phone or tablet capable of running applications, but only a small group (n = 18) reported use of existing mHealth programs for PTSD. Age significantly predicted ownership of mHealth devices, but not utilization or interest in mHealth applications among device owners. Around 56% to 76% of respondents with access indicated that they were interested in trying mHealth programs for such issues as anger management, sleep hygiene, and management of anxiety symptoms. Findings from this sample suggest that Veterans have adequate access to, and interest in, using mHealth applications to warrant continued development and evaluation of mobile applications for the treatment of PTSD and other mental health conditions.

  6. Low-maintenance, valve-regulated, lead/acid batteries in utility applications (United States)

    Cook, G. M.; Spindler, W. C.

    Electric power utility companies have various needs for lead/acid batteries, and also are beginning to promote customer-side-of-the meter applications for mutual benefits. Increasing use of lead/acid batteries in the future will depend heavily on improving performance and reliability of sealed, recombination designs, and on their versatility for many applications. Classifying various utility uses could be by cycling requirements, depth-of-discharge, power or energy (ratio of watts to hours), or by site (utility or customer). Deep-cycling examples are energy storage, peak-shaving and electric vehicles. Shallow-cycling examples are frequency regulation and reactive power control. Infrequent discharge examples are stationary service and spinning reserve. (Float service for telecommunications and uninterruptible power sources (UPS) applications are not addressed.) Some present and planned installations of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries are surveyed. Performance characteristics will be discussed, including recent results of testing both gel and absorptive glass mat (AGM) types of deep-cycling batteries. Recommendations for future research and development of valve-regulated cell technology are outlined, based on a recent conference organized by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

  7. Dynamic Scheduling Real-Time Task Using Primary-Backup Overloading Strategy for Multiprocessor Systems (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Chen; Défago, Xavier; Inoguchi, Yasushi

    The scheduling of real-time tasks with fault-tolerant requirements has been an important problem in multiprocessor systems. The primary-backup (PB) approach is often used as a fault-tolerant technique to guarantee the deadlines of tasks despite the presence of faults. In this paper we propose a dynamic PB-based task scheduling approach, wherein an allocation parameter is used to search the available time slots for a newly arriving task, and the previously scheduled tasks can be re-scheduled when there is no available time slot for the newly arriving task. In order to improve the schedulability we also propose an overloading strategy for PB-overloading and Backup-backup (BB) overloading. Our proposed task scheduling algorithm is compared with some existing scheduling algorithms in the literature through simulation studies. The results have shown that the task rejection ratio of our real-time task scheduling algorithm is almost 50% lower than the compared algorithms.

  8. Onsite and Electric Backup Capabilities at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, Kelly E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kudo, Terence Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The following analysis, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Risk and Infrastructure Science Center (RISC), details an analysis of electric power backup of national critical infrastructure as captured through the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Program (ECIP) Initiative. Between January 1, 2011, and September 2014, 3,174 ECIP facility surveys have been conducted. This study focused first on backup capabilities by infrastructure type and then expanded to infrastructure type by census region.

  9. Back-up strategies in drug discovery: what, how and when? (United States)

    Provins, Laurent; Jnoff, Eric; Genicot, Christophe


    The management of back-up strategies in drug discovery and development is usually done on an ad hoc basis depending upon a series of external factors including overall portfolio status and resource and/or budget availability. These are however an essential component of risk management and merit a more structured and systematic conduct throughout the lifetime of a project. An approach based upon a thorough alignment of decision points and data availability as well as a tailor-made progression of various types of back-up program as a function of project categorization is suggested.

  10. The market potential for SMES in electric utility applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is an emerging technology with features that are potentially attractive in electric utility applications. This study evaluates the potential for SMES technology in the generation, transmission, distribution, and use of electric energy; the time frame of the assessment is through the year 2030. Comparisons are made with other technology options, including both commercially available and advanced systems such as various peaking generation technologies, transmission stability improvement technologies, and power quality enhancement devices. The methodology used for this study focused on the needs of the market place, the capabilities of S and the characteristics of the competing technologies. There is widespread interest within utilities for the development of SMES technology, but there is no general consensus regarding the most attractive size. Considerable uncertainty exists regarding the eventual costs and benefits of commercial SMES systems, but general trends have been developed based on current industry knowledge. Results of this analysis indicate that as storage capacity increases, cost increases at a rate faster than benefits. Transmission system applications requiring dynamic storage appear to have the most attractive economics. Customer service applications may be economic in the near term, but improved ride-through capability of end-use equipment may limit the size of this market over time. Other applications requiring greater storage capacity appear to be only marginally economic at best.

  11. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali


    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  12. Thermal and Electrodynamic Risk of Residual Current Devices in the Case of Back-Up Protection by Overcurrent Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Czapp


    Full Text Available Residual current operated circuit breakers without integral overcurrent protection should be back-up protected. As back-up protection devices, overcurrent circuit breakers are used. The maximum let-through energy and let-through current of the overcurrent devices were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The thermal and electrodynamic risk of residual current devices was analyzed.

  13. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou


    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  14. Backup and Recovery of ORACLE Database%ORACLE数据库备份及恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper introduces the backup and recovery process of ORACLE database, and puts forward the breakpoint recovery and operation method of ORACLE database.%本文介绍了ORACLE数据库的备份和恢复过程,给出了医院系统ORACLE数据库的断点恢复及操作方法.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan S. Abujassar


    Full Text Available The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path betweensource and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period oftime when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path tothe destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducingthroughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm,DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table, to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector protocol by creating a backup routing table to providemultiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the samerange and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to thedestination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times betweensource and destination are improved. The results show that the new protocol does not degrade thenetwork’s performance despite sending extra messages to construct and update the new backuprouting table. Simulations (using an NS2 simulator are undertaken to demonstrate the differencebetween using a DSDV protocol with or without the proposed schema.Index Terms; Network Protocols ;( DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance Vector ; DBRT (Driven BackupRouting Table;Wireless Network; Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  16. Training Backup Searchers...or How "Reluctant Ralph" Deals with "Terrified Tess." (United States)

    Crampon, Jean E.


    Identifies several common attitudes of institutions, trainees, and trainers regarding the training of a backup searcher. Ten tips are given for dealing with the less-than-perfect training situation, with recommendations (depending on the combination of attitudes) for internal or external training, or both. (SW)

  17. The management of energy utilization in a spacecraft tracking station and its industrial applications (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; White, R. L.; Hume, P.


    The mission of a tracking station within the NASA/Jet Propulsion Deep Space Network is characterized by a wide diversity of spacecraft types, communications ranges, and data accuracy requirements. In the present paper, the system architecture, communications techniques, and operators interfaces for a utility controller are described. The control equipment as designed and installed is meant to be a tool to study applications of automated control in the dynamic environment of a tracking station. It allows continuous experimenting with new technology without disruption of the tracking activities.

  18. The near-source impacts of diesel backup generators in urban environments (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Zhang, K. Max


    Distributed power generation, located close to consumers, plays an important role in the current and future power systems. However, its near-source impacts in complex urban environments are not well understood. In this paper, we focused on diesel backup generators that participate in demand response (DR) programs. We first improved the micro-environmental air quality simulations by employing a meteorology processor, AERMET, to generate site-specific boundary layer parameters for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling. The modeling structure was then incorporated into the CTAG model to evaluate the environmental impacts of diesel backup generators in near-source microenvironments. We found that the presence of either tall upwind or downwind building can deteriorate the air quality in the near-stack street canyons, largely due to the recirculation zones generated by the tall buildings, reducing the near-stack dispersion. Decreasing exhaust momentum ratio (stack exit velocity/ambient wind velocity) draws more exhaust into the recirculation zone, and reduces the effective stack height, which results in elevated near-ground concentrations inside downwind street canyons. The near-ground PM2.5 concentration for the worst scenarios could well exceed 100 μg m-3, posing potential health risk to people living and working nearby. In general, older diesel backup generators (i.e., Tier 1, 2 or older) without the up-to-date emission control may significantly increase the pollutant concentration in the near-source street canyons if participating in DR programs. Even generators that comply with Tier-4 standards could lead to PM hotspots if their stacks are next to tall buildings. Our study implies that the siting of diesel backup generators stacks should consider not only the interactions of fresh air intake and exhaust outlet for the building housing the backup generators, but also the dispersion of exhaust plumes in the surrounding environment.

  19. Characterization of Coconut Shell Ash for Potential Utilization in Metal Matrix Composites for Automotive Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B Madakson


    Full Text Available Coconut shell ash is agricultural waste. The waste is produced in abundance globally and poses risk to health as well as environment. Thus their effective, conducive and eco-friendly utilization has always been a challenge for scientific applications. This paper mainly deals with identification of characteristics of coconutshell ash using spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. Density, Particle size, Refractoriness, SEM, XRD,XRF and FTIR spectroscopic methods were used for the characterization of the coconut shell ash. The results were compared and it was observed that the ash possesses nearly same chemical phases and other functional groups as reinforcement like fly ash, rice husk ash, bagasse ash that have been in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs specifically for automobile applications. Hence, coconut shell ash can be used as a low costreinforcement in Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs.

  20. Development of an E-mail Application Seemit and its Utilization in an Information Literacy Course (United States)

    Kita, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Makoto; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Kenichi; Akiyama, Hidenori

    We have developed a simple e-mail application named Seemit which is designed for being used in information literacy courses. It has necessary and sufficient functionality of an e-mail application, and it has been developed for the purpose of learning basic operations and mechanisms of e-mail transfer easily. It is equipped with the function to automatically set the configuration of user's SMTP/POP servers and e-mail address, etc. The process of transferring e-mail via SMTP and POP can be demonstrated step by step showing actual messages passed during the client-server interaction. We have utilized Seemit in a university-wide information literacy course which holds about 1800 students.

  1. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep. (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward


    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  2. Exploration on methods for hard disk backup in Siemens Iconos R200 digital gastrointestinal machine%西门子Iconos R200数字胃肠机硬盘复制备份方法探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘端铭; 郭彦清


    Objective: With the rapid development of science and technology, the computer in the medical equipment has been widely used, combined with some examples of repair of medical equipment in the computer common software and hardware fault reasons are analyzed, at the same time gives the repair method. The use of soft and hard copy in the backup system of medical equipment application was analyzed to explore a new backup mode. Methods: Based on Siemens R200 digital gastrointestinal machine hard disk failure after repair, we put forward backup improvement measures and solutions. Results: It was a native software backup, through two hard disk copying machine backup, replication repair can reverse fault hard disk, through three dedicated workstations for hard disk backup. Conclusion: We solve the problems for hard backup in Siemens R200 digital gastrointestinal machine.%目的:随着科学技术的发展,计算机技术在医疗设备中已得到广泛应用,通过对医疗设备中计算机常见的软件、硬件故障原因进行分析,同时结合维修实例给出了故障排除方案。方法:采用软硬拷贝技术在备份医疗设备系统中的应用,探索了一种新的备份方式。结果:通过对西门子R200数字胃肠机硬盘故障后备份修复、提出了预防改进措施及解决方法,即:本机软件备份;通过硬盘复制机备份,可反向复制修复故障硬盘;通过专用工作站进行硬盘备份。结论:西门子R200数字胃肠机硬盘系统复制备份方法解决了系统复制备份修复的问题。

  3. Utilization possibilities of hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste plastic pyrolysis: energetic utilization and applications in polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett; Angyal, Andras [University of Pannonia, MOL Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing (Hungary)], email:, email:, email:


    With the energy crisis and the rising concerns about the environment, energy-saving measures are urgently needed. Each year about 300M tons of plastic wastes are produced world-wide and governments are now focusing on recycling and reusing these products to save significant amounts of energy. The aim of this paper was to analyze the products which can be obtained from waste plastic and determine their possible uses. Pyrolysis of commercial waste plastics was done in a reactor at 500-600 degree celsius and the products were then analyzed using several methods. Results showed that the pyrolysis produces gases, naphtha, middle distillates and heavy oils. The properties of these products were also determined and it was found that they have the potential to be used in fuel-like and additive producing applications. This study highlighted that pyrolysis of waste polymers can yield useful products.

  4. Gestión de un Sistema de Back-ups


    Macho Adalia, Juan Carlos


    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2009/2010. Tutor del Proyecto: Javier Martínez Moguerza El siguiente Proyecto Fin de Carrera consistirá en la instalación y gestión de un sistema de back-up. Es decir, trataremos desde la instalación del software, llamado Backup Exec 2010, hasta su conexión y gestión con la librería robótica usada para realizar las copias de seguridad. Relacionado al robot, llamado Sun StorageTek L180, explica...

  5. On the nonlinear dynamics of two types of backup bearings - Theoretical and experimental aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar F.; Weber, Hans I.


    The possible contact between rotor and stator can for some cases be considered a serious malfunction that may lead to catastrophic failure. Rotor rub is considered a secondary phenomenon caused by a primary source that leads to a disruption of the normal operational condition. It arises from sudd...... at impact is forced to the center of the backup bearing and the lateral motion is mitigated. As a result of this, the rotor spin is kept constant. © 2012 American Society of Mechanical Engineers....

  6. Backup Alignment Devices on Shuttle: Heads-Up Display or Crew Optical Alignment Sight (United States)

    Chavez, Melissa A.


    NASA s Space Shuttle was built to withstand multiple failures while still keeping the crew and vehicle safe. Although the design of the Space Shuttle had a great deal of redundancy built into each system, there were often additional ways to keep systems in the best configuration if a failure were to occur. One such method was to use select pieces of hardware in a way for which they were not primarily intended. The primary function of the Heads-Up Display (HUD) was to provide the crew with a display of flight critical information during the entry phase. The primary function of the Crew Optical Alignment Sight (COAS) was to provide the crew an optical alignment capability for rendezvous and docking phases. An alignment device was required to keep the Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) well aligned for a safe Entry; nominally this alignment device would be the two on-board Star Trackers. However, in the event of a Star Tracker failure, the HUD or COAS could also be used as a backup alignment device, but only if the device had been calibrated beforehand. Once the HUD or COAS was calibrated and verified then it was considered an adequate backup to the Star Trackers for entry IMU alignment. There were procedures in place and the astronauts were trained on how to accurately calibrate the HUD or COAS and how to use them as an alignment device. The calibration procedure for the HUD and COAS had been performed on many Shuttle missions. Many of the first calibrations performed were for data gathering purposes to determine which device was more accurate as a backup alignment device, HUD or COAS. Once this was determined, the following missions would frequently calibrate the HUD in order to be one step closer to having the device ready in case it was needed as a backup alignment device.

  7. A New Technique to Backup and Restore DBMS using XML and .NET Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kadry, Seifedine; Kassem, Hussam; Hayek, Hassan


    In this paper, we proposed a new technique for backing up and restoring different Database Management Systems (DBMS). The technique is enabling to backup and restore a part of or the whole database using a unified interface using ASP.NET and XML technologies. It presents a Web Solution allowing the administrators to do their jobs from everywhere, locally or remotely. To show the importance of our solution, we have taken two case studies, oracle 11g and SQL Server 2008.

  8. Optimization of Preventive Grinding of Backup Roll against Contact Fatigue Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Peng; LI You-guo; LIANG Kai-ming; BAI Bing-zhe


    In order to optimize the current grinding procedure of the backup roll of 2050 continuously variable crown (CVC) mills, the behavior of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) cracking was investigated. Two RCF short cracks, including vertical short crack and ratcheting short crack initiated from ratcheting, were observed. The behavior of both RCF cracks was analyzed in detail. Then a modified grinding procedure was proposed according to the behavior of RCF cracks and the preventive grinding strategy.

  9. Influence of unbalance levels on nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-backup rolling bearing system (United States)

    Fonseca, Cesar A.; Santos, Ilmar F.; Weber, Hans I.


    Rotor drops in magnetic bearing and unbalance in rotors have been objective of study for many years. The combination of these two well-known phenomena led to an interesting chaotic response, when the rotor touches the inner race of the back-up bearing. The present work explores the nonlinear rotor backup bearing dynamics both theoretically and experimentally using a fully instrumented test rig, where the position of shaft, its angular velocity and the contact forces between the shaft and the backup bearing are sampled at 25 kHz. The test rig is built by a removable passive magnetic bearing, which allows for simulation of magnetic bearing failure (loss of carrying capacity and rotor fall). The rotor is studied numerically as well as experimentally. A theoretical approach is given beforehand and supplies the basis of the study. Finally the presented results are commented on the point of view of nonlinear dynamics applied to the practical use. The theoretical and numerical analyses are shown through orbit plots, phase plans, Poincaré maps, force response in time and double sided spectrum. The latter is important to characterize the condition at different levels of unbalance between forward and backward whirl. Our preliminary results indicate that for smaller amount of unbalance the rotor swings at the bottom of the bearing, the more the unbalance increases, other dynamical behavior occur and some can be extremely harmful, since the rotor can be lifted from the contact state and return, starting to impact innumerable times without reaching a steady state.

  10. A Driven Backup Routing Table to Find Alternative Dijoint Path in Ad Hoc Wireless

    CERN Document Server

    abujassar, Radwan


    The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path between source and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period of time when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path to the destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducing throughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm, DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table), to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector) protocol by creating a backup routing table to provide multiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the same range and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to the destination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times between source and destination are improved. The result...

  11. Backup Platform Based on Asynchronous Data Clouds%基于异步数据云的云备份平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜学峰; 许霄波; 吴放; 董惠良


    随着信息化技术的发展,信息系统安全在企业管理中显得越来越重要.在分析了云存储技术架构的基础上,提出了一种新的基于异步数据云的系统备份平台,将逻辑数据云与物理数据云接入网络,提供稳定、高效的数据备份功能,并针对不同备份对象制定备份策略,从而达到备份资源优化的目的.在浙江中烟备份系统,的应用实施,充分说明该平台是一种适用于跨地域、大数据量的数据备份方案.%With the development of the information technology, the security of information system becomes more and more important in enterprise management. In this paper, a new backup platform based on asynchronous data cloud is proposed to connect application system with logical data cloud and physical data cloud and they can back up the system data stably and efficiently. And in order to optimize the backup resources, different strategies were applied to different objects in the platform. Implement in backup system of China Tobacco Zhejiang Industrial CO.LTD shows that the platform is suit to regional and large enterprise which has great deal of data.

  12. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinsho, Hannah [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta; Yee, Kelsey L [ORNL; Close, Daniel M [ORNL; Ragauskas, Arthur [University of Tennessee, Knoxville


    First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes toward the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum's role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum's amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  13. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eRagauskas


    Full Text Available First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes towards the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum’s role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum’s amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  14. Industrial and utility applications coal-oil mixture data index. [Oil-fired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The seriousness of the present and projected national energy picture dictated the adoption of several approaches by the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop alternate fuel sources as a means of curtailing our present dependence on imported oil. One approach, which offers near term potential for reducing the domestic consumption rate of natural gas and oil, is the application of coal-oil mixture (COM) combustion technology. The idea of burning coal and oil in the form of a mixture has been around for some time and is not viewed by DOE, in any degree, as the solution to our domestic energy problem. However, it is viewed as a near-term retrofit coal utilization technology with a high degree of application potential to existing oil fired systems. In view of this, DOE has undertaken several demonstration and support-research projects to further define existing COM technical uncertainties. The purpose of this manual is to present a comprehensive technical description and status of each project, both informative and practical with respect to the diverse data requirements.

  15. High-temperature superconductor current leads for electric utility SMES applications (United States)

    Niemann, R. C.; Cha, Y. S.; Hull, J. R.; Buckles, W. E.; Weber, B. R.; Dixon, K. D.; Rey, C. M.

    Current leads that utilize high-temperature superconductors (HTSS) to deliver power to devices operating at liquid helium temperature have the potential to reduce refrigeration requirements to levels significantly below those achievable with conventional leads. As part of the US Department of Energy's Superconductivity Technology Program, Argonne National Laboratory and two industrial partners are developing HTS current leads for application to superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems. Superconductivity, Inc. (SI) is a supplier of micro-SMES systems for power-quality applications. A typical SI SMES system has an 0.3-kWh energy capacity and operates at currents up to 1.2 kA. The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W) is engaged in a project to design, build, and demonstrate a midsized SMES system. The B&W system has an 0.5-MWh energy capacity and operates at currents up to 16 kA. Details of the lead designs, including materials, configuration, and performance predictions, are presented.

  16. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; Deguzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II


    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2 percent at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25 percent (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies can range up to about 65 percent). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented. 3 references.

  17. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; DeGuzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II


    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2% at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25% (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiences can range up to about 65%). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented.

  18. 26 CFR 35a.3406-2 - Imposition of backup withholding for notified payee underreporting of reportable interest or... (United States)


    ... OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTEREST AND DIVIDEND TAX COMPLIANCE ACT OF 1983 § 35a.3406-2 Imposition of backup withholding for notified payee underreporting...

  19. Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in Response to Urea Application in Rice Fields of the Taihu Lake Region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ammonia volatilization losses, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and rice yields in response to urea application to a rice field were investigated in Wangzhuang Town, Changshu City, Jiangsu Province, China. The N fertilizer treatments, applied in triplicate, were 0 (control), 100, 200, 300, or 350 kg N ha-1. After urea was applied to the surface water, a continuous airflow enclosure method was used to measure ammonia volatilization in the paddy field. Total N losses through ammonia volatilization generally increased with the N application rate, and the two higher N application rates (300 and 350 kg N ha-1) showed a higher ratio of N lost through ammonia volatilization to applied N. Total ammonia loss by ammonia volatilization during the entire rice growth stage ranged from 9.0% to 16.7% of the applied N. Increasing the application rate generally decreased the ratio of N in the seed to N in the plant. For all N treatments, the nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency ranged from 30.9% to 45.9%. Surplus N with the highest N rate resulted in lodging of rice plants, a decreased rate of nitrogen fertilizer utilization, and reduced rice yields. Calculated from this experiment, the most economical N fertilizer application rate was 227 kg ha-1 for the type of paddy soil in the Taihu Lake region. However, recommending an appropriate N fertilizer application rate such that the plant growth is enhanced and ammonia loss is reduced could improve the N utilization efficiency of rice.

  20. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.


    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  1. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.


    an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones....

  2. Production, statistical optimization and application of endoglucanase from Rhizopus stolonifer utilizing coffee husk. (United States)

    Navya, P N; Pushpa, S Murthy


    Coffee cherry husk (CH) is one of the major by-products obtained from coffee processing industry and accounts to 43 ± 5.9% of cellulose. Screening of fungal organism for cellulase production was carried out and the potential organism was identified as Rhizopus stolonifer by internal transcribed spacer's (ITS)-5.8S rDNA analysis. A systematic study with response surface methodology (RSM) based on CCRD was used to study the interactions among the variables such as pH (3-7), moisture (40-80%) and progression duration (72-168 h) of the fermentation process to maximize the enzyme production. Under the optimized cultivation condition, R. stolonifer synthesized 22,109 U/gds. Model validations at optimum operating conditions showed excellent agreement between the experimental results and the predicted responses with a confidence level of 95%. Endoglucanase thus produced was utilized for ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and maximum of 65.5 g/L of ethanol was obtained. This fungal cellulase has also reported to be efficient detergent additives and promising for commercial use. The present study demonstrates coffee husk as a significant bioprocess substrate. Statistical optimization with major parameters for cellulase production can be highly applicable for industrial scale. Furthermore, value addition to coffee husk with sustainable waste management leading to environment conservation can be achieved.

  3. Development of beam utilization and application technology - Development of KOMAC user program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Ok; Heo, Jin Young [Korea Accelerator and Plasma Association, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Kie Hyung; Nam, Yong Un [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Noh, Seung Jung [Dankook University, Seoul (Korea)


    To develop cooperations for the construction of the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) and to maximize the operation efficiency and rate, foreign user programs for large accelerator facilities, which are well organized and already settled down as a result of many year's or decades' operation experience, were surveyed and the user related status of the KOMAC class accelerators under construction was also surveyed. The survey was conducted through conference attendances, visits, interviews, seminar openings, or internet searches. In addition, the utilization as well as application areas of the KOMAC are categorized and four surveys of user's requests and markets were conducted via e-mails, mails, telephones, or visits. An internet home page and seminars for the KOMAC user program were provided. As results, lots of accelerator relate person and even publics could join or get acquainted with the KOMAC program. The research potential area for the KOMAC of near future was suggested and provided through the analysis of collected data and informations. (author). 38 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment (United States)

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania


    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  5. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)


    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  6. Fleet and backup tank sizing under regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns (United States)

    Dupuis, Ronald Gerard

    The focus of this study involves logistics issues surrounding the industrial gas business. The industrial gas business is a major industry (approximately $30 billion/year) and has been experiencing substantial growth in recent years. The industrial gas business supports two types of customers. The first type is the traditional merchant customers who rely entirely on the logistics system for product. Their demand is of a stochastic nature. The second type of customers is referred to as customers. These customers have air separation plants on their own sites and they must rely on the logistics system when their separation plant fails. To assist in providing a continuous flow of product, all onsite plants also have a backup tank which can provide sufficient product for relatively short durations of time, 24 to 96 hours of supply. The onsite separation plants are approximately 98% reliable, but when they fail, the customer generally requires a significant amount of product. This type of demand pattern will be defined as impulse stochastic. This study focuses on two areas of the logistics support system. The first part deals with the economic sizing of onsite backup tanks. For a given onsite, we determine the most economical choice for a backup system considering numerous characteristics of the onsite customer as well as the logistics system. In the second part, we develop methods for determining the optimal fleet size under both regular and impulse stochastic demand patterns. The methods provide support for long range forecasting, short-term vehicle reallocation and private verses contract carrier vehicle mix determination. The methods further provide a means to describe the effect future onsite growth will have on distribution as it is related to vehicle fleet size.

  7. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    An Li/SOCl 2 battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 1OK-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 μA is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  8. A Primary and Backup Protection Algorithm based on Voltage and Current Measurements for HVDC Grids


    Abedrabbo, Mudar; Van Hertem, Dirk


    DC grids are susceptible to DC side faults, which lead to a rapid rise of the DC side currents. DC side faults should be detected in a very short time before fault currents cause damage to the system or equipment, e.g., exceed the maximum interruptible limits of DC circuit breaker. This paper presents a primary and backup protective data-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm depends on the local voltage and current measurements to detect and identify various kinds of faults in the HVDC grid...

  9. Hardware in the loop simulation test platform of fuel cell backup system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Tiancai


    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of voltage mechanistic model, a real-time simulation model of the proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell backup system is developed, and verified by the measurable experiment data. The method of online parameters identification for the model is also improved. Based on the software LabVIEW/VeriStand real-time environment and the PXI Express hardware system, the PEM fuel cell system controller hardware in the loop (HIL simulation plat-form is established. Controller simulation test results showed the accuracy of HIL simulation platform.

  10. A Novel Method of Remote Battery Back-up for A DMS Sub-station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Srinivasan


    Full Text Available This study presents a remote battery backup for Distribution Management System substation. It elucidates the importance of the battery at the substation and the necessity of the automation at the substation. By achieving this we can remotely check the health of the battery from Back Control Center. It also enlightens the affects of the unavailability of power supply and how the charger gets activated and gives supply to the motors connected to the isolators and also acts as auxiliary supply to the Field Remote Terminal Unit until the station comes online.

  11. Influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports (United States)

    Flowers, George T.


    This semiannual status report lists specific accomplishments made on the research of the influence of backup bearings and support structure dynamics on the behavior of rotors with active supports. Papers have been presented representing work done on the T-501 engine model; an experimental/simulation study of auxiliary bearing rotordynamics; and a description of a rotordynamical model for a magnetic bearing supported rotor system, including auxiliary bearing effects. A finite element model for a foil bearing has been developed. Additional studies of rotor/bearing/housing dynamics are currently being performed as are studies of the effects of sideloading on auxiliary bearing rotordynamics using the magnetic bearing supported rotor model.

  12. The Free Open Source Backup Strategy Base on Areca Backup and Cloud Storage%基于Areca Backup和云存储的开源免费备份策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    介绍一种基于开源备份软件Areca Backup和云存储的数据备份策略。该策略充分利用云存储技术实现备份数据的低成本和高可靠性存储。Areca Backup的数据加密功能使备份文件的云存储容易符合公司的安全规定。操作简易,适用于可靠性要求一般的数据备份。%A data backup strategy that base on Areca Backup-an open-source backup software and cloud storage. It's Make full use of the superiority of the cloud storage, low cost and high reliability. The encryption function provided by Areca Backup can help cloud storage compatible with the Information security policy of the company. It's easy to user, can apply to the general lev-el of data backup.

  13. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, of which carbon dioxide is the highest constituent at 82%. Furthermore, the amount of carbon dioxide emissions is growing with time. These trends make it evident that there is a need for methods to reduce these greenhouse gases emissions. While...... there are two methods of reducing carbon dioxide emissions, carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilization (CCU), CCU is considered promising as it makes further use of the carbon dioxide as a solvent, raw material, and reagent to produce valuable products [1]. Using such utilization...... processes, the emissions can be reduced as they are being utilized and profit can be obtained, or the cost of operation for the carbon dioxide treatment can be returned, through this utilization process. In order to systematically reduce such emissions, carbon capture and utilization is considered rather...

  14. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors. (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew


    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately.

  15. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun


    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  16. Industrial applications study. Volume II. Industrial data base. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence W.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet


    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated.

  17. [Experience of medical backup of military parade on Red Square. Authors showed data about medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade on Red Square dedicating to anniversary of victory in the Great Patriotic War]. (United States)

    Malykh, A B; Iakovlev, S V; Valevskiĭ, V V


    Authors showed data about medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade on Red Square dedicating to anniversary of Victory in the Great Patriotic War. Experience of running such events allowed to work out an algorithm for medical service: preparatory stage, training stage, running of parade, stage of move out to permanent base. During the parade on Red Square for medical care asked 18 people (participants of parade and civilians). Authors came to conclusion that as a result of medical backup of military personnel taking part in the parade no infectious and group diseases were registered.

  18. A framework to utilize turbulent flux measurements for mesoscale models and remote sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Babel


    Full Text Available Meteorologically measured fluxes of energy and matter between the surface and the atmosphere originate from a source area of certain extent, located in the upwind sector of the device. The spatial representativeness of such measurements is strongly influenced by the heterogeneity of the landscape. The footprint concept is capable of linking observed data with spatial heterogeneity. This study aims at upscaling eddy covariance derived fluxes to a grid size of 1 km edge length, which is typical for mesoscale models or low resolution remote sensing data.

    Here an upscaling strategy is presented, utilizing footprint modelling and SVAT modelling as well as observations from a target land-use area. The general idea of this scheme is to model fluxes from adjacent land-use types and combine them with the measured flux data to yield a grid representative flux according to the land-use distribution within the grid cell. The performance of the upscaling routine is evaluated with real datasets, which are considered to be land-use specific fluxes in a grid cell. The measurements above rye and maize fields stem from the LITFASS experiment 2003 in Lindenberg, Germany and the respective modelled timeseries were derived by the SVAT model SEWAB. Contributions from each land-use type to the observations are estimated using a forward lagrangian stochastic model. A representation error is defined as the error in flux estimates made when accepting the measurements unchanged as grid representative flux and ignoring flux contributions from other land-use types within the respective grid cell.

    Results show that this representation error can be reduced up to 56 % when applying the spatial integration. This shows the potential for further application of this strategy, although the absolute differences between flux observations from rye and maize were so small, that the spatial integration would be rejected in a real situation. Corresponding thresholds for

  19. Sources and potential application of waste heat utilization at a gas processing facility (United States)

    Alshehhi, Alyas Ali

    Waste heat recovery (WHR) has the potential to significantly improve the efficiency of oil and gas plants, chemical and other processing facilities, and reduce their environmental impact. In this Thesis a comprehensive energy audit at Abu Dhabi Gas Industries Ltd. (GASCO) ASAB gas processing facilities is undertaken to identify sources of waste heat and evaluate their potential for on-site recovery. Two plants are considered, namely ASAB0 and ASAB1. Waste heat evaluation criteria include waste heat grade (i.e., temperature), rate, accessibility (i.e., proximity) to potential on-site waste heat recovery applications, and potential impact of recovery on installation performance and safety. The operating parameters of key waste heat source producing equipment are compiled, as well as characteristics of the waste heat streams. In addition, potential waste heat recovery applications and strategies are proposed, focusing on utilities, i.e., enhancement of process cooling/heating, electrical/mechanical power generation, and steam production. The sources of waste heat identified at ASAB facilities consist of gas turbine and gas generator exhaust gases, flared gases, excess propane cooling capacity, excess process steam, process gas air-cooler heat dissipation, furnace exhaust gases and steam turbine outlet steam. Of the above waste heat sources, exhaust gases from five gas turbines and one gas generator at ASAB0 plant, as well as from four gas turbines at ASAB1 plant, were found to meet the rate (i.e., > 1 MW), grade (i.e., > 180°C), accessibility (i.e., absorption refrigeration unit for gas turbine inlet air cooling, which would result in additional electric or mechanical power generation, and pre-cooling of process gas, which could reduce the need for or eliminate air coolers, as well as reduce propane chiller load, and ii) serve for heating of lean gas, which would reduce furnace load. At ASAB1, it is proposed that exhaust gases from all four gas turbines be used to

  20. 家庭数据备份系统建设%Realization and Construction of Family Data Backups System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the rapid development of the information digitizing and the popularization application of various electronic products,like digital camera,DV and game machine in our family,the different forms of files including pictures,videos,audios and texts have changed into digital format unconsciously and are stored in hard disk of our computers.However,during the process of application,due to such rea-sons as the operation mistakes of family members,the damage of the computer viruses or the natural damage of computer equipment,the data stored in computer will be broken.The design and realization ideas of backup system are put forward according to features of the family data.%随着信息的数字化迅速发展,家庭的数码相机、DV、游戏机等各种电子产品的普及应用,图片、视频、音频、文字等各种不同形式的文件,均在不知不觉中转变成数字格式,存储在家庭电脑的硬盘上。但在实际应用过程中由于家庭人员的误操作、计算机病毒的发作、计算机设备的自然损坏等储多原因,经常会使存储的数据遭到破坏。针对家庭数据特点,提出家庭数据的备份系统的设计和实现思路。

  1. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.


    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  2. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.


    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  3. Production of 415-ton ingots for backup rolls in the conditions of PJSC "Energomashspetsstal"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Victorovich Efimov


    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of work on melting, pouring, forging and heat treatment of 415-ton 45H3M1F steel ingots as semiproducts for manufacturing large backup rolls at the request of  «Severstal» Company. For the production of rollers, a new grade of steel based on 0.45%С and 3%Cr, additionally alloyed by Mo and V, was developed in PJSC «Energomashspetsstal» and applied in industry. Steel of bainite class provides the best combination of strength and plasticity properties. Metal was prepared by melting 7 heats in arc steel-melting furnaces with the capacity of 100 and 50 tons with subsequent out-of-furnace treatment on ladle – furnace and ladle – degassing units. The pouring of steel was carried out from four steel-pouring ladles into a vertical mould under vacuum through a tundish ladle with the protection of stream by argon. The forging of ingots was conducted on the automated 150MN forging system. The obtained billets were exposed to primary heat treatment which consisted of heating for recrystallization, isothermal soaking, in order to provide the removal of residual stresses, additional dehydrogenization to give the material lower hardness and controlled cooling for the prevention of snowflake formation. Heating of ingots for forging and preliminary heat treatment was carried out in heat treatment furnaces with the carrying capacity of up to 500 tons. For the heat treatment of the backup roll, a horizontal sprayer unit was applied. The tooling of the backup roll was executed on a lathe with one pace-plate and the final mechanical treatment was conducted on the machine-tool of Hercules NWD 1500×18000 CNC. Finished products with 225-ton mass of the following dimensions: a barrel with a diameter and a length of 2,360 mm and 4,800 mm, respectively, at a general length of 10,650 mm were obtained.  

  4. Industrial applications study. Volume IV. Industrial plant surveys. Final report. [Waste heat recovery and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Harry L.; Hamel, Bernard B.; Karamchetty, Som; Steigelmann, William H.; Gajanana, Birur C.; Agarwal, Anil P.; Klock, Lawrence M.; Henderson, James M.; Calobrisi, Gary; Hedman, Bruce A.; Koluch, Michael; Biancardi, Frank; Bass, Robert; Landerman, Abraham; Peters, George; Limaye, Dilip; Price, Jeffrey; Farr, Janet


    An initial evaluation of the waste heat recovery and utilization potential in the manufacturing portion of the industrial sector is presented. The scope of this initial phase addressed the feasibility of obtaining in-depth energy information in the industrial sector. Within this phase, the methodology and approaches for data gathering and assessment were established. Using these approaches, energy use and waste heat profiles were developed at the 2-digit level; with this data, waste heat utilization technologies were evaluated. This study represents an important first step in the evaluation of waste heat recovery potential.

  5. Synchronizing files or images among several computers or removable devices. A utility to avoid frequent back-ups. (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Maiorana, Francesco; Giordano, Daniela


    Many of us use and maintain files on more than 1 computer--a desktop part of the time, and a notebook, a palmtop, or removable devices at other times. It can be easy to forget which device contains the latest version of a particular file, and time-consuming searches often ensue. One way to solve this problem is to use software that synchronizes the files. This allows users to maintain updated versions of the same file in several locations.

  6. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.


    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen b

  7. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations. (United States)

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  8. Cassini Spacecraft In-Flight Swap to Backup Attitude Control Thrusters (United States)

    Bates, David M.


    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap to the backup RCS system, the details and challenges of which are described in this paper. With some modifications, it is hoped that similar techniques and design strategies could be used to benefit other spacecraft.

  9. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.


    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  10. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  11. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)


    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de, P.


    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen by the crop was around 300 kg ha-1. In one experiment, band placement positively influenced nitrogen uptake. Split application did not influence nitrogen uptake. Nitrogen application resulted in a h...

  12. Application of a disease-specific mapping function to estimate utility gains with effective treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupnow Marcia FT


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most tools for estimating utilities use clinical trial data from general health status models, such as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. A disease-specific model may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to apply a disease-specific utility mapping function for schizophrenia to data from a large, 1-year, open-label study of long-acting risperidone and to compare its performance with an SF-36-based utility mapping function. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder by DSM-IV criteria received 25, 50, or 75 mg long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and SF-36 were used to assess efficacy and health-related quality of life. Movement disorder severity was measured using the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS; data concerning other common adverse effects (orthostatic hypotension, weight gain were collected. Transforms were applied to estimate utilities. Results A total of 474 patients completed the study. Long-acting risperidone treatment was associated with a utility gain of 0.051 using the disease-specific function. The estimated gain using an SF-36-based mapping function was smaller: 0.0285. Estimates of gains were only weakly correlated (r = 0.2. Because of differences in scaling and variance, the requisite sample size for a randomized trial to confirm observed effects is much smaller for the disease-specific mapping function (156 versus 672 total subjects. Conclusion Application of a disease-specific mapping function was feasible. Differences in scaling and precision suggest the clinically based mapping function has greater power than the SF-36-based measure to detect differences in utility.

  13. Utility of magneto-electropolished ternary nitinol alloys for blood contacting applications. (United States)

    Pulletikurthi, Chandan; Munroe, Norman; Stewart, Danique; Haider, Waseem; Amruthaluri, Sushma; Rokicki, Ryszard; Dugrot, Manuel; Ramaswamy, Sharan


    The thrombogenicity of a biomaterial is mainly dependent on its surface characteristics, which dictates its interactions with blood. Surface properties such as composition, roughness wettability, surface free energy, and morphology will affect an implant material's hemocompatibility. Additionally, in the realm of metallic biomaterials, the specific composition of the alloy and its surface treatment are important factors that will affect the surface properties. The utility of magneto-electropolished (MEP) ternary Nitinol alloys, NiTiTa, and NiTiCr as blood contacting materials was investigated. The hemcompatibility of these alloys were compared to mechanically polished (MP) metallic biomaterial counterparts. In vitro thrombogenicity tests revealed significantly less platelet adherence on ternary MEP Nitinol, especially MEP NiTi10Ta as compared to the MP metals (p Nitinol alloys can potentially be utilized for blood-contacting devices where, complications resulting from thrombogenicity can be minimized.

  14. The Backup-Gilbert method and its application to the electrical conductivity problem (United States)

    Parker, R. L.


    The theory of Backus and Gilbert gives a technique for solving the general linear inverse problem. Observational error and lack of data are shown to reduce the reliability of the solution in different ways: the former introduces statistical uncertainties in the model, while the latter smooths out the detail. Precision can be improved by sacrificing resolving power, and vice versa, so that some compromise may be made between the two in choosing the best model. Nonlinear inverse problems can be brought into the domain of the theory by linearizing about a typical solution. The inverse problem of electrical conductivity in the mantle is used to illustrate the Backus-Gilbert technique; an example of the tradeoff diagram is given.

  15. Technical Challenges and Lessons from the Migration of the GLOBE Data and Information System to Utilize Cloud Computing Service (United States)

    Moses, John F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Overoye, David; Littlefield, Brain


    The Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data and Information System supports an international science and education program with capabilities to accept local environment observations, archive, display and visualize them along with global satellite observations. Since its inception twenty years ago, the Web and database system has been upgraded periodically to accommodate the changes in technology and the steady growth of GLOBEs education community and collection of observations. Recently, near the end-of-life of the system hardware, new commercial computer platform options were explored and a decision made to utilize Cloud services. Now the GLOBE DIS has been fully deployed and maintained using Amazon Cloud services for over two years now. This paper reviews the early risks, actual challenges, and some unexpected findings as a result of the GLOBE DIS migration. We describe the plans, cost drivers and estimates, highlight adjustments that were made and suggest improvements. We present the trade studies for provisioning, for load balancing, networks, processing, storage, as well as production, staging and backup systems. We outline the migration teams skills and required level of effort for transition, and resulting changes in the overall maintenance and operations activities. Examples include incremental adjustments to processing capacity and frequency of backups, and efforts previously expended on hardware maintenance that were refocused onto application-specific enhancements.

  16. Automatic Weather Station and Backup Techniques%自动气象站数据备份技巧

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景新娟; 赵俊平; 刘雪芹; 杨瑞霞; 郭晓晨


    Based on the problems caused by some weather stations’ not backing up the date promptly, the paper makes an analysis on the present situation of data backup of automatic weather station and expounds in detail the methods of automatically date backup by means of sharing the date of the host and backup computers as well as using the target project. With an expectation to help automatic weather stations backup the relative data files promptly, the paper is also expected to contribute to further improve the quality of service by docking the data collector and the backup computer so as to solve such problems as data processing or data missing resulting in missing predictions and reports when the host computer is out of order.%分析了自动气象站数据备份的现状,针对台站数据备份不及时等问题,提出了通过业务主机与备份机数据共享,利用计划任务自动备份数据文件的方法。实现了自动气象站有关数据文件的及时备份,能够在主用计算机故障时实现采集器与备份机及时对接,从而解决了由于数据缺失引起的问题,为进一步提高业务质量奠定了基础。

  17. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.


    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  18. Issues on Component Based Architectures Utilization for Real Time Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZMARANDA Doina


    Full Text Available Generally, real-time embedded controlsystems are very demanding from the timing pointof view. Increasing complexity and criticality ofsuch systems leads to a challenge regarding theirdesign and programming model. Severaldevelopment models were proposed in the literature,all of them could be grouped into two categories:models based on event triggered approach andmodels based on timed triggered approach. Thispaper focuses on two of the most knownprogramming models that exhibit componentarchitecture: Giotto - based on timed triggeredapproach, and timed multitasking - based on eventtriggered approach. Based on the survey of eachmodel capabilities and component structure, theadvantages and drawbacks in utilization for realtimeembedded systems are analyzed in the paperand several conclusions are drawn.

  19. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline


    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  20. On the "negative utility" of Ernst Cassirer's philosophy of physics: An application to the EPR argument (United States)

    Stamenkovic, Philippe


    This paper tries to reconstruct Ernst Cassirer's potential reception of the EPR argument, as exposed by Einstein in his letter to Cassirer of March 1937. It is shown that, in conformity with his transcendental epistemology taking the conditions of accessibility as constitutive of the quantum object, Cassirer would probably have rejected the argument. Indeed, Cassirer would probably not have subscribed to its separability/local causality presupposition (which goes against his interpretation of the quantum formalism as a self-sufficient condition constitutive of the quantum object, without any reliance on spatial intuition), nor to its completeness requirement (as his partial endorsement of Bohr's complementarity, and his rejection of the Kantian "idea of complete determination", illustrate). By rejecting both of its premises, Cassirer's philosophy of physics thus enables to escape the EPR dilemma, and exhibits what, in Kantian terms, might be called a "negative utility" with respect to physical science. A further investigation of the anti-reductionist utility of Cassirer's systematic philosophy with respect to physics and other "symbolic forms" is finally suggested.

  1. Uninterruptible power supply for GSM/UMTS base stations using fuel cells. PEM-FC back-up system - Final report; Unterbrechungsfreie Stromversorgung (USV) fuer GSM/UMTS-Basisstationen mit Brennstoffzellen. PEM-FC Back-Up System - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trachte, U.; Wellig, B.; Luethi, E.; Gander, T.; Haerri, V.


    reduction of CO{sub 2}-equivalents of nearly 90% within a life cycle of 10 years. In comparison with lead-acid batteries with recycling there is a reduction of more than 80%. During the project period the market changed. An increasing number of fuel cell producers and UPS suppliers became aware that the application of fuel cell's as a back-up system respond to critical market demands. They developed ready-to-market products which are suited to achieve early commercialisation success. Hence for the fuel cell UPS application it is no longer the question of functionality but of a successful market entry. (authors)

  2. Novel fabrication of fluorescent silk utilized in biotechnological and medical applications. (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Seong-Wan; Ki, Chang Seok; Chao, Janet Ren; Yoo, Hyojong; Yoon, Sung-Il; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Ye Ri; Kweon, HaeYong; Lee, Kwang Gill; Kaplan, David L; Park, Chan Hum


    Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural polymer widely used and studied for diverse applications in the biomedical field. Recently, genetically modified silks, particularly fluorescent SF fibers, were reported to have been produced from transgenic silkworms. However, they are currently limited to textile manufacturing. To expand the use of transgenic silkworms for biomedical applications, a solution form of fluorescent SF needed to be developed. Here, we describe a novel method of preparing a fluorescent SF solution and demonstrate long-term fluorescent function up to one year after subcutaneous insertion. We also show that fluorescent SF labeled p53 antibodies clearly identify HeLa cells, indicating the applicability of fluorescent SF to cancer detection and bio-imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the intraoperative use of fluorescent SF in an animal model to detect a small esophageal perforation (0.5 mm). This study suggests how fluorescent SF biomaterials can be applied in biotechnology and clinical medicine.

  3. Applications of space observations to the management and utilization of coastal fishery resources (United States)

    Kemmerer, A. J.; Savastano, K. J.; Faller, K. H.


    Information needs of those concerned with the harvest and management of coastal fishery resources can be satisfied in part through applications of satellite remote sensing. Recently completed and ongoing investigations have demonstrated potentials for defining fish distribution patterns from multispectral data, monitoring fishing distribution and effort with synthetic aperture radar systems, forecasting recruitment of certain estuarine-dependent species, and tracking marine mammals. These investigations, which are reviewed in this paper, have relied on Landsat 1 and 2, Skylab-3, and Nimbus-6 supported sensors and sensors carried by aircraft and mounted on surface platforms to simulate applications from Seasat-A and other future spacecraft systems. None of the systems are operational as all were designed to identify and demonstrate applications and to aid in the specification of requirements for future spaceborne systems.

  4. Galileo Safety-of-Life Service Utilization for Railway Non-Safety and Safety Critical Applications (United States)

    Mocek, Hynek; Filip, Aleš; Bazant, Lubor

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo is expected to play an essential role in railway transport with view to reduce operational, investment and maintenance costs. However, quality requirements of the GNSS originate mainly from the aviation suggestions. Different safety philosophies used in aviation domain and in railway signaling complicate direct employment of the GNSS quality measures to the railway telematic applications. The objective of this paper is to outline the conception of railway requirements specification for the GNSS in order to cover a large amount of the appropriate applications in the non-safety and safety related domains. The elaborated methodology enables to provide specification of minimal quantitative requirements for GNSS system by means of railway attributes RAMS. This process generally represents contribution for GNSS system certification, when it is necessary to demonstrate that the GNSS system meets requirements, and the system outputs are correct. In the second level, certification of the specific GNSS application must follow subsequently.

  5. Effects of Nitrogen Application Levels on Ammonia Volatilization and Nitrogen Utilization during Rice Growing Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-cheng; XU Ke; WEI Hai-yan; DAi Qi-gen; YE Shi-chao; WU Fu-guan; JIA Yu-shu; CHEN Jing-dou; XU Lu-sheng; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HUO Zhong-yang


    We conducted field trials of rice grown in sandy soil and clay soil to determine the effects of nitrogen application levels on the concentration of NH4+-N in surface water,loss of ammonia through volatilization from paddy fields,rice production,nitrogen-use efficiency,and nitrogen content in the soil profile.The concentration of NH4+-N in surface water and the amount of ammonia lost through volatilization increased with increasing nitrogen application level,and peaked at 1-3 d after nitrogen application.Less ammonia was lost via volatilization from clay soil than from sandy soil.The amounts of ammonia lost via volatilization after nitrogen application differed depending on the stage when it was applied,from the highest loss to the lowest:N application to promote tillering > the first N topdrossing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 4-leaf stage) > basal fertilizer > the second N topdressing to promote panicle initiation (applied at the last 2-leaf stage).The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from clay soil was 10.49-87.06 kg/hm2,equivalent to 10.92%-21.76% of the nitrogen applied.The total loss of ammonia via volatilization from sandy soil was 11.32-102.43 kg/hm2,equivalent to 11.32%-25.61% of the nitrogen applied.The amount of ammonia lost via volatilization and the concentration of NH4+-N in surface water peaked simultaneously after nitrogen application; both showed maxima at the tillering stage with the ratio between them ranging from 23.76% to 33.65%.With the increase in nitrogen application level,rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants increased,but nitrogen-use efficiency decreased.Rice production and nitrogen accumulation in plants were slightly higher in clay soil than in sandy soil.In the soil,the nitrogen content was the lowest at a depth of 40-50 cm.In any sbecific soil layer,the soil nitrogen content increased with increasing nitrogen application level,and the soil nitrogen content was higher in clay

  6. 基于企业级信息集成平台的数据存储备份系统的构建%Information integration platform based on enterprise-class data storage backup system to build

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永平; 魏绍谦


    Enterprise information integration platform for enterprise data centers bear the cross-business, multi-angle, multi-level in- tegrated management of the task, the original scattered, isolated data storage resources are concentrated and unified management. The construction of the data center must carry out effective data storage and backup, so when a disaster can quickly recover data, which will cope with tsunami damage to a minimum, using sophisticated advanced storage backup structure to meet user needs backup, re- ducing management complexity, improve utilization and adequate protection of the user cost.%企业级信息集成平台中的数据中心承担着对企业进行跨业务、多角度、多层次的综合管理的任务,将原来分散、孤立的数据资源集中存储、统一管理。在数据中心的建设中必须进行有效的数据存储与备份,以便在灾难发生时能够快速地恢复数据,从而将灾难带来的损失降到最低点,采用成熟先进的存储备份结构,满足用户需求的备份方式,减少了管理复杂度,提高了利用率,充分的保护了用户的成本。

  7. Application of a numerical differencing analyzer computer program to a Modular Integrated Utility System (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Donham, C. F.


    This paper describes the application of a numerical differencing analyzer computer program to the thermal analyzation of a MIUS model. The MIUS model which was evaluated is one which would be required to support a 648-unit Garden Apartment Complex. This computer program was capable of predicting the thermal performance of this MIUS from the impressed electrical, heating, and cooling loads.

  8. Study and application on product design system orienting to optimal utilization of material resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-ping; XIONG Hong-ju; CAO Hua-jun; LIU Fei


    Product design plays a decisive role in material resource consumption in manufacturing systems. So it is significant to study optimal utilization of material resources of manufacturing system from the perspective of product design. This paper firstly defines concept of product design, then after an analysis of design objectives the author proposes a target system of product design with three subsystems: structural system, functional system, and technical system. Finally, a product design system on Architectural Metal Structure Enterprises is developed and used in light of the great consumption of material resources in Metal Structure Enterprises. The system has got an obvious effect on improving comprehensive optimal using rate of material resources of enterprises, reducing design cycle, improving management of enterprises.

  9. Manufacturing challenges of optical current and voltage sensors for utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakymyshyn, C.P. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Brubaker, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Johnston, P.M. [Johnston (Paul M.), Raleigh, NC (United States); Reinbold, C. [ABB High Voltage Switchgear, Greensburg, PA (United States)


    Measurement of voltages and currents in power transmission and distribution systems are critical to the electric utility industry for both revenue metering and reliability. Nonconventional instrument transformers based on intensity modulation of optical signals have been reported in the literature for more than 20 years. Recently described devices using passive bulk optical sensor elements include the Electro-Optic Voltage Transducer (EOVT) and Magneto-Optic Current Transducer (MOCT). These technologies offer substantial advantages over conventional instrument transformers in accuracy, optical isolation bandwidth, environmental compatibility, weight and size. This paper describes design and manufacturing issues associated with the EOVT and the Optical Metering Unit (OMU) recently introduced by ABB with field installation results presented for prototype units in the 345 kV and 420 kV voltage classes. The OMU incorporates an EOVT and MOCT to monitor the voltage and current on power transmission lines using a single free-standing device.

  10. Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl L.; Tarau, Calin; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Anderson, William G.; Garner, Scott


    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor by bypassing the heat during stops. In a previous NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for the Stirling RPS. In 2012, one of these VCHPs was successfully tested at NASA Glenn Research Center with a Stirling convertor as an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) backup cooling system. The prototype; however, was not optimized and did not reflect the final heat rejection path. ACT through further funding has developed a semioptimized prototype with the finalized heat path for testing at Glenn with a Stirling convertor. The semioptimized system features a two-phase radiator and is significantly smaller and lighter than the prior prototype to reflect a higher level of flight readiness. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the GPHS during stoppage with a small temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. This small temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the multilayer insulation (MLI). The VCHP passively allows the Stirling convertor to be turned off multiple times during a mission with potentially unlimited off durations. Having the ability to turn the Stirling off allows for the Stirling to be reset and reduces vibrations on the platform during sensitive measurements or

  11. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny


    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  12. Trends in utilization of agro-industrial byproducts for production of bacteriocins and their biopreservative applications. (United States)

    Bali, Vandana; Panesar, Parmjit S; Bera, Manab B


    Bacteriocins are proteinaceous, ribosomally synthesized bio-molecules having major roles in food preservation due to their antimicrobial action against food spoilage microorganisms. These have gained importance in the last decades because of increasing interest in natural products and their applications in the field of biopreservation, pharmaceutical, aquaculture, livestock, etc. Their production is quite expensive which includes the cost of synthetic media and downstream processing of which 30% of the total production cost relies on synthetic media and nutritional supplements used for growth of microorganisms. The low cost agro-industrial by-products, rich in nutritional supplements, can act as a good substitute for high valued synthetic media. This review provides comprehensive information on the use of cost effective, renewable agro-industrial by-products as substrates for the production of bacteriocins and their application in food as biopreservatives.

  13. InterCloud: Utility-Oriented Federation of Cloud Computing Environments for Scaling of Application Services

    CERN Document Server

    Buyya, Rajkumar; Calheiros, Rodrigo N


    Cloud computing providers have setup several data centers at different geographical locations over the Internet in order to optimally serve needs of their customers around the world. However, existing systems do not support mechanisms and policies for dynamically coordinating load distribution among different Cloud-based data centers in order to determine optimal location for hosting application services to achieve reasonable QoS levels. Further, the Cloud computing providers are unable to predict geographic distribution of users consuming their services, hence the load coordination must happen automatically, and distribution of services must change in response to changes in the load. To counter this problem, we advocate creation of federated Cloud computing environment (InterCloud) that facilitates just-in-time, opportunistic, and scalable provisioning of application services, consistently achieving QoS targets under variable workload, resource and network conditions. The overall goal is to create a computin...

  14. Recent advances in engineering microparticles and their nascent utilization in biomedical delivery and diagnostic applications. (United States)

    Choi, Andrew; Seo, Kyoung Duck; Kim, Do Wan; Kim, Bum Chang; Kim, Dong Sung


    Complex microparticles (MPs) bearing unique characteristics such as well-tailored sizes, various morphologies, and multi-compartments have been attempted to be produced by many researchers in the past decades. However, a conventionally used method of fabricating MPs, emulsion polymerization, has a limitation in achieving the aforementioned characteristics and several approaches such as the microfluidics-assisted (droplet-based microfluidics and flow lithography-based microfluidics), electrohydrodynamics (EHD)-based, centrifugation-based, and template-based methods have been recently suggested to overcome this limitation. The outstanding features of complex MPs engineered through these suggested methods have provided new opportunities for MPs to be applied in a wider range of applications including cell carriers, drug delivery agents, active pigments for display, microsensors, interface stabilizers, and catalyst substrates. Overall, the engineered MPs expose their potential particularly in the field of biomedical engineering as the increased complexity in the engineered MPs fulfills well the requirements of the high-end applications. This review outlines the current trends of newly developed techniques used for engineered MPs fabrication and focuses on the current state of engineered MPs in biomedical applications.

  15. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping, E-mail:; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya


    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  16. Application of Taguchi approach and Utility Concept in solving the Multi-objective Problem when

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kaladhar


    Full Text Available The traditional Taguchi method is widely used for optimizing the process parameters of a single response problem. Optimizationof a single response results the non-optimum values for remaining. But, the performance of the manufactured products isoften evaluated by several quality characteristics/responses. Under such circumstances, multi-characteristics response optimizationmay be the solution to optimize multi-responses simultaneously. In the present work, a multi-characteristics responseoptimization model based on Taguchi and Utility concept is used to optimize process parameters, such as speed, feed, depthof cut, and nose radius on multiple performance characteristics, namely, surface roughness (Ra and material removal rate(MRR during turning of AISI 202 austenitic stainless steel using a CVD coated cemented carbide tool. Taguchi’s L8 orthogonalarray (OA is selected for experimental planning. The experimental result analysis showed that the combination of higherlevels of cutting speed, depth of cut, and nose radius and lower level of feed is essential to achieve simultaneous maximizationof material removal rate and minimization of surface roughness. The ANOVA and F-tests are used to analyze the results.Further, the confirmation tests are conducted and the results are found to be within the confidence interval.

  17. Blending forest fire smoke forecasts with observed data can improve their utility for public health applications (United States)

    Yuchi, Weiran; Yao, Jiayun; McLean, Kathleen E.; Stull, Roland; Pavlovic, Radenko; Davignon, Didier; Moran, Michael D.; Henderson, Sarah B.


    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by forest fires has been associated with a wide range of adverse health outcomes, including exacerbation of respiratory diseases and increased risk of mortality. Due to the unpredictable nature of forest fires, it is challenging for public health authorities to reliably evaluate the magnitude and duration of potential exposures before they occur. Smoke forecasting tools are a promising development from the public health perspective, but their widespread adoption is limited by their inherent uncertainties. Observed measurements from air quality monitoring networks and remote sensing platforms are more reliable, but they are inherently retrospective. It would be ideal to reduce the uncertainty in smoke forecasts by integrating any available observations. This study takes spatially resolved PM2.5 estimates from an empirical model that integrates air quality measurements with satellite data, and averages them with PM2.5 predictions from two smoke forecasting systems. Two different indicators of population respiratory health are then used to evaluate whether the blending improved the utility of the smoke forecasts. Among a total of six models, including two single forecasts and four blended forecasts, the blended estimates always performed better than the forecast values alone. Integrating measured observations into smoke forecasts could improve public health preparedness for smoke events, which are becoming more frequent and intense as the climate changes.

  18. Effective Grid Utilization: A Technical Assessment and Application Guide; April 2011 - September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balser, S.; Sankar, S.; Miller, R.; Rawlins, A.; Israel, M.; Curry, T.; Mason, T.


    In order to more fully integrate renewable resources, such as wind and solar, into the transmission system, additional capacity must be realized in the short term using the installed transmission capacity that exists today. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Transmission and Grid Integration Group supported this study to assemble the history of regulations and status of transmission technology to expand existing grid capacity. This report compiles data on various transmission technology methods and upgrades for increased capacity utilization of the existing transmission system and transmission corridors. The report discusses the technical merit of each method and explains how the method could be applied within the current regulatory structure to increase existing transmission conductor and/or corridor capacity. The history and current state of alternatives to new construction is presented for regulators, legislators, and other policy makers wrestling with issues surrounding integration of variable generation. Current regulations are assessed for opportunities to change them to promote grid expansion. To support consideration of these alternatives for expanding grid capacity, the report lists relevant rules, standards, and policy changes.

  19. Advanced ceramic coating development for industrial/utility gas turbine applications (United States)

    Andersson, C. A.; Lau, S. K.; Bratton, R. J.; Lee, S. Y.; Rieke, K. L.; Allen, J.; Munson, K. E.


    The effects of ceramic coatings on the lifetimes of metal turbine components and on the performance of a utility turbine, as well as of the turbine operational cycle on the ceramic coatings were determined. When operating the turbine under conditions of constant cooling flow, the first row blades run 55K cooler, and as a result, have 10 times the creep rupture life, 10 times the low cycle fatigue life and twice the corrosion life with only slight decreases in both specific power and efficiency. When operating the turbine at constant metal temperature and reduced cooling flow, both specific power and efficiency increases, with no change in component lifetime. The most severe thermal transient of the turbine causes the coating bond stresses to approach 60% of the bond strengths. Ceramic coating failures was studied. Analytic models based on fracture mechanics theories, combined with measured properties quantitatively assessed both single and multiple thermal cycle failures which allowed the prediction of coating lifetime. Qualitative models for corrosion failures are also presented.

  20. Backup and Ultimate Heat Sinks in CANDU Reactors For Prolonged SBO Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Brown, M. J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)


    In a pressurized heavy water reactor, following loss of the primary coolant, severe core damage would begin with the depletion of the liquid moderator, exposing the top row of internally-voided fuel channels to steam cooling conditions on the inside and outside. The uncovered fuel channels would heat up, deform and disassemble into core debris. Large inventories of water passively reduce the rate of progression of the accident, prolonging the time for complete loss of engineered heat sinks. The efficacy of available backup and ultimate heat sinks, available in a CANDU 6 reactor, in mitigating the consequences of a prolonged station blackout scenario was analysed using the MAAP4-CANDU code. The analysis indicated that the steam generator secondary side water inventory is the most effective heat sink during the accident. Additional heat sinks such as the primary coolant, moderator, calandria vault water and end shield water are also able to remove decay heat; however, a gradually increasing mismatch between heat generation and heat removal occurs over the course of the postulated event. This mismatch is equivalent to an additional water inventory estimated to be 350,000 kg at the time of calandria vessel failure. In the Enhanced CANDU 6 reactor ∼2,040,000 kg of water in the reserve water tank is available for prolonged emergencies requiring heat sinks.

  1. Clinical Utility and Future Applications of PET/CT and PET/CMR in Cardiology (United States)

    Pan, Jonathan A.; Salerno, Michael


    Over the past several years, there have been major advances in cardiovascular positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with either computed tomography (CT) or, more recently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). These multi-modality approaches have significant potential to leverage the strengths of each modality to improve the characterization of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and to predict clinical outcomes. This review will discuss current developments and potential future uses of PET/CT and PET/CMR for cardiovascular applications, which promise to add significant incremental benefits to the data provided by each modality alone. PMID:27598207

  2. Application of a hybrid generation/utility assessment heuristic to a class of scheduling problems (United States)

    Heyward, Ann O.


    A two-stage heuristic solution approach for a class of multiobjective, n-job, 1-machine scheduling problems is described. Minimization of job-to-job interference for n jobs is sought. The first stage generates alternative schedule sequences by interchanging pairs of schedule elements. The set of alternative sequences can represent nodes of a decision tree; each node is reached via decision to interchange job elements. The second stage selects the parent node for the next generation of alternative sequences through automated paired comparison of objective performance for all current nodes. An application of the heuristic approach to communications satellite systems planning is presented.

  3. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  4. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle. (United States)

    Nelson, M L


    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  5. Improving wafer level CD uniformity for logic applications utilizing mask level metrology and process (United States)

    Cohen, Avi; Trautzsch, Thomas; Buttgereit, Ute; Graitzer, Erez; Hanuka, Ori


    Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) is one of the key parameters necessary to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC). The extension of 193nm based lithography usage combined with design rule shrinkage makes process control, in particular the wafer level CDU control, an extremely important and challenging task in IC manufacturing. In this study the WLCD-CDC closed loop solution offered by Carl Zeiss SMS was examined. This solution aims to improve the wafer level intra-field CDU without the need to run wafer prints and extensive wafer CD metrology. It combines two stand-alone tools: The WLCD tool which measures CD based on aerial imaging technology while applying the exact scanner-used illumination conditions to the photomask and the CDC tool which utilizes an ultra-short femto-second laser to write intra-volume shading elements (Shade-In Elements™) inside the photomask bulk material. The CDC process changes the dose going through the photomask down to the wafer, hence the wafer level intra-field CDU improves. The objective of this study was to evaluate how CDC process is affecting the CD for different type of features and pattern density which are typical for logic and system on chip (SOC) devices. The main findings show that the linearity and proximity behavior is maintained by the CDC process and CDU and CDC Ratio (CDCR) show a linear behavior for the different feature types. Finally, it was demonstrated that the CDU errors of the targeted (critical) feature have been effectively eliminated. In addition, the CDU of all other features have been significantly improved as well.

  6. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status (United States)

    Fakhouri, A.; Kuperman, A.


    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  7. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status. (United States)

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A


    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  8. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fakhouri


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government’s targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government’s goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  9. Improved Approach for Utilization of FPGA Technology into DAQ, DSP, and Computing Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isenhower, Larry Donald


    Innovation Partners proposed and successfully demonstrated in this SBIR Phase I grant a software/hardware co-design approach to reduce both the difficulty and time to implement Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) solutions to data acquisition and specialized computational applications. FPGAs can require excessive time for programming and require specialized knowledge that will be greatly reduced by the company's solution. Not only are FPGAs ideal for DAQ and embedded solutions, they can also be the best solution to specialized signal processing to replace Digital Signal Processors (DSPs). By allowing FPGA programming to be done in C with the equivalent of a simple compilation, algorithm changes and improvements can be implemented decreasing the life-cycle costs and allow subsitution of new FPGA designs staying above the technological details.

  10. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a renewable resource for activated carbon. Application to environmental problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)


    Stepping into the new globalized and paradigm shifted era, a huge revolution has been undergone by the oil palm industry. From a humble source of the edible oil, today oil palm has demonstrated a wide variety of uses, almost by every part of its plant. With the price of the crude petroleum hitting record height every other day, the feasibility of palm oil and oil palm biomass as renewable substitutes for the production of biodiesel has been proposed. Lately, its development has received various criticisms, mainly hinges on the huge generation of solid residues which are currently no profitable use. In view of the aforementioned reason, this paper presents a state-of-the-art review of oil palm industry, its fundamental background studies, propagation and industrial applications. Moreover, the recent developments on the preparation of activated carbons from oil palm waste, its major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expansion of oil palm waste in the field of adsorption science represents a potentially viable and powerful tool, leading to the superior improvement of pollution control and environmental conservation. (author)

  11. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C


    Application of venture analysis would, at a minimum, need to address issues involving careful definition of the product/service being considered; market needs that the product will satisfy; investment/manufacturing costs; minimum selling price needed to achieve desired ROI or other financial measure; market potential at relevant prices; potential for competitors to obsolete the product before investment is recovered; assessment of companies' resources and capabilities to supply the product. There is clearly no single method for performing every venture analysis, because the economic and structural environment associated with each industry varies widely. These and other factors produce differences in cost structure, marketing organizations, and nature of products which dictate that an appropriate method of venture analysis must be tailored to each industry. The initial chapter of the report presents some brief remarks concerning the important concepts that all venture analyses must consider and then describes in detail the method used for the venture analyzed in this report. The case study addresses IEUS for commercialization. The type of IEUS investigated supplies electricity and thermal energy; the thermal energy distributed in the form of high-temperature water, i.e., water from at least 90/sup 0/C upwards to 200/sup 0/C. (MCW)

  12. [Isolation of a methane-utilizing bacterium and its application in measuring methane gas]. (United States)

    Zhao, Gengui; Zheng, Jun; Wen, Guangming; Yang, Suping; Dong, Chuan


    A bacterial strain ME16 was isolated from Jinyang Lake in Taiyuan of Shanxi Province, China. Gas chromatography analysis showed that the strain could use methane as the sole carbon and energy source. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the strain was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effects of inoculum size, temperature, methane content and initial pH of media on cell growth were studied. In addition, we examined the response time of methane gas to dissolved oxygen and the relationship between consumption of dissolved oxygen and different methane gas content with PVA-H3BO3 immobilized cell of ME16 using electrochemical method. The optimal conditions for cell growth were 2% inoculum size, 25% methane content, 30 degrees C and pH 6.0. Response time was within 100 s after adding of immobilized cells to reaction system. The linear range of measured methane content was from 0 to 16%, with the correlation coefficient 0.9954. Hence, this strain has potential application in developing of methane biosensor.

  13. A versatile, pulsed anion source utilizing plasma-entrainment: Characterization and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl, E-mail: [JILA and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)


    A novel pulsed anion source has been developed, using plasma entrainment into a supersonic expansion. A pulsed discharge source perpendicular to the main gas expansion greatly reduces unwanted “heating” of the main expansion, a major setback in many pulsed anion sources in use today. The design principles and construction information are described and several examples demonstrate the range of applicability of this anion source. Large OH{sup −}(Ar){sub n} clusters can be generated, with over 40 Ar solvating OH{sup −}. The solvation energy of OH{sup −}(Ar){sub n}, where n = 1-3, 7, 12, and 18, is derived from photoelectron spectroscopy and shows that by n = 12-18, each Ar is bound by about 10 meV. In addition, cis– and trans– HOCO{sup −} are generated through rational anion synthesis (OH{sup −} + CO + M → HOCO{sup −} + M) and the photoelectron spectra compared with previous results. These results, along with several further proof-of-principle experiments on solvation and transient anion synthesis, demonstrate the ability of this source to efficiently produce cold anions. With modifications to two standard General Valve assemblies and very little maintenance, this anion source provides a versatile and straightforward addition to a wide array of experiments.

  14. A versatile, pulsed anion source utilizing plasma-entrainment: Characterization and applications (United States)

    Lu, Yu-Ju; Lehman, Julia H.; Lineberger, W. Carl


    A novel pulsed anion source has been developed, using plasma entrainment into a supersonic expansion. A pulsed discharge source perpendicular to the main gas expansion greatly reduces unwanted "heating" of the main expansion, a major setback in many pulsed anion sources in use today. The design principles and construction information are described and several examples demonstrate the range of applicability of this anion source. Large OH-(Ar)n clusters can be generated, with over 40 Ar solvating OH-. The solvation energy of OH-(Ar)n, where n = 1-3, 7, 12, and 18, is derived from photoelectron spectroscopy and shows that by n = 12-18, each Ar is bound by about 10 meV. In addition, cis- and trans- HOCO- are generated through rational anion synthesis (OH- + CO + M → HOCO- + M) and the photoelectron spectra compared with previous results. These results, along with several further proof-of-principle experiments on solvation and transient anion synthesis, demonstrate the ability of this source to efficiently produce cold anions. With modifications to two standard General Valve assemblies and very little maintenance, this anion source provides a versatile and straightforward addition to a wide array of experiments.

  15. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti


    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  16. Assessing the Utility of 3-km Land Information System Soil Moisture Data for Drought Monitoring and Hydrologic Applications (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.


    The NASA Short term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL has been running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) since June 2010. The SPoRT LIS version is run as a stand-alone land surface model over a Southeast Continental U.S. domain with 3-km grid spacing. The LIS contains output variables including soil moisture and temperature at various depths, skin temperature, surface heat fluxes, storm surface runoff, and green vegetation fraction (GVF). The GVF represents another real-time SPoRT product, which is derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites. These data have demonstrated operational utility for drought monitoring and hydrologic applications at the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, AL since early 2011. The most relevant data for these applications have proven to be the moisture availability (%) in the 0-10 cm and 0-200 cm layers, and the volumetric soil moisture (%) in the 0-10 cm layer. In an effort to better understand their applicability among locations with different terrain, soil and vegetation types, SPoRT is conducting the first formal assessment of these data at NWS offices in Houston, TX, Huntsville, AL and Raleigh, NC during summer 2014. The goal of this assessment is to evaluate the LIS output in the context of assessing flood risk and determining drought designations for the U.S. Drought Monitor. Forecasters will provide formal feedback via a survey question web portal, in addition to the NASA SPoRT blog. In this presentation, the SPoRT LIS and its applications at NWS offices will be presented, along with information about the summer assessment, including training module development and preliminary results.

  17. BA-BGP:一种基于备份AS通告的域间路由协议%BA-BGP:A New Inter-Domain Routing Protocol Based on Backup AS Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡乔林; 苏金树


    BGP协议通过触发全局、反应式收敛应对网络拓扑和策略变化,然而由于其收敛时间过长、收敛过程中大量AS经历不可达、环路,造成大量转发中断,难以支持VoIP、远程医疗等关键业务的应用.本文提出了一种基于备份AS通告的新型域间路由协议BA-BGP,在不影响BGP协议动态性的基础上,通过在更新报文中增加备份AS属性,使AS节点可以获取到达目标的备份AS地址,当节点面临瞬时失效时可将报文封装转发到与备份AS关联的路径,从而降低了转发中断.大量模拟实验证明,通过采用具有互联网特征的拓扑以及广泛采用的BGP策略,BA-BGP有效降低了链路失效引起的瞬时失效率与转发中断时间,增强了网络可靠性.%The BGP routing protocol triggers global and reactive convergence to dynamically adapt to network topology and policy changes, Nevertheless, the long convergence time, transient disconnectivity and forwarding loop during the routing convergence process lead to forwarding disruption, which makes BGP hard to support the critical business applications such as VolP, interactive tele-surgery.In this paper, We present BA-BGP, a novel inter-domain routing protocol based on backup AS advertisement.BA-BGP does not affect the BGP dynamic behavior, AS node learns the backup AS address associated to destination by adding the Backup AS attribute in the update packets.BA-BGP provides a feasible encapsulation forwarding path associated backup AS when the AS node experience failure, which reduces the forwarding disruption time.Through a detailed evaluation on the Internet characteristic topology and the widely-used BGP policy, we show that BA-BGP improves network survivability effectively,and reduces the transient failure and forwarding disruption time in case of link failure.

  18. Cultivating Chinese Indigenous Innovation and Knowledge Creativity in Food Industry: Government Supports in Patent Application, Protection, Sharing and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Luo


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the Chinese indigenous innovation and knowledge creativity in food industry. A set of Intellectual Property (IP policies and high-level strategies, established by Chinese central government, were evaluated to cultivate and encourage indigenous innovations and creation of knowledge in food industry through enhancing the application, transfer and protection of patents. This study surveyed 80 food production related enterprises located in Jiangsu province, including 60 private-owned, 11 state-owned and 9 joint ventures. Then, 200 questionnaires were distributed through the Intellectual Property Office of Jiangsu, 102 were returned, in which 98 were evaluated as valid. The data collected exhibit that patent application has been widely employed as an effective approach not only to protect food products and service innovations, but also to promote enterprises’ reputation, attract government financial and political supports, generate monetary or other profits from licensing or transferring patents and be eligible for tax reduction and exemption. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the governmental IP policies and strategies have strongly strengthened the indigenous innovations in food industry. However, the analysis also pointed out a series of problems and barriers in patent utilization. The conclusions thus advocate completing the national legislation system in IP and formulating specific supporting strategies at regional level by individual provincial IP administrative offices. The research study reported in this study is of interests to China IP policy makers and politicians, as well as the managers of Chinese enterprises interested in increasing organizational creativity and protecting their innovations.

  19. Efficient immobilization of mushroom tyrosinase utilizing whole cells from Agaricus bisporus and its application for degradation of bisphenol A. (United States)

    Kampmann, Markus; Boll, Stefan; Kossuch, Jan; Bielecki, Julia; Uhl, Stefan; Kleiner, Beatrice; Wichmann, Rolf


    A simple and efficient procedure for preparation and immobilization of tyrosinase enzyme was developed utilizing whole cells from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus, without the need for enzyme purification. Tyrosinase activity in the cell preparation remained constant during storage at 21 °C for at least six months. The cells were entrapped in chitosan and alginate matrix capsules and characterized with respect to their resulting tyrosinase activity. A modification of the alginate with colloidal silica enhanced the activity due to retention of both cells and tyrosinase from fractured cells, which otherwise leached from matrix capsules. The observed activity was similar to the activity that was obtained with immobilized isolated tyrosinase in the same material. Mushroom cells in water were susceptible to rapid inactivation, whereas the immobilized cells maintained 73% of their initial activity after 30 days of storage in water. Application in repeated batch experiments resulted in almost 100% conversion of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) for 11 days, under stirring conditions, and 50-60% conversion after 20 days, without stirring under continuous usage. The results represent the longest yet reported application of immobilized tyrosinase for degradation of BPA in environmental water samples.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of Utilizing a Smartphone Based Application to Monitor Outpatient Discharge Instruction Compliance in Cardiac Disease Patients around Discharge from Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Layton


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing a smartphone based application to monitor compliance in patients with cardiac disease around discharge. For 60 days after discharge, patients’ medication compliance, physical activity, follow-up care, symptoms, and reading of education material were monitored daily with the application. 16 patients were enrolled in the study (12 males, 4 females, age 55 ± 18 years during their hospital stay. Five participants were rehospitalized during the study and did not use the application once discharged. Seven participants completed 1–30 days and four patients completed >31 days. For those 11 patients, medication reminders were utilized 37% (1–30-day group and 53% (>31-day group of the time, education material was read 44% (1–30 and 53% (>31 of the time, and physical activity was reported 25% (1–30 and 42% (>31 of the time. Findings demonstrated that patients with stable health utilized the application, even if only minimally. Patients with decreased breath sounds by physical exam and who reported their health as fair to poor on the day of discharge were less likely to utilize the application. Acceptability of the application to report health status varied among the stable patients.

  1. Utilization of waste phosphogypsum to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its application towards removal of fluoride from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Deyi, E-mail: [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); State Key Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Non-ferrous Metal Materials, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Luo, Heming; Zheng, Liwen; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Huixia [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel approach on recycle of waste phosphogypsum was exploited. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphogypsum was utilized to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with high purity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nHAp derived from PG exhibits excellent adsoprtion capacity for fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluoride adsorbs onto nHAp mainly by electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond. - Abstract: In the present study, waste phosphogypsum (PG) was utilized firstly to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) via microwave irradiation technology. The nHAp derived from PG exhibited a hexagonal structure with the particle size about 20 nm Multiplication-Sign 60 nm and high purity. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of fluoride onto the nHAp derived from PG was investigated to evaluate the potential application of this material for the treatment of the wastewater polluted with fluoride. The results indicate that the nHAp derived from PG can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir-Freundlich model were 19.742, 26.108, 36.914 and 40.818 mg F{sup -}/g nHAp for 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to provide the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first order and the adsorption isotherm could be well defined by Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The adsorption mechanism investigation shows that electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main driving force for fluoride uptake onto nHAp derived from waste PG.

  2. Modelo de fila hipercubo com múltiplo despacho e backup parcial para análise de sistemas de atendimento médico emergenciais em rodovias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Iannoni


    Full Text Available O modelo hipercubo é um modelo de filas espacialmente distribuídas baseado em aproximações Markovianas para analisar a configuração e operação de sistemas emergenciais servidor-para-cliente, em que os servidores se deslocam até os clientes. Neste estudo adaptamos este modelo para tratar sistemas de atendimento médico emergenciais (SAEs em rodovias com políticas particulares de despacho, em que somente algumas ambulâncias do sistema podem atender chamadas em uma dada região (backup parcial, e duas ou mais ambulâncias idênticas ou diferenciadas podem atender uma única chamada (múltiplo despacho. Também consideramos situações em que uma ambulância pode se encontrar ocupada em sua própria base atendendo uma chamada não emergencial, isto é, sem ter que se deslocar na rodovia. Resultados computacionais da aplicação do modelo num estudo de caso de um SAE de uma concessionária de rodovias no interior de São Paulo são apresentados e analisados.The hypercube is a spatially distributed queuing model based on Markovian analysis approximations to analyze the configuration and operation of server-to-customer emergency systems, in which servers travel to the locations of the customers. In the present study we adapt the model to analyze emergency medical systems (EMS on highways operating with particular dispatching policies, which considers that only certain ambulances in the system can service calls in a given region (partial backup, and two or more identical or distinct ambulances can simultaneously service a single call (multiple dispatch. We also consider the situations in which an ambulance is busy in its base servicing a non-emergency call (i.e. it does not need to travel along the highway. Computational results of the model application to a case study of an EMS operating on highways in São Paulo state are presented and analyzed.

  3. A tunable microflow focusing device utilizing controllable moving walls and its applications for formation of micro-droplets in liquids (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Hong; Hsiung, Suz-Kai; Lee, Gwo-Bin


    This study reports a new microfluidic device capable of fine-tuned sample-flow focusing and generation of micro-droplets in liquids by controlling moving wall structures. Two microfluidic components including an 'active microchannel width controller' and a 'micro chopper' can be used to fine-tune the width of the hydrodynamically pre-focused stream and subsequently generate micro-droplets. In this study, a basic concept of a 'controllable moving wall' structure was addressed and applied as the active microchannel width controller and the micro chopper to generate the proposed function. Pneumatic side chambers were placed next to a main flow channel to construct the controllable moving wall structures. The deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be generated by the pressurized air injected into the pneumatic side chambers. The proposed chip device was fabricated utilizing polymer material such as PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) to provide the flexibility of the controllable moving wall deformation. The microfluidic chip device with dimensions of 2.5 cm in width and 3.0 cm in length can be fabricated using a simple fabrication process. Experimental data showed that the deformation of the controllable moving wall structure can be adjusted by applying different air pressures, so that the width of the main flow channel can be controlled accordingly. By utilizing the proposed mechanism, the pre-focused dispersed phase stream could be actively focused into a narrower stream, and well-controlled micro-droplets with smaller diameters could be generated. The stream width can be reduced from 30 µm to 9 µm and micro-droplets with a diameter of 76 µm could be generated by utilizing the proposed device. In addition, to generate micro-droplets within smaller diameters, uniform size distribution of the micro-droplets can be obtained. According to the experimental results, development of the microfluidic device could be promising for a variety of applications such

  4. A Buck-Boost Converter Modified to Utilize 600V GaN Power Devices in a PV Application Requiring 1200V Devices



    This paper presents a buck-boost converter which is modified to utilize new 600 V gallium nitride (GaN) power semiconductor devices in an application requiring 1200 V devices. The presented buck-boost converter is used as a part of a dc/dc stage in an all-GaN photovoltaic (PV) inverter and it provides a negative voltage for the 3-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC) PWM inverter which is connected to the utility grid. Since in this application the transistor and the diode of ...

  5. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.


    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  6. A right hemisphere safety backup at work: hypotheses for deep hypnosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, and dissociation identity disorder. (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon


    Problem theory points to an a priori relation between six key problems of living, to which people have adapted through evolution. Children are guided through the problems one by one, learning to switch between them automatically and unawares. The first problem of raising hope of certainty (about the environment), is dealt with in the right hemisphere (RH). The second of raising hope of freedom (or power to control), is dealt with in the left hemisphere (LH). Here adventurousness and ignoring the goodness of outcomes potentially create recklessness. When uncertainty rises the RH activates a backup with an override that substitutes immobility, takes over sensory inputs, but allows obedience to parental commands, and a cut-out that stops new work on the freedom problem. Support for the use of the backup by infants is found in the immobility that precedes the crying in strange conditions, and in childhood EEGs. The hypothesis that the backup is active in deep hypnosis imposes accord on findings that appear contradictory. For example it accounts for why observations during deep hypnosis emphasize the activity of the RH, but observations of responsive people not under hypnosis emphasize the activity of the LH. The hypothesis that the backup is active in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is supported by (a) fMRI observations that could reflect the cut-out, in that part of the precuneus has low metabolism, (b) the recall of motionlessness at the time of the trauma, (c) an argument that playing dead as a defence against predators is illogical, (d) the ease of hypnosis. With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state where childhood traumas are re-experienced. Support for the cut-out affecting the trauma identity state comes from suppression of part of the precuneus and other parts of the parietal lobe when the trauma identity state is salient and a general script about a

  7. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.


    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew H. Stern


    The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

  9. Fabrication and Performance of Zirconia Electrolysis Cells for Cabon Dioxide Reduction for Mars In Situ Resource Utilization Applications (United States)

    Minh, N. Q.; Chung, B. W.; Doshi, R.; Lear, G. R.; Montgomery, K.; Ong, E. T.


    Use of the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2) to produce oxygen (for propellant and life support) can significantly lower the required launch mass and dramatically reduce the total cost for Mars missions. Zirconia electrolysis cells are one of the technologies being considered for oxygen generation from carbon dioxide in Mars In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) production plants. The attractive features of the zirconia cell for this application include simple operation and lightweight, low volume system. A zirconia electrolysis cell is an all-solid state device, based on oxygen-ion conducting zirconia electrolytes, that electrochemically reduces carbon dioxide to oxygen and carbon monoxide. The cell consists of two porous electrodes (the anode and cathode) separated by a dense zirconia electrolyte. Typical zirconia cells contain an electrolyte layer which is 200 to 400 micrometer thick. The electrical conductivity requirement for the electrolyte necessitates an operating temperature of 9000 to 10000C. Recently, the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering has been evaluated. This fabrication process provides a simple means of making cells having very thin electrolytes (5 to 30 micrometers). Thin zirconia electrolytes reduce cell ohmic losses, permitting efficient operation at lower temperatures (8000C or below). Thus, tape-calendered cells provides not only the potential of low temperature operation but also the flexibility in operating temperatures. This paper describes the fabrication of zirconia cells by the tape calendering method and discusses the performance results obtained to date.

  10. Application of a utility analysis to evaluate a novel assessment tool for clinically oriented physiology and pharmacology. (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas; Asmar, Abdo; Gorman, Laurel; Gros, Bernard; Harris, David; Howard, Thomas; Hussain, Mujtaba; Salazar, Sergio; Kibble, Jonathan D


    Multiple-choice questions are a gold-standard tool in medical school for assessment of knowledge and are the mainstay of licensing examinations. However, multiple-choice questions items can be criticized for lacking the ability to test higher-order learning or integrative thinking across multiple disciplines. Our objective was to develop a novel assessment that would address understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology, evaluate learning at the levels of application, evaluation and synthesis, and allow students to demonstrate clinical reasoning. The rubric assesses student writeups of clinical case problems. The method is based on the physician's traditional postencounter Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan note. Students were required to correctly identify subjective and objective findings in authentic clinical case problems, to ascribe pathophysiological as well as pharmacological mechanisms to these findings, and to justify a list of differential diagnoses. A utility analysis was undertaken to evaluate the new assessment tool by appraising its reliability, validity, feasibility, cost effectiveness, acceptability, and educational impact using a mixed-method approach. The Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan assessment tool scored highly in terms of validity and educational impact and had acceptable levels of statistical reliability but was limited in terms of acceptance, feasibility, and cost effectiveness due to high time demands on expert graders and workload concerns from students. We conclude by making suggestions for improving the tool and recommend deployment of the instrument for low-stakes summative assessment or formative assessment.

  11. Utilization of waste phosphogypsum to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and its application towards removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. (United States)

    Zhang, Deyi; Luo, Heming; Zheng, Liwen; Wang, Kunjie; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Yi; Feng, Huixia


    In the present study, waste phosphogypsum (PG) was utilized firstly to prepare hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHAp) via microwave irradiation technology. The nHAp derived from PG exhibited a hexagonal structure with the particle size about 20 nm × 60 nm and high purity. Meanwhile, the adsorption behaviour of fluoride onto the nHAp derived from PG was investigated to evaluate the potential application of this material for the treatment of the wastewater polluted with fluoride. The results indicate that the nHAp derived from PG can be used as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of fluoride from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacities calculated from Langmuir-Freundlich model were 19.742, 26.108, 36.914 and 40.818 mg F(-)/g nHAp for 298, 308, 318 and 328 K, respectively. The pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to provide the best correlation of the used experimental data compared to the pseudo-first order and the adsorption isotherm could be well defined by Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The adsorption mechanism investigation shows that electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main driving force for fluoride uptake onto nHAp derived from waste PG.

  12. 效用理论在风险型投资决策中的应用%Application of utility theory to the risky investment decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立文; 殷亮; 孙静


    The application of utility theory to risky investment decision has a good start to associate risk with utility. First,this paper traces back to the history of utility theory and the process of its application to risky decision. Then based on several experimental studies ,this paper uncoves some fatal limits of expected utility theory. At last ,it reaches the conclusion that there are still some aspects to need improve in the application of expected utility theory to risky investment decision.%追溯了效用理论的历史及其在风险型决策中应用的进程,并从实验研究出发,阐述了效用理论在投资决策实际应用中存在的一些局限.结论认为,期望效用理论在风险型投资决策中的应用还有待于进一步完善.

  13. Power backup Density based Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagh, Sanjeev; Prasad, Ramjee


    WSNs consists several nodes spread over experimental fields for specific application temporarily. The spatially distributed sensor nodes sense and gather the information for intended parameters like temperature, sound, vibrations, etc for the particular application. In this paper, we evaluate the...

  14. Investigation of storage system designs and techniques for optimizing energy conservation in integrated utility systems. Volume 2: (Application of energy storage to IUS) (United States)


    The applicability of energy storage devices to any energy system depends on the performance and cost characteristics of the larger basic system. A comparative assessment of energy storage alternatives for application to IUS which addresses the systems aspects of the overall installation is described. Factors considered include: (1) descriptions of the two no-storage IUS baselines utilized as yardsticks for comparison throughout the study; (2) discussions of the assessment criteria and the selection framework employed; (3) a summary of the rationale utilized in selecting water storage as the primary energy storage candidate for near term application to IUS; (4) discussion of the integration aspects of water storage systems; and (5) an assessment of IUS with water storage in alternative climates.

  15. Overview of Telephone Exchange Heat Backup Technology%电话交换机的热备份技术概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper deserises the bosic principle of the telephore switches in the power of bot backup and the control unit bot backup,which is in order to coullterparts can optimiza and infroke it.%本文详细介绍了电话交换机技术中的电源热各份和控制单元热备分技术中的基本原理,以利于同行进行优化和改进。

  16. Issues in the Usage of MANETs as Backup or Load-Balancing Transit Networks of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Le Trung


    Full Text Available Internetworking the mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs with the Internet has been a hot issue for many years. However, most researches have been concentrated on the use of MANETs as the access networks for the Internet. This paper introduces another use of MANETs: backup or load-balancing transit networks for the Internet. Although the MANETs capacity is currently low compared with other backbone technologies, we argue that MANETs is a suitable alternative for backup or load-balancing transit networks of the Internet based on its self-organized infrastructure-less multi-hop architecture and its increasing capacity in the near future. To provide the backup or load-balancing transit services for the Internet, a scalable, stable, lowoverhead, QoS-support ad-hoc routing architecture with the address auto-configuration is required. Moreover, how an Internet gateway selects an external route via MANETs to another autonomous system (AS also needs to be solved. In this paper, BGP-GCR+, a combination of the border gateway protocol (BGP, the gravitational cluster routing (GCR, and the passive/weak IPv6-based address stateless auto-configuration, is developed towards the standards to achieve the required functions. We have implemented of the routing component of our proposed BGP-GCR+ routing architecture [1] into ns-2 for the performance evaluation. Results show that the packet delivery ratio under high traffic load and mobility in BGPGCR+ is lower than that in AODV-Hello for small-scale (50-150 nodes, but slightly higher for the medium-scale (200 nodes MANETs. For lower mobility and traffic load, the performance of both BGP-GCR+ and AODV-Hello are high (over 90%. Moreover, the routing overhead is much lower (almost one-half in BGP-GCR+ compared with AODV in all test cases. The implementation of other components of BGP-GCR+ in ns-2 and the mapping of medium access control (MAC-related metrics into the link stability of the cluster construction in BGP-GCR+ for

  17. Fundamental properties of industrial hybrid cement: utilization in ready-mixed concretes and shrinkage-reducing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martauz, P.


    Full Text Available Utility properties of novel hybrid cement (H-Cement are influenced by pozzolanic reaction of fly ash, latent hydraulic reaction of metallurgical slag together with the alkali activation of inorganic geopolymer based on precipitated waste water coming from bauxite residues. Content of Portland cement clinker is at maximum of 20 mass %, the remaining portion consists of inorganic geopolymer. Up to 80% of CO2 emissions are saved by H-Cement manufacture compared to ordinary Portland cement (OPC. No heat treatment or autoclaving is needed at H-Cement production. The field application of H-Cement is performed by the same way than that of common cements listed in EN 197-1, and is also connected with highly efficient recovery and safe disposal of red mud waste. H-Cement is suitable for ready-mixed concretes up to C30/37 strength class and is specified by beneficial shrinkage-reducing property of the concrete kept in long dry-air cure opposite to common cements.Las propiedades de un nuevo cemento híbrido (cemento-H vienen determinadas por la reaccion puzolánica de cenizas volantes, la hidráulica latente de las escorias metalúrgicas y la activación alcalina mediante las aguas residuales generadas por el tratamiento de la bauxita para dar un geopolímero inorgánico. La proporción máxima de clínker de cemento en este nuevo material es del 20%, y por ello, en su fabricación se emite hasta un 80% menos de CO2 que en la producción del cemento portland (OPC. El cemento-H se prepara sin necesidad de tratamiento térmico ni de estancia en autoclave y su aplicación es la misma que los cementos convencionales definidos en la norma EN 197-1. Por otra parte, su fabricación supone la recuperación y la valorización segura de los lodos rojos de bauxita. El cemento-H es apto para la preparación de hormigones premezclados hasta la categoría C30/37, presentando el nuevo material, además, una menor retracción que los cementos convencionales, por lo que su

  18. Application of utility theory to the valuing of air pollution-related health effects: Three proposed pilot studies on subjective judgments of asthma. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, A.C.


    Utility under uncertainty is a field of decision theory that has received increasing attention in the field of health. The report reviews its uses during the past decade and suggests its possible use in national air quality standard setting procedures. It is common practice in standard setting to assess the likelihood of air pollution effects on sensitive populations. One such poplation, asthmatics, is selected in the report and the relationship between air pollution and asthma is reviewed. In addition, three possible pilot studies are suggested which use aspects of utility under uncertainty theory to elicit values concerning asthma health effects. The results of such studies would provide the US EPA with information for their ambient air quality standard setting and increase the awareness of the possible uses of utility theory in such applications.

  19. Flight evaluation of a hydromechanical backup control for the digital electronic engine control system in an F100 engine (United States)

    Walsh, K. R.; Burcham, F. W.


    The backup control (BUC) features, the operation of the BUC system, the BUC control logic, and the BUC flight test results are described. The flight test results include: (1) transfers to the BUC at military and maximum power settings; (2) a military power acceleration showing comparisons bvetween flight and simulation for BUC and primary modes; (3) steady-state idle power showing idle compressor speeds at different flight conditions; and (4) idle-to-military power BUC transients showing where cpmpressor stalls occurred for different ramp rates and idle speeds. All the BUC transfers which occur during the DEEC flight program are initiated by the pilot. Automatic transfers to the BUC do not occur.

  20. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  1. Chemical Search Web Utility (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  2. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul


    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  3. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.


    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  4. [Application of high-efficient cellulose utilization microorganisms in co-composting of vegetable wastes and flower stalk]. (United States)

    Huang, De-yang; Lu, Wen-jing; Wang, Hong-tao; Zhou, Hui-yu; Wang, Zhi-chao


    An inoculation composing 17 species of cellulose utilization microorganisms was used in co-composting of vegetable wastes and flower stalk, and the efficiency of the inoculation on lignocellulose degradation was studied. The experiments result show that at the beginning of the first stage of composting, inoculating cellulose utilization microorganism in the substrates with 0.5% (V/V) can improve the biomass of the microorganisms into the substrates greatly and make them dominant ones. When the temperature was controlled as 55 degrees C, the biomass of cellulose utilization microorganisms can keep between [symbol: see text] 3.84 x 10(9)-1.80 x 10(10) CFU/g. At the beginning of the second stage, inoculating with 1% (V/V) can improve the temperature during this period effectively. Monitoring of the content of lignocelluloses in the substrate shows that the inoculation of cellulose utilization microorganism can accelerate the degradation of cellulose. The degradation efficiency of cellulose under inoculation condition is 23.64% higher than those without inoculation. This shows that inoculating with cellulose utilization microorganisms in each stage of the composting can greatly decompose the lignocellulose in the substrates, accelerate the co-composting process and improve the quality of composting production.

  5. Backup and Recovery Technology Based on Oracle Database%基于Oracle数据库系统的备份与恢复技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 张明安


    Oracle数据库系统是目前世界的主流数据库,是一种集业务量大、存储量大、极其灵活等特点的关系型数据库。它可以运行在多种硬件平台和操作系统上,在我国工商业、军事、航空等诸多领域发挥积极作用。它承担着业务数据的存储和处理任务,对于整个应用系统极为重要。数据库系统的可靠性和可用性是首要的需求,为确保数据库系统持续稳定高效的运行,必须保证较高的可靠性、稳定性。由于计算机出现的安全问题(如设备故障、操作系统故障、网络通信中断、病毒攻击、木马、间谍软件、可疑代码、端口扫描、DoS/DDo等),这些异常的数据库操作都会造成数据的不完整和数据丢失。所以需要建立相应的备份和容灾机制,对数据的集中管控、容灾与保护。本文探讨Oracle数据库的备份与恢复相关技术,并给出了相应的解决方案。%At present, the world mainstream database is Oracle database system, which is a kind of relation type database and extremely flexible. Meanwhile, it also has a large volume of business, large storage capacity. It is used in a variety of hardware platform and operating systems;therefore, it plays a positive role in China's industrial and commercial, military, aviation and many other fields. Also it undertakes the task of business data storage and processing, which is very important to the whole application system. As we know, the reliability and availability of database systems is the primary demand, to ensure that the database system is stable and efficient operation, we must guarantee the reliability, high stability. Because the computer security problems arise (such as equipment failure, operating system failure, network communication interrupt, virus attack, Trojan virus, spy ware, suspicious code, port scanning, DoS/DDo), the abnormal operation of the database will cause the incompleteness of data and data

  6. 中继卫星系统组网备份策略研究%Research on Networking and Backup Strategy of China' s TDRSS System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽艳; 丁溯泉; 史西斌


    针对我国中继卫星系统组网备份策略问题,在分析国外中继卫星系统有关情况,尤其是美国中继卫星系统组网备份策略的基础上,讨论了我国中继卫星系统组网备份的途径,针对我国实际情况提出了目前宜采用发射备份星进行备份的策略,后续应考虑具备轨位漂移能力实现系统重构的备份策略.分析了我国组网备份的技术能力,研究了轨位漂移、多星共位控制和规划调整等技术手段,提出了为具备漂移能力而带来的技术问题及其解决途径,并指出了后续研究的方向.%Following analysis of the networking and backup strategy of foreign TDRSS (Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System) systems, especially the TDRSS system of the U. S. , discussions are given on the networking and backup strategy of China's TDRSS system. It is proposed that launch of backup satellites is a more appropriate way of backup for the present while more considerations should be given to reconfiguration of the TDRSS constellation based on satellite orbit drift capability in the future. The technical capabilities for networking and backup of China's TDRSS system are analyzed, including orbit drift, multi-satellite co-location, planning and adjusting capability. Key technical approaches to acquire orbit drift capability are summarized. Finally, promising areas of research in the field in the near future are pointed out.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla


    Work was performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the United States, in collaboration with the industrial refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc. (MINTEQ), academic research partner Missouri University of Science and Technology (MS&T) and end users to employ novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels found in the aluminum industry. The project aim was to address factors that limit the applicability of currently available refractory materials such as chemical attack, mechanical degradation, use temperature, and installation or repair issues. To this end, as part of the overall project, shotcretable refractory compositions were developed based on alumino-silicate based structures utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques for use in rotary dross furnaces. Additionally a shotcretable high strength insulating back-up lining material was also developed for use in this and other applications. Development efforts, materials validation, and results from industrial validation trials are discussed.

  8. A Systems Engineering Approach to Multiple Attribute Utility Theory and Multiple Objective Optimization Theory: With Application To Aircraft Retrofit Design. (United States)


    Keeney, R., Sicherman, A., "An Interactive Computer Program for Assess- ing and Analyzing Preferences Concerning Multiple Objectives," IIASA ...With Cardinal Utility," ,Management Science, Vol. 23, No. 2, Oct., 1976a. Keeney, R.L., "Energy Policy and Value Tradeoffs," IIASA , Report RM-75-76...Objectives," IIASA , Schloss Laxenburg, Austria, April, 1975. Keeney, R.L., Raiffa, H., Decisions With Multiple Objectives: Prefer- ences and Value

  9. Utilization of Small Commercial Grade Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) Cells in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Applications



    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has sponsored the Advanced Space Technology Program (ASTP) to enhance the cost-effectiveness and responsiveness of military space systems. One of the major themes of this program is the development of highly capable small satellites, generally referred to as ''LightSats," which can perform selected defense missions at relatively low cost. A key element of the programmatic approach is the utilization of commercial grade parts and practices ...

  10. Economic Value of Li-ion Energy Storage System in Frequency Regulation Application from Utility Firm’s Perspective in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Hur


    Full Text Available Energy Storage Systems (ESSs have recently been highlighted because of their many benefits such as load-shifting, frequency regulation, price arbitrage, renewables, and so on. Among those benefits, we aim at evaluating their economic value in frequency regulation application. However, unlike previous literature focusing on profits obtained from participating in the ancillary service market, our approach concentrates on the cost reduction from the perspective of a utility firm that has an obligation to pay energy fees to a power exchange. More specifically, we focus on the payments between the power exchange market and the utility firm as a major source of economic benefits. The evaluation is done by cost- benefit analysis (CBA with a dataset of the Korean market while considering operational constraint costs as well as scheduled energy payments, and a simulation algorithm for the evaluation is provided. Our results show the potential for huge profits to be made by cost reduction. We believe that this research can provide a guideline for a utility firm considering investing in ESSs for frequency regulation application as a source of cost reduction.

  11. Burr Utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.


    This note proposes the Burr utility function. Burr utility is a flexible two-parameter family that behaves approximately power-like (CRRA) remote from the origin, while exhibiting exponential-like (CARA) features near the origin. It thus avoids the extreme behavior of the power family near the origi

  12. An analysis of thermionic space nuclear reactor power system: II. Merits of using safety drums for backup control (United States)

    El-Genk, Mahomed S.; Xue, Huimin


    An analysis is performed to investigate the merits of using the TOPAZ-II safety drums for a backup control to prevent a reactivity excursion, stabilize the reactor, and achieve steady-state power operation, following a severe hypothetical reactivity initiated accident (RIA). Such an RIA is assumed to occur during the system start-up in orbit due to a malfunction of the drive mechanism of the control drums, causing the nine drums to accidentally rotate the full 180° outward. Results show that an immediate, inward rotation of the three safety drums to an angle of 80° will shutdown the reactor, however, a delay time of 10 s will not only prevents a reactivity excursion, but also enables operating the reactor at a steady-state thermal power of about 33.3 kW (0.9 kW per TFE). Conversely, when the immediate rotation of the safety drums is to a larger angle of 100°, a steady-state operation at about 37 kW can be achieved, but a delay of 10 s causes a reactivity excursion and overheating of the TFEs. It is therefor concluded that, should the drive mechanism be modified to enable rotating the safety drums for TOPAZ-II reactor at variable speeds of and below 22.5°/s, the three safety drums could be used successfully for a backup control, following an RIA. However, since the reactivity worth of the three safety drums is only 2.0, the maximum steady-state electric power achievable for the system is limited to approximately 0.25 kW, at which the fission power is about 37 kW and the emitter temperature is approximaely 1500 K. To alleviate such a limitation and enable operation at nominal design conditions (fission power of about 107 kW or a system's total electric power of 5.6 kW), the reactivity worth of the safety drums would have to be increased by at least 0.24. An additional increase in the safety drums' worth will also be necessary to maintain steady-state operation of the system at nominal conditions throughout the mission lifetime, with all nine control drums fully

  13. Histone H1 functions as a stimulatory factor in backup pathways of NHEJ (United States)

    Rosidi, Bustanur; Wang, Minli; Wu, Wenqi; Sharma, Aparna; Wang, Huichen; Iliakis, George


    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced in the genome of higher eukaryotes by ionizing radiation (IR) are predominantly removed by two pathways of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) termed D-NHEJ and B-NHEJ. While D-NHEJ depends on the activities of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) and DNA ligase IV/XRCC4/XLF, B-NHEJ utilizes, at least partly, DNA ligase III/XRCC1 and PARP-1. Using in vitro end-joining assays and protein fractionation protocols similar to those previously applied for the characterization of DNA ligase III as an end-joining factor, we identify here histone H1 as an additional putative NHEJ factor. H1 strongly enhances DNA-end joining and shifts the product spectrum from circles to multimers. While H1 enhances the DNA-end-joining activities of both DNA Ligase IV and DNA Ligase III, the effect on ligase III is significantly stronger. Histone H1 also enhances the activity of PARP-1. Since histone H1 has been shown to counteract D-NHEJ, these observations and the known functions of the protein identify it as a putative alignment factor operating preferentially within B-NHEJ. PMID:18250087

  14. A Buck-Boost Converter Modified to Utilize 600V GaN Power Devices in a PV Application Requiring 1200V Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRDIC, S.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a buck-boost converter which is modified to utilize new 600 V gallium nitride (GaN power semiconductor devices in an application requiring 1200 V devices. The presented buck-boost converter is used as a part of a dc/dc stage in an all-GaN photovoltaic (PV inverter and it provides a negative voltage for the 3-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC PWM inverter which is connected to the utility grid. Since in this application the transistor and the diode of the buck-boost converter need to block the sum of the PV string voltage (which is normally in the range from 150 to 350 V and the dc bus voltage (which is in the order of 400 V, the 1200 V devices or series connection of 600 V devices need to be employed. Currently, 1200 V GaN power semiconductor devices are not commercially available. Therefore, the standard buck-boost converter is modified to enable the use of 600 V GaN devices in this particular application. Based on the proposed converter topology, a PSpice simulation model and a 600 W converter prototype were developed. Both simulation and experimental results show successful operation of the converter.

  15. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.


    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  16. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division


    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  17. Evaluation method to floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season for hyperconcentration rivers and its application (United States)

    Li, X.


    The severe soil erosion in the Chinese Loess Plateau has resulted in high sediment concentration in runoff, which can cause tremendous pressure to the development and utilization of regional floodwater resources as well as the regional flood control and disaster mitigation. The floodwater amount of difficult control and utilization in flood season (FADCUFS) is an important part of the available amount of surface water resources. It also has a critical role in the sustainable development of water resources, especially for those hyperconcentration rivers (HRs) in the Loess Plateau. The evaluation of FADCUFS for HRs is an important issue in the field of hydrology and water resources. However, the understandings of its connotation, evaluation method, and nature are limited. Combined engineering measures with non-engineering ones, the evaluation method of FADCUFS for HRs was presented based on the angles of water quantity and quality. The method divides the FADCUFS into two parts in terms of the flood control operation characteristics of reservoir in HR and the relationship between water resources utilization and sediment in runoff, respectively. One is the amount of difficult regulation-control floodwater (DRCF), and the other is the volume of difficult utilization floodwater (DUF). A case study of the Bajiazui Reservoir, located in the typical Jinghe River (the second tributary of the Chinese Yellow River with high sediment concentration) was performed. Three typical years, wet year (1988), average year (1986), and dry years (1995 and 2000), were employed. According to the daily optimal operation model of Bajiazui Reservoir, the DRCF occurs for only the wet year instead of the average and the dry years. There are four times of DRCF with the amount of 26.74 m3/s (July 14), 14.58 m3/s (August 5), 10.27 m3/s (August 9), and 1.23 m3/s (August 12) in 1988, respectively, with a total amount of 4.56 million m3. A certain close relationship exists between the amount of DRCF

  18. Additional spectra of asteroid 1996 FG3, backup target of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, J; Ali-Lagoa, V; Licandro, J; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Campins, H


    Near-Earth binary asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 is the current backup target of the ESA MarcoPolo-R mission, selected for the study phase of ESA M3 missions. It is a primitive (C-type) asteroid that shows significant variation in its visible and near-infrared spectra. Here we present new spectra of 1996 FG3 and we compare our new data with other published spectra, analysing the variation in the spectral slope. The asteroid will not be observable again over the next three years at least. We obtained the spectra using DOLORES and NICS instruments at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), a 3.6m telescope located at El Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma, Spain. To compare with other published spectra of the asteroid, we computed the spectral slope S', and studied any plausible correlation of this quantity with the phase angle (alpha). In the case of visible spectra, we find a variation in spectral slope of Delta S' = 0.15 +- 0.10 %/10^3 A/degree for 3 < alpha < 18 degrees, in good agreement with ...

  19. A benders decomposition approach to multiarea stochastic distributed utility planning (United States)

    McCusker, Susan Ann

    Until recently, small, modular generation and storage options---distributed resources (DRs)---have been installed principally in areas too remote for economic power grid connection and sensitive applications requiring backup capacity. Recent regulatory changes and DR advances, however, have lead utilities to reconsider the role of DRs. To a utility facing distribution capacity bottlenecks or uncertain load growth, DRs can be particularly valuable since they can be dispersed throughout the system and constructed relatively quickly. DR value is determined by comparing its costs to avoided central generation expenses (i.e., marginal costs) and distribution investments. This requires a comprehensive central and local planning and production model, since central system marginal costs result from system interactions over space and time. This dissertation develops and applies an iterative generalized Benders decomposition approach to coordinate models for optimal DR evaluation. Three coordinated models exchange investment, net power demand, and avoided cost information to minimize overall expansion costs. Local investment and production decisions are made by a local mixed integer linear program. Central system investment decisions are made by a LP, and production costs are estimated by a stochastic multi-area production costing model with Kirchhoff's Voltage and Current Law constraints. The nested decomposition is a new and unique method for distributed utility planning that partitions the variables twice to separate local and central investment and production variables, and provides upper and lower bounds on expected expansion costs. Kirchhoff's Voltage Law imposes nonlinear, nonconvex constraints that preclude use of LP if transmission capacity is available in a looped transmission system. This dissertation develops KVL constraint approximations that permit the nested decomposition to consider new transmission resources, while maintaining linearity in the three

  20. 77 FR 55204 - Pubic Utility District No. 1 of Chelan County; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and... (United States)


    ... upstream side of the State Road 285 bridge. PWUA proposes to construct a pump intake, fish screen and... application is available for inspection and reproduction at the Commission's Public Reference Room, located at... inspection and reproduction at the address in item (h) above. m. Individuals desiring to be included on...

  1. Effects of types and application rates of nitrogen fertilizer on the development and nitrogen utilization of summer maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenxie YI; Pu WANG; Hongbin TAO; Hongfang ZHANG; Lixia SHEN


    To reduce nitrogen fertilizer (NF) loss and improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in summer maize, the effects of the different application rates of three types of NF (urea, coated urea and compound fertilizer) on the growth and development and NUE of summer maize (cultivars: Zhengdan958 and Nongda108) were studied in 2004. The main findings of this study were: (1) The yields of the two cultivars increased significantly with each The increase in the yield of summer maize treated with compound fertilizer was greater than the yield of those treated with either of the other two fertilizers at the same application rate, while the differences among the three types of NF were not significant. (2) Grain number per ear of the two cultivars rose in relation to the increase in N application rate, while its relationship with the type of NF was very weak. The type of NF had a greater impact on 1000-grain weight, and a difference between cultivars was observed. (3) Leaf area index (LAI), dry matter weight and leaf chlorophyll content grew in relation to the increase in N application rate, and were improved more sharply by compound fertilizer or coated urea than by urea alone. (4) Compared to the results achieved with urea, the NUEs of summer maize treated with coated urea and compound fertilizer were higher but the nitrogen harvest index was not improved. In addition, the NUEs of three types of NF exhibited a genotype difference from summer maize.

  2. Differential Application of a Cue Card Strategy for Solving Fraction Problems: Exploring Instructional Utility of the Cognitive Assessment System. (United States)

    Joseph, Laurice M.; Hunter, Amanda D.


    Explored the differential application of a self-regulatory strategy on mathematics performance among three eighth-graders with learning disabilities and diverse planning abilities. Found that all students improved on fraction probes as a function of using a cue card strategy. The student with high planning ability demonstrated consistent…

  3. Study on information utility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Information has two aspects. One aspect is the objective one; another aspect is the subjective one. Shannon has discussed the objective aspect of information in information theory. But the subjective aspect of information has not been fully discussed. Someone use "Bayesian approaches" to evaluate the value of information. But in some cases it does not meet the information user's need. This paper is focus on the subjective aspect of objectively measurable information and gives formal definitions for information, information utility, and marginal information utility, normalized calculation of information utility. The information discussed in the paper has interdisciplinary nature. This work can be the foundation of many application areas.

  4. General Methodologies for Improving Motor Drive Precision in Order to Utilize It as an Embedded Application Sensor (United States)

    Secrest, Caleb W.

    The objectives of this research are to reliably, and non-invasively, extract high quality spatial information from a limited-stroke multi-stage gear train driven by an AC machine using only the sensors necessary for normal AC machine control. In this work, the spatial information will be used to estimate the state of wear of each axis in the gear train. To extract this information, cascaded observer structures are utilized to estimate the load disturbances acting on the AC machine, and then to estimate the spatial errors which produce those disturbances. Further signal processing techniques are then utilized to observe the spatial error information in the spatial domain where the information is most relevant and to extract the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In prior art, the intrinsic spatial properties of the AC machine and position sensor feedback limited the quality of the spatial error information that could be extracted using motor drive-based estimation. Furthermore, the limited-stroke of the multi-stage gear train limits the separation of spatial content between the axes of the gear train and limits the extraction of the systematic spatial errors that reoccur over many operating cycles. In this work, methods are developed to reduce and separate machine and sensor contributions to the spatial error information being extracted, and general system design methodologies are investigated to improve the quality of spatial error information that can be extracted within the limited-stroke motion constraints of the multi-stage gear train.

  5. High Uniqueness Arbiter-Based PUF Circuit Utilizing RG-DTM Scheme for Identification and Authentication Applications (United States)

    Shiozaki, Mitsuru; Furuhashi, Kota; Murayama, Takahiko; Fukushima, Akitaka; Yoshikawa, Masaya; Fujino, Takeshi

    Silicon Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) have been proposed to exploit inherent characteristics caused by process variations, such as transistor size, threshold voltage and so on, and to produce an inexpensive and tamper-resistant device such as IC identification, authentication and key generation. We have focused on the arbiter-PUF utilizing the relative delay-time difference between the equivalent paths. The conventional arbiter-PUF has a technical issue, which is low uniqueness caused by the ununiformity on response-generation. To enhance the uniqueness, a novel arbiter-based PUF utilizing the Response Generation according to the Delay Time Measurement (RG-DTM) scheme, has been proposed. In the conventional arbiter-PUF, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the single threshold of relative delay-time difference. On the contrary, the response 0 or 1 is assigned according to the multiple threshold of relative delay-time difference in the RG-DTM PUF. The conventional and RG-DTM PUF were designed and fabricated with 0.18µm CMOS technology. The Hamming distances (HDs) between different chips, which indicate the uniqueness, were calculated by 256-bit responses from the identical challenges on each chip. The ideal distribution of HDs, which indicates high uniqueness, is achieved in the RG-DTM PUF using 16 thresholds of relative delay-time differences. The generative stability, which is the fluctuation of responses in the same environment, and the environmental stability, which is the changes of responses in the different environment were also evaluated. There is a trade-off between high uniqueness and high stability, however, the experimental data shows that the RG-DTM PUF has extremely smaller false matching probability in the identification compared to the conventional PUF.

  6. Fixed-base flywheel storage systems for electric-utility applications: An assessment of economic viability and R and D priorities (United States)

    Olszewski, M.; Steele, R. S.


    Electric utility side meter storage options were assessed for the daily 2 h peaking spike application. The storage options considered included compressed air, batteries, and flywheels. The potential role for flywheels in this application was assessed and research and development (R and D) priorities were established for fixed base flywheel systems. Results of the worth cost analysis indicate that where geologic conditions are favorable, compressed air energy storage (CAES) is a strong competitor against combustion turbines. Existing battery and flywheel systems rated about equal, both being, at best, marginally uncompetitive with turbines. Advanced batteries, if existing cost and performance goals are met, could be competitive with CAES. A three task R and D effort for flywheel development appears warranted. The first task, directed at reducing fabrication coss and increasing performance of a chopped fiber, F-glass, solid disk concept, could produce a competitive flywheel system.

  7. 大数据技术在配用电系统的应用%Application of Big Data Technologies in Power Distribution and Utilization System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东霞; 王继业; 刘科研; 郑安刚


    With the development of smart grid,power distribution and utilization systems are producing large volume of data.The processing and analytics based on these data have the potential to improve management and operation of power distribution and utilization systems.The development tendency of power distribution and utilization systems, structure of the data the systems are producing,and the characteristics of the big data are analyzed.The related domestic and international research and practice home and abroad are reviewed.The potential application scenarios and values of big data technologies are summarized.%随着智能电网的发展,配用电系统正在产生出越来越多的数据,利用大数据技术对这些数据进行处理和分析,对提高配用电系统的管理、运行水平有潜在的价值.分析配用电系统的技术发展趋势、配用电系统数据的构成及大数据特征;综述国内外相关研究和实践;总结大数据技术在配用电系统的主要应用场景和应用价值.

  8. Forces in bolted joints: analysis methods and test results utilized for nuclear core applications (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crescimanno, P.J.; Keller, K.L.


    Analytical methods and test data employed in the core design of bolted joints for the LWBR core are presented. The effects of external working loads, thermal expansion, and material stress relaxation are considered in the formulation developed to analyze joint performance. Extensions of these methods are also provided for bolted joints having both axial and bending flexibilities, and for the effect of plastic deformation on internal forces developed in a bolted joint. Design applications are illustrated by examples.

  9. 浅谈SQL Server 2005数据库备份与还原%Introduction to the SQL Server 2005 Database Backup and Restore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    当我们对数据库进行操作时,有时会因为计算机的软、硬件故障或者人为原因,导致数据库的破坏或者数据的丢失,造成不可估量的损失。为了减少损失,我们必须定时对数据库进行备份。该文主要介绍数据库的备份设备、类型,并结合“学生信息管理系统”实例讲解数据库的备份和还原方法,从而提高数据库的安全性。%When we operate the database, sometimes because the computer software and hardware failures or man-made rea-sons, lead to the destruction of the database or data loss, causing immeasurable loss. In order to reduce the loss, We must regularly to backup database.This paper mainly introduces the database backup device, type, and examples of"student information manage-ment system"interpretation methods for backup and restore database, so as to improve the security of the database.

  10. Utilization of native oxygen in Eu(RE)-doped GaN for enabling device compatibility in optoelectronic applications. (United States)

    Mitchell, B; Timmerman, D; Poplawsky, J; Zhu, W; Lee, D; Wakamatsu, R; Takatsu, J; Matsuda, M; Guo, W; Lorenz, K; Alves, E; Koizumi, A; Dierolf, V; Fujiwara, Y


    The detrimental influence of oxygen on the performance and reliability of V/III nitride based devices is well known. However, the influence of oxygen on the nature of the incorporation of other co-dopants, such as rare earth ions, has been largely overlooked in GaN. Here, we report the first comprehensive study of the critical role that oxygen has on Eu in GaN, as well as atomic scale observation of diffusion and local concentration of both atoms in the crystal lattice. We find that oxygen plays an integral role in the location, stability, and local defect structure around the Eu ions that were doped into the GaN host. Although the availability of oxygen is essential for these properties, it renders the material incompatible with GaN-based devices. However, the utilization of the normally occurring oxygen in GaN is promoted through structural manipulation, reducing its concentration by 2 orders of magnitude, while maintaining both the material quality and the favorable optical properties of the Eu ions. These findings open the way for full integration of RE dopants for optoelectronic functionalities in the existing GaN platform.

  11. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Stiggelbout; P.P. Wakker


    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities. Th

  12. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwang Yang Health Collage, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam{sub t}ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule.

  13. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok


    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yasumiishi


    Full Text Available As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake, factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  15. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md


    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  16. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)


    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  17. Utilization of phosphate rock from Lisina for direct application: release of plant nutrients in the exchange-fertilizer mixtures. (United States)

    Mihajlović, Marija; Perišić, Nebojša; Pezo, Lato; Stojanović, Mirjana; Milojković, Jelena; Lopičić, Zorica; Petrović, Marija


    This study examined the possibility of direct application of phosphate rock (PR) from Lisina deposit, in a mixture with natural clinoptilolite (Cp) and clinoptilolite partially saturated with ammonium ions (NH4-Cp). Solution P concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were sufficient for plant growth and ranged from 0.36 to 0.82 mg L(-1). The median NH4-Cp/PR ratio and the longest proposed mixing time had the most positive impact on the P concentration. Solution Ca concentrations of the NH4-Cp/PR mixtures were between 112.5 and 700.5 mg L(-1), indicating that use of the proposed NH4-Cp/PR mixtures solves the potential lack of Ca(2+) in the solution, which is typical for substrates of similar composition. Selected artificial neural networks (ANNs) were able to predict experimental variables for a broad range of the process parameters all through assay. Manifold effects of small changes in composition of the mixtures and time on the observed concentrations of nutrients were shown using the sensitivity analysis.

  18. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Dongjie, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  19. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China. (United States)

    Niu, Dong-jie; Huang, Hui; Dai, Xiao-hu; Zhao, You-cai


    About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening+anaerobic digestion+dewatering+residue land application in China. Fossil CO(2), biogenic CO(2), CH(4,) and avoided CO(2) as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO(2)-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO(2)), while the net CO(2)-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO(2)). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO(2)-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO(2)-eq reduction.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Polymeric Bioflocculant Produced from Bacterial Utilization of n-Hexadecane and Its Application in Removal of Heavy Metals (United States)

    Pathak, Mihirjyoti; Sarma, Hridip K.; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.; Subudhi, Sanjukta; Bisht, Varsha; Lal, Banwari; Devi, Arundhuti


    A novel polymeric bioflocculant was produced by a bacterium utilizing degradation of n-hexadecane as the energy source. The bioflocculant was produced with a bioflocculating activity of 87.8%. The hydrocarbon degradation was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and was further supported with contact angle measurements for the changes in hydrophobic nature of the culture medium. A specific aerobic degradation pathway followed by the bacterium during the bioflocculant production and hydrocarbon utilization process has been proposed. FT-IR, SEM-EDX, LC/MS, and 1H NMR measurements indicated the presence of carbohydrates and proteins as the major components of the bioflocculant. The bioflocculant was characterized for its carbohydrate monomer constituents and its practical applicability was established for removing the heavy metals (Ni2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and Pb2+) from aqueous solutions at concentrations of 1–50 mg L-1. The highest activity of the bioflocculant was observed with Ni2+ with 79.29 ± 0.12% bioflocculation efficiency. PMID:28223975

  1. 50 ns Backup Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Iadarola, G; Meddahi, M; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Wenninger, J


    The baseline bunch spacing for LHC high luminosity proton-proton operation after LS3 is 25 ns to maximize the integrated luminosity while keeping the pile-up low. The success of this mode of operation is not guaranteed. Electron cloud, UFOs, long-range beambeam, heating and other effects might make 25 ns operation in the LHC and/or the injectors difficult. This talk will review possible showstoppers in the LHC and injectors for 25 ns operation and discuss possible remedies. An alternative would be re-considering 50 ns operation. An estimate of the 50 ns performance will be given. The question of whether a different upgrade path would have to be chosen in case of 50 ns operation will also be addressed.

  2. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity]. (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei


    under the ambient CO2- (360 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. The order of nitrogen accumulation content in organs was bud > leaf > stem > root. Soil urease activity of both layers increased significantly with the elevation of CO2 concentration in all the nitrogen treatments. Under each CO2 concentration treatment, the soil urease activity in the upper layer (0-20 cm) increased significantly with nitrogen application, while the urease activity under the application of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was highest in the lower layer (20- 40 cm). The average soil urease activity in the upper layer (0-20 cm) was significantly higher than that in the lower layer (20-40 cm). This study suggested that the cotton dry matter accumulation and nitrogen absorption content were significantly increased in response to the elevated CO2 concentration (540 µmol · mol(-1)) and higher nitrogen addition (300 kg · hm(-2)).

  3. Evaluation of extended-release applications for solid dispersion hot-melt fluid bed coatings utilizing hydrophobic coating agents. (United States)

    Kennedy, J P; Niebergall, P J


    A new hot-melt fluid bed coating method was evaluated for potential extended-release applications. Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) USP was chosen as a model drug. The assays for drug release and content uniformity were dictated by the USP Official Monograph for a Chlorpheniramine Maleate Extended-Release Capsule. The fluid bed chamber was charged with CPM-loaded nonpareils and hydrophobic coating agents in the solid state. The method consists of four processing stages: (a) warming, (b) preheating, (c) melting-spreading, and (d) cooling-congealing. Various hydrophobic coating agent candidates were evaluated for extended-release potential by a preliminary screen at a coating agent level of 1.5% (w/w). A beeswax coating agent was identified as the most promising candidate of the preliminary screen. After the level of beeswax was increased to 2.0%, the dissolution profile met all of the specifications of the USP Drug Release Test 1 for a CPM Extended-Release Capsule. The potency and content uniformity remained unchanged by the process. Dual coatings demonstrated a cumulative extension of release superior to the capability of a single coat. The new method is a viable alternative to hot-melt spray-coating methodologies. Organic solvents, spraying equipment, steam jackets, and/or heating tape are eliminated from the process. A reduction of equipment costs, setup time, and cleanup time may be realized. The method has demonstrated extended-release capabilities. No excessive attrition of potency or content uniformity has been noted. Additive, multiple coatings that have a cumulative effect on release retardation are feasible.

  4. Utilization of bio-degradable fermented tapioca to synthesized low toxicity of carbon nanotubes for drug delivery applications (United States)

    Nurulhuda, I.; Poh, R.; Mazatulikhma, M. Z.; Salman, A. H. A.; Haseeb, A. K.; Rusop, M.


    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have potential biomedical applications, and investigations are shifting towards the production of such nanotubes using renewable natural sources. CNTs were synthesized at various temperatures of 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C, respectively, using a local fermented food known as "tapai ubi" or fermented tapioca as a precursor. The liquid part of this fermented food was heated separately at 80°C and channeled directly into the furnace system that employs the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Ferrocene, which was the catalyst was placed in furnace 1 in the thermal CVD process. The resulting CNTs produced from the process were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and raman spectroscopy. The FESEM images showed the growth morphology of the CNTs at the different temperatures employed. It was observed that the higher the synthesis temperature up to a point, the diameter of CNTs produced, after which the diameter increased. CNTs with helical structures were observed at 700 °C with a diameter range of 111 - 143 nm. A more straightened structure was observed at 750 °C with a diameter range of 59 - 121 nm. From 800 °C onwards, the diameters of the CNTs were less than 60 nm. Raman analysis revealed the present of D, G and G' peak were observed at 1227-1358, 1565-1582, and 2678-2695 cm-1, respectively. The highest degree of crystallity of the carbon nanotubes synthesized were obtained at 800 °C. The radial breathing mode (RBM) were in range between 212-220 and 279-292 cm-1. Carbon nanotubes also being functionalized with Polyethylene bis(amine) Mw2000 (PEG 2000-NH2) and showed highly cells viability compared to non-functionalized CNT. The nanotubes synthesized will be applied as drug delivery in future study.

  5. Study on physico - chemical properties of Korean anthracite for utilization development - application to filtering materials for waste water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    This research was initiated for the development of filtering materials those can be used in waste water treatment sites. The selected Jangseong coal for filtering material has low Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI : 38.38) and crushed two granule size. One is 1-2 mm size (effective size : 0.77 mm, uniformity coefficient : 1.70) and the other is 2-4 mm size (2.04 mm, 1.37) First, we had application test to find out the possibility of 2-4 mm sample for using water filtering material instead of silica sand in Sandflo filter. The result were unsuitable for treatment efficiency and micron size granule. But it will be solution with control of granule size and washing of coal. For feasibility study, the small scale of filtration tester was built on the waste water treatment plant of Lotte-chilsung beverage Co. to use the precipitated water during filtration test processed by purifying system. Measurement items are filtration rate, temperature of waste water, Electric Conductivity (EC), pH, turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Nitrogen Nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N), Organophosphorus and trace elements content (Zn, Al, Fe, Mg, K) of the supplied water and filtered water were carried out to find the filtration capacity of coal. The results indicated decreasing degree in turbidity (1-2 mm : 15.08 %, 2-4 mm : 11.58 %), COD (1-2 mm : 5.76 %, 2-4 mm : 5.49 %) and increasing degree in DO (1-2 mm : 11.25 %, 2-4 mm : 10 %). Trace elements removal degree of filtered waste water were about 30 % for Fe and 5 % for K. (author). 32 refs., tabs., figs.

  6. 皮卫星偏置动量轮在轨备份切换策略%In-orbit backup and switch method for pico-satellite's bias momentum wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩柯; 王昊; 朱小丰; 向甜; 金仲和


    A Markov model describing rotation speed variation was discussed and established according to a micro momentum wheel test. Then a backup and switch method for pico-satellite's bias momentum wheel was introduced and analyzed. The method includes four normal modes and three exceptional modes. Generally, system operates in normal modes, periodically switching between two flywheels. When failure arises, system switches to exceptional modes, making the broken wheel isolated. The method provides a more convenient way for both flywheel function and performance failure detection compared with traditional cold backup method; and can keep stabilizing satellite attitude continuously for much longer time. Simulation results show that the application of the method can keep attitude error within 20° in normal switch case; and the attitude disorder due to emergency switch can be restored in about 30 min for accidental flywheel failure.%参考微动量轮的实测数据,讨论并建立描述转速随机变化的马尔可夫模型.在该模型基础上,提出并分析用于皮卫星的偏置动量轮备份、切换策略.该策略定义了4个正常模式和3个异常模式:在普通情况下,系统在正常模式下定时切换飞轮;当故障发生时,系统切入异常模式,隔离故障飞轮.与常规的冷备份方法相比,该策略为飞轮性能、功能的故障检测提供了更方便的途径,同时在更长时间段内,能够保持星体连续姿态稳定.数学仿真表明,应用本文策略,正常情况切换时,造成的姿态扰动最大不超过20°;对于突发故障,切换带来的姿态扰动恢复时间约为30 min.

  7. Utility photovoltaic group: Status report (United States)

    Serfass, Jeffrey A.; Hester, Stephen L.; Wills, Bethany N.


    The Utility PhotoVoltaic Group (UPVG) was formed in October of 1992 with a mission to accelerate the use of cost-effective small-scale and emerging grid-connected applications of photovoltaics for the benefit of electric utilities and their customers. The UPVG is now implementing a program to install up to 50 megawatts of photovoltaics in small-scale and grid-connected applications. This program, called TEAM-UP, is a partnership of the U.S. electric utility industry and the U.S. Department of Energy to help develop utility PV markets. TEAM-UP is a utility-directed program to significantly increase utility PV experience by promoting installations of utility PV systems. Two primary program areas are proposed for TEAM-UP: (1) Small-Scale Applications (SSA)—an initiative to aggregate utility purchases of small-scale, grid-independent applications; and (2) Grid-Connected Applications (GCA)—an initiative to identify and competitively award cost-sharing contracts for grid-connected PV systems with high market growth potential, or collective purchase programs involving multiple buyers. This paper describes these programs and outlines the schedule, the procurement status, and the results of the TEAM-UP process.

  8. Improved backup routing protocol of AODV based on PLC network%基于PLC网络的改进AODV备份路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李训文; 金文光; 邵琦青; 高伟


    为了减少AODV协议链路断裂时的修复时间,提出利用Hello消息改进AODV的备份路由协议——AODV-IB,并将其应用于电力线通信(PLC)网络.AODV-IB在AODV-ABL协议的基础上,利用Hello消息携带备份路由的目的节点IP、序列号与跳数等信息,通过制定避免备份路由产生环路的规则,依据最短路径的原则,使各个节点周期交换Hello消息后均能够获得最佳的备份路由信息,即使得节点能够同时维护主路由与备份路由,并在主链路断裂时可以利用备份路由进行快速恢复.为了测试协议性能,搭建基于电力线通信网络的测试平台,对AODV-IB以及AODV、AODV-BR、AODV-ABL、IBR-AODV5种协议进行测试.实验结果表明,电力线通信网络环境中AODV-IB在减少延时、提高数据包投递率方面较其余4种协议性能更好,更加适合在电力线通信网络中使用.%An improved backup routing protocol of AODV——AODV-IB was proposed and deployed in power line communication (PLC) network in order to reduce the delay of AODV routing reconstruction.The AODV-IB modified AODV-ABL and used Hello message to carry the backup routing information of destination node IP,serial number and hops.According to the principle of the shortest path and the regulation of avoiding backup routing loops,each node with the AODV-IB can get optimal backup routing information after cyclical exchange of Hello message.Each node with the AODV-IB can maintain primary routing and backup routing at the same time.Once the primary link breaks,it can be quickly recovered by using the backup routing.For the performance evaluation of the AODV-IB,a test-bed based on PLC network was constructed.Protocols of AODV-IB,AODV,AODV-BR,AODV-ABL and IBR-AODV were tested.Experimental results show that AODV-IB is vastly superior to other four protocols in the aspects of reducing the delay and improving the packet delivery ratio.AODV-IB is more suitable for the PLC network.

  9. Research for application of optical wavelength multiplexing method in electric utility communications networks. Hikarihacho taju hoshiki no denryoku eno tekiyo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohi, T. (The Kasai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan))


    A study was made on the optical wavelength multiplexing method (independent signals of different wavelengths are transmitted) as an optical communication method capable of responding to electric utility communications networks, and the SCM method (frequency-multiplexed signals are transmitted, with analog modulation of the optical source). 1.31 and 1.55 [mu]m optical signals were multiplex-transmitted to the 1.31 [mu]m optical network to reveal loss fluctuations of OPGW, and overhead and underground cables. The loss of fusion points was not observed. When 1.55 [mu]m light was transmitted to the existing optical transmission cable, loss and loss fluctuations became large slightly, but the fluctuations caused no particular problem in actual application. SCM multiplexing transmission equipment was test-manufactured, and a demonstration test was conducted on it. Optical transmission/reception level fluctuations, video signal channel S/N characteristics, audio/voice/data channel characteristics were made clear. It was confirmed that the SCM optical transmission equipment was stable in the transmission length of 30km or longer. Both the methods studied are believed to be practically applicable. 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  11. Windpower utilization possibilities (United States)

    Hoetzel, C.


    The possibilities of windpower utilization for mechanical pumps, electric generators, mechanical water vortex pumps, and heat pumps are reviewed. Application possibilities can be realized by windpower systems of different size. It must however be determined for which purpose and for which power range they are used. The site and the concomitant wind potential is of utmost importance. Small units in the 10 kW power range are very interesting for autonomous or semiautonomous energy supply.

  12. Implementation of Incremental Backup Based on Oracle Materialized View%基于物化视图的 Oracle 增量备份方法的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学斯; 王虹; 吴飞; 林济南


    为缓解HIS主服务器压力,提高数据安全性和保密性,本文研究使用Oracle物化视图实现数据库的实时增量备份,同时对敏感数据进行过滤。该系统功能完整,实用性强,辅以图形界面以简化系统操作和维护。系统实施后,通过访问备份数据库,有效缓解了主服务器的负载压力,扩大了数据使用范围,达到了预期的设计要求。%To ease the pressure on the main server of HIS , increase data security and privacy , this paper researches the real-time incremental backup of database with Oracle materialized view , and filteres the sensitive data .The system is fully functional , prac-tical, and achieves a graphical interface to simplify system operation and maintenance .After implementation, as expected, it ef-fectively alleviates the pressure on the main server load by using the backup database , and expands the use scope of data .

  13. Development of Sequential Calculating Type Autonomous Stabilizing Controller for Maintaining Transient Stability in case of Backup Relay Operation in Load System (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryoji; Maekawa, Kazuo; Shimomura, Kimihiko; Sasaki, Takashi; Kowada, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Toru

    A new Autonomous Stabilizing Controller (ASC) has been developed, which is based on the concept of using only locall information measured at the substation where ASC is installed. ASC prevents the power system from wide-area blackout by shedding generators optimally when a serious fault occurs in 154kV-or-below-voltage power system and is cleared by backup relay. ASC consists of three functions, a function of detecting faults and judging of starting stability calculations (The first function), a function of calculating power system stability (The second function), and a function of selecting optimal generators to be shed (The third function). The first function composes a signal for starting stability calculations when a fault cleared by backup relay is detected. According to the starting signal composed by the first function, the second function executes stability calculations based on equal area criterion. If the result of stability calculations is instable, the third function selects a generator to be shed by considering not only the stabilizing effect but also the quickly restoration after shedding. This paper presents total algorithms applied in ASC.

  14. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)


    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  15. Implemented with PHP MySQL Database Backup and Restore%用PHP实现对MySQL数据库的备份与还原

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This describes has in PHP environment in the paper ,achieved Visual of to on MySQL database of backup and restore ,when MySQL system crashes or data server crashes ,it can be fast and effective of recovery data ,to strong of guarantee has MySQL database in the data of integrity ,and security ,make system of data loss reduced to minimum de-gree ,regularly on database for backup is database administrator on data management of a countered .%介绍了在PHP环境中,实现可视化地对MySQL数据库的备份与还原,它能在MySQL系统崩溃或数据服务器崩溃时快速、有效地恢复数据,从而有力地保证了MySQL数据库中数据的完整性、安全性,使系统的数据损失降至最低程度。定期对数据库进行备份是数据库管理员对数据管理的一个良策。

  16. Life-cycle cost comparisons of advanced storage batteries and fuel cells for utility, stand-alone, and electric vehicle applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.


    This report presents a comparison of battery and fuel cell economics for ten different technologies. To develop an equitable economic comparison, the technologies were evaluated on a life-cycle cost (LCC) basis. The LCC comparison involved normalizing source estimates to a standard set of assumptions and preparing a lifetime cost scenario for each technology, including the initial capital cost, replacement costs, operating and maintenance (O M) costs, auxiliary energy costs, costs due to system inefficiencies, the cost of energy stored, and salvage costs or credits. By considering all the costs associated with each technology over its respective lifetime, the technology that is most economical to operate over any given period of time can be determined. An analysis of this type indicates whether paying a high initial capital cost for a technology with low O M costs is more or less economical on a lifetime basis than purchasing a technology with a low initial capital cost and high O M costs. It is important to realize that while minimizing cost is important, the customer will not always purchase the least expensive technology. The customer may identify benefits associated with a more expensive option that make it the more attractive over all (e.g., reduced construction lead times, modularity, environmental benefits, spinning reserve, etc.). The LCC estimates presented in this report represent three end-use applications: utility load-leveling, stand-alone power systems, and electric vehicles.

  17. Study on the cloud detection of GOCI by using the simulated surface reflectance from BRDF-model for the land application and meteorological utilization (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chae, Tae-Byeong


    COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite) was launched at French Guiana Kourou space center on 27 June 2010. Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is the first ocean color geostationary satellite in the world for observing the ocean phenomena, is able to obtain the scientific data per an hour from 00UTC to 07UTC. Moreover, the spectral channels of GOCI would enable not only monitoring for the ocean, but for extracting the information of the land surface over the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Eastern China. Since it is extremely important to utilize GOCI data accurately for the land application, cloud pixels over the surface have to be removed. Unfortunately, infra-red (IR) channels that can easily detect the water vapor with the cloud top temperature, are not included in the GOCI sensor. In this paper, the advanced cloud masking algorithm will be proposed with visible and near-IR (NIR) bands that are within GOCI bands. The main obstacle of cloud masking with GOCI is how to handle the high variable surface reflectance, which is mainly depending on the solar zenith angle. In this study, we use semi-empirical BRDF model to simulate the surface reflectance by using 16 day composite cloudy free image. When estimating the simulated surface reflectance, same geometry for GOCI observation was applied. The simulated surface reflectance is used to discriminate cloud areas especially for the thin cloud and shows more reasonable result than original threshold methods.

  18. Engineering Application of TD-SCDMA Code Resource Utilization%TD-SCDMA码资源利用率的工程应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    TD-SCDMA is China in the ifeld of communication with the ifrst independent intellectual property rights of international standard, with reliable and efficient radio resource utilization and management to ensure the capacity and performance of mobile communication. The from the traditional TD code resource using rate of network planning method of discuss the shortcomings and defects, and for the lack of proposed improvements in the prediction of calculation method, proposed new TD code resource using rate algorithm and enhance the guidance for practical engineering application.%TD-SCDMA是中国在通信领域拥有的第一个自主知识产权国际化标准,其具备高效可靠的无线资源利用及管理,能确保移动通信的容量和性能。文章从传统的TD码资源利用率进行的网络规划方法入手,探讨其弊端及不足,并针对不足提出改进的预测计算方法,提出新的TD码资源利用率算法,增强其对工程实际应用中的指导性。

  19. All-optical frequency downconversion technique utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing radio-over-fiber applications. (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Song, Jong-In


    An all-optical frequency downconversion utilizing a four-wave mixing effect in a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was experimentally demonstrated for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) applications. Two WDM optical radio frequency (RF) signals having 155 Mbps differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data at 28.5 GHz were simultaneously down-converted to two WDM optical intermediate frequency (IF) signals having an IF frequency of 4.5 GHz by mixing with an optical local oscillator (LO) signal having a LO frequency of 24 GHz in the SOA. The bit-error-rate (BER) performance of the RoF up-links with different optical fiber lengths employing all-optical frequency downconversion was investigated. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with a 6 km single mode fiber and an optical IF signal in an optical double-sideband format was approximately -8.5 dBm and the power penalty for simultaneous frequency downconversion was approximately 0.63 dB. The BER performance showed a strong dependence on the fiber length due to the fiber dispersion. The receiver sensitivity of the RoF up-link with the optical IF signal in the optical single-sideband format was reduced to approximately -17.4 dBm and showed negligible dependence on the fiber length.

  20. Using Command Line Completion of Small Company Windows Server Backup and Disaster Recovery%使用命令行完成小型公司Windows服务器自动备份和灾难恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      This paper introduces the Windows server backup and disaster recovery of the basic meaning of. And through the small company Windows server backup and disaster recovery of specific examples, explores the use of the command line to complete a small Windows server backup and disaster recovery, minimize the small company Windows server security risk.%  该文介绍了Windows服务器自动备份和灾难恢复的基本含义。并通过小型公司Windows服务器自动备份和灾难恢复的具体实例,探索了使用命令行完成小型公司Windows服务器自动备份和灾难恢复,最大限度降低小型公司Windows服务器的安全风险。

  1. Hydrogen permeable high-temperature membranes. Development and application in gas separation processes and in hydrogen-producing reactions for process heat utilization. Wasserstoffpermeable Hochtemperaturmembranen. Entwicklung und Einsatz in Gastrennprozessen und in Wasserstoff erzeugenden Reaktionen zur Nutzung von Prozesswaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.


    The thesis deals with hydrogen-permeable, high-temperature membranes consisting of metal-bare or ceramic-base materials, discussing their fabrication and properties as well as the analyses and experimentes performed for studying the applicability of these membranes in hydrogen production processes or in energy conversion processes for the utilization of process heat from HTGR-type reactors. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O' Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology and refractory end users have developed novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels. The objective of this U.S. DOE funded project was to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing novel gunnable refractory compositions for use in high temperature and high alkali environments. Developed materials utilized new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Under this project, materials were developed specifically for aluminum rotary dross furnace applications and a light-weight back-up refractory system was also developed to improve the thermal efficiency of the installed lining system. This paper discusses the systematic development of these materials, laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials, and the performance of several industrial trials performed using these newly developed materials. The success of the industrial trials will be highlighted and future areas of application of these materials discussed.

  3. Application of fly ash on the growth performance and translocation of toxic heavy metals within Cajanus cajan L.: implication for safe utilization of fly ash for agricultural production. (United States)

    Pandey, Vimal Chandra; Abhilash, P C; Upadhyay, Raj Narayan; Tewari, D D


    The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of the application of fly ash (FA) into garden soil for Cajanus cajan L. cultivation and on accumulation and translocation of hazardous metals from FA to edible part. Numerous studies have been reported on the growth and yield of agricultural crops under FA stress; however, there is a dearth of studies recommending the safe utilization of fly ash for crop production. Pot experiments were conducted on C. cajan L., a widely cultivating legume in India for its highly nutritious seeds. C. cajan L. were grown in garden soil and amended with varying concentrations of FA in a weight/weight ratio (0%, 25%, 50% and 100%; w/w). Incorporation of fly ash from 25% to 100% in garden soil increases the levels of pH, particle density, porosity and water holding capacity from 3.47% to 26.39%, 3.98% to 26.14%, 37.50% to 147.92% and 163.16% to 318.42%, respectively, than the control while bulk density decrease respectively from 8.94% to 48.89%. Pot experiment found that accumulation and translocation of heavy metals in tested plant depends on the concentration of FA. Addition of FA at lower concentration (25%) had shown positive results in most of the studied parameters of growth and yield (14.23% than control). The experimental results confirmed that lower concentration of FA (25%) is safe for C. cajan cultivation, which not only enhanced the yield of C. cajan L. significantly but also ensured the translocation of heavy metals to edible parts within the critical limits.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  5. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)


    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute ut

  6. Consideration of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 as a Functional Backup of Viral Oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1. (United States)

    Herbert, Kristina M; Pimienta, Genaro


    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 are highly abundant through all four latency stages of EBV infection (III-II-I-0) and have been associated with an oncogenic phenotype when expressed in cell lines cultured in vitro. In vivo, EBV-infected B cells derived from freshly isolated lymphocytes show that EBER1/2 deletion does not impair viral latency. Based on published quantitative proteomics data from BJAB cells expressing EBER1 and EBER2, we propose that the EBERs, through their activation of AKT in a B-cell-specific manner, are a functionally redundant backup of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-an essential oncoprotein in EBV-associated malignancies, with a main role in AKT activation. Our proposed model may explain the lack of effect on viral latency establishment in EBER-minus EBV infection.

  7. Consideration of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded Noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 as a Functional Backup of Viral Oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Herbert


    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-encoded noncoding RNAs EBER1 and EBER2 are highly abundant through all four latency stages of EBV infection (III-II-I-0 and have been associated with an oncogenic phenotype when expressed in cell lines cultured in vitro. In vivo, EBV-infected B cells derived from freshly isolated lymphocytes show that EBER1/2 deletion does not impair viral latency. Based on published quantitative proteomics data from BJAB cells expressing EBER1 and EBER2, we propose that the EBERs, through their activation of AKT in a B-cell-specific manner, are a functionally redundant backup of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1—an essential oncoprotein in EBV-associated malignancies, with a main role in AKT activation. Our proposed model may explain the lack of effect on viral latency establishment in EBER-minus EBV infection.

  8. The experience of arranging a back-up oil well group using the seventh bed at the Zhetybai field as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysenko, V.D.; Ermekov, A.K.; Leibin, E.L.; Savvin, K.F.; Vaslavskii, A.F.


    A method is proposed for arranging a back-up series of oil wells using the oil pool of the eighth bed located at the Zhetybai field, which has an underlying layer of water, as an example. Using a record of tapped and remaining oil reserves together with maps of existing isopachs, which were drafted accounting for the rising velocities of the water-oil contact at various sections in the bed, the placement of oil wells at one section or another of the bed is calculated. The number of oil wells is substantiated using a record of the remaining oil reserves together with a proposed oil yield standard for a single oil well.

  9. 一个基于备份路由的AODV路由协议%An AODV routing protocol based on backup route

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉纯; 汪一鸣


    In AODV routing protocol, source node sets up only one routing toward the destination node, without making full use of the RREP information from the intermediate node or the destination node. This paper proposes an optimized AODV routing protocol, in which source node can set up a backup route using the RREP, besides the main route is established. It makes sure that the optimal is the main route and the suboptimal is the backup with a flag bit. The simulation results show the optimized AODV performs better than the original AODV.%AODV 路由协议每次在源节点只建立一条通向目的节点的路由,未能充分利用从中间节点或者目的节点返回的路由应答信息,针对这一问题,提出了一个改进的方法。在源节点处建立一条主路由的基础上,利用路由应答信息,建立一条备份路由,并且每次将最优的设为主路由,次优的设为备份路由。仿真结果表明,改进的协议和原协议相比,降低了端到端的延时,提高了包投递率。

  10. Research Review on Application of Microorganism in Resources Utilization of Water Hyacinth%微生物在水葫芦资源化利用中的应用研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁华; 涂卫国; 王琼瑶


    对水葫芦资源化利用中微生物的应用研究进行归纳和评述,并对如何进一步提高微生物作用效率进行探讨,以期为进一步开展水葫芦的资源化利用工作提供参考。%Studies on application of microorganism in resources utilization of water hyacinth were reviewed , the way to enhance the efficiency of microorganisms was discussed , so as to provide reference for resources utilization of water hyacinth .

  11. 智能化N+1备份通用型数字化电视发射系统的研究%Research on Intelligent N+1 Backup Universal Digital Television Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    采用智能备份系统保证数字化电视发射系统的稳定运行,有利于数字电视地面广播的发展。从N+1备份系统的工作原理和系统模式入手,简要叙述了地面数字电视发射机智能N+1备份系统,以流程图的形式阐述了该备份系统的软件设计和实现方法,以期为相关工作提供借鉴。%Intelligent backup system to ensure stable operation of digital television transmission system is conducive to the development of digital terrestrial television broadcasting. From the working principle and system mode N+1 backup system to start, a brief description of terrestrial digital television transmitters Smart N+1 backup system, in the form of a flowchart describes the software design and implementation of the backup system, in order for related work for reference.

  12. A comparative overview of coal-water slurry fuels produced from waste coal fines for utility-scale co-firing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others


    The recovery and utilization of coal fines, both impounded and in cleaning plant effluent streams, have received close attention from both coal producers and coal-fixed utilities during the last few years. Many coal producers view impounded fines as an environmental liability and the discarded fines in plant effluent streams as contributing to a loss in Btu recovery. In addition, the rejected coal fines increase the quantity and cost of refuse disposal. The handleability of fine coal has always been a problem. Dewatering cleaned fine coal is costly. Excessive fugitive dust emissions are commonly associated with handling dry fine coal. Wet fine coal sticks to conveyor belts, blocks fuel chutes, and may limit pulverizer capacity. The preparation of coal water slurry fuel (CWSF) from wet coal fines alleviates the necessity of drying while at the same time eliminates the flow problems that wet fine coal poses to the end user. Furthermore, the utilization of CWSF as an opportunity fuel converts coal fines into a revenue source rather than a liability. Several utilities are evaluating the co-firing of low solids, low viscosity CWSF with their normal coal feedstock in an effort to lower fuel cost and/or as a NO{sub x} reduction technique. The utilization of this opportunity fuel is being driven by a changing electric industry in which utilities continually strive to reduce plant emissions while simultaneously reducing their operating costs to become more competitive as the generation side of the industry prepares for deregulation.

  13. Design and implementation of backstage management system of file backup system based on MVC architecture%基于MVC的文件备份后台管理系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边霞; 赵奎; 胡晓勤; 赵辉


    To improve the efficiency of the file backup system and provide a comprehensive management to the remote backup center, a backstage management system of file backup system based on MVC (model-view-controller) architecture is proposed. On the basis of describing the architecture of the file backup system and studying the MVC design method and the principles of Joomla framework, the backstage management system of file backup system is designed and implemented based on Joomla framework and LAMP platform, and the system' s efficiency, a clear structure, a good scalability, maintainability and reusability are ensured.%为了提高文件备份系统的效率,并为文件备份系统的远程备份中心提供全面的管理功能,提出了基于MVC (modelview-controller)设计模式的文件备份后台管理系统.介绍了文件备份系统的架构,研究了MVC的设计思想以及Joomla框架的原理,在此基础上,将基于MVC设计模式的Joomla框架引入到文件备份后台管理系统的开发中,并基于LAMP平台设计与实现了文件备份后台管理系统,确保了系统的高效,结构清晰以及良好的可扩展性、可维护性与可重用性.

  14. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.


    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  15. 电池梯次利用储能装置在电动汽车充换电站中的应用%Application of Battery Cascade Utilization Device in EV Battery Charging and Swapping Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽众; 李家辉


    针对电动汽车充换电站中动力电池的梯次利用问题,设计了电池梯次利用储能站,将充换电站中即将报废的电池用于储能放电,以降低电动汽车动力电池的使用成本.介绍了电池梯次利用储能站结构、电能控制系统以及储能控制策略,可以实现电动汽车充换电站动力电池的梯次利用、对电网负荷进行峰谷调节并作为充换电站的应急和后备电源.%Aiming at the application of battery cascade utilization in EV ( electric vehicle) battery charging and swapping station, this paper design battery cascade utilization storage station. In order to decreasing the battery cost, it utilizes the reject battery of battery charging and swapping station to storage and discharge electric energy. This paper introduces the battery cascade utilization device construction, control system and electric storage control strategy. It can implement the battery cascade utilization, regulate power grid peak and valley and be emergency power of the battery charging and swapping station.

  16. Productivity, part 2: cloud storage, remote meeting tools, screencasting, speech recognition software, password managers, and online data backup. (United States)

    Lackey, Amanda E; Pandey, Tarun; Moshiri, Mariam; Lalwani, Neeraj; Lall, Chandana; Bhargava, Puneet


    It is an opportune time for radiologists to focus on personal productivity. The ever increasing reliance on computers and the Internet has significantly changed the way we work. Myriad software applications are available to help us improve our personal efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss some tools that help improve collaboration and personal productivity, maximize e-learning, and protect valuable digital data.

  17. Eliciting and Combining Decision Criteria Using a Limited Palette of Utility Functions and Uncertainty Distributions: Illustrated by Application to Pest Risk Analysis. (United States)

    Holt, Johnson; Leach, Adrian W; Schrader, Gritta; Petter, Françoise; MacLeod, Alan; van der Gaag, Dirk Jan; Baker, Richard H A; Mumford, John D


    Utility functions in the form of tables or matrices have often been used to combine discretely rated decision-making criteria. Matrix elements are usually specified individually, so no one rule or principle can be easily stated for the utility function as a whole. A series of five matrices are presented that aggregate criteria two at a time using simple rules that express a varying degree of constraint of the lower rating over the higher. A further nine possible matrices were obtained by using a different rule either side of the main axis of the matrix to describe situations where the criteria have a differential influence on the outcome. Uncertainties in the criteria are represented by three alternative frequency distributions from which the assessors select the most appropriate. The output of the utility function is a distribution of rating frequencies that is dependent on the distributions of the input criteria. In pest risk analysis (PRA), seven of these utility functions were required to mimic the logic by which assessors for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization arrive at an overall rating of pest risk. The framework enables the development of PRAs that are consistent and easy to understand, criticize, compare, and change. When tested in workshops, PRA practitioners thought that the approach accorded with both the logic and the level of resolution that they used in the risk assessments.

  18. Fast adaptive backup routing for mobile Ad Hoc network%移动Ad Hoc网快速自适应后备路由协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    移动Ad Hoc网拓扑结构经常变化.自适应后备路由局部修复AODV协议AODV-ABL通过监听RREP包和数据包来产生后备路由,并存于后备路由表中.仅当链路错误时,AODV-ABL才试图利用后备路由表进行局部修复.为提高对网络拓扑变化的自适应性,在AODV-ABL基础上,提出了一种快速自适应后备AODV路由协议AODV-FABL.AODV-FABL合并主路由表和后备路由表,在监听包时同步更新路由,路由能尽快地得到优化.实验结果表明,AODV-FABL取得了比AODV-LR、AODV-ABL更好的包投递率、端对端时延、控制开销和对流量负载变化的适应性.%The network topology changes frequently in mobile Ad Hoc networks. In AODV-Adaptive Backup with Local repair routing (AODV-ABL) protocol, the backup route can be created by overhearing RREP packets and data packets and can be stored in alternate route table. Only when the link error occurs, AODV-ABL tries to start a local repair process by using alternate route table. In order to improve the adaptability to the network topology changing, a Fast AODV-ABL routing (AODV-FABL) protocol, which based on AODV-ABL, is proposed. AODV-FABL merges the primary route table with the alternate route table, and updates routes when overhearing packets, thus the routes can be optimized as soon as possible. Experimental results show that AODV-FABL has better packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, control overhead and adaptability to the variational traffic load than AODV-LR and AODV-ABL.

  19. Migrating enterprise storage applications to the cloud



    Cloud computing has emerged as a model for hosting computing infrastructure and outsourcing management of that infrastructure. It offers the promise of simplified provisioning and management, lower costs, and access to resources that scale up and down with demand. Cloud computing has seen growing use for Web site hosting, large batch processing jobs, and similar tasks. Despite potential advantages, however, cloud computing is not much used for enterprise applications such as backup, shared fi...

  20. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben


    Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual commun...... of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals....

  1. 1999 international ash utilization symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    112 papers were presented covering various aspects of the utilization of coal and other combustion products. Topics included fundamental chemistry and mineralogy, new products, health and environmental aspects, economic development issues, agricultural and mine reclamation applications, concrete and cement, and fly ash beneficiation technologies. Selected papers will be published in the journal 'Fuel'.

  2. Studies of an application of mobile communication system to the private telecommunication network. Part 2. Trend of mobile communication systems and application to power utility; Idotai tsushin system no denryoku tsushinmo eno tekiyo. 2. Idotai tsushin system no genjo to denki jigyo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper presents future prospects on development of different mobile communication systems operated by public communications operators, and discusses their application to power utilities. For automobile and cellular telephones, discussions are being made on the code division multiple access (CDMA) system which multiplexes and transmits information by using tally codes. Influence of noise decreases, and so does the need of retransmission due to code errors. Higher speed transmission than conventional systems may be expected. The system can be utilized for transmitting still images, such as for status of construction being carried out by power utility companies. For PHS, a discussion will start on 32 to 64-kbps transmission in fiscal 1997. By using the system together with an image compression technology, the system may be expected of utilization as a moving image transmission method for supporting site works by utility companies. The low and medium orbit satellite communications whose use is scheduled to start shortly can be utilized as construction and emergency disaster communication networks for mountainous areas and islands. Movements around the frequency band utilization and communication systems of IMT-2000 are becoming more complex. The Japanese proposal plans transmission of moving images, whereas more diverse utilization can be expected, such as for voice, data and images, in areas where no ground communication facilities are available for electric power operations. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Modular repowering of power plants with nominal ratings lower than 180 MW: A rational design approach and its application to the Italian utility system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melli, R.; Naso, V.; Sciubba, E. (Univ. di Roma (Italy). Dipartimento di Meccanica e Aeronautica)


    The paper describes the rationale, the technical/economical details and the results of a study which is part of a large-scale energy conservation program enacted by the Italian Public Utility (ENEL), within a broader framework of structural interventions on the national electricity production/transportation/utilization network. The objectives of the larger, long-term plan is to increase by a significant percentage (> 5 percent) the net conversion efficiency of the national system. The purpose of the present study is to recover'' a large number of nearly obsolete steam power plants by converting them to a combined cycle configuration. The expression generalized repowering'' has been used to synthetically describe this plant reconfiguration plan, and will be employed in this paper. After giving a brief description of the existing Italian electricity generation situation, the authors list some possible criteria for repowering and describe in detail the configurations which were considered to be feasible. Finally, the proposed options are comparatively analyzed, and the major parameters which can be of importance in the actual decision-making process on the part of the Public Utility are computed and presented in tabular form. In the conclusions the authors try to put the present work in the broader perspective of a large-scale (supernational), economically sound and ecologically acceptable energy conservation program.

  4. 移动支付的智能网关备份策略研究%Research on Intelligent Gateway Backup Strategy for Mobile Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The spread of 4G provided the basis for the development of mobile electronic commerce, and the mobile payment in mobile terminals was with the tide of development and spread. By analyzing mobile payment, this paper found the major risk for disruption in operation to be technical risks, and then proposed the use of technology and business strategy to construct the intelligent gateway backup, to make sure the continued stability of business operation.%4G的普及给移动电子商务的发展提供了基础,移动支付环节也随之在移动终端中进一步发展和普及。主要通过对移动支付的分析,发现移动支付开展中面临的中断风险主要为技术风险,随后通过运用技术和商业策略建设智能网关备份,保障业务的持续稳定开展。

  5. Fault Tolerant Global Scheduling with Backup Priority Promotion%副版本优先级可提升的全局容错调度算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭浩; 韩江洪; 魏振春; 卫星


    在主副版本机制的全局容错调度中,副版本运行窗口短,采用优先级继承策略的副版本响应时间长,容易错失截止期.针对副版本实时性差的问题,提出基于优先级提升策略的全局容错调度算法(fault tolerant global scheduling with backup priority promotion,FTGS-BPP),通过赋予副版本比主版本高的优先级,减少副版本在运行过程中受到的干扰,缩短了副版本的响应时间,改善了副版本的实时性,从而减少了实现容错所需的额外处理器资源.仿真结果表明,和采用优先级继承策略的全局容错调度算法相比,FTGS-BPP在调度相同的任务集时明显降低了处理器资源需求.

  6. Application Status and Thinking of Utility Value in COPD%效用值在COPD中的应用现状及思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瀚; 谢洋; 张攀; 余学庆


    Cost and utility analysis( CUA)takes life quality and survival time into comprehensive consideration and is widely applied both home and abroad. This research summarizes the measurement methods of utility value and reflects on the existing problems in research. Utility value can be tested by direct measurement including Rs,sG,TTO,PTO and ME,and indirect measurement which is firstly an questionnaire investigation about the preferences on a certain health condition of the subJects,then a suitable econometrics model being established and finally the utility value integral system being constructed. Now,there are still some problems in the research about COPD-related CUA in China. The theoretical measurement basis is not perfect. It is vague about the existence of marginal decreasing effect. A life quality questionnaire in accordance with Chinese reality is still not researched out. The measurement methods of utility value need further standardization.%成本-效用分析( CUA)综合考虑了人的生命质量和生存时间,在国内外应用日趋广泛。本研究对效用值的测量方法进行了总结,并对CUA研究中存在的问题进行思考。效用值的测量有直接测量法和间接测量法,直接测量法包括刻度法( RS)、标准博弈法( SG)、时间权衡法( TTO)、人数权衡法( PTO)和量值评估法( ME)等,间接测量法通过量表调查患者对某一健康状态的偏好程度,然后采用合适的计量经济学模型构建该量表的效用值积分体系。目前,国内COPD的CUA研究中,效用值测量的理论基础尚不完善,是否存在边际递减效应尚不明确,缺乏符合我国国情的生活质量量表,对效应值的测量方法仍需规范。

  7. Study and Application on Comprehensive Utilization of Silkworm Pupa%桑蚕蛹的综合利用研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 张成平; 李睿; 孙晓燕; 王永亮


    China is the origin of mulberry and sericulture, after thousands of years of history, now is the worlds silkworm industry center. At present our country has rich mulberry and silkworm resources, mulberry field area is about 800 000 hectares, produce per year chrysalis of nearly 700 000 t, raw silk 100 000 t. Now, the development and utilization of sericulture resources has become a very important topic. Silkworm pupa is the main by-product in silkworm mulberry industry, which is rich in nutritional and functional activity of components, and is a kind of important edible insect resources. In recent years, the comprehensive utilization of silkworm pupa resources at home and abroad has become a research hotspot. With the deepening of the research, it has attracted much attention in the food industry, medicine industry and biological engineering, and shows tremendous development potential. This paper will be based on silkworm pupa nutritional and medicinal value of silkworm pupa, the study of comprehensive utilization on primary and deep processing was reviewed in order to provide reference on further promoting the development of silkworm pupa in food and medicinal.%我国是桑蚕业的起源地,历经几千年的历史,现今又是世界桑蚕业的中心.目前,我国有着丰富的蚕桑资源,桑园面积达80多万hm2,年产茧近70万t,生丝10万t,蚕桑资源的开发利用已成为重要的课题.桑蚕蛹是蚕桑业中主要的副产物,具有丰富的营养和功能活性成分,是一种重要的药食兼用昆虫资源.近年来,桑蚕蛹资源的综合开发利用已成为国内外研究热点,并随着研究的不断深入,其在食品业、药品业和生物工程方面的利用已备受关注,具有极大的开发潜力.根据桑蚕蛹的营养价值和药用价值,对桑蚕蛹的初级和深入加工利用研究进行了综述,以期为进一步推进桑蚕蛹食用化和药用化开发提供参考.

  8. Application of STP technology in disaster backup of the same city%STP技术在同城灾难备份中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    随着IBM大型计算机技术的不断发展,大机环境下的时钟信号.从TOD(Time of Day)作为SYSTEM/370架构一部分推出.到ETR(External Time References)技术的采用.也在随着客户需求和技术的发展不断变革创新。2006年IBM推出了STP(Server Time Protocol)技术.解决了ETR在满足灾难备份解决方案中所存在的局限性。本文就该技术的相关内容做简单介绍和探讨。

  9. Distributed land surface modeling with utilization of multi-sensor satellite data: application for the vast agricultural terrain in cold region (United States)

    Muzylev, E.; Uspensky, A.; Gelfan, A.; Startseva, Z.; Volkova, E.; Kukharsky, A.; Romanov, P.; Alexandrovich, M.


    A technique for satellite-data-based modeling water and heat regimes of a large scale area has been developed and applied for the 227,300 km2 agricultural region in the European Russia. The core component of the technique is the physically based distributed Remote Sensing Based Land Surface Model (RSBLSM) intended for simulating transpiration by vegetation and evaporation from bare soil, vertical transfer of water and heat within soil and vegetation covers during a vegetation season as well as hydrothermal processes in soil and snow covers during a cold season, including snow accumulation and melt, dynamics of soil moisture and temperature during soil freezing and thawing, infiltration into frozen soil. Processes in the "atmosphere-snow-frozen soil" system are critical for cold region agriculture, as they control crop development in early spring before the vegetation season beginning. For assigning the model parameters as well as for preliminary calibrating and validating the model, available multi-year data sets of soil moisture/temperature profiles, evaporation, snow and soil freezing depth measured at the meteorological stations located within the study region have been utilized. To provide an appropriate parametrization of the model for the areas where ground-based measurements are unavailable, estimates have been utilized for vegetation, meteorological and snow characteristics derived from the multispectral measurements of AVHRR/NOAA (1999-2010), MODIS/EOS Terra & Aqua (2002-2010), AMSR-E/Aqua (2003-2004; 2008-2010), and SEVIRI/Meteosat-9 (2009-2010). The technologies of thematic processing the listed satellite data have been developed and applied to estimate the land surface and snow cover characteristics for the study area. The developed technologies of AVHRR data processing have been adapted to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) and emissivity (E), surface-air temperature at a level of vegetation cover (TA), normalized vegetation index (NDVI), leaf

  10. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.


    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  11. Entrez Programming Utilities (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  12. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Utility reimbursements. 5.632... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This...); (2) A public housing family paying an income-based rent (see § 960.253 of this title)....

  13. 24 CFR 891.440 - Adjustment of utility allowances. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustment of utility allowances... Project Management § 891.440 Adjustment of utility allowances. This section shall apply to projects funded... submit an analysis of any utility allowances applicable. Such data as changes in utility rates and...

  14. Effects of Different Nitrogen Application on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Rice%氮肥运筹对水稻干物质积累和氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Tiejing No.7 was used to research the effects of different nitrogen application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice.The results showed that the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application contributed the increase of the dry matter accumulation of the variety Tiejing No.7,reaching 15 570 kg/hm2,on the condition of that application amount of pure nitrogen was 255 kg/hm2 and the ratio of basal fertilizer and tillering fertilizer was 8:2.Meanwhile,the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application also enhanced total nitrogen absorption amount,but lowered nitrogen recovery rate and nitrogen harvest index declined.However,nitrogen physiological utilization ratio was highest with the treatment of pure nitrogen 210 kg/hm2.%以北方超级稻铁粳7号为试材,重点分析了氮肥运筹对水稻生产干物质积累和氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明,增加施氮量有利于提高铁粳7号的干物质重,在施纯氮255 kg/hm2、基蘖肥与穗粒肥比为8:2处理下成熟期的总干物重达到最高为15570 kg/hm2;增加施氮量会提高铁粳7号的总吸氮量,但氮素回收率和氮素收获指数会下降,而氮素生理利用率以施纯氮210 kg/hm2处理最高。

  15. 施钾对寒地水稻氮肥吸收和利用效率的影响%Effects of K Fertilizer Application on N Fertilizer absorbing and Utilization Ratio of Rice in Cold Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国发; 尤凤丽


    The effect of K fertilizer application on the N fertilizer absorption and utilization of Kongyul31 were studied. The application of K fertilizer could increase the yield of rice. When increasing the amount of K fertilizer, the relative content of N in rice decreased while the absolute absorption amour in it increasd, the relative amount of N in rice seed decreased, and apparent recovery- efficiency, partial factor productivity, agronomic efficiency and physiological efficiency of N fertilizer all increased. These resuts showed that K fertilizer application could promote the absorption and utilization of N fertilizer in rice.The optimal K fertilizer application amount(K2O) under this experimental condition should be 90.0 kg/bm2.%以粳稻品种空育131为材料,研究不同钾肥用量下水稻对氮肥吸收和利用效率的响应,为寒地水稻生产的合理施肥提供参考.结果表明,施钾可以提高水稻产量,且随施用量增加,水稻体内氮素相对含量降低,但绝对吸收量增加,稻谷中氮占全株比重下降,氮肥利用率、氮肥偏生产力、氮肥农学效率、氮肥生理利用率均呈增加趋势,施钾有利于促进水稻对氮素的吸收和氮肥利用效率的提高,试验条件下以全生育期90.0kg/hm2 K2O的施用量较佳.

  16. ARC Code TI: CFD Utility Software Library (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CFD Utility Software Library consists of nearly 30 libraries of Fortran 90 and 77 subroutines and almost 100 applications built on those libraries. Many of the...

  17. Industrial low temperature utilization of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.H.


    This brief presentation on industrial utilization of low temperature geothermal resources first considers an overview of what has been achieved in using geothermal resources in this way and, second, considers potential, future industrial applications.

  18. Nonexpected utility and coherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diecidue, E.


    The descriptive power of expected utility has been challenged by behavioral evidence showing that people deviate systematically from the expected utility paradigm. Since the end of the 70's several alternatives to the classical expected utility paradigm have been proposed in order to accommodate the

  19. The ability of battery second use strategies to impact plug-in electric vehicle prices and serve utility energy storage applications (United States)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Pesaran, Ahmad

    The high cost of lithium ion batteries is a major impediment to the increased market share of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and full electric vehicles (EVs). The reuse of PHEV/EV propulsion batteries in second use applications following the end of their automotive service life may have the potential to offset the high initial cost of these batteries today. Accurately assessing the value of such a strategy is exceedingly complex and entails many uncertainties. This paper takes a first step toward such an assessment by estimating the impact of battery second use on the initial cost of PHEV/EV batteries to automotive consumers and exploring the potential for grid-based energy storage applications to serve as a market for used PHEV/EV batteries. It is found that although battery second use is not expected to significantly affect today's PHEV/EV prices, it has the potential to become a common component of future automotive battery life cycles and potentially to transform markets in need of cost-effective energy storage. Based on these findings, the authors advise further investigation focused on forecasting long-term battery degradation and analyzing second-use applications in more detail.

  20. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization. (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya


    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  1. Utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice in Research of Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on Gene Therapy and Cell-Based Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Malm


    Full Text Available One of the most extensively used transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, which over express the Swedish mutation of APP together with PS1 deleted in exon 9. These mice show increase in parenchymal Aβ load with Aβ plaques starting from the age of four months, glial activation, and deficits in cognitive functions at the age of 6 months demonstrated by radial arm water maze and 12-13 months seen with Morris Water Maze test. As gene transfer technology allows the delivery of DNA into target cells to achieve the expression of a protective or therapeutic protein, and stem cell transplantation may create an environment supporting neuronal functions and clearing Aβ plaques, these therapeutic approaches alone or in combination represent potential therapeutic strategies that need to be tested in relevant animal models before testing in clinics. Here we review the current utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice in testing gene transfer and cell transplantation aimed at improving the protection of the neurons against Aβ toxicity and also reducing the brain levels of Aβ. Both gene therapy and cell based therapy may be feasible therapeutic approaches for human AD.

  2. Report on promotion of utilization of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report presents results of studies made by the Atomic Energy Commission concerning research and development activities to be carried out in future to promote the utilization of radiation. First, the current state of radiation utilization is described, centering on practical applications, research and development activities (for practical and advanced applications), and international cooperation (with developing and advanced nations). The second part deals with activities required in future to promote practical utilization of radiation, research and development of advanced techniques, and cooperation to be offered to developing countries. Third, specific measures to be carried out for effective radiation utilization are described. For ..gamma..-rays and electron beams, which are widely in use at present, there are some economic and social problems remaining to be solved. For advanced utilization of radiation beams, further efforts should be focused on basic research on ..pi..-meson and beams and their application to canser treatment and nuclear fusion; research on monochromatic neutron beams; application of RI beams to the development of new materials and new analysis techniques, application of epithermal neutron beams to elementary radiography and CT; etc. The utilization, application and development of tracers are also described. (Nogami, K.).

  3. SU-E-T-786: Utility of Gold Wires to Optimize Intensity Modulation Capacity of a Novel Directional Modulated Brachytherapy Tandem Applicator for Image Guided Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Scanderbeg, D [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States); Liu, Z [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of using gold wires to differentially fill various channels on plan quality compared with conventional T&R applicator, inside a novel directional modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator for cervical cancer brachytherapy. Materials and Methods: The novel DMBT tandem applicator has a 5.4-mm diameter MR-compatible tungsten alloy enclosed in a 0.3-mm thick plastic tubing that wraps around the tandem. To modulate the radiation intensity, 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3-mm diameter are grooved along the tungsten alloy rod. These grooved holes are differentially filled with gold wires to generate various degrees of directional beams. For example, three different fill patterns of 1) all void, 2) all filled except the hole containing the 192-Ir source, and 3) two adjacent holes to the 192-Ir source filled were Monte Carlo simulated. The resulting 3D dose distributions were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to generate HDR brachytherapy clinical plans for 19 patient cases. All plans generated were normalized to the same D90 as the clinical plans and D2cc doses of OARs were evaluated. Prescription ranged between 15 and 17.5Gy. Results: In general, the plans in case 1) resulted in the highest D2cc doses for the OARs with 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid, respectively, although the differences were small. For the case 2), D2cc doses were 11.61±2.29Gy, 7.41±3.07Gy, and 9.75±2.45Gy, respectively. And, for the case 3), D2cc doses were 11.60±2.28Gy, 7.41±3.05Gy, and 9.74±2.45Gy, respectively. Difference between 1) and 2) cases were small with the average D2cc difference of <0.64%. Difference between 1) and 3) cases were even smaller with the average D2cc difference of <0.1%. Conclusions: There is a minimal clinical benefit by differentially filling grooved holes in the novel DMBT tandem applicator for image guided cervical cancer brachytherapy.

  4. SU-F-BRA-05: Utility of the Combined Use of Two Types of HDR Sources with the Direction Modulation Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Scanderbeg, D [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)


    Purpose: To maximize the dose to HRCTV while minimizing dose to the OARs, the combination of two HDR brachytherapy sources, 192-Ir and 169-Yb, used in combination with the recently-proposed novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator were examined. Methods: The DMBT tandem, made from nonmagnetic tungsten-alloy rod, with diameter of 5.4mm, has 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3mm diameter. The 0.3mm thick bio-compatible plastic tubing wraps the tandem. MCNPX v.2.6 was used to simulate the mHDR 192-Ir V2 and 4140 HDR 169-Yb sources inside the DMBT applicator. Thought was by combining the higher energy 192-Ir (380keV) and lower energy 169-Yb (92.7keV) sources could create unprecedented level of dose conformality when combined with the high-degree intensity modulation capable DMBT tandem applicator. 3D dose matrices, with 1 mm3 resolution, were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to evaluate plan quality of 19 clinical patient cases. Prescription dose was 15Gy. All plans were normalized to receive the same HRCTV D90. Results: Generally, the use of dual sources produced better plans than using either of the sources alone, with significantly better performance in some patients. The mean D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for 192-Ir-only, respectively. For 169 -Yb-only, they were 11.67±2.26Gy, 7.44±3.02Gy, and 9.83±2.38Gy, respectively. The corresponding data for the dual sources were 11.51±2.24Gy, 7.30±3.00Gy, and 9.68 ±2.39Gy, respectively. The HRCTV D98 and V100 were 16.37±1.86Gy and 97.37±1.92Gy for Ir-192-only, respectively. For 169-Yb-only, they were 16.43±1.86Gy, and 97.51±1.91Gy, respectively. For the dual source, they were 16.42±1.87Gy and 97.47±1.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The plan quality improves, in some cases quite significantly, for when dual 192-Ir and 169-Yb sources are used in combination with highly intensity modulation capable

  5. ITK optical links backup document

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J


    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  6. Web-services-based integration of electric power utility real-time applications%基于Web服务的电力企业实时信息应用集成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛蓬; 李欣然; 唐国庆; 徐青山


    分析了电力企业实时应用各异构系统间难以共享信息的现状.基于Web服务技术设计了能提供业务服务、应用服务、客户服务和编制服务等多种服务的标准化的松耦合的一体化电力实时信息应用集成框架,应用Web服务提供通用基础架构支持,使用基于知识库的编制服务实现SCADA、EMS、DMS等实时应用系统间的实时信息互通和互操作.集成框架是否合理可根据系统安全性、可用性、性能、可扩展性和适应性等方面进行评估.%The barriers of information sharing among the heterogeneous real-time systems used in electric power utility are analyzed. The loosely-coupled and standardized framework for the real-time information application integration of electric power utility is designed based on Web services,which can provide business service,application service,customer service,orchestration service and so on. The Web services are applied to construct the general infrastructure while the knowledge-based orchestration services are used to realize the real-time information exchange and inter-operation among SCADA(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition), EMS (Energy Management System), DMS (Distribution Management System) and other real-time application systems. The reasonableness of integration framework can be evaluated in security,availability,performanee,extensibility and adaptability.

  7. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wang Hui [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gil-Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  8. Utility Solar Generation Valuation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Thomas N.; Dion, Phillip J.


    Tucson Electric Power (TEP) developed, tested and verified the results of a new and appropriate method for accurately evaluating the capacity credit of time variant solar generating sources and reviewed new methods to appropriately and fairly evaluate the value of solar generation to electric utilities. The project also reviewed general integrated approaches for adequately compensating owners of solar generation for their benefits to utilities. However, given the limited funding support and time duration of this project combined with the significant differences between utilities regarding rate structures, solar resource availability and coincidence of solar generation with peak load periods, it is well beyond the scope of this project to develop specific rate, rebate, and interconnection approaches to capture utility benefits for all possible utilities. The project developed computer software based evaluation method models to compare solar generation production data measured in very short term time increments called Sample Intervals over a typical utility Dispatch Cycle during an Evaluation Period against utility system load data. Ten second resolution generation production data from the SGSSS and actual one minute resolution TEP system load data for 2006 and 2007, along with data from the Pennington Street Garage 60 kW DC capacity solar unit installed in downtown Tucson will be applied to the model for testing and verification of the evaluation method. Data was provided by other utilities, but critical time periods of data were missing making results derived from that data inaccurate. The algorithms are based on previous analysis and review of specific 2005 and 2006 SGSSS production data. The model was built, tested and verified by in house TEP personnel. For this phase of the project, TEP communicated with, shared solar production data with and collaborated on the development of solar generation valuation tools with other utilities, including Arizona Public

  9. Evolutionary mechanism of port backup area: A case study of Shanghai%港口后勤区域形成演化机理——以上海港为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁双波; 曹有挥; 吴威


    立足当前国内港口后勤区域的发展现实,着重从格局与过程耦合的角度,把各种类港口后勤区域作为一个整体,对其形成演化机理进行理论探讨,揭示出全球供应链发展与港口功能演化、外部规模经济与企业合作推动、港口自身规模经济与边缘挑战、区域交通网络布局与资源禀赋以及城市发展需求与发展政策导向是推动港口后勤区域演化的重要驱动力,并归纳演绎了初步发育、非均衡拓展、非均衡快速扩张和高度分化四个阶段港口后勤区域演化模式。实证分析表明,上海港港口后勤区域正处于由非均衡快速扩张向高度分化阶段演化的过渡期,未来一段时间内,其演化将将进入高度分化阶段。%With the process of globalization, the competition among the ports, shipping lines and terminal operators to attain more container traffic has been intense. To obtain more container traffic, some ports have been making a great effort to be a logistic hub to increase their competitive advantage. Under the circumstances, port backup area has attracted much attention in recent years as an important function area. Based on the current development of various types of port backup function area, this paper puts emphasis on the perspective of coupled pattern and process, viewing various types of port backup area as a whole, and discusses the theory of formation and evolution mechanism. The authors hold that global supply chain and evolution of port function, external scale economy and enterprise cooperation promotion, port economy of scale and periphery challenge, regional transportation network layout, resource endowment and needs and policy guidance of urban development are the important driving forces to promote the evolution of port backup area. Meanwhile, the authors believe that evolution of port backup area can be classified into four stages, namely, the period of initial development, the

  10. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza


    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  11. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process to Establish Weighted Values for Evaluating the Stability of Slope Revegetation based on Hydroseeding Applications in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kil


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the major variables identified as important for considering the stabilization of slope revegetation based on hydroseeding applications and evaluate weights of each variable using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP with both environmental experts and civil engineers. Twenty-five variables were selected by the experts’ survey from a total of 65 from the existing literature, with each variable considered as an important factor for slope stabilization in South Korea. The final results from the AHP method showed that variables associated with the driving force of water resources showed higher values in all expert groups such as rain intensity, seepage water and drainage condition. Other important variables were related to plant growth such as vegetation community, vegetation coverage and quality of soil ameliorant produced in an artificial factory such as tensile strength, permeability coefficient, soil texture and organic matter. The five highest-ranked variables that satisfied both environmental experts and civil engineers were rain intensity, seepage water, slope angle, drainage condition and ground layer. The findings of this research could be helpful for developing a more accurate rating system to evaluate the stability of slope revegetation.

  12. 柠檬酸在改善日粮磷利用率中的应用%Application of Citric Acid Improving Phosphorus Utilization in Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    柠檬酸作为一种重要的饲料酸化剂,可以降低胃肠道pH,提高消化酶活性,改善胃肠道微生物区系,促进矿物质和维生素的吸收及消除抗营养因子。柠檬酸制剂能与磷形成一种生物效价高的络合物,促进磷的吸收和保留,可降低饲料的含磷量,有效地减少动物粪便中磷的排出。文章综述了植酸的抗营养作用、柠檬酸的作用及其在畜禽生产中的作用。%Citric acid is an important agent, it could reduce the acidi fication of the feed gastrointestinal pH value, improve the digestive enzymes activity, improve the gastrointestinal microbial zone, promote the minerals and vitamins absorption and eliminate antinutritional factors functions. Citric acid preparations and phosphorus can form a kind of prices, it had higher biological effection, and promoted the phosphorus to be absorbed of and withholded, so the phosphorus content of be greatly reduced, effectively reduce phosphorus eduction in animal feces. This paper reviewed the anti-nutritive effect of phytie acid, the effect of citric acid and its application in animal production.

  13. Beyond labels: A review of the application of quantum dots as integrated components of assays, bioprobes, and biosensors utilizing optical transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algar, W. Russ; Tavares, Anthony J. [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada)


    A comprehensive review of the development of assays, bioprobes, and biosensors using quantum dots (QDs) as integrated components is presented. In contrast to a QD that is selectively introduced as a label, an integrated QD is one that is present in a system throughout a bioanalysis, and simultaneously has a role in transduction and as a scaffold for biorecognition. Through a diverse array of coatings and bioconjugation strategies, it is possible to use QDs as a scaffold for biorecognition events. The modulation of QD luminescence provides the opportunity for the transduction of these events via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), charge transfer quenching, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL). An overview of the basic concepts and principles underlying the use of QDs with each of these transduction methods is provided, along with many examples of their application in biological sensing. The latter include: the detection of small molecules using enzyme-linked methods, or using aptamers as affinity probes; the detection of proteins via immunoassays or aptamers; nucleic acid hybridization assays; and assays for protease or nuclease activity. Strategies for multiplexed detection are highlighted among these examples. Although the majority of developments to date have been in vitro, QD-based methods for ex vivo biological sensing are emerging. Some special attention is given to the development of solid-phase assays, which offer certain advantages over their solution-phase counterparts.

  14. High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach. (United States)

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M


    The common household material, egg shell of Anas platyrhynchos is utilized for the synthesis of Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles using greener, environment friendly and economic way. The egg shell extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates and solvents. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, concentration in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of NPs have also been presented. The synthesized Ag NPs formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of particles in the range of 6-26 nm. While, Au-Ag core shell nanoparticles formed were spherical and oval shaped, within a narrow size spectrum of 9-18 nm. Both the Ag NPs Au-and Ag core shell nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure and surface plasmon resonance at 430 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B and Methylene Blue from aqueous phase. Approximately 98.2%, 98.4% and 97% degradations of Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B, and Methylene Blue were observed with Ag NPs, while the percentage degradation of these dyes was 97.3%, 97.6% and 96% with Au-Ag NPs, respectively. Therefore, the present study has opened up an innovative way for synthesizing Ag NPs and Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures of different morphologies and sizes involving the utilization of egg shell extract. The high efficiency of the NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from the industrial effluents.

  15. The development of training program syllabus for backup nurses based on post competency%基于岗位胜任力的机动库护士培训大纲的构建研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温贤秀; 敬洁


    Objective To design a scientific, practical and feasible backup nurses training program syllabus. Methods The qualitative research and Delphi technique were conducted to identity the training project, training content, teaching method and timing requirement for backup nurses based on the framework of post competency theory. Result The training program syllabus for backup nurses consisted of 6 training projects with 20 specific items. Moreover, the training time and teaching methods were identified. Conclusion The training program syllabus is based on the framework of post competency theory and provides scientific basis for the training of mobile nurses. The results showed that the expert consultation had good reliability and representation.%目的 构建一套科学、实用、可行的机动库护士培训大纲.方法 在岗位胜任力理论指导下,运用质性研究法和德尔菲专家咨询法,确立培训的项目、内容、学时与方式,建立机动库护士培训大纲.结果 以机动库护士岗位需具备的知识、技能、能力、特质为框架,构建的培训大纲涵盖6个培训项目共20项具体内容,并确定了相应的培训学时和授课方式.结论 在岗位胜任力理论框架指导下构建的培训大纲,为规范机动库护士岗位培训提供了科学依据,本研究结果表明,专家咨询代表性和可信度高.

  16. Development of a working face condition detector utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. Denjiha ni yoru kiriha no jokyo tanchi sochi no kaihatsu to genba eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tatsuo; Murakawa, Tadao (Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    This report outlines the development of a facing condition detector which detects the circumstances of faces in shield tunnelling utilizing electromagnetic wave and its application to sites. An underground radar which emits electromagnetic wave from the earth surface to the underground, receives the electric wave reflected from the surface of the target in the underground, and detects the existence or non-existence of and the position of the target is already put to practical use. Principle of this detector is the same as that of the underground radar. Difference is that it utilizes the dielectric constant of the reflected wave. The reflected wave comes back from the boundary of media of different dielectric constants such as the boundary of water and earth and the boundary of gravel and earch. Difference in time of emission and reception indicates the distance, and the strength of the reflected wave indicates the value of the dielectric constant. The distance and the dielectric constant help to judge the circumstances of the face. As a result of using this detector at sites, it was found out that this detector can be used satisfactorily at the present level as a digging administration equipment to detect abnormalities at the early stage although the indicated distance is quite ambiguous and experience is required to judge displays. 7 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Waste heat utilization in industrial processes (United States)

    Weichsel, M.; Heitmann, W.


    A survey is given of new developments in heat exchangers and heat pumps. With respect to practical applications, internal criteria for plant operation are discussed. Possibilities of government support are pointed out. Waste heat steam generators and waste heat aggregates for hot water generation or in some cases for steam superheating are used. The possibilities of utilization can be classified according to the economic improvements and according to their process applications, for example, gascooling. Examples are presented for a large variety of applications.

  18. Markov模型应用于药物经济学中效用值的计算及实例分析%Application of Markov Model in the Calculation of Utility Value of Pharmacoeconomics and Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王思颖; 彭六保; 曾小慧; 欧阳丽辉


    目的:阐述Markov模型基本概念和基本分析方法,为Markov模型在药物经济学中计算效用值的应用提供方法学参考.方法:参考国内、外相关文献及专著,结合具体实例对Markov模型在药物经济学中的运用进行阐述.结果与结论:Markov模型能较好地模拟慢性疾病的发展过程,特别适用于对临床干预远期效果的决策评价.%OBJECTIVE: To introduce the basic concepts of Markov model and its basic analysis method aimed at providing methodological reference for the application of Markov model in calculation of utility value of pharmacoeconomics. METHODS: Consulting a great deal of literature and information at home and abroad, the application of Markov model in pharmacoeconomics was illustrated on the basis of special example. RESULTS&CONCLUSION: Markov model can simulate the process and development of chronic disease, especially for the decision-making evaluation of long-term clinical intervention effects.

  19. Mining High Utility Itemsets with Regular Occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komate Amphawan


    Full Text Available High utility itemset mining (HUIM plays an important role in the data mining community and in a wide range of applications. For example, in retail business it is used for finding sets of sold products that give high profit, low cost, etc. These itemsets can help improve marketing strategies, make promotions/ advertisements, etc. However, since HUIM only considers utility values of items/itemsets, it may not be sufficient to observe product-buying behavior of customers such as information related to “regular purchases of sets of products having a high profit margin”. To address this issue, the occurrence behavior of itemsets (in the term of regularity simultaneously with their utility values was investigated. Then, the problem of mining high utility itemsets with regular occurrence (MHUIR to find sets of co-occurrence items with high utility values and regular occurrence in a database was considered. An efficient single-pass algorithm, called MHUIRA, was introduced. A new modified utility-list structure, called NUL, was designed to efficiently maintain utility values and occurrence information and to increase the efficiency of computing the utility of itemsets. Experimental studies on real and synthetic datasets and complexity analyses are provided to show the efficiency of MHUIRA combined with NUL in terms of time and space usage for mining interesting itemsets based on regularity and utility constraints.

  20. Recent development of vibration utilization engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bangchun WEN


    The utilization of vibration and wave, which was developed during the latter half of the 20th century, is one of the most valueable technology applications and has been rapidly developing recently [1-10]. Because the technique is closely associated with industry and agricul-ture, it can create huge social and economical benefits and provide excellent services for society. Thus, due to its necessity in industry and daily life, extensive research has been devoted to vibration utillization engineering. In this paper, vibration utilization is classified into linear or non-linear vibrations, waves, and electric-magnetic oscilla-tions. Their phenomena, patterns, and applications in nature and society are introduced. Some research results about vibration utilization engineering are described.

  1. 低锌旱地施锌方式对小麦产量和锌利用的影响%Effect of Zn application methods on wheat grain yield and Zn utilization in Zn-deficient soils of dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李孟华; 王朝辉; 王建伟; 毛晖; 戴健; 李强; 邹春琴


    Soil Zn deficiency and drought are serious stress factors limiting the Zn nutrition of crops in northwest China .Field experiments were conducted to study the effects of soil application , foliar application and soil +foliar application of Zn on yield , Zn contents and accumulation in grain , and Zn use efficiency of winter wheat grown under two N rates at two locations in the middle part of Loess Plateau .Results show that Zn application does not increase the grain yield of winter wheat , but can increase the grain Zn contents .The increases are varied with the Zn application methods , the grain Zn contents are increased by about 40%, up to 40 mg/kg for foliar application and soil+foliar application , not significant with soil application , although the soil DTPA -Zn is triply increased . Zinc use efficiency of the foliar applied Zn is higher than those of the soil and soil +foliar applied Zn .Each one kg/ha foliar applied Zn is observed to be able to increase the grain Zn content by 6.70-13.04 mg/kg.The grain Zn utilization and total Zn utilization efficiency are respectively 6.02%-9.40%and 19.78%-30.91%for the foliar applied Zn , which are correspondingly 80 and 132-221 times more than those for the soil applied Zn .Nitrogen rates have no effect on the yield and Zn utilization .Therefore, the foliar application of Zn is more cost-effective and environmental friendly than the soil application , and is one of the important practices to improve grain Zn concentration on Zn-deficient soils in dryland areas of northwestern China .%西北地区是我国典型的旱地低锌区。本文选择黄土高原中部两个典型地点,通过田间试验,在两个施氮水平下,研究了不施锌、土施锌、叶喷锌和土施+叶喷锌4种方式对冬小麦产量、锌的吸收和累积以及锌肥利用效率的影响。结果表明,不同施锌方式对小麦产量均无显著影响,但均提高了小麦子粒锌含量,提高幅度因施锌方式而异。

  2. Considerations On Security of Building The Backup Center For Disaster Recovery In The Insurance Company%保险公司灾备中心安全性建设思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article introduces the standard of government for insurance company and describes three patterns of building backup center for disaster recovery in the insurance company and how to choose them.Subsequently summarizes the general requirements and security regulations、organization structure and staffs、physical security、security technology and security management in security design.At last,analyzes the security problems for building backup center for disaster recovery in insurance company.%文章从政府对保险公司灾备系统建设的规范入手,介绍了保险公司灾备中心的建设的三种模式特点和适合哪些公司选择,针对自建模式下的安全性设计的总体要求和安全规范、组织和人员、物理安全、安全技术、安全管理等几个方面进行了总结,最后对灾备中心自建模式和外包模式建设中碰到典型安全性问题进行了分析。

  3. Lithium Battery Management System Used in Back-up Power Supply of Coal Mine Monitoring System%煤矿井下监控系统后备电源用锂电池管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何明刚; 李长录; 杨晓丹; 金树军


    In order to maintain the back-up power performance and prolong the service life of the battery,the back-up battery needs a management system.The system can detect every single cell in series of the battery,and accurately estimate SOC of the battery through the collection of real-time data from all single cells,and it can take a series of protective measures and display function in the battery charging and discharging process.%为了保持后备电源的性能和延长蓄电池的使用寿命,后备蓄电池需要有管理系统,探讨的锂电池管理系统能够检测串联电池组中的每个单体电池,通过采集到的所有单体电池实时数据,精确估算电池的荷电状态,并能够在电池充放电过程中采取一系列保护措施及显示的功能。

  4. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  5. UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The UtilityTelecom_TELEFAC data layer contains points which are intended to represent the location of telecommunications facilities (towers and/or antennas) in...

  6. Biotechnology of space utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, Hiroyuki


    This paper introdued the practical results of biotechnological experiments utilizing features of space and the present Japanese plan. The electrophoresis and crystal growth of protein utilize the microgravity field and cell culture utilizes the influence of microgravity on organism. Of practical results in space experiments, the electrophoresis was made by US but others were carried out by Europian countries. It was thought that the electrophoresis utilizing space environment could be demonstrated to be promosing for the separating and refining techniques by the experiment on the basis of the Apolo Project. The crystal growth of protein was reported by Litke of Denmark as to the crystal of lyzozyme. The space experiment of cell culture was carried out by Cogoli of Switzerland as to the culture of lymphocyte in the Shattle. Japan is studying the primary material experiment project(FMPT) in the Space Shattle and unmanned experiment for electrophoresis. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. UtilityOther_ELCFRANCHISE (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate and should be used...

  8. Information, Utility & Bounded Rationality

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega, Pedro A


    Perfectly rational decision-makers maximize expected utility, but crucially ignore the resource costs incurred when determining optimal actions. Here we employ an axiomatic framework for bounded rational decision-making based on a thermodynamic interpretation of resource costs as information costs. This leads to a variational "free utility" principle akin to thermodynamical free energy that trades off utility and information costs. We show that bounded optimal control solutions can be derived from this variational principle, which leads in general to stochastic policies. Furthermore, we show that risk-sensitive and robust (minimax) control schemes fall out naturally from this framework if the environment is considered as a bounded rational and perfectly rational opponent, respectively. When resource costs are ignored, the maximum expected utility principle is recovered.

  9. Utilization of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machihara, A.


    The chemical structure of lignin, the composition of pulping spent liquors, conversion of lignin into fine chemicals, utilization of lignin products, and physical and chemical properties of lignin and and derivatives are reviewed. (Refs 29).

  10. Seagate DiscWizard在Linux系统维护中的应用%Application of Seagate DiscWizard in Linux system maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白万清; 白方域


    Ghost was used to backup Windows operation system, was a usual tool and method. There were issues of files system compatibility for Linux system backup and restore. The process to implement the operation of Linux backup and restore was quite slow by special tools G4L, and the operation time was very long. This paper explored the use of disk utility- Seagate DiscWizard under the environment of Windows 7 to fasten the task of backup, restore and migration of different machines, together with caution and the advantages and disadvantages.%host是备份windows操作系统常用的工具和方法,但对Linux系统备份还原则有文件系统兼容问题.Linux备份还原专用工具G4L完成作业的进程缓慢,运行时间长.本文阐述用希捷的碰盘工具-seagate DiscWizard,在Windows7视窗界面下快速完成Linux系统的备份、还原和异机迁移,以及作业中的注意事项和优缺点.

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.


    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  12. Evaluation of Distribution Analysis Software for DER Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, RH


    The term ''Distributed energy resources'' or DER refers to a variety of compact, mostly self-contained power-generating technologies that can be combined with energy management and storage systems and used to improve the operation of the electricity distribution system, whether or not those technologies are connected to an electricity grid. Implementing DER can be as simple as installing a small electric generator to provide backup power at an electricity consumer's site. Or it can be a more complex system, highly integrated with the electricity grid and consisting of electricity generation, energy storage, and power management systems. DER devices provide opportunities for greater local control of electricity delivery and consumption. They also enable more efficient utilization of waste heat in combined cooling, heating and power (CHP) applications--boosting efficiency and lowering emissions. CHP systems can provide electricity, heat and hot water for industrial processes, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control to improve indoor air quality. DER technologies are playing an increasingly important role in the nation's energy portfolio. They can be used to meet base load power, peaking power, backup power, remote power, power quality, as well as cooling and heating needs. DER systems, ranging in size and capacity from a few kilowatts up to 50 MW, can include a number of technologies (e.g., supply-side and demand-side) that can be located at or near the location where the energy is used. Information pertaining to DER technologies, application solutions, successful installations, etc., can be found at the U.S. Department of Energy's DER Internet site [1]. Market forces in the restructured electricity markets are making DER, both more common and more active in the distribution systems throughout the US [2]. If DER devices can be made even more competitive with central generation sources this trend will become

  13. SU-E-T-787: Utility of the Two Candidate 192-Ir and 169-Yb HDR Sources for Use with a Novel Direction Modulated Brachytherapy Tandem Applicator for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)


    Purpose: A novel tungsten alloy shielded, MRI-compatible, direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) concept tandem applicator, which enables unprecedented intensity modulation, was used to evaluate treatment plan quality improvement over a conventional tandem. The utility of the 192-Ir and 169-Yb HDR sources, for use with the DMBT applicator, was evaluated. Methods: The total diameter of the DMBT tandem applicator is 6.0 mm, which consists of 5.4-mm diameter tungsten alloy and 0.3 mm thick plastic sheath. The tandem has 6 symmetric peripheral 1.3-mm diameter grooves for the source to travel. MCNPX v.2.6 was used to simulate the 192-Ir and 169-Yb sources inside the DMBT applicator. First, TG-43 source parameters were evaluated. Second, 3D dose matrix with 1 mm3 resolution were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization treatment planning program to obtain optimal plans for 19 clinical cases. All plans were compared with the standard tandem and ring plans. Prescription dose was 15.0 Gy. All plans were normalized to receive the same HRCTV D90. Results: Generally, the DMBT tandem (and ring) plans were better than the conventional tandem and ring plans for 192-Ir and 169-Yb HDR sources. The mean data of D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 11.65±2.30 Gy, 7.47±3.05 Gy, and 9.84±2.48 Gy for Ir-192 DMBT tandem, respectively. These data for Yb-169 were 11.67±2.26 Gy, 7.44±3.02 Gy, and 9.83±2.38 Gy, respectively. The HR-CTV D98 and V100 were 16.37±1.86 Gy and 97.37 ± 1.92 Gy for Ir-192 DMBT, respectively. The corresponding values for Yb-169 were 16.43±1.86 Gy, and 97.51 ± 1.91 Gy. Plans with the 169-Yb source generally produced more favorable results where V100 increased by 13.65% while D2cc across all OARs reduced by 0.54% compared with the 192-Ir plans. Conclusion: For the DMBT tandem applicator, 169-Yb source seems to produce more directional beams resulting in increased intensity modulation capacity, thus resulting in more conformal plans.

  14. Application of Grey Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Method in Urban Rainwater Utilization System%灰色模糊综合评价法在城市雨水利用系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲萍; 雷春生; 张凤娥; 董良飞; 涂保华


    In order to make clear the comprehensive benefits of urban rainwater utilization system to promote its application in the cit y, the urban rainwater ulilization system is needed to be evaluated objectively and accurately. An evaluation index system for urban rainwater ulilization system is presented , and an evaluation model is established by adopting Analysis Hierarchy Process to ascertain right weight and combining fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method with the Grey System Theory. Example study is conducted and the result validates the accuracy , validity and certain practical value of using grey fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the rainwater utilization system solution.%为明确城市雨水利用系统的综合效益,以促进其在城市的推广应用,需要客观、准确地评价城市雨水利用系统。提出了城市雨水利用系统的评价指标体系,利用层次分析法确定权重,并采用模糊综合评价法结合灰色系统理论,建立了灰色模糊综合评价模型,并结合雨水利用实例进行了研究。结果表明运用灰色模糊综合评价法来分析、解决雨水利用系统方案具有准确性和有效性,有一定的应用价值。

  15. Application of Chemical Regulating Technology for Utilization of Water and Fertilizer in Dry-land Agriculture%化学调控技术在旱地水肥利用中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培岭; 廖人宽; 任树梅; 李云开


    The issue on the theme of efficient utilization of water and fertilizer in dry-land agriculture was discussed.The mechanism of action of three typical chemical agents (soil conditioner-PAM,water retaining agent-SAP,antitranspirant-FA) in regulation of water and fertilizer and its application methods were introduced.Research of chemical regulating technology on four important parts were emphatically reviewed (enhancement of the accumulation of water and fertilizer,improvement of the soil and water conservation,improvement of the utilization of crop to water and fertilizer,increasing of the crop yield and quality) in dry-land agriculture production.Finally,the future important research directions were proposed.%围绕旱地农业生产中的水肥资源高效利用展开讨论,主要介绍了以3种典型化学调控制剂(土壤改良剂PAM、土壤保水剂SAP和蒸腾抑制剂FA)为代表的化学调控技术在旱地农业水肥资源利用方面的调控机制和应用方法,重点对化学调控技术在旱地农业生产中的增强水肥保蓄、提高坡地水土保持、改善作物水肥利用性能及提升作物品质和产量4个重要环节上的应用研究进行了综述,最后提出未来化学调控技术在旱地农业中应用的重点研究方向.

  16. Comprehensive utilization of digested residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reizhi Shen [Soil and Fertilizer Inst. of Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences (China)


    The application history of biogas technology in China covers almost one century. Until the 1980's, people's attention not only focused on the benefit of biogas as people's daily fuel, but also on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues. People are more and more interested in these methods of comprehensive utilization, which has led to many research projects on, among others, ''digested effluent as feed additive for pigs'', ''digested sludge for growing mushroom'', and ''digested effluent as pesticide''. Not only are biogas fermentation, organic waste such as animal manure, crop straw, distillery wastewater and the wastewater from slaughter houses converted to biogas, but also digested residues are very useful with a lot of ''potential value'' and ''special functions'', which will bring far more benefits than biogas alone. Some progress on the comprehensive utilization of digested residues in the past ten years is summarized below. (orig.)

  17. Smart Inverters for Utility and Industry Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Yaosuo; Guerrero, Josep M.


    Smart inverters are emerging with increasing renewable energy and smart grid development. While the recent work reviewed mostly focuses on defining standardized control functionalities and smart grid communication protocols, we take a holistic approach in this paper and propose a holon-type smart...

  18. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...... are important, but that economics cannot alone explain the differences in health care utilization....

  19. Meteorological technology application and development in wind energy resources utilization%风能资源开发利用的气象技术应用和发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽莉; 周荣卫; 杨振斌; 朱蓉


    In order to develop and utilize the wind energy resource efficiently, and realize the target of stepping from a big wind energy country into a strong wind energy country, this paper summarizes the application status, problems and impacts on project benefits in various aspects of meteorological technology application in wind energy exploiting based on a large number of past projects practice, data analysis and test results. Furthermore, based on the analysis of atmospheric science principles and the special needs of wind power to meteorological technology, it is pointed out the key technical issues and direction should be noted in the applying process of wind energy assessment, numerical simulation and numerical prediction technology.%基于要实现科学高效地开发利用风能资源,促进我国从风能大国向风能强国发展,针对风能资源开发利用过程中的气象技术应用,依据过去大量的项目实践、数据分析和相关测试试验结果,归纳总结了气象技术在我国风能资源开发利用各环节的应用现状、存在问题及其对项目效益可能产生的影响;在分析大气科学的相关原理和风电产业发展对气象技术应用的特殊需求基础上,提出了风能资源测量、分析评估、数值模拟和数值预报技术应用时应注意的几个关键技术问题及其发展方向.

  20. Application analysis of solar total energy systems to the residential sector. Volume III, conceptual design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The objective of the work described in this volume was to conceptualize suitable designs for solar total energy systems for the following residential market segments: single-family detached homes, single-family attached units (townhouses), low-rise apartments, and high-rise apartments. Conceptual designs for the total energy systems are based on parabolic trough collectors in conjunction with a 100 kWe organic Rankine cycle heat engine or a flat-plate, water-cooled photovoltaic array. The ORC-based systems are designed to operate as either independent (stand alone) systems that burn fossil fuel for backup electricity or as systems that purchase electricity from a utility grid for electrical backup. The ORC designs are classified as (1) a high temperature system designed to operate at 600/sup 0/F and (2) a low temperature system designed to operate at 300/sup 0/F. The 600/sup 0/F ORC system that purchases grid electricity as backup utilizes the thermal tracking principle and the 300/sup 0/F ORC system tracks the combined thermal and electrical loads. Reject heat from the condenser supplies thermal energy for heating and cooling. All of the ORC systems utilize fossil fuel boilers to supply backup thermal energy to both the primary (electrical generating) cycle and the secondary (thermal) cycle. Space heating is supplied by a central hot water (hydronic) system and a central absorption chiller supplies the space cooling loads. A central hot water system supplies domestic hot water. The photovoltaic system uses a central electrical vapor compression air conditioning system for space cooling, with space heating and domestic hot water provided by reject heat from the water-cooled array. All of the systems incorporate low temperature thermal storage (based on water as the storage medium) and lead--acid battery storage for electricity; in addition, the 600/sup 0/F ORC system uses a therminol-rock high temperature storage for the primary cycle. (WHK)

  1. Utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE)-index in predicting obesity in childhood and adolescence in Greece from early life: the "National Action Plan for Public Health". (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Moschonis, George; Karachaliou, Feneli; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Bogdanis, Gregory; Carayanni, Vilelmine; Hatzakis, Angelos; Michalacos, Stefanos


    Early identification of infants being at high risk to become obese at their later childhood or adolescence can be of vital importance in any obesity prevention initiative. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE)" index as a screening tool for the early prediction of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Anthropometric, socio-demographic data were collected cross-sectionally and retrospectively from a representative sample of 5946 children, and adolescents and were combined for calculating the CORE-index score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of the CORE-index score with obesity by gender and age group, and cut-off point analysis was also applied to identify the optimal value of the CORE-index score that differentiates obese from non-obese children. Mean CORE-index score in the total sample was 3.06 (sd 1.92) units (range 0-11 units). Each unit increase in the CORE-index score was found to be associated with a 30 % (95 % C.I. 1.24-1.36) increased likelihood for obesity in childhood or adolescence, while the optimal cut-off value of the CORE-index score that predicted obesity with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity was found to be 3.5.

  2. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization. (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.


    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  3. Module utilization committee (United States)

    Volkmer, K.; Praver, G.


    Photovoltaic collector modules were declared surplus to the needs of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. The Module Utilization Committee was formed to make appropriate disposition of the surplus modules on a national basis and to act as a broker for requests for these modules originating outside of the National Photovoltaics Program.

  4. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  5. Discovery of a Potent Acyclic, Tripeptidic, Acyl Sulfonamide Inhibitor of Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Protease as a Back-up to Asunaprevir with the Potential for Once-Daily Dosing. (United States)

    Sun, Li-Qiang; Mull, Eric; Zheng, Barbara; D'Andrea, Stanley; Zhao, Qian; Wang, Alan Xiangdong; Sin, Ny; Venables, Brian L; Sit, Sing-Yuen; Chen, Yan; Chen, Jie; Cocuzza, Anthony; Bilder, Donna M; Mathur, Arvind; Rampulla, Richard; Chen, Bang-Chi; Palani, Theerthagiri; Ganesan, Sivakumar; Arunachalam, Pirama Nayagam; Falk, Paul; Levine, Steven; Chen, Chaoqun; Friborg, Jacques; Yu, Fei; Hernandez, Dennis; Sheaffer, Amy K; Knipe, Jay O; Han, Yong-Hae; Schartman, Richard; Donoso, Maria; Mosure, Kathy; Sinz, Michael W; Zvyaga, Tatyana; Rajamani, Ramkumar; Kish, Kevin; Tredup, Jeffrey; Klei, Herbert E; Gao, Qi; Ng, Alicia; Mueller, Luciano; Grasela, Dennis M; Adams, Stephen; Loy, James; Levesque, Paul C; Sun, Huabin; Shi, Hong; Sun, Lucy; Warner, William; Li, Danshi; Zhu, Jialong; Wang, Ying-Kai; Fang, Hua; Cockett, Mark I; Meanwell, Nicholas A; McPhee, Fiona; Scola, Paul M


    The discovery of a back-up to the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitor asunaprevir (2) is described. The objective of this work was the identification of a drug with antiviral properties and toxicology parameters similar to 2, but with a preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) profile that was predictive of once-daily dosing. Critical to this discovery process was the employment of an ex vivo cardiovascular (CV) model which served to identify compounds that, like 2, were free of the CV liabilities that resulted in the discontinuation of BMS-605339 (1) from clinical trials. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) at each of the structural subsites in 2 were explored with substantial improvement in PK through modifications at the P1 site, while potency gains were found with small, but rationally designed structural changes to P4. Additional modifications at P3 were required to optimize the CV profile, and these combined SARs led to the discovery of BMS-890068 (29).

  6. 钠电解循环水余热利用系统的应用分析%Application Research of Exhausted Heat Utilization of Circulating Water from Sodium Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Aiming at the low utilization efficiency in industrial heat recovery, the paper indicates the application of exhausted heat utilization of circulating water from sodium reduction factory based on an ex-ample of a factory and introduces the structure, work flow and operation principle of the system. The mea-sured data are analyzed, and the useful energy of circulating water and the load of heating and process pre-heating is calculated. Also, a technical and economic analysis is made about the plan. The results show that the average flow circulating water is overwhelming and its temperature remains around 60℃throughout of the year. And it is economically and technically feasible to use exhausted heat from circulating water for building heating and process preheating. It can obtain great economic and social benefit.%针对目前工业余热利用率低的现状,以某制钠厂为例介绍了钠电解循环水余热利用系统的应用情况,对系统的组成、流程和运行原理进行了简要介绍。对系统的实测数据进行分析,计算得出循环水可以利用的热量以及采暖负荷和工艺预热负荷,对方案进行了技术经济分析。结果表明,钠厂电解循环水流量巨大,且温度常年保持在60℃以上,利用循环水余热进行供暖和工艺预热从技术上和经济上是可行的,项目实施后能够带来良好的经济效益和社会效益。

  7. Maximizing Resource Utilization in Video Streaming Systems (United States)

    Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah


    Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…

  8. Utilities:Other:Utilities at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:utilpnt_other) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, not including water- and power-related utilities, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utilities...

  9. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo


    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.



    Maria del Pilar Naranjo


    After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  12. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex


    At the strategic level, railways currently use different indices to estimate how ‘value’ is generated by using railway capacity. However, railway capacity is a multidisciplinary area, and attempts to develop various indices cannot provide a holistic measure of operational efficiency. European...... railways are facing a capacity challenge which is caused by passenger and freight demand exceeding the track capacity supply. In the absence of a comprehensive railway capacity manual, methodologies are needed to assess how well railways use their track capacity. This paper presents a novel...... and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways...

  13. Resourceful Utilization of Tannery Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Wang Xikui; Ding Maochen; Zhang Chaoyu


    Leather industry is an important light industry in China. Leather making requires a series of chemical treatment. Degreasing, unhairing and chrome tanning wastewaters are the main portions of tannery wastewater. Reclaiming and reusing these wastewaters can eliminate 80% of COD, 75% of BOD, 95% of chromium and 93% of sulfuret, furthermore reduce environment impact, decrease treatment costs, save chemicals and water. Some application methods of wastewater reclamation and reuse for dif- ferent operations were reported. The suitable reclamation and reuse technologies can enable leather making processes more ra- tional, and realize the recovery and recycle of several chemicals in the tannery. Resourceful utilization of tannery wastewater should mate with renovating production technology, updating equipment, and must be guaranteed sufficiently by environmental protection measures.

  14. Time functions as utilities

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E


    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K^+ relation (Seifert's relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg's and Levin's theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K^+ (or Seifert) relation which indeed...

  15. 叶酸利用能力分子医学检测在母胎医学领域的应用%Application of molecularmedical examination of folic acid utilization ability in maternal-fetal medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀娟; 徐敏; 徐梅; 杨燕; 卢伟; 于雪梅; 姜晶


    目的:探讨分子医学检测叶酸利用能力在母胎医学领域的研究与应用。方法通过检测MTHFR基因C677T、A1298 C及MTRR基因A66 G相关多态性位点,分析其遗传特征及分布特点,从而对叶酸利用能力遗传风险进行分级。结果青岛地区围产期妇女发现高度叶酸利用能力遗传风险的比例为23.17%,显著高于全国参考数据的17.70%(χ2=7.136,P<0.05);中度和低度叶酸利用能力遗传风险的比例分别为33.07%和18.19%,全国参考数据为35.18%和12.08%,无显著性差异(χ2值分别为7.452、2.347,均P>0.05),未发现遗传风险的比例为25.57%,显著低于全国参考数据的33.04%(χ2=8.134,P<0.05)。实验组与对照组的叶酸利用能力总体构成不同,存在统计学差异(χ2=15.67,P<0.01),高度风险组与未发现风险组的相对危险度( RR)为2.61。结论青岛地区围产期妇女叶酸代谢和利用障碍与不良孕产妇有着重要的关系,基于Taqman-MGB探针检测的孕期叶酸补充指导和监测将是进一步降低新生儿出生缺陷的重要方法。%[ Abstact] Objective To explore the application of molecular medical examination of folic acid utilization ability in maternal-fetal medicine.Methods By detecting MTHFR gene C677T, A1298C and MTRR gene A66G related polymorphisms, their genetic characteristics and distribution were analyzed, and thus to classify the genetic risk of folic acid utilization ability.Results In Qingdao the high genetic risk of folic acid utilization ability in perinatal women was 23.17%, which was significantly higher than the national reference data (17.70%) (χ2 =7.136, P0.05).Genetic risk was not found in 25.57%perinatal women, which was obviously lower than the national reference data (33.04%) (χ2 =8.134,P<0.05).The overall composition of folic acid utilization ability in the experimental group and

  16. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund


    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  17. Application of a proposed overcurrent relay in radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, A.; Vazquez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, A.P. 36-F, CU, CP 66450, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)


    This paper contains the application criteria and coordination process for a proposed overcurrent relay in a radial power system with feed from one or multiple sources. This relay uses independent functions to detect faults and to calculate the operation time. Also this relay uses a time element function that allows it to reduce the time relay operation, enhancing the backup protection. Some of the proposed approaches improve the sensitivity of the relay. The selection of the best approach in the proposed relay is defined by the needs of the application. The proposed protection can be considered as an additional function protection to conventional overcurrent relays. (author)

  18. Constraints to waste utilization and disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, E.N.; Sondreal, E.A.; Hassett, D.J.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)


    The value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established by research and commercial practice worldwide. As engineering construction materials, these products can add value and enhance strength and durability while simultaneously reducing cost and providing the environmental benefit of reduced solid waste disposal. In agricultural applications, gypsum-rich products can provide plant nutrients and improve the tilth of depleted soils over large areas of the country. In waste stabilization, the cementitious and pozzolanic properties of these products can immobilize hazardous nuclear, organic, and metal wastes for safe and effective environmental disposal. Although the value of coal combustion by-products for various applications is well established, the full utilization of coal combustion by-products has not been realized in most countries. The reasons for the under utilization of these materials include attitudes that make people reluctant to use waste materials, lack of engineering standards for high-volume uses beyond eminent replacement, and uncertainty about the environmental safety of coal ash utilization. More research and education are needed to increase the utilization of these materials. Standardization of technical specifications should be pursued through established standards organizations. Adoption of uniform specifications by government agencies and user trade associations should be encouraged. Specifications should address real-world application properties, such as air entrainment in concrete, rather than empirical parameters (e.g., loss on ignition). The extensive environmental assessment data already demonstrating the environmental safety of coal ash by-products in many applications should be more widely used, and data should be developed to include new applications.

  19. Time Functions as Utilities (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.


    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  20. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.


    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  1. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan


    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  2. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac


    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  3. Assessment of Research Needs for Coal Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.


    The Coal Combustion and Applications Working Group (CCAWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on coal combustion and utilization. The important topical areas of coal gasification and coal liquefaction have been deliberately excluded because R and D needs for these technologies were reviewed previously by the DOE Fossil Energy Research Working Group. The CCAWG studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect prospects for augmented coal utilization. In this report, we summarize the findings and research recommendations of CCAWG.

  4. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)


    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Project, building and utilization of a tomograph of micro metric resolution to application in soil science; Projeto, costrucao e uso de um tomografo de resolucao micrometrica para aplicacoes em ciencias do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Alvaro; Torre Neto, Andre; Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)


    This paper describes the project , building and utilization of a tomograph of micro metric resolution in soil science. It describes the problems involved in soil`s science study and it describes the system and methodology 3 figs.

  6. Utility survey of requirements for a HTS fault current limiter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Nygaard; Jørgensen, P.; Østergaard, Jacob;


    The application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) in the electric utility sector will clearly dependent on to what extent the needs and requirements of electric utilities can be met by the ongoing development of SFCL technology. This paper considers a questionnaire survey of which ...... needs and expectations the Danish electric utilities have to this new technology. A bus-tie application of SFCL in a distribution substation with three parallel-coupled transformers is discussed......The application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) in the electric utility sector will clearly dependent on to what extent the needs and requirements of electric utilities can be met by the ongoing development of SFCL technology. This paper considers a questionnaire survey of which...

  7. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria. (United States)

    Aimone, Ashley Mariko; Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C


    Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS) to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0-5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic relationships ranged from

  8. A systematic review of the application and utility of geographical information systems for exploring disease-disease relationships in paediatric global health research: the case of anaemia and malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimone Ashley Mariko


    Full Text Available Abstract Malaria and anaemia are important health problems among children globally. Iron deficiency anaemia may offer protection against malaria infection and iron supplementation may increase the risk of malaria-related hospitalization and mortality. The nature and mechanism of these relationships, however, remain largely unresolved, resulting in concern and uncertainty around policies for non-selective iron supplementation in malaria endemic areas. Use of geographical information systems (GIS to investigate this disease-disease interaction could contribute important new information for developing safe and effective anaemia and malaria interventions. To assess the current state of knowledge we conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Our primary objective was to qualitatively assess the application and utility of geographical concepts or spatial analyses in paediatric global health research. The secondary objective was to identify geographical factors that may be associated with anaemia and malaria prevalence or incidence among children 0–5 years of age living in low- and middle-income countries. Evaluation tools for assessing the quality of geographical data could not be found in the peer-reviewed or grey literature, and thus adapted versions of the STROBE (Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation methods were used to create reporting, and overall evidence quality scoring systems. Among the 20 included studies, we found that both malaria and anaemia were more prevalent in rural communities compared to urban areas. Geographical factors associated with malaria prevalence included regional transmission stability, and proximity to a mosquito breeding area. The prevalence of anaemia tended to vary inversely with greater or poorer access to community services such as piped water. Techniques for investigating geographic

  9. Asteroid exploration and utilization (United States)

    Radovich, Brian M.; Carlson, Alan E.; Date, Medha D.; Duarte, Manny G.; Erian, Neil F.; Gafka, George K.; Kappler, Peter H.; Patano, Scott J.; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar


    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources possessed by asteroids have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on mining an asteroid and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plan for humans to utilize asteroid resources. Project STONER is divided into two parts: asteroid selection and explorer spacecraft design. The spacecraft design team is responsible for the selection and integration of the subsystems: GNC, communications, automation, propulsion, power, structures, thermal systems, scientific instruments, and mechanisms used on the surface to retrieve and store asteroid regolith. The sample return mission scenario consists of eight primary phases that are critical to the mission.

  10. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  11. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  12. Fully integrated multi-optoelectronic synthesizer for THz pumping source in wireless communications with rich backup redundancy and wide tuning range (United States)

    Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lianping; Deng, Qiufang; Han, Liangshun; Liang, Song; Marsh, John H.; Zhu, Hongliang


    We report a monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) for THz communication applications. The PIC generates up to 4 optical frequency lines which can be mixed in a separate device to generate THz radiation, and each of the optical lines can be modulated individually to encode data. Physically, the PIC comprises an array of wavelength tunable distributed feedback lasers each with its own electro-absorption modulator. The lasers are designed with a long cavity to operate with a narrow linewidth, typically lasers is coupled via an multimode interference (MMI) coupler into a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). By appropriate selection and biasing of pairs of lasers, the optical beat signal can be tuned continuously over the range from 0.254 THz to 2.723 THz. The EAM of each channel enables signal leveling balanced between the lasers and realizing data encoding, currently at data rates up to 6.5 Gb/s. The PIC is fabricated using regrowth-free techniques, making it economic for volume applications, such for use in data centers. The PIC also has a degree of redundancy, making it suitable for applications, such as inter-satellite communications, where high reliability is mandatory.

  13. Utility-Based HTN Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgievski, Ilche; Lazovik, Alexander


    We propose the use of HTN planning for risk-sensitive planning domains. We suggest utility functions that reflect the risk attitude of compound tasks, and adapt a best-first search algorithm to take such utilities into account.

  14. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar


    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  15. 18 CFR 35.24 - Tax normalization for public utilities. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax normalization for... Other Filing Requirements § 35.24 Tax normalization for public utilities. (a) Applicability. (1) Except... normalization required. (i) A public utility must compute the income tax component of its cost of service...

  16. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  17. 7 CFR 1780.62 - Utility purchase contracts. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utility purchase contracts. 1780.62 Section 1780.62..., Constructing and Inspections § 1780.62 Utility purchase contracts. Applicants proposing to purchase water or... may be requested. Form RD 442-30, “Water Purchase Contract,” may be used when appropriate. If...

  18. 第七届全国城市运动会武术散打后备人才调研报告%Backup Talents Research Report of Wushu Sanda in the 7th National City Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    铁斐祎; 李志刚


      为全面了解我国武术散打后备人才发展现状,文章运用问卷调查法、文献资料法、数理统计法对参加第七届全国城市运动会散打预决赛运动员的学习、训练的基本情况进行研究,旨在发现我国青少年后备人才资源发展过程中的问题,提出相对应的对策,为我国武术散打后备人才的健康持续发展提供理论依据。研究结果表明:现阶段我国武术散打后备人才发展过程中存在“学训矛盾”突出、课程设置不够科学、运动员对文化认知较差等问题,这严重影响了武术散打后备人才的持续发展%  For comprehensively understand China's sanda reserved talents development present situations, the research through the questionnaire, literature data method, mathematical statistics method, attends the Seventh National City Games about sanda athletes'study, training and other basic situations.The study tries to find China's young reserved talents resources in the process of development,then this paper puts forward the corresponding countermeasures, to provide the theory basis for Wushu sanda backup talents Of China and thier sustainable development.The results show that: at present in China, Wushu sanda reserveD talents are facing the"learning-training contradictions" in their development process, thier curriculum setting is nor scientific, their cultural recognition is poorer and some other problems, all theese seriously affects sanda backup talents sustainable development.

  19. Wide-area Backup Protection Algorithm Based on Multi-source Data of Protection Elements and Phasor Measurement Units%基于保护元件与PMU数据多源的广域后备保护算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳; 王睿; 孙明蔚


    为了提高广域后备保护的准确性与容错性,提出了一种同时利用传统保护元件和相量测量单元(PMU)数据的广域后备保护算法。将实时获得的广域保护动作加权,得到综合判断值,然后采用高斯函数获得对应的故障概率。同时,根据统计数据,由正序电压幅值、线路两侧正序电流相角差,计算得到PMU数据对应的故障概率,再将两种故障概率加权综合。在理论上定量地分析了广域保护容错的极限位数。在IEEE 14节点系统上的多组案例实验结果表明,该算法对多个保护误动与拒动有较高的容错性,并且能够检测多重故障。%In order to improve the correctness and fault-tolerance of wide-area backup protection, a novel wide-area protection algorithm using traditional protection components and phasor measurement unit (PMU) data is proposed. Firstly, the online obtained protection components are weighed to get the comprehensive judgment value. Then a Gaussian function is used to get the fault probability. At the same time, using the amplitude of positive sequence voltage and phase angle difference of positive- sequence currents within a line, the probability from PMU is also obtained. These two probabilities are weighted comprehensive to find the fault component. The limit digit number of wide-area backup protection is analyzed theoretically. The simulation tests based on IEEE 14-bus system illustrate the effectiveness and high fault-tolerance capability of the algorithm with the mis-operation and refuse-operation of multiple protections, as well as the detection of multiple faults.

  20. Design on Lithium-ion Battery Backup Power System in Coal Mine Refuge Chamber%煤矿避难硐室锂离子蓄电池后备电源系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖林京; 常龙; 张瑞雪; 岳明臣; 公栋梁


    In order to meet special requirements of backup power in coal mine refuge chamber,firstly serial lithium-ion batteries were put in an explosion protection box with their battery management system.Then parallel explosion protection boxes formed the backup power system.The system included voltage detection and balance controller,battery pack module controller,assembly controller,LCD controller.It collected voltage and temperature data by distribution voltage sampling method and DS18B20 temperature sensor. It collected current data by current hall sensors.Then system took steps to prevent over voltage,over temperature,over current etc.Through field test verification, system operation was steady,measuring error of current and voltage were far less than the specified value of coal mine safety standards.%为满足煤矿避难硐室锂后备电源系统的特殊要求,将多个单体锂离子蓄电池串联成组,配套管理系统放入隔爆箱内构成电池组模块,再把多个电池组模块并联使用构成煤矿避难硐室锂离子蓄电池后备电源系统。管理系统按照功能分为单体电压检测均衡控制器、电池组模块控制器、总成控制器、液晶显示控制器。系统应用分布电压采集法和DS18B20温度传感器采集单体电池电压、温度数据,应用电流霍尔传感器采集电池组电流数据,再根据这些数据对电源系统进行过压、过温、过流等保护。通过现场试验验证,系统运行稳定,电流和电压测量误差远小于煤矿安全标准的规定值。

  1. Development of a fully-integrated PV system for residential applications: Phase I annual technical report: February 27, 1998 -- August 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, R.; Mackamul, K.; Duran, G.


    This report describes Utility Power Group's (UPG's) technical progress for Phase 1 of a two-phase effort to focus on the design, assembly, and testing of a fully-integrated residential PV power system, including storage. In the PV Array Task, UPG significantly improved the conventional means and methods required to structurally interface PV modules to the roofs of single-family residential houses and to electrically interconnect these PV modules to a power conversion unit. UPG focused on the design and test of a PV array based on the highly efficient use of materials and labor. Design criteria included cost, structural integrity, electrical safety, reliability, conformance with applicable standards and building and seismic codes, and adaptability to a wide range of roof materials for both existing and retrofit roof applications. In the Power Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a high-efficiency, low-cost, high-reliability prototype power conversion unit that included all materials, components, equipment, and software required to perform all DC-AC/AC-DC power collection, conversion, and control functions between the output of the PV array and the interconnection to the electrical grid service of single-family residences. In the Energy Storage Unit Task, UPG designed and tested a low-cost, modular, self-contained, low-maintenance, all-weather, battery-based Energy Storage Unit designed to interface with the Power Unit to provide back-up electricity to supply critical household loads in the event of utility-grid failure. The Energy Storage Unit includes batteries and all structural, mechanical, and electrical equipment required to provide a source of stored DC energy for input of the Power Unit. UPG designed the storage unit as a ''plug and play'' option, where multiple units can be easily paralleled for additional energy storage capacity.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke


    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  4. Utilization of Large Cohesive Interface Elements for Delamination Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lund, Erik


    This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law.......This paper describes the difficulties of utilizing large interface elements in delamination simulation. Solutions to increase the size of applicable interface elements are described and cover numerical integration of the element and modifications of the cohesive law....

  5. 马斯洛需求层次理论在水资源开发利用进程中的应用%Application of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory to Utilization of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 邹进; 胡吉敏; 晏欣


    基于马斯洛需求层次理论,将理论中的五种需求分别对应水资源开发利用中的工程水利、资源水利、人水和谐水利三个阶段,并以我国水资源开发利用进程为例,从人类需求的角度分析了水资源开发利用变化规律及发展方向,提出需求引发了人们对水资源的开发利用井推动其变化、发展,认为人水和谐为人类对水资源开发利用的最终方向.%Based on the Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, three stages of water resources development and utilization including engineering water conservancy, resources water conservancy and human-water harmony conservancy are denoted by five kinds of needs in the theory. Taking the water resources development and utilization in China for an example, the variation rules and development trend are analyzed from the aspect of human needs. It also proposes that the human needs is the motive power to the utilization of water resources and drives the changes and development of water resources utilization. Human-water harmony is considered as the ultimate direction of water resources utilization.

  6. Utilization management in anatomic pathology. (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven


    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management.

  7. Automated ISS Flight Utilities (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic


    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  8. PFBC Utility Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report provides a summary of activities by American Electric Power Service Corporation during the first budget period of the PFBC Utility Demonstration Project. In April 1990, AEP signed a Cooperative Agreement with the US Department of Energy to repower the Philip Sporn Plant, Units 3 4 in New Haven, West Virginia, with a 330 KW PFBC plant. The purpose of the program was to demonstrate and verify PFBC in a full-scale commercial plant. The technical and cost baselines of the Cooperative Agreement were based on a preliminary engineering and design and a cost estimate developed by AEP subsequent to AEP's proposal submittal in May 1988, and prior to the signing of the Cooperative Agreement. The Statement of Work in the first budget period of the Cooperative Agreement included a task to develop a preliminary design and cost estimate for erecting a Greenfield plant and to conduct a comparison with the repowering option. The comparative assessment of the options concluded that erecting a Greenfield plant rather than repowering the existing Sporn Plant could be the technically and economically superior alternative. The Greenfield plant would have a capacity of 340 MW. The ten additional MW output is due to the ability to better match the steam cycle to the PFBC system with a new balance of plant design. In addition to this study, the conceptual design of the Sporn Repowering led to several items which warranted optimization studies with the goal to develop a more cost effective design.

  9. Gas utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljetina, R.


    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ``Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD&D Priorities`` indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ``Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,`` clearly identify the market sectors driving today`s technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors.

  10. Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process to the River Shoreline Resources Development and Utilization%浅谈层次分析法在岸线开发利用中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      针对岸线资源开发利用中存在盲目、无序现状,通过层次分析法建立岸线开发利用分析模型,结合案例从防洪、经济、环境、供水以及航运的影响对岸线开发方案进行评价,判断适合岸线开发利用的方案。%  The river shoreline resources development and utilization are in disorder and blind development. The analysis model of shoreline development and utilization is established. The optimal shoreline development and utilization scheme is achieved by the analytic hierarchy process, considering the case from the flood control, economy, environment, water supply and shipping of the shoreline development scheme.

  11. Coastal reclamation area water conservancy planning backup seawall program preferred research%沿海围垦区水利规划备塘方案优选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周贺达; 张会玉


    With the process of urbanization and industrialization in our coastal areas ,beach reclamation project will usher in a new golden period.The seawall planning determines the basic framework of the reclamation area,Considering the backup seawall program preferred for coastal reclamation area,the index system was es-tablished,using fuzzy hierarchy comprehensive evaluation model for options preferred,aiming at giving a com-prehensive objective evaluation on various programs.%随着我国沿海地区城镇化和工业化进程的加快,滩涂围垦工程将迎来新的黄金期。海塘的规划决定围垦区的基本框架,针对沿海围垦区备塘方案优选问题,建立指标体系,并运用模糊层次综合评判模型对备选方案进行优选,旨在全面的对各方案进行客观评价。

  12. Design, analysis and control of large transports so that control of engine thrust can be used as a back-up of the primary flight controls. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Roskam, Jan; Ackers, Deane E.; Gerren, Donna S.


    A propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system has been developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to provide safe, emergency landing capability should the primary flight control system of the aircraft fail. As a result of the successful PCA work being done at NASA Dryden, this project investigated the possibility of incorporating the PCA system as a backup flight control system in the design of a large, ultra-high capacity megatransport in such a way that flight path control using only the engines is not only possible, but meets MIL-Spec Level 1 or Level 2 handling quality requirements. An 800 passenger megatransport aircraft was designed and programmed into the NASA Dryden simulator. Many different analysis methods were used to evaluate the flying qualities of the megatransport while using engine thrust for flight path control, including: (1) Bode and root locus plot analysis to evaluate the frequency and damping ratio response of the megatransport; (2) analysis of actual simulator strip chart recordings to evaluate the time history response of the megatransport; and (3) analysis of Cooper-Harper pilot ratings by two NaSA test pilots.

  13. 副版本延迟的多处理器全局实时容错调度算法%Global real-time fault tolerant scheduling algorithm for backup delay multiprocessor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭浩; 韩江洪; 陆阳; 夏伟


    针对多处理器硬实时系统运行过程中任务出错问题,提出一种基于主副版本策略的固定优先级全局容错调度算法FTGS-BD(fault tolerant global scheduling with backup delay).该算法使用主动副版本和被动副版本,在保证实时性的前提下根据任务需求和硬件性能尽可能的推迟主动副版本的运行,并在不需要副版本响应时回收分配给副版本的资源,从而减少实现容错所需的代价.仿真结果表明,和仅使用被动副版本的全局容错调度算法相比,在调度相同的任务集时,FTGS-BD最多可以减少20%的处理器资源需求,平均减少12%.FTGS-BD能够应用于主副版本总使用率最大值大于1的任务集.

  14. 基于IEC 61850变电站广域后备保护agent的信息模型研究%Research on Information Model of Substation Wide-area Backup Protection Agent Based on IEC 61850

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钦辉; 程汉湘; 黄丽英


    为了提高电力系统的安全性,使广域后备保护(wide-area backup protection,WABP)设备满足变电站自动化系统的发展要求,对基于IEC 61850的分布式多主体(multiagent)WABP信息模型进行了研究.介绍了multiagent WABP的结构及功能,详细说明了WABP 主体(agent)的设计方法,包括保护智能电子设备(intelligent electronic device,IED)的对象模式、WABP agent的组成模块、保护agent和常规逻辑节点间的信息流,根据信息的不同类型,可以选择传输控制协议或用户数据报协议在不同变电站之间来传递信息.最后,对广域通信模型进行了介绍.采用广域协作策略的multiagent WABP可以准确判断系统故障,具有很好的可行性和实用性.

  15. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  16. Facility Utilization Reports -  FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  17. Conducting polymers: Synthesis and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)


    The Conducting Polymer project funded by the AIM Materials Program is developing new methods for the synthesis of electronically conducting polymers and is evaluating new industrial applications for these materials which will result in significant reductions in energy usage or industrial waste. The applications specifically addressed during FY 1994 are electrochemical capacitors and membranes for gas separation. As an active material in electrochemical capacitors, conducting polymers have the potential of storing large amounts of electrical energy in low cost materials. Such devices are needed in electronics for power failure back-up and peak power, in power supplies for filtering, and in electric vehicles for peak power and load leveling. As a gas electrically adapt the membrane for specific gas combinations. Potential energy savings in the US. for this application are estimated at 1 to 3 quads/yr.

  18. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  19. Electric utility industry and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y. (ed.)


    The objective of the workshop reported in these proceedings was to bring together planners, public officials, and community leaders with members of the utility industry to learn about utilities and to permit a meaningful exchange of information. This workshop was held at the Annual Meeting of the American Planning Association and its Energy Planning Division. The workshop was designed to inform planners about the electric-utility industry. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 4 individual presentations.

  20. Differentially Private Search Log Sanitization with Optimal Output Utility

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, Yuan; Lu, Haibing; Wu, Mingrui


    Web search logs contain extremely sensitive data, as evidenced by the recent AOL incident. However, storing and analyzing search logs can be very useful for many purposes (i.e. investigating human behavior). Thus, an important research question is how to privately sanitize search logs. Although several search log anonymization techniques have been proposed with concrete privacy models, the output utility of most techniques is merely evaluated but not necessarily maximized. Indeed, when applying any privacy standard to the search log anonymization, the optimal (maximum utility) output can be derived according to the inter-relation between privacy and utility. In this paper, we take a first step towards tackling this problem by formulating utility-maximizing optimization problems based on the rigorous privacy standard of differential privacy. Specifically, we utilize optimization models to maximize the output utility of the sanitization for different applications, while ensuring that the production process sati...

  1. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  2. Development of coal energy utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Coal liquefaction produces new and clean energy by performing hydrogenation, decomposition and liquefaction on coal under high temperatures and pressures. NEDO has been developing bituminous coal liquefaction technologies by using a 150-t/d pilot plant. It has also developed quality improving and utilization technologies for liquefied coal, whose practical use is expected. For developing coal gasification technologies, construction is in progress for a 200-t/d pilot plant for spouted bed gasification power generation. NEDO intends to develop coal gasification composite cycle power generation with high efficiency and of environment harmonious type. This paper summarizes the results obtained during fiscal 1994. It also dwells on technologies to manufacture hydrogen from coal. It further describes development of technologies to manufacture methane and substituting natural gas (SNG) by hydrogenating and gasifying coal. The ARCH process can select three operation modes depending on which of SNG yield, thermal efficiency or BTX yield is targeted. With respect to promotion of coal utilization technologies, description is given on surveys on development of next generation technologies for coal utilization, and clean coal technology promotion projects. International coal utilization and application projects are also described. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Enhanced Utility Accrual Scheduling Algorithms for Adaptive Real Time System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idawaty Ahmad


    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study proposed two utility accrual real time scheduling algorithms named as Preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (PUAS and Non-preemptive Utility Accrual Scheduling (NUAS algorithms. These algorithms addressed the unnecessary abortion problem that was identified in the existing algorithm known as General Utility Scheduling (GUS. It is observed that GUS is inefficient for independent task model because it simply aborts any task that currently executing a resource with lower utility when a new task with higher utility requests the resource. The scheduling optimality criteria are based on maximizing accrued utility accumulated from execution of all tasks in the system. These criteria are named as Utility Accrual (UA. The UA scheduling algorithms are design for adaptive real time system environment where deadline misses are tolerable and do not have great consequences to the system. Approach: We eliminated the scheduling decision to abort a task in GUS and proposed to preempt a task instead of being aborted if the task is preemptive able. We compared the performances of these algorithms by using discrete event simulation. Results: The proposed PUAS algorithm achieved the highest accrued utility for the entire load range. This is followed by the NUAS and GUS algorithms. Conclusion: Simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithms were more efficient than the existing algorithm, producing with higher accrued utility ratio and less abortion ratio making it more suitable and efficient for real time application domain.

  4. Method and apparatus for faulty memory utilization (United States)

    Cher, Chen-Yong; Andrade Costa, Carlos H.; Park, Yoonho; Rosenburg, Bryan S.; Ryu, Kyung D.


    A method for faulty memory utilization in a memory system includes: obtaining information regarding memory health status of at least one memory page in the memory system; determining an error tolerance of the memory page when the information regarding memory health status indicates that a failure is predicted to occur in an area of the memory system affecting the memory page; initiating a migration of data stored in the memory page when it is determined that the data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant; notifying at least one application regarding a predicted operating system failure and/or a predicted application failure when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is non-error-tolerant and cannot be migrated; and notifying at least one application regarding the memory failure predicted to occur when it is determined that data stored in the memory page is error-tolerant.

  5. Final Report: Assessment of Combined Heat and Power Premium Power Applications in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norwood, Zack; Lipman, Tim; Marnay, Chris; Kammen, Dan


    utility. Third, at marginal additional cost, if the reliability of CHP systems proves to be at least as high as diesel generators (which we expect to be the case), the CHP system could replace the diesel generator at little or no additional cost. This is true if the thermal to electric (relative) load of those facilities was already high enough to economically justify a CHP system. Last, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, the modeled CHP and CCHP systems provide some degree of decreased emissions relative to systems with less CHP installed. The emission reduction can be up to 10% in the optimized case (Scenario 3) in the application with the highest relative thermal load, in this case the hospital. Although these results should be qualified because they are only based on the three case studies, the general results and lessons learned are expected to be applicable across a broad range of potential and existing CCHP systems.

  6. Heat utilization (2); Netsuriyo (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akizawa, Jun [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Tecnology, Tokyo (Japan)


    (102) The application of the carbon dioxide separation and collection system using CPC to the thermal power plant. (103) The effect of the scattered light on collection of heat of solar pond. (104) The development of the Basin- multiple-effect compound type solar heat distiller. (Production and performance test of the small plant.) (105) On the plan of the new-model solar heat engine. (106) The performance prediction of solar power system using Stirling engine. (Part 2 The case in which the divided condenser was used.) (107) The trial manufacture of the sun cooker. It was announced and was made of 6 from various regions in this session on the heat utilization. On the multiple-effect compound type solar heat distiller, the comment that the feasibility could be expected from the simple structure was made. And, the question on system operation of allocation of the distillation quantity, etc. was actively made. On 2 of plan of the new-model solar heat engine and trial manufacture of the sun cooker, it was not possible that the publicator came for the aged to Okinawa, and instead, it became an announcement by tape and OHP blown in self. Though it was the form which there was no in the convention, it could be heard of that it is major field. It was thought, because there was some an announcement on the Stirling engine in the this session, place be able to. And, photograph and experimental result of the prototype are also included for the announcement of the sun cooker and want to desire the opportunities which hear the direct announcement. It wants to be thankful for hardship Mr.Naito the Science and Technology Agency National Aerospace Laboratory that it carried tape and OHP and assisted the announcement. The biomass. (108) The measurement approach of the environment resuscitation acceleration effect. (109) The basic research on the biogas storage by the clathration. The behavior of the carbon dioxide in the clathrate generation. (111) The solar thermal application

  7. Utility supply portfolio diversity requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanser, Philip; Graves, Frank


    In general, diversification for its own sake by utilities is likely to come at significant cost from ignoring or having to overcome engineering reasons for preferring a less diversified portfolio of resources. Integrated utilities, distcos and merchant gencos are likely to pursue widely divergent strategies in this regard. (author)

  8. The Evaluator's Responsibility for Utilization. (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn


    The role of the evaluator in insuring utilization and quality of evaluation results is discussed. Topics covered include a utilization-focused vision of accountability, overcoming staff fears of evaluation, eliciting the right information from users, situational responsiveness, and advocacy. (TJH)

  9. Standardized hydrogen storage module with high utilization factor based on metal hydride-graphite composites (United States)

    Bürger, Inga; Dieterich, Mila; Pohlmann, Carsten; Röntzsch, Lars; Linder, Marc


    In view of hydrogen based backup power systems or small-scale power2gas units, hydrogen storages based on metal hydrides offer a safe and reliable solution. By using Hydralloy C5 as suitable hydride forming alloy, the present tank design guarantees very simple operating conditions: pressures between 4 bar and 30 bar, temperatures between 15 °C and 40 °C and minimal efforts for thermal management in combination with fast and constant charging and discharging capabilities. The modular tank consists of 4 layers with 5 reactor tubes each that are filled with metal hydride-graphite composites of a diameter of 21 mm. Experiments show that each layer of this tank is able to desorb the desired amount of hydrogen for a fuel cell operation at electrical power of 160 Wel for 100 min reaching a utilization factor of 93% of the stored hydrogen at RC. Furthermore, the experimental results of modularity, increasing loads and the electric air ventilation are presented.

  10. Application on Residual Heat Circulated Utilization System of Coal Rejects Brick Making%煤矸石制砖余热循环利用系统及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏龙; 牛永胜; 孟杰; 王建学


    According to the utilization issue of great residual heat occurred from the coal rejects brick making process,the paper discussed the feasibility of the waste heat recovery and utilization from the smoke discharging and moisture removing of the coal rejects brick making.The paper had a study on the waste heat recovery and utilization technology of moisture removing and smoke discharging.Taking a coal rejects brick plant of a mine as an example,an analysis was conducted on the operation effect and the economic and social benefits of the flue gas residual heat utilization project of the brick making in the mine coal rejects brick plant.The research showed that the recovery technology combined with the thermal pump technology and the thermal pipeline technology could have an effective chain utilization of the residual heat from the moisture removing and smoke discharging in the coal rejects brick plant.The outlet water temperature of the new chain smoke cooler could be stabilized over 60 ℃ and the outlet water temperature of thermal pump unit would be ranging from 45~55 ℃.Those two thermal water could meet the mine heat supply requirements with different way and could replace the boilers for the heat supply.Therefore,the energy conservation and emission reduction effects would be remarkable.%为利用煤矸石制砖过程产生的大量余热,探讨了煤矸石制砖排烟、排潮废热回收利用的可行性,研究了排潮、排烟废热回收利用工艺,并以某煤矿矸石砖厂为例,对煤矿矸石砖厂制砖烟气余热利用工程运行效果和经济、社会效益进行分析。研究表明:采用热泵技术与热管技术相结合的回收工艺可实现矸石砖厂排潮、排烟余热的有效梯级利用,新型梯级烟冷器出水温度稳定在60℃以上,热泵机组出水温度在45~55℃,能满足不同供热形式的煤矿用热需求,可替代锅炉供热,节能减排效果显著。

  11. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C


    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  12. Causes Analysis of Spalling of Backup Roll Bearing and Its Countermeasures in 1220mm Cold Tandem Mill%1220mm轧机支撑辊轴承外圈裂纹剥落分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段泉义; 徐俊; 程其华; 姚寿军


    To serious situation of backup roll bearing no-normal scrapped of 1220mm cold tandem mill of Baosteel, the causes were analyzed from lubrication and sealing. Therefore, some countermeasures were applied, including increasing oil level of lubrication oil tank from 30% to 70%~80%, shortening cycles of oil and water separation, changing cycles of seal replacement from 3~6 months to 3 months, strengthening bearing statue tracking and maintenance, and the number of support roller bearing scrapped due to the outer ring crack spalling was significantly reduced.%针对宝山钢铁股份有限公司冷轧薄板厂1220mm冷连轧机组支撑辊轴承非正常报废情况较为严重的问题,结合现场实际,从润滑、密封等多个角度分析了引起冷轧支撑辊轴承外圈裂纹剥落的深层原因,通过将润滑油油箱液位由30%增加到70%~80%,缩短润滑油的油水分离周期,将密封圈更换周期由原来的3~6个月改为固定的3个月,加强轴承状态跟踪及管理维护,使支撑辊轴承因外圈裂纹剥落而报废的数量明显降低.

  13. Analysis of Computer Database Backup and Recovery Technology and Implementation%浅析计算机数据库备份与恢复技术的应用与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the development of science and technology, Internet technology is the rapid progress, the computer database has been in the computer technology occupy a more important position. However, the development of science and technology makes the computer database has often been hacked or virus attack, therefore, in the field of computer science, research on com-puter database has become a priority among priorities. This paper is based on the computer database backup and recovery technol-ogy introduction and analysis, expounds how to apply this technology, and the method to realize this technique.%随着科学技术的发展,互联网技术更是飞速前进,计算机数据库也已经在计算机技术占据了较为重要的地位。但是,科技的发展也使得计算机的数据库经常受到黑客的袭击或者被病毒入侵,因此,在计算机领域,对计算机数据库的研究已经成为了重中之重。该文就是通过对计算机数据库备份与恢复技术的分析和介绍,阐述了如何应用这种技术,以及这种技术的实现方法。

  14. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation


    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  15. Solar energy utilization in the USSR (United States)

    Shpilrain, E. E.


    The conditions for solar energy utilization in the USSR are not too favorable. Only in the country's southern regions is there sufficient insolation to make solar energy utilization economic. In higher latitudes, only seasonal use of solar energy is reasonable. Up to now, the main application of solar energy has been to produce low-temperature heat for hot water production, drying of agricultural goods, space heating and thermal treatment of concrete. A substantial proportion of the solar heating installations are flat plate solar collectors. The total installed area of solar collectors slightly exceeds 100,000 square meters. The collectors are produced by large- and small-scale industry. Where selective coatings are applied to the absorber plates, black nickel or chromium are the main coating materials. Recently launched new projects aim to develop and produce advanced collectors, with enhanced efficiency and reliability. There has been substantial progress in developing photovoltaic (PV) cells for space applications, but terrestrial application of PV is still in a very early stage. Annual production of PV cells totals about 100 kW, based on mono- or polycrystalline silicon. R&D work on thin-film PV cells is in progress. Work is in progress on the development of automated production lines to manufacture 1 MW/yr of crystalline and amorphous silicon. A 5-MW tower-type demonstration plant, with a circular heliostat field, uses steam as the working fluid. Experience with this plant has revealed several disadvantages, including commonwealth of independent states.

  16. Application of TRIZ theory in research of sustainable utilization of water resource%TRIZ 理论在水资源可持续利用中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 黄川友; 甘蓉


    The author of this paper chose the conflict solving principle in the TRIZ theory to apply in the research of sustainable utilization of water resources , and set up and defined such five general parameter units as water resource unit , ecological environment unit , economic unit , human resource management unit , and technological innovation unit to find the conflicts between those units and establish a conflict matrix .Taking the sustainable utilization of water resources in Ningtri , Tibet as an example , the author redefined the matrix elements according to 40 innovation principles in the TRIZ theory , and found a solution to the problems of sustainable utilization of water resources in Ningtri , Tibet.%将TRIZ理论中的冲突解决原理应用于水资源可持续利用研究,通过建立并定义水资源单元、生态环境单元、经济单元、人力资源管理单元、技术创新单元的矩阵元素,寻找各单元间的冲突并建立冲突矩阵,以西藏林芝地区水资源可持续利用为例,根据TRIZ理论中40个创新原理重新定义矩阵元素,并进行论证分析,找到解决该地区水资源可持续利用问题的方案。

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Application on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization of Direct Sowing Rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) in Paddy Rice Field%施氮对稻茬直播油菜扬油6号氮素吸收与利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐瑶; 左青松; 冷锁虎; 刘荣; 葛云龙; 徐波; 李苗苗; 胡宇杰


    [目的]研究施氨量对油菜(Brassica napus L)氮素吸收与利用的影响,为稻茬直播油菜精确定量施用氮肥提供理论和实践依据.[方法]以甘蓝型双低油菜品种扬油6号为材料,测定不同施氮处理(0、45、90、135、180、225、270、315和360 kg/hm2)初花期和成熟期各器官干重和氮素含量.[结果]油菜氮素吸收量和氮素利用率随施氮量的增加均呈先增加后减少的趋势,满足二次曲线关系.当施氮量低于110 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加油菜对氮素的吸收量和利用率都呈增加的趋势;当施氮量在110~315 kg/hm2时,随着施氮量的增加氮吸收量仍呈增加的趋势,但氮素利用率已呈下降的趋势;当氮施用量超过315 kg/hm2时,随施氮量的增加二者均呈下降趋势.籽粒产量与施氮量之间呈二次曲线关系,获得最高产量的施氮量为278 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2时的氮素吸收量和利用率分别为209.90 kg/hm2和20.01g(籽粒)/g(N),与最大氮素吸收量211.78 kg/hm2和最高氮素利用率20.88 g(籽粒)/g(N)相比,获得最高产量时的氮素吸收量和氮素利用率分别下降0.8%和4.17%.[结论]油菜达到最大氮素吸收量和最大氮素利用率的施氮量分别为315和110 kg/hm2.施氮量为278 kg/hm2能较好地协调油菜对氮素吸收和利用的关系并取得最高的籽粒产量.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of nitrogen application amount on nitrogen absorption and utilization of rapeseed,and provide a theoretical and practical basis for the precise and quantitative nitrogen fertilization of direct sowing rapeseed in paddy rice field. [ Method ] The dry weight and nitrogen content of double low rapeseed variety Yangyou No. 6 were measured at beginning flower and maturity stage under different nitrogen application treatmems(0,45,90,135,180,225,270,315 and 360 kg/hm2). [Result] With nitrogen application amount increasing, nitrogen absorption amount and

  18. Thesis Report: Resource Utilization Provisioning in MapReduce


    Barati, Hamidreza; Jaberi, Nasrin


    In this thesis report, we have a survey on state-of-the-art methods for modelling resource utilization of MapReduce applications regard to its configuration parameters. After implementation of one of the algorithms in literature, we tried to find that if CPU usage modelling of a MapReduce application can be used to predict CPU usage of another MapReduce application.

  19. Effects of Nitrogen Application Levels on Nitrogen Absorption and Utilization of Spring Maize under the High Yield Cultivation%高产栽培下施氮水平对春玉米氮素吸收与利用的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉芹; 高聚林; 杨恒山; 毕文波; 张瑞富; 范秀艳


    以金山27为试验材料,采用田间试验的方法,研究高产栽培下施氮水平对春玉米氮素吸收与利用的影响.结果表明,玉米植株体内的氮含量总体上随施氮水平的提高而增加,氮的累积量随施氮水平的提高先升后降.在300kg/hm2施氮水平下,生物产量、子粒产量和子粒中氮的分配比例均最大.氮生理效率以增氮(390 kg/hm2施氮处理)最低,氮素利用效率以减氮(210 kg/hm2施氮处理)最高,氮收获指数以300kg/hm2施氮处理最大.与300kg/hm2施氮处理相比,390 kg/hm2施氮处理导致氮生理利用率、氮肥效率和氮肥吸收效率下降;210 kg/hm2施氮处理的氮生理利用率、氮肥效率和氮肥吸收效率升高.氮肥利用率以施氮300kg/hm2处理最高,增氮(390 kg/hm2处理)和农户传统高产施氮(270kg/hm2施氮处理)均相对较低.在研究地区,高产玉米栽培适宜的施氮量为300kg/hm2,其种肥、拔节肥、大喇叭口肥的比例为1:3:6.%Using Jinshan27 as experimental materials, effects of levels of nitrogen application on nitrogen absorption and utilization of spring maize were studied under high yield cultivation by the methods of field experiment. The results showed that with the improvement of levels on nitrogen application, content of nitrogen in maize plant generally increased while nitrogen accumulation increased first and then decreased. Biomass, grain yield and nitrogen distribution ratio in grain were all the largest under the 300 kg/ha nitrogen application. Nitrogen physiologi- cal efficiency was the lowest under the 390 kg/ha nitrogen application, nitrogen utilization efficiency was the highest under the 210 kg/ha nitrogen application and nitrogen harvest index was the largest under the 300 kg/ha nitrogen application. Compared with 210 kg/ha, rate of nitrogen fertilizer physiological utilization, nitrogen fertilizer efficiency and nitrogen fertilizer absorbing efficiency was reduced under high level of application

  20. Physics Instruction Utilizing Culture-Based Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerrie E. Malaluan


    Full Text Available This research assessed topics in physics where culture-based pedagogy may be utilized and the applicability of Batangueño culture to these topics. It also determined the visual presentations which canbe prepared by teachers to incorporate Batangueñoculture in physics instruction. The end purpose of the study was to develop a teaching guide using culture-based pedagogy to reinforce the student’s learning, and help them achieve high academic performance. Descriptive method was adopted with questionnaire as tool in gathering data. Interviews and focus group discussions were also conducted. Thirty physics teachers in public secondary schools of the Division of Batangas City served as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied in determining the respondents. Frequency, percentage, ranking and weighted mean were statistical tools applied. Findings revealed that the culture-based pedagogy that could be utilized in teaching physics was on topics: Constant and Uniformly Acceleration; Work, Power and Energy; Laws of Motion; Projectile Motion; Heat and Light. Batangueño culture was found applicable in teaching physics. The visual presentations which could be used were pictures, powerpoint and video clips. Moreover, the proposed teaching guide utilizing culture-based pedagogy may be used by teachersto heighten students’ interest and motivation and to attain active participation and high achievement. It may be a reference of employing Batangueño culture in teaching the topics. It was recommended that the output be presented to the school heads and supervisors for their comments and suggestions for enrichment of content and application of culture-based pedagogy not only in science but in other learning areas.

  1. Politics of public utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, W.T. Jr.


    Since the early 1970s, energy and telecommunications policies have emerged as increasingly complex and conflictual issues in state government and have, consequently, brought about change in the politics of public utilities regulation. In this analysis, Gormley shows that state public utilities commissions, in determining the rates that can be charged by private utility companies, must confront elected government officials, members of the state bureaucracy, citizens' groups, and the regulated industries themselves in a very visible, highly technical, costly, and controversial process that pits investors against consumers, business groups against residential consumers, consumer groups against environmentalists, and low-income consumers against consumers as a whole.

  2. Application of DCS Control System in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant%DCS在秦山核电控制系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧小军; 贾晓琼


    According to the application of backup recirculation cooling system in Qinshan phase III nuclear power plant, this paper introduces the characteristic of industry automatic control system of WebField ECS-100 DCS, which has been used in backup recirculation cooling system of nuclear power plant. The brief elaboration to main point of the this system's design is introduced.%根据秦山第三核电厂备用循环冷却水系统的实际应用,本文介绍了 WebField ECS-100分散控制系统的特点,及其在核电站备用循环冷却水控制系统上的应用,并对该系统的设计要州作了简要闸述.

  3. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying


    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance (United States)

    The report summarizes activities of the Geo-Heat Center (GHC) at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 1995. It describes contacts with parties during this period related to assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, resources and equipment. Research is also being conducted on geothermal energy cost evaluation, low-temperature geothermal resource assessment, use of silica waste from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field as construction materials and geothermal heat pumps. Outreach activities include the publication of a quarterly bulletin on direct heat applications and dissemination of information on low-temperature geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Market oriented approach by public utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantel, J.J.; Verkuil, J.M.


    Public utilities, especially the larger ones, have an image of being inefficient, technocratic and bureaucratic institutions, unresponsive to modern lifestyles, growing consumerism, differentiated customer needs and changing social values. Improving this image and increasing customer satisfaction requires the adoption of a systematic market oriented approach, based on an appropriate segmentation of the client and general public. This article gives the broad outline of such an approach followed by some generally applicable practical recommendations. Finally it stresses the importance of human aspects of organizational behaviour and, consequently, the crucial part of corporate culture. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2012 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. US Forest Service Land Utilization (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture for conservation and utilization under Title III of the Bankhead-Jones Farm...

  8. Medicare Utilization for Part A (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  9. Medicare Utilization for Part B (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1992 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2007 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1998 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2006 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2008 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 1999 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 1994 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 1996 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2000 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 2014 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2010 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 2011 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 2002 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 2003 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2015 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 1993 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 1991 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2001 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1997 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2013 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 1995 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 2004 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2016 (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. Are CEOs Expected Utility Maximizers?


    John List; Charles Mason


    Are individuals expected utility maximizers? This question represents much more than academic curiosity. In a normative sense, at stake are the fundamental underpinnings of the bulk of the last half-century's models of choice under uncertainty. From a positive perspective, the ubiquitous use of benefit-cost analysis across government agencies renders the expected utility maximization paradigm literally the only game in town. In this study, we advance the literature by exploring CEO's preferen...

  16. Burnout and health care utilization. (United States)

    Jackson, C N; Manning, M R


    This study explores the relationship between burnout and health care utilization of 238 employed adults. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and health care utilization by insurance company records regarding these employees' health care costs and number of times they accessed health care services over a one year period. ANOVAs were conducted using Golembiewski and Munzenrider's approach to define the burnout phase. Significant differences in health care costs were found.

  17. Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education (United States)


    AD Award Number: DAMD17-00-1-0495 TITLE: Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mary Ann Kosir, M.D...NUMBER Lymphedema Prophylaxis Utilizing Perloperative Education 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAM D1 7-00-1-0495 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...perioperative training for lymphedema assessment and protection. The hypothesis is that structured perioperative training in lymphedema protection will

  18. How expensive is link utilization?


    Stanojević, Rade; Shorten, Robert


    Understanding the relationship between queueing delays and link utilization for general traffic conditions is an important open problem in networking research. Difficulties in understanding this relationship stem from the fact that it depends on the complex nature of arriving traffic and the problems associated with modelling such traffic. Existing AQM schemes achieve a "low delay" and "high utilization" by responding early to congestion without considering the exact relationship betwee...

  19. Test and Application for Comprehensive Utilization Coal Sludge in Shell Coal Gasification Plant%壳牌煤气化装置之煤泥综合利用的试验及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    河南龙宇煤化工有限公司正在运行的1套壳牌煤气化装置和正在安装的2台五环炉煤气化装置共产生煤泥220 t/d(设计排放量),该公司采用高压、高浓度、长距离、全封闭的管道输送方式,将煤泥输送到公用工程锅炉内进行二次焚烧,以实现大型煤气化装置生产资源的综合利用。简述了煤泥综合利用系统的工艺设备和工艺流程;论述了该系统的创新特点和技术优势;介绍了煤泥远距离管道输送以及配比燃烧的试验数据。结果表明,该系统投用后可处理气化装置废渣6万t/a,节约标煤0.9万t/a,直接经济效益约900万元/a。%One set of Shell coal Gasification plant has been operating and two sets of coal gasification plants with Wuhuan gasifier are installing in the Longyu Chemical Engineering Company Ltd.,from which 220 t/d(design quantity discharged)of coal sludge are formed totally,using high concentration,long distance and fully closed conveying mode by piping,this company will take the coal sludge to convey into the utility boiler for secondary incineration in order to realize the comprehensive utilization for production resource in the large-sized coal gasification plant.Author has simply described the process equipment and process flow for comprehensive utilization system;has discussed the innovation feature and the technology advantage of this system;has introduced the long distance conveyance of coal sludge by piping and the test data for combustion with a proper ratio of sludge.Result indicates that the 60 000 t/a of waste sludge can treated by this system after having been put into operation,9 000 t/a of standard coal is saved,direct economic benefit is about 9 million Yuan R.M.B.

  20. 32 CFR 199.15 - Quality and utilization review peer review organization program. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality and utilization review peer review... (CHAMPUS) § 199.15 Quality and utilization review peer review organization program. (a) General—(1) Purpose... Utilization Review Peer Review Organization program. (2) Applicability of program. All claims submitted...