WorldWideScience

Sample records for backup utility applications

  1. Making the grid the backup: Utility applications for fuel cell power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklof, S.L. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are recognized as a versatile power generation option and accepted component of SMUD`s ART Program. SMUD has received wide support and recognition for promoting and implementing fuel cell power plants, as well as other innovative generation, based primarily on technological factors. Current economic and technical realities in the electric generation market highlight other important factors, such as the cost involved to develop a slate of such resources. The goal now is to develop only those select quality resources most likely to become commercially viable in the near future. The challenge becomes the identification of candidate technologies with the greatest potential, and then matching the technologies with the applications that will help to make them successful. Utility participation in this development is critical so as to provide the industry with case examples of advanced technologies that can be applied in a way beneficial to both the utility and its customers. The ART resource acquisitions provide the experience base upon which to guide this selection process, and should bring about the cost reductions and reliability improvements sought.

  2. Utilizing data grid architecture for the backup and recovery of clinical image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Brent J; Zhou, M Z; Documet, J

    2005-01-01

    Grid Computing represents the latest and most exciting technology to evolve from the familiar realm of parallel, peer-to-peer and client-server models. However, there has been limited investigation into the impact of this emerging technology in medical imaging and informatics. In particular, PACS technology, an established clinical image repository system, while having matured significantly during the past ten years, still remains weak in the area of clinical image data backup. Current solutions are expensive or time consuming and the technology is far from foolproof. Many large-scale PACS archive systems still encounter downtime for hours or days, which has the critical effect of crippling daily clinical operations. In this paper, a review of current backup solutions will be presented along with a brief introduction to grid technology. Finally, research and development utilizing the grid architecture for the recovery of clinical image data, in particular, PACS image data, will be presented. The focus of this paper is centered on applying a grid computing architecture to a DICOM environment since DICOM has become the standard for clinical image data and PACS utilizes this standard. A federation of PACS can be created allowing a failed PACS archive to recover its image data from others in the federation in a seamless fashion. The design reflects the five-layer architecture of grid computing: Fabric, Resource, Connectivity, Collective, and Application Layers. The testbed Data Grid is composed of one research laboratory and two clinical sites. The Globus 3.0 Toolkit (Co-developed by the Argonne National Laboratory and Information Sciences Institute, USC) for developing the core and user level middleware is utilized to achieve grid connectivity. The successful implementation and evaluation of utilizing data grid architecture for clinical PACS data backup and recovery will provide an understanding of the methodology for using Data Grid in clinical image data backup for

  3. Fuel Cell Backup Power System for Grid Service and Micro-Grid in Telecommunication Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-22

    This paper presents the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in telecommunication cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., ancillary services, demand response). The fuel cells are able to provide power for the cell tower during emergency conditions. This study evaluates the strategic integration of clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems with the grid for improved economic benefits. The backup systems have potential as enhanced capability through information exchanges with the power grid to add value as grid services that depend on location and time. The economic analysis has been focused on the potential revenue for distributed telecommunications fuel cell backup units to provide value-added power supply. This paper shows case studies on current fuel cell backup power locations and regional grid service programs. The grid service benefits and system configurations for different operation modes provide opportunities for expanding backup fuel cell applications responsive to grid needs.

  4. Lithium Ion Battery Chemistries from Renewable Energy Storage to Automotive and Back-up Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries have been extensively used in consumer electronics because of their characteristics, such as high efficiency, long life, and high gravimetric and volumetric energy. In addition, Li-ion batteries are becoming the most attractive candidate as electrochemical storage...... systems for stationary applications, as well as power source for sustainable automotive and back-up power supply applications. This paper gives an overview of the Li-ion battery chemistries that are available at present in the market, and describes the three out of four main applications (except...... the consumers’ applications), grid support, automotive, and back-up power, for which the Li-ion batteries are suitable. Each of these applications has its own specifications and thus, the chemistry of the Li-ion battery should be chosen to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding application. Consequently...

  5. An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operation of the wearable robotized arm, controlled through acceleration and electromyography (EMG sensor signals, even in the case of battery failure, thanks to the embedded energy backup unit. To prove the configurability and scalability of the proposed solution, experimental results related to the electric actuation of the car door latch and of a robotized gearbox in vehicles are also shown. The reliability of the energy backup device has been assessed in a wide temperature range, from −40 to 130 °C, and in a durability test campaign of more than 10,000 cycles. Achieved results prove the suitability of the proposed approach for ACUs requiring a burst of power of hundreds of watts for only a few seconds in safety-critical applications. Alternatively, the aging and temperature characterizations of energy backup units is limited to supercapacitors of thousands of farads for high power applications (e.g., electric/hybrid propulsion and with a temperature range limited to

  6. Experimental and computational analysis of a 1.2 kW PEMFC designed for communications backup power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.J.; Claveria, J.; Varadharajan, L.; Kalam, A.

    2011-01-01

    Usage of Fuel Cells due to their high power density and low greenhouse gas emissions which combine H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ electrochemically to produce electricity and H/sub 2/O as the by-product will become widespread in the near future due to its quality, reliability and portability. Among all types of fuel cells, Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC) is most attractive for residential and automotive industry use due to its low operating temperature, silent operation, quick start-up characteristics and better performance. The T-1000 1.2 kW PEMFC are mainly used for communications backup power applications because of its high reliability, simplicity and ease of maintenance in telecommunication sector, utility and government etc. This paper discuses the features of T- 1000 PEMFC and also the production losses due to power outages in US and different parts of the globe and the advantages of using it in different sectors to reduce the production loses occurred by the power outages. This work focuses on the experimental data and the computational data of load, P, V, A and H/sub 2/ consumed under laboratory conditions at Power Lab in Victoria University, Melbourne. The paper also describes various load, P, V and A curves recorded at regular intervals between the experimental and computational data. The work shows notably the benefit of using T-1000 1.2 kW PEMFC for residential, automobile, government and telecom sectors. (author)

  7. Reliability considerations of a fuel cell backup power system for telecom applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serincan, Mustafa Fazil

    2016-03-01

    A commercial fuel cell backup power unit is tested in real life operating conditions at a base station of a Turkish telecom operator. The fuel cell system responds to 256 of 260 electric power outages successfully, providing the required power to the base station. Reliability of the fuel cell backup power unit is found to be 98.5% at the system level. On the other hand, a qualitative reliability analysis at the component level is carried out. Implications of the power management algorithm on reliability is discussed. Moreover, integration of the backup power unit to the base station ecosystem is reviewed in the context of reliability. Impact of inverter design on the stability of the output power is outlined. Significant current harmonics are encountered when a generic inverter is used. However, ripples are attenuated significantly when a custom design inverter is used. Further, fault conditions are considered for real world case studies such as running out of hydrogen, a malfunction in the system, or an unprecedented operating scheme. Some design guidelines are suggested for hybridization of the backup power unit for an uninterrupted operation.

  8. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  9. BackUp: Development and evaluation of a smart-phone application for coping with suicidal crises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Pauwels

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health issue and has large impact on the lives of many people. Innovative technologies such as smartphones could create new possibilities for suicide prevention, such as helping to overcome the barriers and stigma on help seeking in case of suicidal ideation. Due to their omnipresence, smartphone apps can offer suicide prevention tools very fast, they are easily-accessible, low-threshold and can help overcome some of the help-seeking barriers suicidal people experience. This article describes the development, testing and implementation of a mobile application for coping with suicidal crisis: BackUp.Based on the analysis of literature and existing suicide prevention apps several tools were identified as relevant to include in a suicide prevention app. The selected tools (a safety planning tool, a hope box, a coping cards module, and a module to reach out are evidence based in a face to face context, and could be easily transferred into a mobile app. The testing of existing apps and the literature also revealed important guidelines for the technical development of the application.BackUp was developed and tested by an expert panel (n = 9 and a panel of end users (n = 21. Both groups rated BackUp as valuable for suicide prevention. Suicidal ideation of the end user group was measured using the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation before and after testing BackUp, and showed a small but non-significant decrease. The majority of the testers used BackUp several times. All tools were evaluated as rather or very useable in times of suicidal crisis.BackUp was positively evaluated and indicates that self-help tools can have a positive impact on suicidal ideation. Apps in particular create opportunities in approaching people that are not reached by traditional interventions; on the other hand they can contribute to suicide prevention in addition to regular care. However, more research is needed on the impact and effect of suicide

  10. First evidence for "The backup plan paradox".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Christopher M; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-08-01

    This research is a first test of the backup plan paradox. We hypothesized that investing in a backup plan may facilitate the conditions that it was developed to address: Plan A's insufficiency. Five studies provide initial, primarily correlative support for the undermining effect of investing in a backup plan. Study 1 (n= 160) demonstrated that the more participants perceived they had invested in developing a backup plan (preparing a "crib sheet"), the more likely they were to use it, although greater investments were unrelated to backup plan utility. Studies 2-4 used a simulated negotiation task. Study 2 (n = 247) demonstrated that when goal-relevant resources are limited, investing in developing backup plans and perceiving them as highly instrumental can decrease goal performance through the indirect effect of increased means replacing. Study 3 (n = 248) replicated this effect when goal-relevant resources were plentiful. Study 4 (n = 204) used an experimental variant of the simulated negotiation task and demonstrated that simply having a backup plan is not detrimental, but perceiving backup plans to be highly instrumental decreased goal performance, again through the indirect effect of increased means replacing. Study 5 (n = 160) replicated findings from Studies 1-4 using a lab-based motor task (throwing a ball). Together, these results provide first evidence that backup plans can introduce costs that may jeopardize goal performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Backup to the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmus, Handberg; Conrad, Anders S.; Svendsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    What if something horrible happens in the future? Great Scott! Do we have a backup? Is a backup even enough? At the Kepler Asteroseismic Science Operations Center (KASOC) we have a goal that all data and information from Kepler and KASC is preserved for the future. The benchmark is that the data ...... should be useful for, at least, the next 50 years. But how do we ensure that hundreds of terabytes of data are understandable or even readable in half a century?...

  12. Enterprise systems backup and recovery a corporate insurance policy

    CERN Document Server

    de Guise, Preston

    2008-01-01

    The success of information backup systems does not rest on IT administrators alone. Rather, a well-designed backup system comes about only when several key factors coalesce-business involvement, IT acceptance, best practice designs, enterprise software, and reliable hardware. Enterprise Systems Backup and Recovery: A Corporate Insurance Policy provides organizations with a comprehensive understanding of the principles and features involved in effective enterprise backups.Instead of focusing on any individual backup product, this book recommends corporate procedures and policies that need to be established for comprehensive data protection. It provides relevant information to any organization, regardless of which operating systems or applications are deployed, what backup system is in place, or what planning has been done for business continuity. It explains how backup must be included in every phase of system planning, development, operation, and maintenance. It also provides techniques for analyzing and impr...

  13. Backup in Windows 8

    CERN Document Server

    Steps, Studio Visual

    2014-01-01

    Creating backups (or safety copies) of files has become increasingly important for many computer users. A growing number of people save important and vital information on their computer. Often this will be business, tax or financial information, but it also can include photos and videos. Nowadays, lots of fond memories and unforgettable moments are recorded onto digital media with photo and video cameras. A few years ago backups were usually created on storage media such as floppy disks, CDs, or DVDs. These types of storage media had one major disadvantage, in that you could only store a s

  14. Backup in Windows 7

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Creating backups (or safety copies) of files has become increasingly important for many computer users. A growing number of people save important and vital information on their computer. Often this will be business, tax or financial information, but it also can include photos and videos. Nowadays, lots of fond memories and unforgettable moments are recorded onto digital media with photo and video cameras. A few years ago backups were usually created on storage media such as floppy disks, CDs, or DVDs. These types of storage media had one major disadvantage, in that you could only store a s

  15. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  16. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  17. CanDan 2, phase 2. Final report. [Fuel cell systems for back-up power and materials handling applications]; CanDan 2, fase 2. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    CanDan 2 Phase 2 is the second phase of a research and demonstration project for fuel cell backup power systems and fuel cell powered material handling equipment. In the Backup Power segment the fuel cell units have been developed, certified and delivered. A total of 32 fuel cell backup power systems have been delivered for EnergiMidt and in operation since early 2011. Following this project EnergiMidt has purchased another 31 systems in order to make a full transition from battery backup to fuel cell backup in their entire broadband network. In the material handling segment a 10 kW fuel cell system has been fully integrated in the fork lift truck, Dantruck 3000 Power Hydrogen. The result was a much more commercially mature product than expected from the beginning of the project. The result is a finished 2,5T fork lift truck which was presented at the CE-mat fair in April 2011. (LN)

  18. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  19. 47 CFR 12.2 - Backup power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Backup power. 12.2 Section 12.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL REDUNDANCY OF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS § 12.2 Backup power..., must have an emergency backup power source (e.g., batteries, generators, fuel cells) for all assets...

  20. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  1. A theoretical-experimental study of backup bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe Linhares da Fonseca, Cesar Augusto

    of two types of backup bearings, which are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The first type is a conventional ball bearing commonly used in industrial applications. The second is an unconventional bearing that, which contains pins inside the clearance for the rotor to impact on. The main...... both types of bearings for further investigation. Also, a full failure of the control and a rotor drop on the ball bearing as backup bearing is investigated by removing the magnetic forces. The nonlinear features of the dynamics of the rotor are assessed for different levels of unbalance. It has been...... radial forces. Remaining in this condition, it may lead to permanent damage or total failure of the machine. This is why the backup bearing design has to be carefully planned and investigated as to whether it helps to protect the integrity of the machine. This PhD thesis provides a comprehensive study...

  2. DOMe: A deduplication optimization method for the NewSQL database backups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longxiang Wang

    Full Text Available Reducing duplicated data of database backups is an important application scenario for data deduplication technology. NewSQL is an emerging database system and is now being used more and more widely. NewSQL systems need to improve data reliability by periodically backing up in-memory data, resulting in a lot of duplicated data. The traditional deduplication method is not optimized for the NewSQL server system and cannot take full advantage of hardware resources to optimize deduplication performance. A recent research pointed out that the future NewSQL server will have thousands of CPU cores, large DRAM and huge NVRAM. Therefore, how to utilize these hardware resources to optimize the performance of data deduplication is an important issue. To solve this problem, we propose a deduplication optimization method (DOMe for NewSQL system backup. To take advantage of the large number of CPU cores in the NewSQL server to optimize deduplication performance, DOMe parallelizes the deduplication method based on the fork-join framework. The fingerprint index, which is the key data structure in the deduplication process, is implemented as pure in-memory hash table, which makes full use of the large DRAM in NewSQL system, eliminating the performance bottleneck problem of fingerprint index existing in traditional deduplication method. The H-store is used as a typical NewSQL database system to implement DOMe method. DOMe is experimentally analyzed by two representative backup data. The experimental results show that: 1 DOMe can reduce the duplicated NewSQL backup data. 2 DOMe significantly improves deduplication performance by parallelizing CDC algorithms. In the case of the theoretical speedup ratio of the server is 20.8, the speedup ratio of DOMe can achieve up to 18; 3 DOMe improved the deduplication throughput by 1.5 times through the pure in-memory index optimization method.

  3. Data backup security in cloud storage system

    OpenAIRE

    Атаян, Борис Геннадьевич; Национальный политехнический университет Армении; Багдасарян, Татевик Араевна; Национальный политехнический университет Армении

    2016-01-01

    Cloud backup system is proposed, which provides means for effective creation, secure storage and restore of backups inCloud. For data archiving new efficient SGBP file format is being used in the system, which is based on DEFLATE compressionalgorithm. Proposed format provides means for fast archive creation, which can contain significant amounts of data. Modernapproaches of backup archive protection are described in the paper. Also the SGBP format is compared to heavily used ZIP format(both Z...

  4. Survey of utility robotic applications (1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This special report presents the results of a survey to identify areas of usage where utilities have found robotics to be most beneficial. The survey, which was conducted by U/M RUG, an ad hoc robotics group, should be of interest to all utilities interested in proven applications. The survey shows that robotics are finding increasing use in maintenance tasks, and in cleanup applications. Extended usage of precision positioning, dexterity, intelligence and mobility is not yet apparent. Improvements in these areas would greatly aid maintenance applications of robotics. 7 figs

  5. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control

  6. Backup power sources for DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This standard establishes fundamental requirements and guidance for backup power sources at DOE facilities. Purpose is to document good engineering practices for installation, testing, and maintenance of these backup power sources, which also covers emergency power sources. Examples are those which supply power to nuclear safety systems, radiation monitors and alarms, fire protection systems, security systems, and emergency lighting.

  7. Models for dynamic analysis of backup ball bearings of an AMB-system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halminen, Oskari; Aceituno, Javier F.; Escalona, José L.; Sopanen, Jussi; Mikkola, Aki

    2017-10-01

    Two detailed models of backup bearing are introduced for dynamic analysis of the dropdown event of a rotor supported by an active magnetic bearing (AMB). The proposed two-dimensional models of the backup bearings are based on a multibody approach. All parts of the bearing are modeled as rigid bodies with geometrical surfaces and the bodies interact with each other through contact forces. The first model describes a backup bearing without a cage, and the second model describes a backup bearing with a cage. The introduced models, which incorporate a realistic elastic contact model, are compared with previously presented simplified models through parametric study. In order to ensure the durability of backup bearings in challenging applications where ball bearings with an oversized bore are necessary, analysis of the forces affecting the bearing's cage and balls is required, and the models introduced in this work assist in this task as they enable optimal properties for the bearing's cage and balls to be found.

  8. Improving the Quality of Backup Process for Publishing Houses and Printing Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuriakov, N. E.; Yakovlev, B. S.; Pries, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of main types for data threats, used by print media, and their influence on the vitality and security of information is made. The influence of the programs settings for preparing archive files, the types of file managers on the backup process is analysed. We proposed a simple and economical version of the practical implementation of the backup process consisting of 4 components: the command line interpreter, the 7z archiver, the Robocopy utility, and network storage. We recommend that the best option would be to create backup copies, consisting of three local copies of data and two network copies.

  9. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  10. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B H; Kim, Y K; Song, T Y [and others

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized forindustries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs.

  11. Development of beam utilization/application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. H.; Kim, Y.K.; Song, T.Y.

    1999-05-01

    High power proton accelerator is considered as one of national fundamental research facilities and a key to advanced nuclear technology development, having been widely used in an un detachable relationship with nuclear research in advanced countries. The high power proton accelerator will be installed in several phases as an up front facility of the nuclear waste transmutation system. It is expected that a common understanding and a general agreement over proper utilization of the accelerator should be deduced and that a user program for beam utilization and application should be firmly established in time for the completion of each phase of the accelerator. This high power proton accelerator will consist of several component accelerators and, from up front, accelerators such as injector, RFQ, CCDTL, etc. will be installed in sequence and deliver respectively at each stage beams of 3MeV, 20MeV, 100Mev, etc. to be variously utilized for industries, defence industry, medical treatment, environmental protection and basic science research. In order for the accelerator to be fully utilized as a national fundamental research facility beyond nuclear field, it is necessary to formulate a proceeding plan of the user program for the accelerator and to cultivate industrial utilization/application studies of proton beams accelerated by injector or RFQ of the accelerator. (author). 38 refs., 84 tabs., 39 figs

  12. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaž Zrnec; Dejan Lavbič

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database u...

  13. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Performance as Telecommunications Backup Power in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Sam [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and industry project partners, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) acts as the central data repository for the data collected from real-world operation of fuel cell backup power systems. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) co-funding awarded through DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office, more than 1,300 fuel cell units were deployed over a three-plus-year period in stationary, material handling equipment, auxiliary power, and backup power applications. This surpassed a Fuel Cell Technologies Office ARRA objective to spur commercialization of an early market technology by installing 1,000 fuel cell units across several different applications, including backup power. By December 2013, 852 backup power units out of 1,330 fuel cell units deployed were providing backup service, mainly for telecommunications towers. For 136 of the fuel cell backup units, project participants provided detailed operational data to the National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center for analysis by NREL's technology validation team. NREL analyzed operational data collected from these government co-funded demonstration projects to characterize key fuel cell backup power performance metrics, including reliability and operation trends, and to highlight the business case for using fuel cells in these early market applications. NREL's analyses include these critical metrics, along with deployment, U.S. grid outage statistics, and infrastructure operation.

  14. Planning manual for utility application of WECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.L. (ed.)

    1979-06-01

    A two-part approach for evaluating the feasibility of wind electric conversion systems (WECS) for utility application is presented and explained. Assessment of wind energy potential, sites, interconnection, and capital and production costing is included. The first part is a brief preliminary procedure used to determine whether the expense and effort of a detailed investigation is justified. The preliminary procedure requires assumptions which limit its accuracy. If the result indicates that WECS have probable potential for a specific utility application, then a set of modifications to detailed conventional planning procedures is developed. The modifications include discussion of wind velocity estimation and effects of site features on wind velocity, institutional problems, siting, choosing generation cases with WECS, reliability considerations, production costing, and operating problems. Appendices include an annotated bibliography, wind measurement methods, procedure for estimating WECS capacity factor, and a method for generating correlated wind velocity samples for use in production cost programs.

  15. Applying secret sharing for HIS backup exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto; Sato, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    To secure business continuity is indispensable for hospitals to fulfill its social responsibility under disasters. Although to back up the data of the hospital information system (HIS) at multiple remote sites is a key strategy of business continuity plan (BCP), the requirements to treat privacy sensitive data jack up the cost for the backup. The secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message up so that each individual piece is meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together to reveal the original message. The secret sharing method eases us to exchange HIS backups between multiple hospitals. This paper evaluated the feasibility of the commercial secret sharing solution for HIS backup through several simulations. The result shows that the commercial solution is feasible to realize reasonable HIS backup exchange platform when template of contract between participating hospitals is ready.

  16. Reactor shutdown back-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Seizo; Sakashita, Motoaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent back flow of poison upon injection to a moderator recycling pipeway. Constitution: In a nuclear reactor comprising a moderator recycling system for recycling and cooling moderator through a control rod guide pipe and a rapid poison injection system for rapidly injecting a poison solution at high density into the moderator by way of the same control rod guide pipe as a reactor shutdown back-up system, a mechanism is provided for preventing the back flow of a poison solution at high density into the moderator recycling system upon rapid injection of poison. An orifice provided in the joining pipeway to the control rod guide pipe on the side of the moderator recycling system is utilized as the back flow preventing device for the poison solution and the diameter for the orifice is determined so as to provide a constant ratio between the pressure loss in the control rod guide pipe and the pressure loss in the moderator recycling system pipe line upon usual reactor operation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. A hybrid data compression approach for online backup service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhou, Ke; Qin, MingKang

    2009-08-01

    With the popularity of Saas (Software as a service), backup service has becoming a hot topic of storage application. Due to the numerous backup users, how to reduce the massive data load is a key problem for system designer. Data compression provides a good solution. Traditional data compression application used to adopt a single method, which has limitations in some respects. For example data stream compression can only realize intra-file compression, de-duplication is used to eliminate inter-file redundant data, compression efficiency cannot meet the need of backup service software. This paper proposes a novel hybrid compression approach, which includes two levels: global compression and block compression. The former can eliminate redundant inter-file copies across different users, the latter adopts data stream compression technology to realize intra-file de-duplication. Several compressing algorithms were adopted to measure the compression ratio and CPU time. Adaptability using different algorithm in certain situation is also analyzed. The performance analysis shows that great improvement is made through the hybrid compression policy.

  18. Exploring the iPhone Backup made by iTunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Piccinelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The iPhone mobile from Apple Inc. is one of the most notable phones on the market thanks to its simple and user-friendly interface and ever growing pool of available high quality applications for both personal and business use. The increasing use of iPhone mobiles leads forensics practitioners towards the need for tools to access and analyze the information stored in the device. This research aims at describing how to forensically analyze a logical backup of an iPhone made by the Apple iTunes utility, understanding its structure and creating a simple tool to automate the process of decoding and analyzing the data. It was found that significant data of forensic value such as e-mail messages, text and multimedia messages, calendar events, browsing history, GPRS locations, contacts, call history and voicemail recordings can be retrieved using this method of iPhone acquisition.

  19. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  20. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  1. Fuel Cells for Backup Power in Telecommunications Facilities (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-04-01

    Telecommunications providers rely on backup power to maintain a constant power supply, to prevent power outages, and to ensure the operability of cell towers, equipment, and networks. The backup power supply that best meets these objectives is fuel cell technology.

  2. Wind energy systems. Application to regional utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This study developed a generic planning process that utilities can use to determine the feasibility of utilizing WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) as part of their future mix of equipment. While this is primarily an economic process, other questions dealing with WECS availability, capacity credit, operating reserve, performance of WECS arrays, etc., had to be addressed. The approach was to establish the worth, or breakeven value, of WECS to the utility and to determine the impact that WECS additions would have on the utilities mix of conventional source.

  3. Utilization of Smartphone Applications by Anesthesia Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Green

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Health care-related apps provide valuable facts and have added a new dimension to knowledge sharing. The purpose of this study is to understand the pattern of utilization of mobile apps specifically created for anesthesia providers. Smartphone app stores were searched, and a survey was sent to 416 anesthesia providers at 136 anesthesiology residency programs querying specific facets of application use. Among respondents, 11.4% never used, 12.4% used less than once per month, 6.0% used once per month, 12.1% used 2-3 times per month, 13.6% used once per week, 21% used 2-3 times per week, and 23.5% used daily. Dosage/pharmaceutical apps were rated the highest as most useful. 24.6% of the participants would pay less than $2.00, 25.1% would pay $5.00, 30.3% would pay $5–$10.00, 9.6% would pay $10–$25.00, 5.1% would pay $25–$50.00, and 5.1% would pay more than $50.00 if an app saves 5–10 minutes per day or 30 minutes/week. The use of mobile phone apps is not limited to reiterating information from textbooks but provides opportunities to further the ever-changing field of anesthesiology. Our survey illustrates the convenience of apps for health care professionals. Providers must exercise caution when selecting apps to ensure best evidence-based medicine.

  4. Effectiveness of Backup and Disaster Recovery in Cloud : A Comparative study on Disk and Cloud based Backup and Disaster Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaveti, Akash

    2015-01-01

    Context: Definitive information is what makes enterprises in the contemporary world continuously move up the ladder in today’s world. Hence they need to be always up to date with the latest advancements. A key point in the enterprise structure is Backup and Disaster Recovery, DR system and this has very high scope for development since it can be integrated with a lot of our daily requirements. On account of this, it has a lot of applicability in future for development of technology. Due to th...

  5. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  6. Accelerating Acceptance of Fuel Cell Backup Power Systems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrecky, James; Ashley, Christopher

    2014-07-21

    Since 2001, Plug Power has installed more than 800 stationary fuel cell systems worldwide. Plug Power’s prime power systems have produced approximately 6.5 million kilowatt hours of electricity and have accumulated more than 2.5 million operating hours. Intermittent, or backup, power products have been deployed with telecommunications carriers and government and utility customers in North and South America, Europe, the United Kingdom, Japan and South Africa. Some of the largest material handling operations in North America are currently using the company’s motive power units in fuel cell-powered forklifts for their warehouses, distribution centers and manufacturing facilities. The low-temperature GenSys fuel cell system provides remote, off-grid and primary power where grid power is unreliable or nonexistent. Built reliable and designed rugged, low- temperature GenSys delivers continuous or backup power through even the most extreme conditions. Coupled with high-efficiency ratings, low-temperature GenSys reduces operating costs making it an economical solution for prime power requirements. Currently, field trials at telecommunication and industrial sites across the globe are proving the advantages of fuel cells—lower maintenance, fuel costs and emissions, as well as longer life—compared with traditional internal combustion engines.

  7. Emergency and backup power supplies at Department of Energy facilities: Augmented Evaluation Team -- Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report documents the results of the Defense Programs (DP) Augmented Evaluation Team (AET) review of emergency and backup power supplies (i.e., generator, uninterruptible power supply, and battery systems) at DP facilities. The review was conducted in response to concerns expressed by former Secretary of Energy James D. Watkins over the number of incidents where backup power sources failed to provide electrical power during tests or actual demands. The AET conducted a series of on-site reviews for the purpose of understanding the design, operation, maintenance, and safety significance of emergency and backup power (E&BP) supplies. The AET found that the quality of programs related to maintenance of backup power systems varies greatly among the sites visited, and often among facilities at the same site. No major safety issues were identified. However, there are areas where the AET believes the reliability of emergency and backup power systems can and should be improved. Recommendations for improving the performance of E&BP systems are provided in this report. The report also discusses progress made by Management and Operating (M&O) contractors to improve the reliability of backup sources used in safety significant applications. One area that requires further attention is the analysis and understanding of the safety implications of backup power equipment. This understanding is needed for proper graded-approach implementation of Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, and to help ensure that equipment important to the safety of DOE workers, the public, and the environment is identified, classified, recognized, and treated as such by designers, users, and maintainers. Another area considered important for improving E&BP system performance is the assignment of overall ownership responsibility and authority for ensuring that E&BP equipment performs adequately and that reliability and availability are maintained at acceptable levels.

  8. Web Application Development Utilizing Cloud Virtual Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Muukka, Olli

    2014-01-01

    The thesis goes through a development project where a web application was implemented to support the start-up company business operations. The main reason to implement a web application was the company needed a system where business data is centrally managed with cost-efficient, simple and easy tool. The deployed cloud service provided a platform for the web application. The alternative to the web application development was to deploy commercial customer relationship management tool, but the ...

  9. Quasi Path Restoration: A post-failure recovery scheme over pre-allocated backup resource for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Babu, Sarath; Manoj, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    Spectrum conflict during primary and backup routes assignment in elastic optical networks results in increased resource consumption as well as high Bandwidth Blocking Probability. In order to avoid such conflicts, we propose a new scheme, Quasi Path Restoration (QPR), where we divide the available spectrum into two: (1) primary spectrum (for primary routes allocation) and (2) backup spectrum (for rerouting the data on link failures). QPR exhibits three advantages over existing survivable strategies such as Shared Path Protection (SPP), Primary First Fit Backup Last Fit (PFFBLF), Jointly Releasing and re-establishment Defragmentation SPP (JRDSSPP), and Path Restoration (PR): (1) the conflict between primary and backup spectrum during route assignment is completely eliminated, (2) upon a link failure, connection recovery requires less backup resources compared to SPP, PFFBLF, and PR, and (3) availability of the same backup spectrum on each link improves the recovery guarantee. The performance of our scheme is analyzed with different primary backup spectrum partitions on varying connection-request demands and number of frequency slots. Our results show that QPR provides better connection recovery guarantee and Backup Resources Utilization (BRU) compared to bandwidth recovery of PR strategy. In addition, we compare QPR with Shared Path Protection and Primary First-Fit Backup Last Fit strategies in terms of Bandwidth Blocking Probability (BBP) and average frequency slots per connection request. Simulation results show that BBP of SPP, PFFBLF, and JRDSPP varies between 18.59% and 14.42%, while in QPR, BBP ranges from 2.55% to 17.76% for Cost239, NSFNET, and ARPANET topologies. Also, QPR provides bandwidth recovery between 93.61% and 100%, while in PR, the recovery ranges from 86.81% to 98.99%. It is evident from our analysis that QPR provides a reasonable trade-off between bandwidth blocking probability and connection recoverability.

  10. An efficient hybrid protection scheme with shared/dedicated backup paths on elastic optical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogbou G. Anoh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast recovery and minimum utilization of resources are the two main criteria for determining the protection scheme quality. We address the problem of providing a hybrid protection approach on elastic optical networks under contiguity and continuity of available spectrum constraints. Two main hypotheses are used in this paper for backup paths computation. In the first case, it is assumed that backup paths resources are dedicated. In the second case, the assumption is that backup paths resources are available shared resources. The objective of the study is to minimize spectrum utilization to reduce blocking probability on a network. For this purpose, an efficient survivable Hybrid Protection Lightpath (HybPL algorithm is proposed for providing shared or dedicated backup path protection based on the efficient energy calculation and resource availability. Traditional First-Fit and Best-Fit schemes are employed to search and assign the available spectrum resources. The simulation results show that HybPL presents better performance in terms of blocking probability, compared with the Minimum Resources Utilization Dedicated Protection (MRU-DP algorithm which offers better performance than the Dedicated Protection (DP algorithm.

  11. Utilization of Copper Alloys for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drach, Andrew

    Utilization of copper alloy components in systems deployed in marine environment presents potential improvements by reducing maintenance costs, prolonging service life, and increasing reliability. However, integration of these materials faces technological challenges, which are discussed and addressed in this work, including characterization of material performance in seawater environment, hydrodynamics of copper alloy components, and design procedures for systems with copper alloys. To characterize the hydrodynamic behavior of copper alloy nets, mesh geometry of the major types of copper nets currently used in the marine aquaculture are analyzed and formulae for the solidity and strand length are proposed. Experimental studies of drag forces on copper alloy net panels are described. Based on these studies, empirical values for normal drag coefficients are proposed for various types of copper netting. These findings are compared to the previously published data on polymer nets. It is shown that copper nets exhibit significantly lower resistance to normal currents, which corresponds to lower values of normal drag coefficient. The seawater performance (corrosion and biofouling) of copper alloys is studied through the field trials of tensioned and untensioned specimens in a one-year deployment in the North Atlantic Ocean. The corrosion behavior is characterized by weight loss, optical microscopy, and SEM/EDX analyses. The biofouling performance is quantified in terms of the biomass accumulation. To estimate the effects of stray electrical currents on the seawater corrosion measurements, a low cost three-axis stray electric current monitoring device is designed and tested both in the lab and in the 30-day field deployment. The system consists of a remotely operated PC with a set of pseudo-electrodes and a digital compass. The collected data is processed to determine magnitudes of AC and DC components of electric field and dominant AC frequencies. Mechanical behavior of

  12. Empirical Analysis of High Efficient Remote Cloud Data Center Backup Using HBase and Cassandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HBase, a master-slave framework, and Cassandra, a peer-to-peer (P2P framework, are the two most commonly used large-scale distributed NoSQL databases, especially applicable to the cloud computing with high flexibility and scalability and the ease of big data processing. Regarding storage structure, different structure adopts distinct backup strategy to reduce the risks of data loss. This paper aims to realize high efficient remote cloud data center backup using HBase and Cassandra, and in order to verify the high efficiency backup they have applied Thrift Java for cloud data center to take a stress test by performing strictly data read/write and remote database backup in the large amounts of data. Finally, in terms of the effectiveness-cost evaluation to assess the remote datacenter backup, a cost-performance ratio has been evaluated for several benchmark databases and the proposed ones. As a result, the proposed HBase approach outperforms the other databases.

  13. Empirical Analysis of High Efficient Remote Cloud Data Center Backup Using HBase and Cassandra

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Bao Rong; Tsai, Hsiu-Fen; Chen, Chia-Yen; Guo, Cin-Long

    2015-01-01

    HBase, a master-slave framework, and Cassandra, a peer-to-peer (P2P) framework, are the two most commonly used large-scale distributed NoSQL databases, especially applicable to the cloud computing with high flexibility and scalability and the ease of big data processing. Regarding storage structure, different structure adopts distinct backup strategy to reduce the risks of data loss. This paper aims to realize high efficient remote cloud data center backup using HBase and Cassandra, and in or...

  14. Comparison of Cloud backup performance and costs in Oracle database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Zrnec

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SL X-NONE X-NONE Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Oracle database using Amazon S3 and EC2 cloud services. The costs estimation was performed on the basis of the prices published on Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2 sites.

  15. Mobile phone applications and the utilization of library services in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile phone applications and the utilization of library services in the university of Calabar library, Calabar, Nigeria. ... Global Journal of Educational Research ... The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship between Tweeter apps and the utilization of library services, (r=0.57*, P<.05, df=223, rcritical=.

  16. Practical uses of galvanized steel in electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueche, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Steel corrosion has been shown to be a major problem for the electric utility industry. Galvanizing has been shown to prevent or substantially slow steel corrosion. This paper describes the galvanizing process, discusses the properties associated with the galvanized coating, and demonstrates galvanizing's durability in specific, real world applications in the electric utility industry

  17. Utilization of superconductivity in energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, J.T.; Mikkonen, R.; Lahtinen, M.; Paasi, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    The technical potential of high temperature superconductors has been demonstrated in energy power applications. The magnetisation coils of the constructed 1.5 kW synchronous motor are made of bismuth-based material, the efficiency of the motor being 82 %. The same material is utilised in a 5 kJ magnetic energy storage in order to compensate for a short-term loss of power. Fast activation time and high efficiency are the benefits compared to traditional UPS systems. The operation temperature of 20-30 K enables the usage of mechanical cooling which is one major advantage compared to conventional liquid helium cooled systems. (orig.)

  18. Bibliography: injection technology applicable to geothermal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnell, A.J.; Eichelberger, R.L.

    1982-03-19

    This bibliography cites 500 documents that may be helpful in planning, analysis, research, and development of the various aspects of injection technology in geothermal applications. These documents include results from government research; development, demonstration, and commercialization programs; selected references from the literature; symposia; references from various technical societies and installations; reference books; reviews; and other selected material. The cited references are from (1) subject searching, using indexing, storage, and retrieval information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center's on-line retrieval system, RECON; (2) searches of references from the RECON data base, of work by authors known to be active in the field of geothermal energy research and development; (3) subject and author searches by the computerized data storage and retrieval system of Chemical Abstracts, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; and (4) selected references from texts and reviews on this subject. Each citation includes title, author, author affiliation, date of publication, and source. The citations are listed in chronological order (most recent first) in each of the subject categories for which this search was made. The RECON accession number is also given.

  19. Researching, Evaluating, and Choosing a Backup Service in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Backups are a modern fact of life. Every organization that has any kind of computing technology (and that is all of them these days) needs to back up its data in case of technological or user errors. Traditionally, large-scale backups have been done via an internal or external tape drive that takes magnetic tapes (minicassettes, essentially) and…

  20. STS-9 payload specialists and backup in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Two Spacelab 1 payload specialists and a backup for that flight prepare for a training session in the JSC mockup and integration laboratory. Fully decked out in the Shuttle constant wear garments (foreground) are Ulf Merbold, left, and Byron K. Licktenberg, prime crewmembers on the STS-9 team. In civilian clothes is payload specialist backup Michael L. Lampton.

  1. Flight test of a resident backup software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deets, Dwain A.; Lock, Wilton P.; Megna, Vincent A.

    1987-01-01

    A new fault-tolerant system software concept employing the primary digital computers as host for the backup software portion has been implemented and flight tested in the F-8 digital fly-by-wire airplane. The system was implemented in such a way that essentially no transients occurred in transferring from primary to backup software. This was accomplished without a significant increase in the complexity of the backup software. The primary digital system was frame synchronized, which provided several advantages in implementing the resident backup software system. Since the time of the flight tests, two other flight vehicle programs have made a commitment to incorporate resident backup software similar in nature to the system described here.

  2. Fuel Cell Backup Power Unit Configuration and Electricity Market Participation: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-13

    This National Renewable Energy Laboratory industry-inspired Laboratory Directed Research and Development project evaluates the feasibility and economics of using fuel cell backup power systems in cell towers to provide grid services (e.g., balancing, ancillary services, demand response). The work is intended to evaluate the integration of thousands of under-utilized, clean, efficient, and reliable fuel cell systems that are already installed in cell towers for potential grid and ancillary services.

  3. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  4. Compact modeling of a telecom back-up unit powered by air-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2018-01-01

    Applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are expanding in portable, automotive and stationary markets. One promising application is the back-up power for telecommunication applications in remote areas where usually air-cooled PMEFC’s are used. An air-cooled PEMFC system is much...

  5. Comparison of Cloud vs. Tape Backup Performance and Costs with Oracle Database

    OpenAIRE

    Zrnec, Aljaž; Lavbič, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    Current practice of backing up data is based on using backup tapes and remote locations for storing data. Nowadays, with the advent of cloud computing a new concept of database backup emerges. The paper presents the possibility of making backup copies of data in the cloud. We are mainly focused on performance and economic issues of making backups in the cloud in comparison to traditional backups. We tested the performance and overall costs of making backup copies of data in Ora...

  6. Oracle Database 12c backup and recovery survival guide

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Francisco Munoz

    2013-01-01

    The book follows a tutorial-based approach, covering all the best practices for backup and recovery. The book starts by introducing readers to the world of backup and recovery, then moves on to teach them the new features offered by Oracle 12c. The book is full of useful tips and best practices that are essential for any DBA to perform backup and recovery operations in an organization.This book is designed for Oracle DBAs and system administrators. The reader will have a basic working experience of administering Oracle databases. This book is designed for Oracle DBAs and system administrators.

  7. EPRI expert system activities for nuclear utility industry application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naser, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on expert systems which have reached a level of maturity where they offer considerable benefits for the nuclear utility industry. The ability of expert systems to enhance expertise makes them an important tool for the nuclear utility industry in the areas of engineering, operations and maintenance. Benefits of expert system applications include comprehensive and consistent reasoning, reduction of time required for activities, retention of human expertise and ability to utilize multiple experts knowledge for an activity. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been performing four basic activities to help the nuclear industry take advantage of this expert system technology. The first is the development of expert system building tools which are tailored to nuclear utility industry applications. The second is the development of expert system applications. The third is work in developing a methodology for verification and validation of expert systems. The last is technology transfer activities to help the nuclear utility industry benefit from expert systems. The purpose of this paper is to describe the EPRI activities

  8. ICT Application and Utilization for Distance and Open Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the extent of ICT application and utilization for distance and open learning education at the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN). The descriptive survey research method was adopted for the study while questionnaire was adopted as major instrument of data collection. A total of 113 copie/s of ...

  9. solar dryer with biomass backup heater for drying fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOLAR DRYER WITH BIOMASS BACKUP HEATER FOR DRYING FRUITS: DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... Most solar dryers rely on only solar energy as the heat source.

  10. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  11. A Survey on Backup of Data on Remote Server

    OpenAIRE

    Raje, Manali; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Large amount of electronic data is generated in Cloud computing every day. Efficient maintenance of this data requires proper services. Hence a method to collect data securely, by protecting and developing backups is mentioned. The Objective is to provide Auto Response Server, better solutions for data backup and restoring using Cloud. Data can be collected and sent to a centralized repository in a platform independent format without any network consideration. This data can then be used accor...

  12. RAICS AS ADVANCED CLOUD BACKUP TECHNOLOGY IN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Luntovskyy, Andriy; Vasyutynskyy, Volodymyr; Spillner, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Data crashes can cause unpredictable and even hard-out effects for an enterprise or authority. Backup strategies as antidote uni-fy a complex of organizational and technical measures that are necessary for data restoring, processing and transfer as well as for data security and defense against its loss, crash and tampering. High-performance modern Internet allows delivery of back-up functions and is complemented by attractive (mobile) services with a Quality of Service comparable to that in L...

  13. Benefit/cost comparisons for utility SMES applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Steese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes eight cases studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES application in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios that those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in may utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems

  14. Benefit/cost comparison for utility SMES applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desteese, J. G.; Dagle, J. E.

    1991-08-01

    This paper summarizes eight case studies that account for the benefits and costs of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) in system-specific utility applications. Four of these scenarios are hypothetical SMES applications in the Pacific Northwest, where relatively low energy costs impose a stringent test on the viability of the concept. The other four scenarios address SMES applications on high-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) transmission lines. While estimated SMES benefits are based on a previously reported methodology, this paper presents results of an improved cost-estimating approach that includes an assumed reduction in the cost of the power conditioning system (PCS) from approximately $160/kW to $80/kW. The revised approach results in all the SMES scenarios showing higher benefit/cost ratios than those reported earlier. However, in all but two cases, the value of any single benefit is still less than the unit's levelized cost. This suggests, as a general principle, that the total value of multiple benefits should always be considered if SMES is to appear cost effective in many utility applications. These results should offer utilities further encouragement to conduct more detailed analyses of SMES benefits in scenarios that apply to individual systems.

  15. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennell, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  16. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use for concentrated solar power plants with different energy backup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Sharon J.W.; Rubin, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is unique among intermittent renewable energy options because for the past four years, utility-scale plants have been using an energy storage technology that could allow a CSP plant to operate as a baseload renewable energy generator in the future. No study to-date has directly compared the environmental implications of this technology with more conventional CSP backup energy options. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and direct, onsite land use associated with one MW h of electricity production from CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt thermal energy storage (TES), and (3) a natural gas-fired heat transfer fluid heater (NG). Plants with NG had 4–9 times more life cycle GHG emissions than plants with TES. Plants with TES generally had twice as many life cycle GHG emissions as the MB plants. Dry cooling reduced life cycle water consumption by 71–78% compared to wet cooling. Plants with larger backup capacities had greater life cycle water consumption than plants with smaller backup capacities, and plants with NG had lower direct, onsite life cycle land use than plants with MB or TES. - highlights: • We assess life cycle environmental effects of concentrated solar power (CSP). • We compare CSP with three energy backup technologies and two cooling technologies. • We selected solar field area to minimize energy cost for plants with minimal backup and salt storage. • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions were 4–9 times lower with thermal energy storage than with fossil fuel backup. • Dry cooling reduced life cycle water use by 71–78% compared to wet cooling

  17. Study of Info backup system of strategy management for coal enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.; Dai, B.; Li, Q.; Shao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). College of Mineral and Energy Resources

    2001-09-01

    It is an application system which helps the determination, enforcement and control of the development strategy of a coal enterprise. This system, which is based on Delphi 5.0, is a Windows application and is bundled with some excellent software, such as 3D Studio Max, Autocad, PhotoShop, Gif Gear etc. It comprises of two subsystems, i.e., the information backup subsystem of strategy management and the control subsystem of strategy enforcement. This system can provide not only the effective information to the leaders or the managers, but also the timely and effective control in the whole course of strategy enforcement. 5 refs.,1 fig.

  18. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  19. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SZALEWSKI, B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering

  20. An Informal Survey of the CTI Backup System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Covino

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to help decide whether or not to purchase computer backup systems from Computer Translation, Inc. (CTI, for use when the CLSI LIBS 100 automated circulation system is not operating, Great Neck Library conducted an informal survey of libraries using both systems

  1. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... One of the most crucial benefits of the computer system is its ability to manage data send to it for processing. ... mirroring, backup and restore, archival and retrieval of ..... enable schools and cooperate organization create a ...

  2. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary cause of data loss is lack or non- existent of data backup. Storage Area Network Solution (SANS) is internet-based software which will collect clients data and host them in several locations to forestall data loss in case of disaster in one location. The researcher used adobe Dreamweaver (CSC3) embedded with ...

  3. Biocompatible yogurt carbon dots: evaluation of utilization for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Saliha; Kara, Meryem; Demirel Kars, Meltem; Aykül, Fatmanur; Çiçekci, Hacer; Akkuş, Mehmet

    2017-09-01

    In this study, carbon dots (CDs) were produced from yogurt, a fermented milk product, via microwave-assisted process (800 W) in 30 min without using any additional chemical agents. Yogurt CDs had outstanding nitrogen and oxygen ratios. These dots were monodisperse and about 2 nm sized. The toxicological assessments of yogurt carbon dots in human cancer cells and normal epithelial cells and their fluorescence imaging in living cell system were carried out. Yogurt carbon dots had intense fluorescent signal under confocal microscopy and good fluorescence stability in living cell system. The resulting yogurt carbon dots exhibited high biocompatibility up to 7.1 mg/mL CD concentration which may find utilization in medical applications such as cellular tracking, imaging and drug delivery. Yogurt carbon dots have potential to be good diagnostic agents to visualize cancer cells which may be developed as a therapeutic carrier.

  4. Simplified Analytic Approach of Pole-to-Pole Faults in MMC-HVDC for AC System Backup Protection Setting Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongkun Lan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AC (alternating current system backup protection setting calculation is an important basis for ensuring the safe operation of power grids. With the increasing integration of modular multilevel converter based high voltage direct current (MMC-HVDC into power grids, it has been a big challenge for the AC system backup protection setting calculation, as the MMC-HVDC lacks the fault self-clearance capability under pole-to-pole faults. This paper focused on the pole-to-pole faults analysis for the AC system backup protection setting calculation. The principles of pole-to-pole faults analysis were discussed first according to the standard of the AC system protection setting calculation. Then, the influence of fault resistance on the fault process was investigated. A simplified analytic approach of pole-to-pole faults in MMC-HVDC for the AC system backup protection setting calculation was proposed. In the proposed approach, the derived expressions of fundamental frequency current are applicable under arbitrary fault resistance. The accuracy of the proposed approach was demonstrated by PSCAD/EMTDC (Power Systems Computer-Aided Design/Electromagnetic Transients including DC simulations.

  5. Degradation Effect on Reliability Evaluation of Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor in Backup Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    DC capacitors in power electronic converters are a major constraint on improvement of power density as well as reliability. In this paper, according to the degradation data of electrolytic capacitors through the accelerated test, the time-to-failure of the capacitor cell is acquired and it can...... be further extended to lower stress levels. Then, in a case study of a fuel cell backup power application, the mission profile based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in terms of the standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor...

  6. Light Duty Utility Arm System applications for tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, B.A.

    1994-10-01

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System is being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Technology Development (OTD, EM-50) to obtain information about the conditions and contents of the DOE's underground storage tanks. Many of these tanks are deteriorating and contain hazardous, radioactive waste generated over the past 50 years as a result of defense materials production at a member of DOE sites. Stabilization and remediation of these waste tanks is a high priority for the DOE's environmental restoration program. The LDUA System will provide the capability to obtain vital data needed to develop safe and cost-effective tank remediation plans, to respond to ongoing questions about tank integrity and leakage, and to quickly investigate tank events that raise safety concerns. In-tank demonstrations of the LDUA System are planned for three DOE sites in 1996 and 1997: Hanford, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This paper provides a general description of the system design and discusses a number of planned applications of this technology to support the DOE's environmental restoration program, as well as potential applications in other areas. Supporting papers by other authors provide additional in-depth technical information on specific areas of the system design

  7. A SWOT Analysis of the Various Backup Scenarios Used in Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwa Jeong; Kim, Hye Hyeon; Kim, Ju Han

    2011-09-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) are increasingly being used by health care services. Currently, if an EMR shutdown occurs, even for a moment, patient safety and care can be seriously impacted. Our goal was to determine the methodology needed to develop an effective and reliable EMR backup system. Our "independent backup system by medical organizations" paradigm implies that individual medical organizations develop their own EMR backup systems within their organizations. A "personal independent backup system" is defined as an individual privately managing his/her own medical records, whereas in a "central backup system by the government" the government controls all the data. A "central backup system by private enterprises" implies that individual companies retain control over their own data. A "cooperative backup system among medical organizations" refers to a networked system established through mutual agreement. The "backup system based on mutual trust between an individual and an organization" means that the medical information backup system at the organizational level is established through mutual trust. Through the use of SWOT analysis it can be shown that cooperative backup among medical organizations is possible to be established through a network composed of various medical agencies and that it can be managed systematically. An owner of medical information only grants data access to the specific person who gave the authorization for backup based on the mutual trust between an individual and an organization. By employing SWOT analysis, we concluded that a linkage among medical organizations or between an individual and an organization can provide an efficient backup system.

  8. Integration of multiple, excess, backup, and expected covering models

    OpenAIRE

    M S Daskin; K Hogan; C ReVelle

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of multiple, excess, backup, and expected coverage are defined. Model formulations using these constructs are reviewed and contrasted to illustrate the relationships between them. Several new formulations are presented as is a new derivation of the expected covering model which indicates more clearly the relationship of the model to other multi-state covering models. An expected covering model with multiple time standards is also presented.

  9. ObliviSync: Practical Oblivious File Backup and Synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Aviv, Adam J.; Choi, Seung Geol; Mayberry, Travis; Roche, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Oblivious RAM (ORAM) protocols are powerful techniques that hide a client's data as well as access patterns from untrusted service providers. We present an oblivious cloud storage system, ObliviSync, that specifically targets one of the most widely-used personal cloud storage paradigms: synchronization and backup services, popular examples of which are Dropbox, iCloud Drive, and Google Drive. This setting provides a unique opportunity because the above privacy properties can be achieved with ...

  10. Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    demonstrates the energy security and cost benefits of implementing a Zn/Br Flow Battery-based ESS at the Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) located at...user will be realized through the system’s peak shaving mode. This benefit was also used to calculate the operational cost reductions when using the...EW-201242) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery Installation for Islanding and Backup Power August 2017 This document has been cleared for public release

  11. Estimating the Backup Reaction Wheel Orientation Using Reaction Wheel Spin Rates Flight Telemetry from a Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    A report describes a model that estimates the orientation of the backup reaction wheel using the reaction wheel spin rates telemetry from a spacecraft. Attitude control via the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) onboard a spacecraft uses three reaction wheels (one wheel per axis) and a backup to accommodate any wheel degradation throughout the course of the mission. The spacecraft dynamics prediction depends upon the correct knowledge of the reaction wheel orientations. Thus, it is vital to determine the actual orientation of the reaction wheels such that the correct spacecraft dynamics can be predicted. The conservation of angular momentum is used to estimate the orientation of the backup reaction wheel from the prime and backup reaction wheel spin rates data. The method is applied in estimating the orientation of the backup wheel onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The flight telemetry from the March 2011 prime and backup RWA swap activity on Cassini is used to obtain the best estimate for the backup reaction wheel orientation.

  12. Utility/Manufacturers Robots Users Group: a partnership promoting the applications of robots in all utility industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meieran, H.B.; Roman, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to describe the roles and the goals of the recently established Utility/Manufacturers Robots Users Group (U/M RUG), an organization which is dedicated to promoting the employment of robots in all utility facilities. This group is composed of volunteer representatives from the utilities, robot manufacturers, service organizations/consulting groups, academia, national and non-government funding agencies, and national laboratories. Although the Group primarily serves as a forum and a guide for technology transfer, exchanging ideas, and promoting philosophies of applications among its members, it also provides this type of assistance to external groups and agencies. (author)

  13. Augmented reality application utility for aviation maintenance work instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourcho, John Bryan

    Current aviation maintenance work instructions do not display information effectively enough to prevent costly errors and safety concerns. Aircraft are complex assemblies of highly interrelated components that confound troubleshooting and can make the maintenance procedure difficult (Drury & Gramopadhye, 2001). The sophisticated nature of aircraft maintenance necessitates a revolutionized training intervention for aviation maintenance technicians (United States General Accounting Office, 2003). Quite simply, the paper based job task cards fall short of offering rapid access to technical data and the system or component visualization necessary for working on complex integrated aircraft systems. Possible solutions to this problem include upgraded standards for paper based task cards and the use of integrated 3D product definition used on various mobile platforms (Ropp, Thomas, Lee, Broyles, Lewin, Andreychek, & Nicol, 2013). Previous studies have shown that incorporation of 3D graphics in work instructions allow the user to more efficiently and accurately interpret maintenance information (Jackson & Batstone, 2008). For aircraft maintenance workers, the use of mobile 3D model-based task cards could make current paper task card standards obsolete with their ability to deliver relevant, synchronized information to and from the hangar. Unlike previous versions of 3D model-based definition task cards and paper task cards, which are currently used in the maintenance industry, 3D model based definition task cards have the potential to be more mobile and accessible. Utilizing augmented reality applications on mobile devices to seamlessly deliver 3D product definition on mobile devices could increase the efficiency, accuracy, and reduce the mental workload for technicians when performing maintenance tasks (Macchiarella, 2004). This proposal will serve as a literary review of the aviation maintenance industry, the spatial ability of maintenance technicians, and benefits of

  14. Real-time graphic display utility for nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.; Huang, X.; Taylor, J.; Stevens, J.; Gerardis, T.; Hsu, A.; McCreary, T.

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing interests in the nuclear energy, new nuclear power plants will be constructed and licensed, and older generation ones will be upgraded for assuring continuing operation. The tendency of adopting the latest proven technology and the fact of older parts becoming obsolete have made the upgrades imperative. One of the areas for upgrades is the older CRT display being replaced by the latest graphics displays running under modern real time operating system (RTOS) with safety graded modern computer. HFC has developed a graphic display utility (GDU) under the QNX RTOS. A standard off-the-shelf software with a long history of performance in industrial applications, QNX RTOS used for safety applications has been examined via a commercial dedication process that is consistent with the regulatory guidelines. Through a commercial survey, a design life cycle and an operating history evaluation, and necessary tests dictated by the dedication plan, it is reasonably confirmed that the QNX RTOS was essentially equivalent to what would be expected in the nuclear industry. The developed GDU operates and communicates with the existing equipment through a dedicated serial channel of a flat panel controller (FPC) module. The FPC module drives a flat panel display (FPD) monitor. A touch screen mounted on the FPD serves as the normal operator interface with the FPC/FPD monitor system. The GDU can be used not only for replacing older CRTs but also in new applications. The replacement of the older CRT does not disturb the function of the existing equipment. It not only provides modern proven technology upgrade but also improves human ergonomics. The FPC, which can be used as a standalone controller running with the GDU, is an integrated hardware and software module. It operates as a single board computer within a control system, and applies primarily to the graphics display, targeting, keyboard and mouse. During normal system operation, the GDU has two sources of data

  15. Performance model to assist solar thermal power plant siting in northern Chile based on backup fuel consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrain, Teresita; Escobar, Rodrigo; Vergara, Julio [Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica y Metalurgica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-08-15

    In response to environmental awareness, Chile introduced sustainability goals in its electricity law. Power producers must deliver 5% from renewable sources by 2010 and 10% by 2024. The Chilean desert has a large available surface with one of the highest radiation levels and clearest skies in the World. These factors imply that solar power is an option for this task. However, a commercial plant requires a fossil fuel system to backup the sunlight intermittency. The authors developed a thermodynamical model to estimate the backup fraction needed in a 100 MW hybrid -solar-fossil- parabolic trough power plant. This paper presents the model aiming to predicting the performance and exploring its usefulness in assisting site selection among four locations. Since solar radiation data are only available in a monthly average, we introduced two approaches to feed the model. One data set provided an average month with identical days throughout and the other one considered an artificial month of different daylight profiles on an hourly basis for the same monthly average. We recommend a best plant location based on minimum fossil fuel backup, contributing to optimal siting from the energy perspective. Utilities will refine their policy goals more closely when a precise solar energy data set becomes available. (author)

  16. Heuristic methods for shared backup path protection planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as Shared Backup Path Protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... present heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5% was achieved for more than half of the benchmark instances (and a gap of less...

  17. Heuristic methods for single link shared backup path protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Zachariasen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    schemes are employed. In contrast to manual intervention, automatic protection schemes such as shared backup path protection (SBPP) can recover from failure quickly and efficiently. SBPP is a simple but efficient protection scheme that can be implemented in backbone networks with technology available...... heuristic algorithms and lower bound methods for the SBPP planning problem. Experimental results show that the heuristic algorithms are able to find good quality solutions in minutes. A solution gap of less than 3.5 % was achieved for 5 of 7 benchmark instances (and a gap of less than 11 % for the remaining...

  18. Bayes-Based Fault Discrimination in Wide Area Backup Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG, Z.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate statistical analysis is an effective tool to finish the fault location for electric power system. In Bayesian discriminant analysis as a subbranch, by the research of several populations, one can calculate the conditional probability that some samples belong to these populations, and compare the corresponding probability. The sample will be classified as population with maximum probability. In this paper, based on Bayesian discriminant analysis principle, a great number of simulation examples have confirmed that the results of Bayesian fault discriminant in wide area backup protection are accurate and reliable.

  19. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  20. Utility function under decision theory: A construction arbitration application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozn, Ahmad E.; Galadari, Abdulla

    2017-08-01

    While a wide range of dispute resolution mechanisms exist, practitioners favor legally binding ones such as litigation and arbitration. Since initiating a litigation or arbitration case against a business partner may dissolve the business relationship between them, predicting the arbitrator's decision becomes valuable to the arbitrating parties. This paper proposes a construction-specific utility framework for the arbitrating party through decision theory, and based on expected utility theory. The proposed framework preserves the industry practicality and most importantly, considers direct short-term factors and indirect long-term factors as well. It is suggested that the arbitrating parties' utility functions could be then used to identify equilibrium points among them when interact via game theory principles, which would serve the purpose of predicting the arbitration outcome.

  1. Information management applications for the compliance function: a utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoie, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Today's complex and changing regulatory environment presents many challenges to those involved in the nuclear power industry. This is particularly true of technical personnel and managers involved in serving the compliance function for nuclear utilities. Adequately supporting the construction, startup, and operations of a nuclear power plant while simultaneously satisfying each regulatory requirement requires the meshing of thousands of individual regulatory tasks with each possible implementation option. The compliance function acts as a screen or filter between the regulatory bodies and the utility nuclear staff. Many varied approaches are taken by utilities in performing this compliance function, both from an organizational and information management perspective. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experiences of Louisiana Power and Light (LP and L) in developing its compliance function and to describe the innovative information management techniques LP and L has developed to serve this function

  2. 77 FR 66607 - Northern Wasco County People's Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... County People's Utility District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and... County People's Utility District (Northern Wasco) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...; (2) two five-foot by five-foot sluice gates connecting the new intake channel structure to the...

  3. Simulating cloud environment for HIS backup using secret sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kimura, Eizen; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamashita, Yoshinori; Hiramatsu, Haruhiko; Kume, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a disaster hospitals are expected to be able to continue providing efficient and high-quality care to patients. It is therefore crucial for hospitals to develop business continuity plans (BCPs) that identify their vulnerabilities, and prepare procedures to overcome them. A key aspect of most hospitals' BCPs is creating the backup of the hospital information system (HIS) data at multiple remote sites. However, the need to keep the data confidential dramatically increases the costs of making such backups. Secret sharing is a method to split an original secret message so that individual pieces are meaningless, but putting sufficient number of pieces together reveals the original message. It allows creation of pseudo-redundant arrays of independent disks for privacy-sensitive data over the Internet. We developed a secret sharing environment for StarBED, a large-scale network experiment environment, and evaluated its potential and performance during disaster recovery. Simulation results showed that the entire main HIS database of Kyoto University Hospital could be retrieved within three days even if one of the distributed storage systems crashed during a disaster.

  4. The amino acid's backup bone - storage solutions for proteomics facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckel, Hagen; Stephan, Christian; Bunse, Christian; Krafzik, Michael; Reher, Christopher; Kohl, Michael; Meyer, Helmut Erich; Eisenacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Proteomics methods, especially high-throughput mass spectrometry analysis have been continually developed and improved over the years. The analysis of complex biological samples produces large volumes of raw data. Data storage and recovery management pose substantial challenges to biomedical or proteomic facilities regarding backup and archiving concepts as well as hardware requirements. In this article we describe differences between the terms backup and archive with regard to manual and automatic approaches. We also introduce different storage concepts and technologies from transportable media to professional solutions such as redundant array of independent disks (RAID) systems, network attached storages (NAS) and storage area network (SAN). Moreover, we present a software solution, which we developed for the purpose of long-term preservation of large mass spectrometry raw data files on an object storage device (OSD) archiving system. Finally, advantages, disadvantages, and experiences from routine operations of the presented concepts and technologies are evaluated and discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics in the Post-Identification Era. Guest Editors: Martin Eisenacher and Christian Stephan. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Proposed advanced satellite applications utilizing space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, P.G.; Isenberg, L.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the status of space nuclear reactor systems and their possible applications is presented. Such systems have been developed over the past twenty years and are capable of use in various military and civilian applications in the 5-1000 kWe power range. The capabilities and limitations of the currently proposed nuclear reactor systems are summarized. Safety issues are shown to be identified, and if properly addressed should not pose a hindrance. Applications are summarized for the federal and civilian community. These applications include both low and high altitude satellite surveillance missions, communications satellites, planetary probes, low and high power lunar and planetary base power systems, broad-band global telecommunications, air traffic control, and high-definition television

  6. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-08-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  7. Advanced multi-megawatt wind turbine design for utility application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijawka, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    A NASA/DOE program to develop a utility class multimegawatt wind turbine, the MOD-5A, is described. The MOD-5A features a 400 foot diameter rotor which is teetered and positioned upwind of the tower; a 7.3 megawatt power rating with a variable speed electric generating system; and a redundant rotor support and torque transmission structure. The rotor blades were fabricated from an epoxy-bonded wood laminate material which was a successful outgrowth of the MOD-OA airfoil design. Preliminary data from operational tests carried out at the NASA Plumbrook test facility are presented.

  8. Structural evolution of utility systems and its implications for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iannucci, J.J.; Shugar, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) differ substantially from the central generating stations traditionally employed by utilities. PV utilizes a fuel which disappears nightly, operating only while the sun shines. It has the potential of being highly reliable while requiring low levels of operating and maintenance attention, and it can be deployed in a highly modular fashion close to load. It is precisely these differences that give rise to PV's greatest opportunities in successfully entering the utility market. The purpose of this paper is to explore an emerging utility paradigm, the Distributed Utility concept, and how utilities might change their current planning and resource selection processes to take advantage of it, both to the betterment of the PV industry and the utility's customers. Out of this exploration emerges the photovoltaics Diffusion Model strategy that bridges the gap from currently economic stand-alone special applications of PV in utility operations to bulk power production. (author). 12 refs, 5 figs

  9. Is strategic asset management applicable to small and medium utilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Urban water infrastructures provide essential services to modern societies and represent a major portion of the value of municipal physical assets. Managing these assets rationally is therefore fundamental for the sustainability of the services and to the economy of societies. "Asset Management" (AM) is a modern term for an old practice--assets have always been managed. In recent years, significant evolution occurred in terms of the AM formal approaches, of the monitoring and decision support tools and of the implementation success cases. However, most tools developed are too sophisticated and data seek for small utilities. The European R&D network COST Action C18 ( E-mail: www.costc18.org) identified key research problems related to the management of urban water infrastructures, currently not covered by on-going projects of the European Framework Program. The top 1 topic is "Efficient management of small community". This paper addresses challenges and opportunities for small and medium utilities with regard to infrastructure AM (IAM). To put this into context, the first sections discuss the need for IAM, highlight key recent developments, and present IAM drivers, as well as research and development gaps, priorities and products needed.

  10. Application and Utilization of Electrochemistry in Organic Chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 17 (2011), s. 2921-2922 ISSN 1385-2728 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : electrochemistry * organic chemistry * applications Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2011

  11. Smartphone Applications Utilizing Biofeedback Can Aid Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Alison; Kelly, Mark; Robertson, Ian H.; Robertson, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stress is one of the leading global causes of disease and premature mortality. Despite this, interventions aimed at reducing stress have low adherence rates. The proliferation of mobile phone devices along with gaming-style applications allows for a unique opportunity to broaden the reach and appeal of stress-reduction interventions in modern society. We assessed the effectiveness of two smartphone applications games combined with biofeedback in reducing stress. Methods: We compared a control game to gaming-style smartphone applications combined with a skin conductance biofeedback device (the Pip). Fifty participants aged between 18 and 35 completed the Trier Social Stress Test. They were then randomly assigned to the intervention (biofeedback game) or control group (a non-biofeedback game) for thirty minutes. Perceived stress, heart rate and mood were measured before and after participants had played the games. Results: A mixed factorial ANOVA showed a significant interaction between time and game type in predicting perceived stress [F(1,48) = 14.19, p biofeedback intervention had significantly reduced stress compared to the control group. There was also a significant interaction between time and game in predicting heart rate [F(1,48) = 6.41, p biofeedback intervention showed significant reductions in heart rate compared to the control group. Discussion: This illustrates the potential for gaming-style smartphone applications combined with biofeedback as stress reduction interventions. PMID:27378963

  12. Basic criteria and application examples of German utility PLIM concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgarz, G.; Metzner, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of the consensus negotiations between the present Federal German Government and the German utilities the new Atomic Energy Law was set into force in April 2002. The main issues are: 1. Phase out of NPP-operation after a maximum lifetime of 32 years without any claims for compensation. 2. Termination of spent fuel reprocessing and switching over to direct final storage. Stop of spent fuel casks shipment in 2005. 3. Intermediate storage facilities are to be provided on each power plant site. 4. The promotion clause for nuclear energy is cancelled, the construction of new NPP's is prohibited. 5. The NPP safety status has to be kept on a high level standard. A periodic safety assessment must be performed 'according to the state of the art' based on up-to-date codes and standards in a 10-year interval. As a consequence, the future German policies and strategies are based on this law

  13. 30 CFR 75.1101-9 - Back-up water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-up water system. 75.1101-9 Section 75.1101-9 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-9 Back-up water system...

  14. A Signature Comparing Android Mobile Application Utilizing Feature Extracting Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grafilon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones camera. Nowadays forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature analyzes it and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions such as banks and insurance companies in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.

  15. Utilization of Self-Healing Materials in Thermal Protection System Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the Utilization of Self-Healing Materials for Thermal Protection System (TPS) Applications. Currently, the technology for repairing TPS from...

  16. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 3. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    The appendices for a case-study application of venture analysis for an integrated energy utility for commercialization are presented. The following are included and discussed: utility interviews; net social benefits - quantitative calculations; the financial analysis model; market penetration decision model; international district heating systems; political and regulatory environment; institutional impacts.

  17. Applications of utility theory in the economic evaluation of health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis studies the applicability of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and other utility based outcome measures in medical decision making and health economics. The main conclusion will be that utility based measures are more useful to model health related behaviour than has

  18. Applying Utility Functions to Adaptation Planning for Home Automation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratskas, Pyrros; Paspallis, Nearchos; Kakousis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, George A.

    A pervasive computing environment typically comprises multiple embedded devices that may interact together and with mobile users. These users are part of the environment, and they experience it through a variety of devices embedded in the environment. This perception involves technologies which may be heterogeneous, pervasive, and dynamic. Due to the highly dynamic properties of such environments, the software systems running on them have to face problems such as user mobility, service failures, or resource and goal changes which may happen in an unpredictable manner. To cope with these problems, such systems must be autonomous and self-managed. In this chapter we deal with a special kind of a ubiquitous environment, a smart home environment, and introduce a user-preference-based model for adaptation planning. The model, which dynamically forms a set of configuration plans for resources, reasons automatically and autonomously, based on utility functions, on which plan is likely to best achieve the user's goals with respect to resource availability and user needs.

  19. High efficiency thermal energy storage system for utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrable, D.L.; Quade, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    A concept of coupling a high efficiency base loaded coal or nuclear power plant with a thermal energy storage scheme for efficient and low-cost intermediate and peaking power is presented. A portion of the power plant's thermal output is used directly to generate superheated steam for continuous operation of a conventional turbine-generator to product base-load power. The remaining thermal output is used on a continuous basis to heat a conventional heat transfer salt (such as the eutectic composition of KaNO 3 /NaNO 3 /NaNO 2 ), which is stored in a high-temperature reservoir [538 0 C (1000 0 F)]. During peak demand periods, the salt is circulated from the high-temperature reservoir to a low-temperature reservoir through steam generators in order to provide peaking power from a conventional steam cycle plant. The period of operation can vary, but may typically be the equivalent of about 4 to 8 full-power hours each day. The system can be tailored to meet the utilities' load demand by varying the base-load level and the period of operation of the peak-load system

  20. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  1. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  2. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-01-01

    This project's mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS)

  3. RELAP5-3D Resolution of Known Restart/Backup Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesina, George L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, Nolan A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The state-of-the-art nuclear reactor system safety analysis computer program developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), RELAP5-3D, continues to adapt to changes in computer hardware and software and to develop to meet the ever-expanding needs of the nuclear industry. To continue at the forefront, code testing must evolve with both code and industry developments, and it must work correctly. To best ensure this, the processes of Software Verification and Validation (V&V) are applied. Verification compares coding against its documented algorithms and equations and compares its calculations against analytical solutions and the method of manufactured solutions. A form of this, sequential verification, checks code specifications against coding only when originally written then applies regression testing which compares code calculations between consecutive updates or versions on a set of test cases to check that the performance does not change. A sequential verification testing system was specially constructed for RELAP5-3D to both detect errors with extreme accuracy and cover all nuclear-plant-relevant code features. Detection is provided through a “verification file” that records double precision sums of key variables. Coverage is provided by a test suite of input decks that exercise code features and capabilities necessary to model a nuclear power plant. A matrix of test features and short-running cases that exercise them is presented. This testing system is used to test base cases (called null testing) as well as restart and backup cases. It can test RELAP5-3D performance in both standalone and coupled (through PVM to other codes) runs. Application of verification testing revealed numerous restart and backup issues in both standalone and couple modes. This document reports the resolution of these issues.

  4. Utilizing steel slag in environmental application - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Chew, L. H.; Choong, T. S. Y.; Tezara, C.; Yazdi, M. H.

    2016-06-01

    Steel slags are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel making industries.The potential environmental issues which are related with the slag dump or reprocessing for metal recovery are generally being focused in the research. However the chemistry and mineralogy of slag depends on metallurgical process which is able to determine whether the steel slag can be the reusable products or not. Nowadays, steel slag are well characterized by using several methods, such as X-ray Diffraction, ICP-OES, leaching test and many more. About the industrial application, it is mainly reused as aggregate for road construction, as armour stones for hydraulic engineering constructions and as fertilizers for agricultural purposes. To ensure the quality of steel slag for the end usage, several test methods are developed for evaluating the technical properties of steel slag, especially volume stability and environmental behaviour. In order to determine its environmental behaviour, leaching tests have been developed. The focus of this paper however is on those applications that directly affect environmental issues including remediation, and mitigation of activities that negatively impact the environment.

  5. Utilization of pion production accelerators in biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, L.

    1979-01-01

    A discussion is presented of biomedical applications of pion-producing accelerators in a number of areas, but with emphasis on pion therapy for treatment of solid, non-metastasized malignancies. The problem of cancer management is described from the standpoint of the physicist, magnitude of the problem, and its social and economic impact. Barriers to successful treatment are identified, mainly with regard to radiation therapy. The properties and characteristics of π mesons, first postulated on purely theoretical grounds by H. Yukawa are described. It is shown how they can be used to treat human cancer and why they appear to have dramatic advantages over conventional forms of radiation by virtue of the fact that they permit localization of energy deposition, preferentially, in the tumor volume. The Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), and its operating characteristics, are briefly described, with emphasis on the biomedical channel. The design of a relatively inexpensive accelerator specifically for pion therapy is described as is also the status of clinical trials using the existing Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The advantages of proton over electron accelerator for the production of high quality, high intensity negative pion beams suitable for radiation therapy of malignancies is also addressed. Other current, medically related applications of LAMPF technology are also discussed

  6. Utilization of research reactors in universities and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji.

    1983-01-01

    In Japan, five research reactors and a critical assembly are operated by the universities. They are opened to all university researchers, the system of which is financially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science of the Japanese government. Usually KUR is operated eight cycles per year. One cycle consists of the following four week operation: 1. Mainly for researchers from other universities; 2. Mainly for researchers in the institute; 3. Mainly for beam experiment; 4. Sort time experiment. In the weeks of 1 ∼ 3 the KUR is operated continously from Tuesday morning to Friday evening. The experiment include studies on physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, engineering etc. Recently the medical application of research reactors has become popular in Japan. The new technique of the boron neutron capture thereby has been successfully applied to brain tumors and will be to melanoma (skin cancer) in near future. (author)

  7. Reliability analysis and utilization of PEMs in space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiujie; Wang, Zhihua; Sun, Huixian; Chen, Xiaomin; Zhao, Tianlin; Yu, Guanghua; Zhou, Changyi

    2009-11-01

    More and more plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) are used in space missions to achieve high performance. Since PEMs are designed for use in terrestrial operating conditions, the successful usage of PEMs in space harsh environment is closely related to reliability issues, which should be considered firstly. However, there is no ready-made methodology for PEMs in space applications. This paper discusses the reliability for the usage of PEMs in space. This reliability analysis can be divided into five categories: radiation test, radiation hardness, screening test, reliability calculation and reliability assessment. One case study is also presented to illuminate the details of the process, in which a PEM part is used in a joint space program Double-Star Project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and China. The influence of environmental constrains including radiation, humidity, temperature and mechanics on the PEM part has been considered. Both Double-Star Project satellites are still running well in space now.

  8. Backup pathways of NHEJ in cells of higher eukaryotes: Cell cycle dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, George

    2009-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cells of higher eukaryotes are predominantly repaired by a pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) utilizing Ku, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4 and XLF/Cernunnos (D-NHEJ) as central components. Work carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere shows that when this pathway is chemically or genetically compromised, cells do not shunt DSBs to homologous recombination repair (HRR) but instead use another form of NHEJ operating as a backup (B-NHEJ). Here I review our efforts to characterize this repair pathway and discuss its dependence on the cell cycle as well as on the growth conditions. I present evidence that B-NHEJ utilizes ligase III, PARP-1 and histone H1. When B-NHEJ is examined throughout the cell cycle, significantly higher activity is observed in G2 phase that cannot be attributed to HRR. Furthermore, the activity of B-NHEJ is compromised when cells enter the plateau phase of growth. Together, these observations uncover a repair pathway with unexpected biochemical constitution and interesting cell cycle and growth factor regulation. They generate a framework for investigating the mechanistic basis of HRR contribution to DSB repair.

  9. Alkali Metal Backup Cooling for Stirling Systems - Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  10. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi

    2011-01-01

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided

  11. Concept of Advanced Back-up Control Panel Design of Digital Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Guo Jin; Sun, Yong Bin; Tan, Ke; Zhang, Li Ming; Shi, Ji; Zhang, Xue Gang; Huang, Wei Jun; Mao, Ting; Liu Yanzi [China Nuclear Power Engineering Company, Shenzen (China)

    2011-08-15

    Back-up control panel (BCP) of digital main control room (DMCR) is the backup means for main computerized control means (MCM). This paper focus on technical issues for advanced design of Backup Panel (BCP) for CPR1000 using qualified computer-based video display unit to display plant process indication and alarms. HFE issues also have been considered in the BCP design. Then, mean to fulfill safety target of NPP, best ergonomic effect has been described. At last conclusion on advanced BCP design is provided.

  12. The application of utility analysis processes to estimate the impact of training for nuclear maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppel, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to test two utility analysis models, the Cascio-Ramos Estimate of Performance in Dollars (CREPID) model and Godkewitsch financial utility analysis model and to determine their appropriateness as tools for evaluating training. This study was conducted in conjunction with Philadelphia Electric Company's Nuclear Training Group. Job performance of nuclear maintenance workers was assessed to document the impact of the training program. Assessment of job performance covered six job performance themes. Additionally, front-line nuclear maintenance supervisors were interviewed to determine their perceptions of the nuclear maintenance training. A comparison of supervisor's perceptions and outcomes of the utility analysis models was made to determine the appropriateness of utility analysis as quantitative tools for evaluating the nuclear maintenance training program. Application of the CREPID utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training through utility analysis was $5,843,750 which represented only four of the job performance themes. Application of the Godkewitsch utility analysis model indicated the dollar value of the benefits of training was $3,083,845 which represented all six performance themes. A comparison of the outcomes indicated a sizeable difference between the dollar values produced by the models. Supervisors indicated training resulted in improved productivity, i.e., improved efficiency and effectiveness. Additionally, supervisors believed training was valuable because it provided nonmonetary benefits, e.g., improved self-esteem and confidence. The application of utility analysis addressed only monetary benefits of training. The variation evidenced by the difference in the outcome of the two models suggests that utility analysis open-quotes estimatesclose quotes may not accurately reflect the impact of training

  13. Energy technologies for distributed utility applications: Cost and performance trends, and implications for photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyer, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Utilities are evaluating several electric generation and storage (G ampersand S) technologies for distributed utility (DU) applications. Attributes of leading DU technologies and implications for photovoltaics (PV) are described. Included is a survey of present and projected cost and performance for: (1) small, advanced combustion turbines (CTs); (2) advanced, natural gas-fired, diesel engines (diesel engines); and (3) advanced lead-acid battery systems (batteries). Technology drivers and relative qualitative benefits are described. A levelized energy cost-based cost target for PV for DU applications is provided. The analysis addresses only relative cost, for PV and for three selected alternative DU technologies. Comparable size, utility, and benefits are assumed, although relative value is application-specific and often technology- and site-specific

  14. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  15. Electric utility application of wind energy conversion systems on the island of Oahu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindley, C.A.; Melton, W.C.

    1979-02-23

    This wind energy application study was performed by The Aerospace Corporation for the Wind Systems Branch of the Department of Energy. The objective was to identify integration problems for a Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) placed into an existing conventional utility system. The integration problems included environmental, institutional and technical aspects as well as economic matters, but the emphasis was on the economics of wind energy. The Hawaiian Electric Company utility system on the island of Oahu was selected for the study because of the very real potential for wind energy on that island, and because of the simplicity afforded in analyzing that isolated utility.

  16. Mechanization of and experience with a triplex fly-by-wire backup control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, W. P.; Petersen, W. R.; Whitman, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    A redundant three axis analog control system was designed and developed to back up a digital fly by wire control system for an F-8C airplane. The mechanization and operational experience with the backup control system, the problems involved in synchronizing it with the primary system, and the reliability of the system are discussed. The backup control system was dissimilar to the primary system, and it provided satisfactory handling through the flight envelope evaluated. Limited flight tests of a variety of control tasks showed that control was also satisfactory when the backup control system was controlled by a minimum displacement (force) side stick. The operational reliability of the F-8 digital fly by wire control system was satisfactory, with no unintentional downmodes to the backup control system in flight. The ground and flight reliability of the system's components is discussed.

  17. Backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale renewable electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachtberger, D.P.; Becker, S.; Schramm, S.; Greiner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Flexible backup demand in a European wind and solar based power system is modelled. • Three flexibility classes are defined based on production and consumption timescales. • Seasonal backup capacities are shown to be only used below 50% renewable penetration. • Large-scale transmission between countries can reduce fast flexible capacities. - Abstract: High shares of intermittent renewable power generation in a European electricity system will require flexible backup power generation on the dominant diurnal, synoptic, and seasonal weather timescales. The same three timescales are already covered by today’s dispatchable electricity generation facilities, which are able to follow the typical load variations on the intra-day, intra-week, and seasonal timescales. This work aims to quantify the changing demand for those three backup flexibility classes in emerging large-scale electricity systems, as they transform from low to high shares of variable renewable power generation. A weather-driven modelling is used, which aggregates eight years of wind and solar power generation data as well as load data over Germany and Europe, and splits the backup system required to cover the residual load into three flexibility classes distinguished by their respective maximum rates of change of power output. This modelling shows that the slowly flexible backup system is dominant at low renewable shares, but its optimized capacity decreases and drops close to zero once the average renewable power generation exceeds 50% of the mean load. The medium flexible backup capacities increase for modest renewable shares, peak at around a 40% renewable share, and then continuously decrease to almost zero once the average renewable power generation becomes larger than 100% of the mean load. The dispatch capacity of the highly flexible backup system becomes dominant for renewable shares beyond 50%, and reach their maximum around a 70% renewable share. For renewable shares

  18. A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF AIR FLOW THROUGH A TELECOM BACK-UP UNIT POWERED BY AN AIR-COOLED PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xin; Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2016-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC’s) are currently being commercialized for various applications ranging from automotive to stationary such as powering telecom back-up units. In PEMFC’s, oxygen from air is internally combined with hydrogen to form water and produce electricity and heat....... This product heat has to be effectively removed from the fuel cell, and while automotive fuel cells are usually liquid-cooled using a secondary coolant loop similar to the internal combustion engines, stationary fuel cell systems as they are used for telecom back-up applications often rely on excessive air fed...... to the fuel cell cathode to remove the heat. Thereby, the fuel cell system is much simpler and cheaper while the fuel cell performance is substantially lower compared to automotive fuel cells. This work presents a computational fluid dynamics analysis on the heat management of an air-cooled fuel cell powered...

  19. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  20. Exploring the Utility and Application of Framing Devices in College/University President Speeches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ira George

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and application of the framing devices identified by Fairhurst (1993) and Fairhurst and Sarr (1996) in the college/university setting as evidenced through college/university presidents' speeches. Fifty-seven college/university presidents' speeches were collected from institution…

  1. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the backup flight system FMEA/CIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prust, E. E.; Ewell, J. J., Jr.; Hinsdale, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Backup Flight System (BFS) hardware, generating draft failure modes and Potential Critical Items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the proposed NASA Post 51-L FMEA/CIL baseline. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter BFS hardware. The IOA product for the BFS analysis consisted of 29 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 21 Potential Critical Items (PCI) being identified. This product was originally compared with the proposed NASA BFS baseline and subsequently compared with the applicable Data Processing System (DPS), Electrical Power Distribution and Control (EPD and C), and Displays and Controls NASA CIL items. The comparisons determined if there were any results which had been found by the IOA but were not in the NASA baseline. The original assessment determined there were numerous failure modes and potential critical items in the IOA analysis that were not contained in the NASA BFS baseline. Conversely, the NASA baseline contained three FMEAs (IMU, ADTA, and Air Data Probe) for CIL items that were not identified in the IOA product.

  2. An analysis of multiple particle settling for LMR backup shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, R.W.

    1992-05-01

    Backup shutdown systems proposed for future LMRs may employ discreet absorber particles to provide the negative reactivity insertion. When actuated, these systems release a dense packing of particles from an out-of-core region to settle into an in-core region. The multiple particle settling behavior is analyzed by the method of continuity waves. This method provides predictions of the dynamic response of the system including the average particle velocity and volume fraction of particles vs. time. Although hindered settling problems have been previously analyzed using continuity wave theory, this application represents an extension of the theory to conditions of unrestrained settling. Typical cases are analyzed and numerical results are calculated based on a semi-empirical drift-flux model. For 1/4-inch diameter boron-carbide particles in hot liquid sodium, the unrestrained settling problem assumes a steady-state solution when the average volume fraction of particles is 0.295 and the average particle velocity is 26.0 cm/s

  3. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  4. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi; Monshi, Ahmad; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul; Jafari, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. → MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. → Retained austenite conversion to α'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. → Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr) 7 C 3 , may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  5. Backup power working group best practices handbook for maintenance and operation of engine generators, Volume 1. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Padgett, A.B.; Burrows, K.P.; Fairchild, P.N.; Lam, T.; Janes, J.

    1997-01-01

    This handbook is divided into the four chapters. Chapter one covers the design, procurement, storage, handling and testing of diesel fuel oil to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter two discusses the selection of automatic transfer switches to be used in DOE backup power supplies. Chapter three is about low voltage open frame air circuit breaker operation, testing, and maintenance for DOE backup power supplies. And chapter four covers installation, design, and maintenance of engine cooling water and jacket water systems

  6. Nuclear energy policy analysis under uncertainties : applications of new utility theoretic approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ra, Ki Yong

    1992-02-01

    For the purpose of analyzing the nuclear energy policy under uncertainties, new utility theoretic approaches were applied. The main discoveries of new utility theories are that, firstly, the consequences can affect the perceived probabilities, secondly, the utilities are not fixed but can change, and finally, utilities and probabilities thus should be combined dependently to determine the overall worth of risky option. These conclusions were applied to develop the modified expected utility model and to establish the probabilistic nuclear safety criterion. The modified expected utility model was developed in order to resolve the inconsistencies between the expected utility model and the actual decision behaviors. Based on information theory and Bayesian inference, the modified probabilities were obtained as the stated probabilities times substitutional factors. The model theoretically predicts that the extreme value outcomes are perceived as to be more likely to occur than medium value outcomes. This prediction is consistent with the first finding of new utility theories that the consequences can after the perceived probabilities. And further with this theoretical prediction, the decision behavior of buying lottery ticket, of paying for insurance and of nuclear catastrophic risk aversion can well be explained. Through the numerical application, it is shown that the developed model can well explain the common consequence effect, common ratio effect and reflection effect. The probabilistic nuclear safety criterion for core melt frequency was established: Firstly, the distribution of the public's safety goal (DPSG) was proposed for representing the public's group preference under risk. Secondly, a new probabilistic safety criterion (PSC) was established, in which the DPSG was used as a benchmark for evaluating the results of probabilistic safety assessment. Thirdly, a log-normal distribution was proposed as the appropriate DPSG for core melt frequency using the

  7. Introduction of a backup system for data and servers of main IT infrastructure services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takashi; Kannari, Masaaki

    2013-06-01

    The optimization of the JAEA network system has been promoted in accordance with the optimization plan which has the fundamental principles of ensuring its dependability, information security and usability. In respect to ensuring the dependability, we addressed to a) the reduction of both trouble probability and recovery time, and b) an execution of the business continuity plan in time of large-scale earthquake. For the latter, we installed an e-mail backup server and an alternate connection to the internet in Kansai Photon Science Institute (Kizu-area) based on lesson learned from the experience of the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. In addition, we introduced a backup system for data and servers of other main IT infrastructure services. This report documents the configuration and operation of the backup system. (author)

  8. Research and implementation of PC data synchronous backup based on cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Yu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to better ensure data security,data integrity,and facilitate remote management,this paper has designed and implemented a system model for PC data synchronous backup from the view of the local database and personal data. It focuses on the data backup and uses SQL Azure( a cloud database management system and Visual Studio( a development platform tool . Also the system is released and deployed on the Windows Azure Platform with a unique web portal. Experimental tests show that compared to other data backup methods in non-cloud environment,the system has certain advantages and research value on mobility,interoperability and data management.

  9. Influence of unbalance levels on nonlinear dynamics of a rotor-backup rolling bearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Cesar A.; Santos, Ilmar; Weber, Hans I.

    2017-01-01

    of nonlinear dynamics applied to the practical use. The theoretical and numerical analyses are shown through orbit plots, phase plans, Poincaré maps, force response in time and double sided spectrum. The latter is important to characterize the condition at different levels of unbalance between forward......Rotor drops in magnetic bearing and unbalance in rotors have been objective of study for many years. The combination of these two well-known phenomena led to an interesting chaotic response, when the rotor touches the inner race of the back-up bearing. The present work explores the nonlinear rotor...... backup bearing dynamics both theoretically and experimentally using a fully instrumented test rig, where the position of shaft, its angular velocity and the contact forces between the shaft and the backup bearing are sampled at 25 kHz. The test rig is built by a removable passive magnetic bearing, which...

  10. Achieving safety/risk goals for less ATR backup power upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost

  11. Improving Utility of GPU in Accelerating Industrial Applications with User-centred Automatic Code Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Po; Dong, Feng; Codreanu, Valeriu

    2018-01-01

    design and hard-to-use. Little attentions have been paid to the applicability, usability and learnability of these tools for normal users. In this paper, we present an online automated CPU-to-GPU source translation system, (GPSME) for inexperienced users to utilize GPU capability in accelerating general...... SME applications. This system designs and implements a directive programming model with new kernel generation scheme and memory management hierarchy to optimize its performance. A web service interface is designed for inexperienced users to easily and flexibly invoke the automatic resource translator...

  12. Real-time environmental radiation monitoring system with automatic restoration of backup data in site detector via communication using radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Kim, Eun Han; Chung, Kun Ho; Cho, Young Hyun; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Ki Hyun; Kim, Yun Goo

    2003-01-01

    An environmental radiation monitoring system based on high pressurized ionization chamber has been used for on-line gamma monitoring surrounding the KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute), which transmits the dose data measured from ion chamber on the site via radio frequency to a central processing computer and stores the transmitted real-time data. Although communication using ratio frequency has several advantages such as effective and economical transmission, storage, and data process, there is one main disadvantage that data loss during transmission often happens because of unexpected communication problems. It is possible to restore the loss data by off-line such as floppy disk but the simultaneous process and display of current data as well as the backup data are very difficult in the present on-line system. In this work, a new electronic circuit board and the operation software applicable to the conventional environmental radiation monitoring system are developed and the automatical synchronization of the ion chamber unit and the central processing computer is carried out every day. This system is automatically able to restore the backup data within 34 hours without additional equipment and also display together the current data as well as the transmitted backup data after checking time flag

  13. Access, utilization, and interest in mHealth applications among veterans receiving outpatient care for PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbes, Christopher R; Stinson, Rebecca; Kuhn, Eric; Polusny, Melissa; Urban, Jessica; Hoffman, Julia; Ruzek, Josef I; Stepnowsky, Carl; Thorp, Steven R

    2014-11-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) refers to the use of mobile technology (e.g., smartphones) and software (i.e., applications) to facilitate or enhance health care. Several mHealth programs act as either stand-alone aids for Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or adjuncts to conventional psychotherapy approaches. Veterans enrolled in a Veterans Affairs outpatient treatment program for PTSD (N = 188) completed anonymous questionnaires that assessed Veterans' access to mHealth-capable devices and their utilization of and interest in mHealth programs for PTSD. The majority of respondents (n = 142, 76%) reported having access to a cell phone or tablet capable of running applications, but only a small group (n = 18) reported use of existing mHealth programs for PTSD. Age significantly predicted ownership of mHealth devices, but not utilization or interest in mHealth applications among device owners. Around 56% to 76% of respondents with access indicated that they were interested in trying mHealth programs for such issues as anger management, sleep hygiene, and management of anxiety symptoms. Findings from this sample suggest that Veterans have adequate access to, and interest in, using mHealth applications to warrant continued development and evaluation of mobile applications for the treatment of PTSD and other mental health conditions. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Research and implementation of PC data synchronous backup based on cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    WU Yu; CHEN Junhua

    2013-01-01

    In order to better ensure data security,data integrity,and facilitate remote management,this paper has designed and implemented a system model for PC data synchronous backup from the view of the local database and personal data. It focuses on the data backup and uses SQL Azure( a cloud database management system) and Visual Studio( a development platform tool) . Also the system is released and deployed on the Windows Azure Platform with a unique web portal. Experimental tests show that compar...

  15. Onsite and Electric Backup Capabilities at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, Kelly E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kudo, Terence Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The following analysis, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Risk and Infrastructure Science Center (RISC), details an analysis of electric power backup of national critical infrastructure as captured through the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Program (ECIP) Initiative. Between January 1, 2011, and September 2014, 3,174 ECIP facility surveys have been conducted. This study focused first on backup capabilities by infrastructure type and then expanded to infrastructure type by census region.

  16. Site initialization, recovery, and back-up in a distributed database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, R.; Bernstein, P.A.; Goodman, N.

    1982-01-01

    Site initialization is the problem of integrating a new site into a running distributed database system (DDBS). Site recovery is the problem of integrating an old site into a DDBS when the site recovers from failure. Site backup is the problem of creating a static backup copy of a database for archival or query purposes. We present an algorithm that solves the site initialization problem. By modifying the algorithm slightly, we get solutions to the other two problems as well. Our algorithm exploits the fact that a correct DDBS must run a serializable concurrency control algorithm. Our algorithm relies on the concurrency control algorithm to handle all inter-site synchronization

  17. How to automatically test and validate your database backup and recovery strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar Aparicio, Ruben

    2011-01-01

    The major challenge we solve with this software project is the automated validation of backups sent to tape for Oracle databases. While Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) provides tools like 'restore validate', the real and only certain proof is a restore. This initial aim evolved to provide a recovery platform capable to cover more complex user cases, such as validations of backup strategy of Very Large DataBases (VLDB), and schema recoveries to cure logical errors or to provide the kind of database snapshots by means of exports.

  18. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age......Background: Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual...... agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action...

  19. A comparison of hydrogen-fueled fuel cells and combustion engines for electric utility applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenung, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrogen-fueled systems have been proposed for a number of stationary electric generation applications including remote power generation, load management, distribution system peak shaving, and reliability or power quality enhancement. Hydrogen fueling permits clean, low pollution operation. This is particularly true for systems that use hydrogen produced from electrolysis, rather than the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. Both fuel cells and combustion engines are suitable technologies for using hydrogen in many electric utility applications. This paper presents results from several studies performed for the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program. A comparison between the two technologies shows that, whereas fuel cells are somewhat more energy efficient, combustion engine technology is less expensive. In this paper, a comparison of the two technologies is presented, with an emphasis on distributed power and power quality applications. The special case of a combined distributed generation I hydrogen refueling station is also addressed. The comparison is made on the basis of system costs and benefits, but also includes a comparison of technology status: power ratings and response time. A discussion of pollutant emissions and pollutant control strategies is included. The results show those electric utility applications for which each technology is best suited. (author)

  20. The challenge of localizing vehicle backup alarms: Effects of passive and electronic hearing protectors, ambient noise level, and backup alarm spectral content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A Alali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A human factors experiment employed a hemi-anechoic sound field in which listeners were required to localize a vehicular backup alarm warning signal (both a standard and a frequency-augmented alarm in 360-degrees azimuth in pink noise of 60 dBA and 90 dBA. Measures of localization performance included: (1 percentage correct localization, (2 percentage of right--left localization errors, (3 percentage of front-rear localization errors, and (4 localization absolute deviation in degrees from the alarm′s actual location. In summary, the data demonstrated that, with some exceptions, normal hearing listeners′ ability to localize the backup alarm in 360-degrees azimuth did not improve when wearing augmented hearing protectors (including dichotic sound transmission earmuffs, flat attenuation earplugs, and level-dependent earplugs as compared to when wearing conventional passive earmuffs or earplugs of the foam or flanged types. Exceptions were that in the 90 dBA pink noise, the flat attenuation earplug yielded significantly better accuracy than the polyurethane foam earplug and both the dichotic and the custom-made diotic electronic sound transmission earmuffs. However, the flat attenuation earplug showed no benefit over the standard pre-molded earplug, the arc earplug, and the passive earmuff. Confusions of front-rear alarm directions were most significant in the 90 dBA noise condition, wherein two types of triple-flanged earplugs exhibited significantly fewer front-rear confusions than either of the electronic muffs. On all measures, the diotic sound transmission earmuff resulted in the poorest localization of any of the protectors due to the fact that its single-microphone design did not enable interaural cues to be heard. Localization was consistently more degraded in the 90 dBA pink noise as compared with the relatively quiet condition of the 60 dBA pink noise. A frequency-augmented backup alarm, which incorporated 400 Hz and 4000 Hz components

  1. Getting high utilization of peak GFLOPS in real applications in the Cray X1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, J.M. [Cray Research, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2003-07-01

    This paper will show the advanced characteristics of the Cray X1 and discuss how they are used to achieve high-utilized GFLOPS on many real world applications. On most MPP systems, other than the Earth Simulator and the Cray Inc. X1, advanced scientific applications do not obtain a high percentage of peak performance, in some cases less than 2%. When this small percentage of peak is attained on the processor, one needs to have more individual processors to achieve a TFLOP of sustained performance. Larger numbers of processors result in a tremendous burden on the interconnect. Here again MPPs other than the Earth Simulator and the X1 do not have the interconnect to support the increased number of processors. Combining low processor performance with insufficient scaling results in less than desired performance for many applications. (author)

  2. Getting high utilization of peak GFLOPS in real applications in the Cray X1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper will show the advanced characteristics of the Cray X1 and discuss how they are used to achieve high-utilized GFLOPS on many real world applications. On most MPP systems, other than the Earth Simulator and the Cray Inc. X1, advanced scientific applications do not obtain a high percentage of peak performance, in some cases less than 2%. When this small percentage of peak is attained on the processor, one needs to have more individual processors to achieve a TFLOP of sustained performance. Larger numbers of processors result in a tremendous burden on the interconnect. Here again MPPs other than the Earth Simulator and the X1 do not have the interconnect to support the increased number of processors. Combining low processor performance with insufficient scaling results in less than desired performance for many applications. (author)

  3. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Dubey, Susheel Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design of current source DC/DC converter and inverter for 2kW fuel cell application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreiciks, A.; Steiks, I.; Krievs, O.

    2013-01-01

    In order to use hydrogen fuel cell in domestic applications either as main power supply or backup power source, the low DC output voltage of the fuel cell has to be matched to the voltage level and frequency of the utility grid AC voltage. The interfacing power converter systems usually consist...... system is designed for interfacing a 2kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell....

  5. Use and utility of Web-based residency program information: a survey of residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embi, Peter J; Desai, Sima; Cooney, Thomas G

    2003-01-01

    The Internet has become essential to the residency application process. In recent years, applicants and residency programs have used the Internet-based tools of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP, the Match) and the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) to process and manage application and Match information. In addition, many residency programs have moved their recruitment information from printed brochures to Web sites. Despite this change, little is known about how applicants use residency program Web sites and what constitutes optimal residency Web site content, information that is critical to developing and maintaining such sites. To study the use and perceived utility of Web-based residency program information by surveying applicants to an internal medicine program. Our sample population was the applicants to the Oregon Health & Science University Internal Medicine Residency Program who were invited for an interview. We solicited participation using the group e-mail feature available through the Electronic Residency Application Service Post-Office application. To minimize the possibility for biased responses, the study was confined to the period between submission of National Residency Matching Program rank-order lists and release of Match results. Applicants could respond using an anonymous Web-based form or by reply to the e-mail solicitation. We tabulated responses, calculated percentages for each, and performed a qualitative analysis of comments. Of the 431 potential participants, 218 responded (51%) during the study period. Ninety-nine percent reported comfort browsing the Web; 52% accessed the Web primarily from home. Sixty-nine percent learned about residency Web sites primarily from residency-specific directories while 19% relied on general directories. Eighty percent found these sites helpful when deciding where to apply, 69% when deciding where to interview, and 36% when deciding how to rank order programs for the Match. Forty

  6. Application of physical separation techniques for waste utilization and management - case studies from Indian uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand Rao, K.; Sreenivas, T.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of physical beneficiation techniques in metallurgical industry showed gradual decline due to decreasing ore grades and very-fine size dissemination of valuable minerals in the host matrix. However, this technology regained prominence in recent past due to their utility in resource recycle, waste utilization, waste treatment and environmental remediation. Hybrid processes combined with physical, chemical and biological technology is now developing such that the idea of sustainable development is implemented. The uranium ore processing industry has always been under intense public scanner for some of the apprehensions, chiefly radioactivity, inspite of its immense energy delivering potential. Besides this, the chemical compounds formed due to gangue mineral reactivity and their carry-over to tailings pond added further owes. However, conscious scientific efforts are being made to contain these hazards to permissible levels by application of various remedial methods of which the physical separation techniques too are quite prominent

  7. Do familiar teammates request and accept more backup? Transactive memory in air traffic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A; Kraiger, Kurt; Cannon-Bowers, Janis A; Salas, Eduardo

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated factors that explain when and why different groups of teammates are more likely to request and accept backup from one another when needed in an environment characterized by extreme time pressure and severe consequences of error: commercial air traffic control (ATC). Transactive memory theory states that teammates develop consensus regarding the distribution of their relative expertise as well as confidence in that expertise over time and that this facilitates coordination processes. The present study investigated whether this theory could help to explain between-team differences in requesting and accepting backup when needed. The present study used cross-sectional data collected from 51 commercial ATC teams. Hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. Teammates with greater experience working together requested and accepted backup from one another more than those with lesser experience working together. Teammate knowledge consensus and perceived team efficacy appear to have mediated this relationship. Transactive memory theory extends to high-stress environments in which members' expertise is highly overlapping. Teammates' shared mental models about one another increase the likelihood that they will request and accept backup. Teammate familiarity should be considered when choosing among potential replacement team members. Training strategies that accelerate the development of teammate knowledge consensus and team efficacy are warranted.

  8. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks.

  9. STS-9 payload specialist Merbold and backup Ockels in training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    STS-9 payload specialist Ulf Merbold, right, a West German physicist and backup Wubbo Ockels, a Dutch scientist, are pictured in a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. In this view Ockels appears to be showing Merbold how to operate a camera.

  10. 77 FR 28797 - Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 12 and 90 [DA 11-1838] Redundancy of Communications Systems: Backup Power Private Land Mobile Radio Services: Selection and Assignment of Frequencies, and Transition of the Upper 200 Channels in the 800 MHz Band to EA Licensing AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1101-21 - Back-up water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back-up water system. 75.1101-21 Section 75.1101-21 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... water system. One fire hose outlet together with a length of hose capable of extending to the belt drive...

  12. Augmented Reality Applications for Substation Management by Utilizing Standards-Compliant SCADA Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Antonijević

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most electrical substations are remotely monitored and controlled by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA applications. Current SCADA systems have been significantly enhanced by utilizing standardized communication protocols and the most prominent is the IEC 61850 international standard. These enhancements enable improvements in different domains of SCADA systems such as communication engineering, data management and visualization of automation process data in SCADA applications. Process data visualization is usually achieved through Human Machine Interface (HMI screens in substation control centres. However, this visualization method sometimes makes supervision, control and maintenance procedures executed by engineers slow and error-prone because it separates equipment from its automation data. Augmented reality (AR and mixed reality (MR visualization techniques have matured enough to provide new possibilities of displaying relevant data wherever needed. This paper presents a novel methodology for visualizing process related SCADA data to enhance and facilitate human-centric activities in substations such as regular equipment maintenance. The proposed solution utilizes AR visualization techniques together with standards-based communication protocols used in substations. The developed proof-of-concept AR application that enables displaying SCADA data on the corresponding substation equipment with the help of AR markers demonstrates originality and benefits of the proposed visualization method. Additionally, the application enables displaying widgets and 3D models of substation equipment to make the visualization more user-friendly and intuitive. The visualized SCADA data needs to be refreshed considering soft real-time data delivery restrictions. Therefore, the proposed solution is thoroughly tested to demonstrate the applicability of proposed methodology in real substations.

  13. The management of energy utilization in a spacecraft tracking station and its industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; White, R. L.; Hume, P.

    1978-01-01

    The mission of a tracking station within the NASA/Jet Propulsion Deep Space Network is characterized by a wide diversity of spacecraft types, communications ranges, and data accuracy requirements. In the present paper, the system architecture, communications techniques, and operators interfaces for a utility controller are described. The control equipment as designed and installed is meant to be a tool to study applications of automated control in the dynamic environment of a tracking station. It allows continuous experimenting with new technology without disruption of the tracking activities.

  14. Application and Discussion of Dual Fluidized Bed Reactor in Biomass Energy Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Haibin; Fan, Xiaoxu; Zhao, Baofeng; Yang, Liguo; Sun, Rongfeng

    2018-01-01

    As an important clean and renewable energy, biomass has a broad market prospect. The dual fluidized bed is widely used in biomass gasification technology, and has become an important way of biomass high-value utilization. This paper describes the basic principle of dual fluidized bed gasification, from the gas composition, tar content and thermal efficiency of the system point of view, analyzes and summarizes several typical dual fluidized bed biomass gasification technologies, points out the existence of gas mixing, the external heat source, catalyst development problems on gas. Finally, it is clear that the gasification of biomass in dual fluidized bed is of great industrial application and development prospect.

  15. Projectc conception for city logistics with utilization of IDS element applicated to the Nitra city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Balog

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays traffic situation in the town-residential area is characterized by growing requirement for quality and quantityof transfer performance and services that result in congestion increasing in the some towns. Currently the similar problem has Nitracity, where it is necessary to solve this situation immediately. One of the possibilities of increasing traffic fluency is to extend roads, butin case of Nitra that possibility is irrelevant because of non-available space. Other possibility is an utilization of IDS elements(Intelligent Transport System. The contribution presents the conception of transportation in the town, founded on creation of trafficcircles with subsequent IDS elements application.

  16. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.; Cole, A.

    1996-01-01

    The status and prospects of photovoltaic (PV) power systems are reviewed. The market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems by utilities is described, and the mission, objectives and thoughts of the collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries under the framework of the International Energy Agency are highly with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. Future sales of PV systems are expected to grow in the short and medium term mainly in the sector of isolated systems. (R.P.)

  17. The near-source impacts of diesel backup generators in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zheming; Zhang, K. Max

    2015-05-01

    Distributed power generation, located close to consumers, plays an important role in the current and future power systems. However, its near-source impacts in complex urban environments are not well understood. In this paper, we focused on diesel backup generators that participate in demand response (DR) programs. We first improved the micro-environmental air quality simulations by employing a meteorology processor, AERMET, to generate site-specific boundary layer parameters for the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) modeling. The modeling structure was then incorporated into the CTAG model to evaluate the environmental impacts of diesel backup generators in near-source microenvironments. We found that the presence of either tall upwind or downwind building can deteriorate the air quality in the near-stack street canyons, largely due to the recirculation zones generated by the tall buildings, reducing the near-stack dispersion. Decreasing exhaust momentum ratio (stack exit velocity/ambient wind velocity) draws more exhaust into the recirculation zone, and reduces the effective stack height, which results in elevated near-ground concentrations inside downwind street canyons. The near-ground PM2.5 concentration for the worst scenarios could well exceed 100 μg m-3, posing potential health risk to people living and working nearby. In general, older diesel backup generators (i.e., Tier 1, 2 or older) without the up-to-date emission control may significantly increase the pollutant concentration in the near-source street canyons if participating in DR programs. Even generators that comply with Tier-4 standards could lead to PM hotspots if their stacks are next to tall buildings. Our study implies that the siting of diesel backup generators stacks should consider not only the interactions of fresh air intake and exhaust outlet for the building housing the backup generators, but also the dispersion of exhaust plumes in the surrounding environment.

  18. Clinical Utilization of Repeated Open Application Test Among American Contact Dermatitis Society Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabrielle E; Botto, Nina; Butler, Daniel C; Murase, Jenny E

    2015-01-01

    The repeated open application test (ROAT) provides useful information regarding allergens in suspected cases of allergic contact dermatitis; however, standardized methodology has not been established. The aim of this study was to assess how ROAT is used in clinical and research settings. We distributed a survey regarding ROAT practice to the American Contact Dermatitis Society and conducted a literature review of ROAT utilization in research. A total of 67 American Contact Dermatitis Society members participated in the survey. Respondents most frequently recommend application of leave-on products twice daily (46.0%) and rinse-off products once daily (43.5%). The most commonly used anatomical sites include the forearm (38.7%) and antecubital fossa (32.3%). Most respondents continue ROAT for 1 (49.2%) or 2 weeks (31.7%). Literature review of 32 studies (26 leave-on, 6 rinse-off) revealed that application frequency is most common at twice daily for both leave-on (96.2%) and rinse-off (50.0%) products. The most common anatomical site is the forearm (62.5%), with an overall study duration of 3 to 4 weeks (65.6%). When comparing ROAT clinical and research practice, the majority trend was consistent for leave-on product application frequency and anatomical site, but not for rinse-off product application frequency, or overall duration. Further research is needed to determine best practice recommendations.

  19. Development of an E-mail Application Seemit and its Utilization in an Information Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Makoto; Nakano, Hiroshi; Sugitani, Kenichi; Akiyama, Hidenori

    We have developed a simple e-mail application named Seemit which is designed for being used in information literacy courses. It has necessary and sufficient functionality of an e-mail application, and it has been developed for the purpose of learning basic operations and mechanisms of e-mail transfer easily. It is equipped with the function to automatically set the configuration of user's SMTP/POP servers and e-mail address, etc. The process of transferring e-mail via SMTP and POP can be demonstrated step by step showing actual messages passed during the client-server interaction. We have utilized Seemit in a university-wide information literacy course which holds about 1800 students.

  20. The application of high voltage digital and analogue unit protections to utility telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, H. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Verzosa, Q.R.; Care, J.M. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The use of fibre optic and digital microwave systems, both within and without utility communications networks was discussed. Their availability has led to the development of phase comparison and differential current relaying systems which provide enhanced protective features for transmission circuits. The application of fibre optic cable or microwave radio data links overcomes problems caused by ground potential rise and transferred potential damage in metallic pilot wire schemes. Some problems were encountered when installing digital differential current and analogue phase comparison relaying systems to a 220 kV power transmission system where a mix of analog microwave, digital microwave radio and multiplexed fibre optic channels were available. However, the relays were successfully installed with the application of digital pilot differential relays to the power system which enabled fast fault clearance to be achieved. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  1. Design study of wind turbines, 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary designs of low power (50 to 500 kW) and high power (500 to 3000 kW) wind generator systems (WGS) for electric utility applications were developed. These designs provide the bases for detail design, fabrication, and experimental demonstration testing of these units at selected utility sites. Several feasible WGS configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. The selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration.

  2. The applicability of knowledge-based scheduling to the utilities industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, G.; Gargan, R. Jr.; Duggan, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Nuclear Power Division, has identified the three major goals of high technology applications for nuclear power plants. These goals are to enhance power production through increasing power generation efficiency, to increase productivity of the operations, and to reduce the threats to the safety of the plant. Our project responds to the second goal by demonstrating that significant productivity increases can be achieved for outage maintenance operations based on existing knowledge-based scheduling technology. Its use can also mitigate threats to potential safety problems by means of the integration of risk assessment features into the scheduler. The scheduling approach uses advanced techniques enabling the automation of the routine scheduling decision process that previously was handled by people. The process of removing conflicts in scheduling is automated. This is achieved by providing activity representations that allow schedulers to express a variety of different scheduling constraints and by implementing scheduling mechanisms that simulate kinds of processes that humans use to find better solutions from a large number of possible solutions. This approach allows schedulers to express detailed constraints between activities and other activities, resources (material and personnel), and requirements that certain states exist for their execution. Our scheduler has already demonstrated its benefit to improving the shuttle processing flow management at Kennedy Space Center. Knowledge-based scheduling techniques should be examined by utilities industry researchers, developers, operators and management for application to utilities planning problems because of its great cost benefit potential. 4 refs., 4 figs

  3. Application of microgrids in providing ancillary services to the utility grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoobi, Alireza; Khodaei, Amin

    2017-01-01

    A microgrid optimal scheduling model is developed in this paper to demonstrate microgrid's capability in offering ancillary services to the utility grid. The application of localized ancillary services is of significant importance to grid operators as the growing proliferation of distributed renewable energy resources, mainly solar generation, is causing major technical challenges in supply-load balance. The proposed microgrid optimal scheduling model coordinates the microgrid net load with the aggregated consumers/prosumers net load in its connected distribution feeder to capture both inter-hour and intra-hour net load variations. In particular, net load variations for three various time resolutions are considered, including hourly ramping, 10-min based load following, and 1-min based frequency regulation. Numerical simulations on a test distribution feeder with one microgrid and several consumers/prosumers indicate the effectiveness of the proposed model and the viability of the microgrid application in supporting grid operation. - Highlights: • Microgrid optimal scheduling for providing ancillary services to the utility grid. • Local management and mitigation of distribution net load variations. • Offering various support services: ramping, load following, frequency regulation. • Proven effectiveness and accuracy in capturing net load variations.

  4. Effect of soil type and application method on nutrients absorption and utilization by grape plants 1-Absorption and utilization of manganese using Mn-54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, F.A.; Sharaf, A.N.M.; Khamis, M.A.; Sharaf, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    This work was conducted to study effect of soil type and application method on absorption, translocation and utilization of Mn by grape plants. One year old rooted cuttings of grape (Cv. Ruby seedless) were transplanted in plastic containers filled with 15 kg of three different soils, i.e. clay loam soil, sandy soil and calcareous soil. Fertilization treatments were as follows: Tap water (control) (T1); soil application of N, P,K and Mg (T2); T2 plus soil application of Fe, Mn and Zn (T4). Also, pot experiment was carried out using Mn SO4 at 5ppm for soil application and at 0.5% for foliar application and Mn-54 was used for labelling both solutions. Manganese contents in different organs of grape plant were significantly increased by the three fertilization treatments as compared to those of control. Moreover, highest Mn level was obtained due to foliar application of micro elements and soil application of macro elements T 4 . followed by soil application of both macro-and micro elements T 3 , soil application of macro elements only T2 and control T1

  5. Developing sensor-based robots with utility to waste management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, M.M.; Abidi, M.A.; Gonzalez, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    There are several Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER and WM) application areas where autonomous or teleoperated robotic systems can be utilized to improve personnel safety and reduce operation costs. In this paper the authors describe continuing research undertaken by their group in intelligent robotics area which should have a direct relevance to a number of ER and WM applications. The authors' current research is sponsored by the advanced technology division of the U.S. Department of Energy. It is part of a program undertaken at four universities (Florida, Michigan, Tennessee, and Texas) and the Oak ridge National Laboratory directed towards the development of advanced robotic systems for use in nuclear environments. The primary motivation for using robotic (autonomous and/or teleoperated) technology in such hazardous environments is to reduce exposure and costs associated with performing tasks such as surveillance, maintenance and repair. The main focus of the authors' research a the University of Tennessee has been to contribute to the development of autonomous inspection and manipulation systems which utilize a wide array of sensory inputs in controlling the actions of a stationary robot. The authors' experimental research effort is directed towards design and evaluation of new methodologies using a laboratory based robotic testbed. A unique feature of this testbed is a multisensor module useful in the characterization of the robot workspace. In this paper, the authors describe the development of a robot vision system for automatic spill detection, localization and clean-up verification; and the development of efficient techniques for analyzing range images using a parallel computer. The 'simulated spill cleanup' scenario allows us to show the applicability of robotic systems to problems encountered in nuclear environments

  6. Analysis design and implementation of a data backup system and restoration of information based on AVAMAR Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Chango

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to make a system for the backup of the information of virtual environments and computers of end users through the LAN network, covering, for this purpose, the analysis, design and implementation at the laboratory level, of a system of specialized backups for these environments in this way was thus checked for its performance and its feasibility of execution, from a technical point of view. AVAMAR, emerges as a solution alternative to face the challenges of those IT environments where backups and retrieval of information demand shorter time windows, more agile recovery responses, end user support and virtual machines. The architecture and technology of this backup and recovery solution makes it ideal for a reference study that shows everything that can be achieved in the complex and varied world of information backup. The scenario that was raised concerns a typical infrastructure consisting of physical, virtual servers, a LAN and a SAN network, users of desktop computers and laptops, end users had connectivity to the servers through the LAN, these computer equipment had Windows as an operating system, a virtual environment was established that was executed on the physical servers, the environment was fully operational and functional, all services were active and users could access them from the LAN network . From this scenario, we analyzed the benefits of the system of backups of the information of end users and virtual machines, optimizing resources such as hardware, software and execution time of backup and recovery tasks

  7. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, Rishabha, E-mail: rishabhamalviya19@gmail.com [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Department of Pharmacy, Uttarkhand Technical University, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India); Sharma, Pramod Kumar [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Dubey, Susheel Kumar [Siddarth Institute of Pharmacy, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India)

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. - Highlights: • Properties of natural polysaccharides can be modulated by modification in their basic backbone. • Polysaccharides can be easily modified using microwave irradiation as compared to conventional closed vessel modification. • Biodegradable and biocompatible nature of modified polymer promotes their use in targeted cellular delivery of pharmaceuticals. • Studies show strong support that biodegradable polymers have ability to modulate cell signaling, cellular attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation. • Manuscript reveals the fact that various commercial patents have been granted for the use of modified polymer.

  8. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  9. Planning of Vehicle Routing with Backup Provisioning Using Wireless Sensor Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noélia Correia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor technologies can be used by intelligent transportation systems to provide innovative services that lead to improvements in road safety and congestion, increasing end-user satisfaction. In this article, we address vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding of vehicles at certain stops is considered. This is based on the availability of vehicle load information, which can be captured using wireless sensor technologies. After discussing the infrastructure and monitoring tool, the problem is mathematically formalized, and a heuristic algorithm using local search procedures is proposed. Results show that planning routes with backup provisioning can allow fast response to overcrowding while reducing costs. Therefore, sustainable urban mobility, with efficient use of resources, can be provided while increasing the quality of service perceived by users.

  10. Multicast backup reprovisioning problem for Hamiltonian cycle-based protection on WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Der-Rong; Huang, Jen-Shen

    2014-03-01

    As networks grow in size and complexity, the chance and the impact of failures increase dramatically. The pre-allocated backup resources cannot provide 100% protection guarantee when continuous failures occur in a network. In this paper, the multicast backup re-provisioning problem (MBRP) for Hamiltonian cycle (HC)-based protection on WDM networks for the link-failure case is studied. We focus on how to recover the protecting capabilities of Hamiltonian cycle against the subsequent link-failures on WDM networks for multicast transmissions, after recovering the multicast trees affected by the previous link-failure. Since this problem is a hard problem, an algorithm, which consists of several heuristics and a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed to solve it. The simulation results of the proposed method are also given. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can solve this problem efficiently.

  11. The Unparalleled Systems Engineering of MSL's Backup Entry, Descent, and Landing System: Second Chance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Chris; Grinblat, Jonathan; Reeves, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Second Chance (SECC) was a bare bones version of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry Descent & Landing (EDL) flight software that ran on Curiosity's backup computer, which could have taken over swiftly in the event of a reset of Curiosity's prime computer, in order to land her safely on Mars. Without SECC, a reset of Curiosity's prime computer would have lead to catastrophic mission failure. Even though a reset of the prime computer never occurred, SECC had the important responsibility as EDL's guardian angel, and this responsibility would not have seen such success without unparalleled systems engineering. This paper will focus on the systems engineering behind SECC: Covering a brief overview of SECC's design, the intense schedule to use SECC as a backup system, the verification and validation of the system's "Do No Harm" mandate, the system's overall functional performance, and finally, its use on the fateful day of August 5th, 2012.

  12. Non-destructive evaluation utilizing imaging plates for field radiography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Brian S.

    2016-01-01

    The oil and gas industry has utilized film radiography for the evaluation of pipeline welds for many years. The world has evolved, and today people are easily sharing digital images as part of the information revolution. Computed radiography is ready to replace film radiography for portable outdoor use applications. Computed radiography technology adoption has been contingent upon achieving acceptable image quality and getting enough imaging plate use cycles to be profitable. Image quality is dependent upon shot conditions, imaging plate type, reader settings, and scatter control. Likewise, the number of achievable use cycles is dependent upon the imaging plate design for durability and the user's operating environment. This presentation reviews the basic principles of storage phosphor imaging plates. Usage criteria and guidelines for optimum image quality and maximized overall use cycles will be discussed for various imaging plate types. A comparison of film and computed radiography imaging plate technology will be presented.

  13. On the utilization of neutron beams of research reactors in research and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAYEK, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear research reactors are the most widely available neutron sources, and they are capable of producing very high fluxes of neutrons having a considerable range of energies, from a few MeV to 10 MeV. Therefore, these neutrons can be used in many fields of basic research and for applications in physics, chemistry, medicine, biology, etc. Experiments with research reactors over the last 50 years have laid the foundations of today's nuclear technology. In addition, research reactors continue to be utilized as facilities for testing materials and in training manpower for nuclear programs, because basic training on a research reactor provides an essential understanding of the nuclear process, and personnel become accustomed to work under the special conditions resulting from irradiation and contamination risks

  14. A Study on Guidelines for the Utilization of Unproven MMIS Technology In Nuclear Power Plant Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Kon; Shin, Yeong Cheol; Bae, Byoung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    New MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) technology is rapidly advanced as digital technology provides opportunity for more functionality and better cost effectiveness and NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and for the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology poses risks to the NPP operators at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. KHNP's past experiences with the new MMIS equipment shows many cases of reliability problem. And their consequences include unintended plant trips, lowered acceptance of the new digital technology by the plant I and C maintenance crew, and increased licensing burden in answering for questions from the nuclear regulatory body. Considering the fact that the risk of these failures in the nuclear plant operation is far greater than those in other industry, utilities require proven technology for the MMIS in nuclear power plants. So that new MMIS technology might be testified as proven technology, guidelines for the utilization of unproven MMIS technology in nuclear power plant application is required for applying new advanced MMIS technology which is apparently needed to obtain a definite gain in simplicity or performance

  15. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-01-01

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions

  16. Utilization of low temperature geothermal water in traditional and advanced agricultural applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, L.; Pacciaroni, F.

    1992-12-31

    The locations of large amounts of low temperature geothermal sources (30 to 80 degrees C) have been identified in Italy and in many European countries; one of the most interesting utilization of these sources is greenhouse heating. Surplus investment in comparison with conventional heating systems is justified only by the application of low cost technologies for well completion, heating distribution and waste heat treatment. In the last few years, many efforts have been made in the development of these technologies and selection of more profitable crops. Since 1984, ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) has carried out experimental work in two geothermal stations located in Canino (VT) and in Gorgo di Latisana (UD). In these plants, a number of greenhouses enveloped with plastic film are provided with different heating systems; the combination of soil and forced air heating is preferred. Plastic pipes, buried in the soil, are used as soil heating for horticulture and fruit production. For plot plant cultivation, soil heating is obtained by plastic pipes half-buried in a concrete floor. Asparagus cultivation is carried out with buried pipes. No additional heating with conventional fuel is provided in any greenhouse. During these years, ENEA has developed heating and water distribution technologies: current industrial components are generally utilized. Moreover, ENEA has recently completed an advanced automatic control system able to control geothermal greenhouses, manage water distribution, save energy and optimize environmental conditions.

  17. Data Back-Up and Recovery Techniques for Cloud Server Using Seed Block Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Gandhi; M Seshaiah

    2015-01-01

    In cloud computing, data generated in electronic form are large in amount. To maintain this data efficiently, there is a necessity of data recovery services. To cater this, we propose a smart remote data backup algorithm, Seed Block Algorithm. The objective of proposed algorithm is twofold; first it help the users to collect information from any remote location in the absence of network connectivity and second to recover the files in case of the file deletion or if the cloud gets ...

  18. 75 FR 51257 - Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice of Application Ready for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD); Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and...: May 27, 2010. d. Applicant: Public Utility District No. 1 of Douglas County (Douglas PUD). e. Name of... in Douglas, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, Washington. The project currently occupies 15.15 acres of...

  19. Beyond centrality-classifying topological significance using backup efficiency and alternative paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shavitt, Yuval; Singer, Yaron

    2007-01-01

    In complex networks characterized by broad degree distribution, node significance is often associated with its degree or with centrality metrics which relate to its reachability and shortest paths passing through it. Such measures do not consider availability of efficient backup of the node and thus often fail to capture its contribution to the functionality and resilience of the network operation. In this paper, we suggest the quality of backup (QoB) and alternative path centrality (APC) measures as complementary methods which enable analysis of node significance in a manner which considers backup. We examine the theoretical significance of these measures and use them to classify nodes in social interaction networks and in the Internet AS (autonomous system) graph while applying the valley-free routing restrictions which reflect the economic relationships between the AS nodes in the Internet. We show that both node degree and node centrality are not necessarily evidence of its significance. In particular, we show that social structures do not necessarily depend on highly central nodes and that medium degree nodes with medium centrality measure prove to be crucial for efficient routing in the Internet AS graph

  20. Design and analysis of a lightweight prestressed antenna back-up structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zengxiang; Yang, Dehua; Cheng, Jingquan

    2010-07-01

    The planned Square Kilometer Array (SKA) includes three thousand 15m antennas. The radio flux density from the sun is stronger, so that a solar array, such as Frequency-Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR) with hundreds of dishes can have smaller dish size. Therefore, light weight, low cost dish design is of vital importance. The reflecting surface supported by an antenna back-up structure, generally, should have an RMS surface error less than λ/20 (λ. is the operating wavelength). For resisting gravitational, wind, and ice-snow loadings, an antenna dish also requires reasonable mode frequencies. In this paper, different low cost small or medium back-up structure designs are discussed, including double-layer truss design and prestressed dish design. Based on discussion, an innovative light weight, prestressed back-up structure is proposed for small or medium aperture antennas. Example of a small 4.5m aperture dish design working below 3GHz is presented. This design is a one-layer prestressed truss structure with low weight, ease installation, and low manufacture cost. Structural analysis and modal extraction results show the structure is much stiffer than the same structure without prestressed loading.

  1. Research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Yu, Jinghua; Wang, Shengwei; Wang, Jinbo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A review on the development and modeling of active hollow core slab is presented. • The applications and performance evaluation of the slab in building are reviewed. • Finite element or finite difference method is often used in multidimensional model. • Performance evaluations of building using active slabs for ventilation are limited. • More works on the active hollow core slab are worthwhile. - Abstract: The society and the building professionals have paid much concern in recent years on building energy efficiency and the development and applications of low energy technologies for buildings/green buildings allowing the elimination, or at least reduction of dependence on electricity or fossil fuel while maintaining acceptable indoor environment. Utilizations of favorable diurnal temperature difference and ground thermal source for air conditioning are among these low energy technologies. Utilization of the hollow cores in the prefabricated slab for ventilation and the mass of the slab for thermal storage is widely used in building systems in Europe by exploiting the low energy source of the ambient air. These hollow core slabs aim at enlarging the heat transfer surface between the slab mass and the air in the core, which permits substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. This, in turn, allows the use of low energy cooling or heating sources, such as the ground, outside air or recovered process heat. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the research and application of active hollow core slabs in building systems for utilizing low energy sources. The principle and development of active hollow core slabs in building systems for leveling the indoor temperature fluctuation by ventilation air passing the cores are described. Calculation models of the active hollow core concrete slab as well as the practical applications and performance evaluation of the slab applied in building systems for air

  2. Utilization possibilities of hydrocarbon fractions obtained by waste plastic pyrolysis: energetic utilization and applications in polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskolczi, Norbert; Borsodi, Nikolett; Angyal, Andras [University of Pannonia, MOL Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing (Hungary)], email: mnorbert@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: borsodinikolett@almos.uni-pannon.hu, email: angyala@almos.uni-pannon.hu

    2011-07-01

    With the energy crisis and the rising concerns about the environment, energy-saving measures are urgently needed. Each year about 300M tons of plastic wastes are produced world-wide and governments are now focusing on recycling and reusing these products to save significant amounts of energy. The aim of this paper was to analyze the products which can be obtained from waste plastic and determine their possible uses. Pyrolysis of commercial waste plastics was done in a reactor at 500-600 degree celsius and the products were then analyzed using several methods. Results showed that the pyrolysis produces gases, naphtha, middle distillates and heavy oils. The properties of these products were also determined and it was found that they have the potential to be used in fuel-like and additive producing applications. This study highlighted that pyrolysis of waste polymers can yield useful products.

  3. A new era in nuclear energy science. When will radiation application receive citizenship ranking along with energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabata, Yoneho; Tagawa, Seiichi; Saito, Naoki; Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Japan has been obtaining definite results in these decades in both fields of nuclear power generation (energy utilization) and radiation application thus contributing to a sustainable development of the world. The present special issue of 'Atom Eye' introduces (1) Japanese achievements in cooperative relationships with developing countries in the field of radiation applications, (2) history of research and development of radiation-utilization techniques in Japan, (3) present status of quantum-beam applications in life-science, medial application, and nano-technology, etc, (4) applications of high-intensity neutron source, (5) cancer therapy using high-energy heavy-ion beams, (6) radiation sterilizations, (7) radiation mutations, (8) three interviewer's reports visiting several research institutes of radiation applications in Japan, and introduction of (9) a bencher enterprise and also (10) an accelerator business. (S. Ohno)

  4. The emergence of Clostridium thermocellum as a high utility candidate for consolidated bioprocessing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur eRagauskas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available First isolated in 1926, Clostridium thermocellum has recently received increased attention as a high utility candidate for use in consolidated bioprocessing applications. These applications, which seek to process lignocellulosic biomass directly into useful products such as ethanol, are gaining traction as economically feasible routes towards the production of fuel and other high value chemical compounds as the shortcomings of fossil fuels become evident. This review evaluates C. thermocellum’s role in this transitory process by highlighting recent discoveries relating to its genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic responses to varying biomass sources, with a special emphasis placed on providing an overview of its unique, multivariate enzyme cellulosome complex and the role that this structure performs during biomass degradation. Both naturally evolved and genetically engineered strains are examined in light of their unique attributes and responses to various biomass treatment conditions, and the genetic tools that have been employed for their creation are presented. Several future routes for potential industrial usage are presented, and it is concluded that, although there have been many advances to significantly improve C. thermocellum’s amenability to industrial use, several hurdles still remain to be overcome as this unique organism enjoys increased attention within the scientific community.

  5. Routine clinical application of the FRAXA Pfu PCR assay: limits and utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condorelli, D F; Milana, G; Dell'Albani, P; Roccazzello, A M; Insirello, E; Pavone, L; Mollica, F

    1996-11-01

    Fragile X genotype is characterized by the excessive amplification of an unstable region of DNA: a trinucleotide repeat CGG of variable copy number present in the FRAXA locus. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the CGG repeat region could facilitate the development of a rapid screening assay. Unfortunately, amplification across CGG repeats can be inefficient and unreliable due to their 100% G + C base composition. The utility of the exonuclease-deficient Pfu polymerase for amplification and detection of the CGG repeats at the FRAXA locus has been reported. In the present study we analysed the utility of a Pfu PCR assay as a rapid initial screening method to rule out a diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in males with mental retardation. Affected males did not show any amplification products or a smear of amplification products between 350 and 550 bp. Only 10% of affected male samples did not show any amplification products, while the vast majority showed the amplification smear. The amplification smears represent a serious drawback of the method, since they cannot be distinguished from the amplification products of normal samples after separation in 1% agarose gel. Several modifications of the PCR conditions were attempted to eliminate this problem, but none was appropriate for clinical applications. However, the problem was easily solved by using a higher resolution electrophoretic system that allows a clear distinction of normal bands from pathological smears. We tested the specificity of the Pfu PCR assay, followed by an improved MetaPhor gel electrophoretic separation of PCR products, on 50 samples from normal males and 24 samples form affected males. The results showed that this method is a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for the exclusion of fragile X syndrome diagnosis in mentally retarded males.

  6. Community Priority Index: utility, applicability and validation for priority setting in community-based participatory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamisu M. Salihu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Providing practitioners with an intuitive measure for priority setting that can be combined with diverse data collection methods is a necessary step to foster accountability of the decision-making process in community settings. Yet, there is a lack of easy-to-use, but methodologically robust measures, that can be feasibly implemented for reliable decision-making in community settings. To address this important gap in community based participatory research (CBPR, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the utility, applicability, and validation of a community priority index in a community-based participatory research setting. Design and Methods. Mixed-method study that combined focus groups findings, nominal group technique with six key informants, and the generation of a Community Priority Index (CPI that integrated community importance, changeability, and target populations. Bootstrapping and simulation were performed for validation. Results. For pregnant mothers, the top three highly important and highly changeable priorities were: stress (CPI=0.85; 95%CI: 0.70, 1.00, lack of affection (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, and nutritional issues (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00. For non-pregnant women, top priorities were: low health literacy (CPI=0.87; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low educational attainment (CPI=0.78; 95%CI: 0.48, 1.00, and lack of self-esteem (CPI=0.72; 95%CI: 0.44, 1.00. For children and adolescents, the top three priorities were: obesity (CPI=0.88; 95%CI: 0.69, 1.00, low self-esteem (CPI=0.81; 95%CI: 0.69, 0.94, and negative attitudes toward education (CPI=0.75; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.94. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the CPI as a simple and intuitive measure for priority setting in CBPR.

  7. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    An Li/SOCl 2 battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 1OK-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40 °C to 85 °C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 μA is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  8. Hardware in the loop simulation test platform of fuel cell backup system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Tiancai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an analysis of voltage mechanistic model, a real-time simulation model of the proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell backup system is developed, and verified by the measurable experiment data. The method of online parameters identification for the model is also improved. Based on the software LabVIEW/VeriStand real-time environment and the PXI Express hardware system, the PEM fuel cell system controller hardware in the loop (HIL simulation plat-form is established. Controller simulation test results showed the accuracy of HIL simulation platform.

  9. The use of different analytical techniques as a backup to mineral resources assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de; Ferreira, M.P.; Gomes, H.; Avelar, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (NUCLEBRAS) has implemented and improved, since their foundation in 1974, several laboratories at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), in Belo Horizonte (MG, Brazil), in order to develop capabilities in the analytical chemistry field. Skillful personnel, using a large spectrum of equipment and procedures, is already able to determine, fast and accurately, almost any chemical element in any matrix. About 340.000 analytical determinations have been performed during the last seven years, concerning mostly chemical elements of great importance in the mineral technology programs. This considerable amount of results has been used, specially, as a backup to assess Brazilian uranium resources. (Author) [pt

  10. Characteristics of a lithium-thionyl chloride battery as a memory back-up power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamaru, T.; Uetani, Y.

    1987-05-01

    An Li/SOCl/sub 2/ battery of R6 size (ER6C) has been evaluated as a memory back-up power source for CMOS RAM. The working voltage is 3.6 V and the discharge capacity is 1900 mA h on a 10K-ohm load. The cell exhibits satisfactory working voltage and discharge capacity over the temperature range -40/sup 0/C to 85/sup 0/C. The discharge reaction mechanism has been elucidated. Cumulative self discharge during 10 years discharge at 20 ..mu..A is estimated to be 3.5%. No serious problems have been observed during abuse tests.

  11. Backup key generation model for one-time password security protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyanthi, N.; Kundu, Sourav

    2017-11-01

    The use of one-time password (OTP) has ushered new life into the existing authentication protocols used by the software industry. It introduced a second layer of security to the traditional username-password authentication, thus coining the term, two-factor authentication. One of the drawbacks of this protocol is the unreliability of the hardware token at the time of authentication. This paper proposes a simple backup key model that can be associated with the real world applications’user database, which would allow a user to circumvent the second authentication stage, in the event of unavailability of the hardware token.

  12. Supply of clean water to the bearings and mechanical seals of the backup pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, C.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the backup pumps is to cool the primary circuit and pressurised water reactor containment in the case of a primary cooler loss accident. The water taken in by these pumps in the case of accident is loaded with solid particles. In order to ensure correct operation of the bearings and mechanical seals of these machines, they must be supplied with clean water. In other words, the solid particles must be removed from the water intake. Manufacturers generally use cyclonic separators to achieve this. (author)

  13. Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A and D Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A&D Applications Ezra Hall, Ray Eberhard...use applications. Furthermore, a product roadmap must be comprehended as part of this platform, offering A&D programs a solution to their...existing solutions for adoption to occur. Additionally, a well-developed roadmap to future secure SoCs, leveraging the value add of future advanced

  14. Evaluation of lead/carbon devices for utility applications : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walmet, Paula S. (MeadWestvaco Corporation,North Charleston, SC)

    2009-06-01

    This report describes the results of a three-phase project that evaluated lead-based energy storage technologies for utility-scale applications and developed carbon materials to improve the performance of lead-based energy storage technologies. In Phase I, lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were compared to other technologies that used the same or similar materials. At the end of Phase I (in 2005) it was found that lead/carbon asymmetric capacitors were not yet fully developed and optimized (cost/performance) to be a viable option for utility-scale applications. It was, however, determined that adding carbon to the negative electrode of a standard lead-acid battery showed promise for performance improvements that could be beneficial for use in utility-scale applications. In Phase II various carbon types were developed and evaluated in lead-acid batteries. Overall it was found that mesoporous activated carbon at low loadings and graphite at high loadings gave the best cycle performance in shallow PSoC cycling. Phase III studied cost/performance benefits for a specific utility application (frequency regulation) and the full details of this analysis are included as an appendix to this report.

  15. Interviewing in Virtual Worlds: A Phenomenological Study Exploring the Success Factors of Job Applicants Utilizing Second Life to Gain Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufoudakis-Whittington, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the phenomenon of success factors of job applicants utilizing Second Life to gain employment. The study focused on identifying the perception of what qualified as a successful interview through the lived common experiences of 16 employment recruiters. The research problem was that a gap existed in scholarly research on…

  16. Utilization of actively-induced, prompt radiation emission for nonproliferation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, B.W.; Jones, J.L.; Moss, C.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Hunt, A.W.; Harmon, F.; Watson, S.M.; Johnson, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    The pulsed photonuclear assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, there is an increasing need to bring faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity, and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/photofission event and/or immediately after (<1 μs)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since neutron yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials

  17. Utilization of Actively-induced, Prompt Radiation Emission for Nonproliferation Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. W. Blackburn; J. L. Jones; C. E. Moss; J. T. Mihalzco; A. W. Hunt; F. Harmon

    2006-01-01

    The pulsed Photonuclear Assessment (PPA) technique, which has demonstrated the ability to detect shielded nuclear material, is based on utilizing delayed neutrons and photons between accelerator pulses. While most active interrogation systems have focused on delayed neutron and gamma-ray signatures, the current requirements of various agencies necessitate bringing faster detection and acquisition capabilities to field inspection applications. This push for decreased interrogation times, increased sensitivity and mitigation of false positives requires that detection systems take advantage of all available information. Collaborative research between Idaho National Lab (INL), Idaho State University's Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has focused on exploiting actively-induced, prompt radiation signatures from nuclear material within a pulsed photonuclear environment. To date, these prompt emissions have not been effectively exploited due to difficulties in detection and signal processing inherent in the prompt regime as well as an overall poor understanding of the magnitude and yields of these emissions. Exploitation of prompt radiation (defined as during an accelerator pulse/(photo) fission event and/or immediately after (< l ms)) has the potential to dramatically reduce interrogation times since the yields are more than two orders of magnitude greater than delayed emissions. Recent preliminary experiments conducted at the IAC suggest that it is indeed possible to extract prompt neutron information within a pulsed photon environment. Successful exploitation of prompt emissions is critical for the development of an improved robust, high-throughput, low target dose inspection system for detection of shielded nuclear materials

  18. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  19. Visibility of children behind 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles using glances, mirrors, and backup cameras and parking sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; Brethwaite, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study identified the areas behind vehicles where younger and older children are not visible and measured the extent to which vehicle technologies improve visibility. Rear visibility of targets simulating the heights of a 12-15-month-old, a 30-36-month-old, and a 60-72-month-old child was assessed in 21 2010-2013 model year passenger vehicles with a backup camera or a backup camera plus parking sensor system. The average blind zone for a 12-15-month-old was twice as large as it was for a 60-72-month-old. Large SUVs had the worst rear visibility and small cars had the best. Increases in rear visibility provided by backup cameras were larger than the non-visible areas detected by parking sensors, but parking sensors detected objects in areas near the rear of the vehicle that were not visible in the camera or other fields of view. Overall, backup cameras and backup cameras plus parking sensors reduced the blind zone by around 90 percent on average and have the potential to prevent backover crashes if drivers use the technology appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Remote Back-Up Protection System Failure on the Optimum Routine Test Time Interval of Power System Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Damchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate operation of protection system is one of the effective factors to have a desirable reliability in power systems, which vitally needs routine test of protection system. Precise determination of optimum routine test time interval (ORTTI plays a vital role in predicting the maintenance costs of protection system. In the most previous studies, ORTTI has been determined while remote back-up protection system was considered fully reliable. This assumption is not exactly correct since remote back-up protection system may operate incorrectly or fail to operate, the same as the primary protection system. Therefore, in order to determine the ORTTI, an extended Markov model is proposed in this paper considering failure probability for remote back-up protection system. In the proposed Markov model of the protection systems, monitoring facility is taken into account. Moreover, it is assumed that the primary and back-up protection systems are maintained simultaneously. Results show that the effect of remote back-up protection system failures on the reliability indices and optimum routine test intervals of protection system is considerable.

  1. Tracer techniques for urine volume determination and urine collection and sampling back-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R. V.

    1971-01-01

    The feasibility, functionality, and overall accuracy of the use of lithium were investigated as a chemical tracer in urine for providing a means of indirect determination of total urine volume by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters of instrumentation, tracer concentration, mixing times, and methods for incorporating the tracer material in the urine collection bag, and to refine and optimize the urine tracer technique to comply with the Skylab scheme and operational parameters of + or - 2% of volume error and + or - 1% accuracy of amount of tracer added to each container. In addition, a back-up method for urine collection and sampling system was developed and evaluated. This back-up method incorporates the tracer technique for volume determination in event of failure of the primary urine collection and preservation system. One chemical preservative was selected and evaluated as a contingency chemical preservative for the storage of urine in event of failure of the urine cooling system.

  2. Feasibility analysis of a hydrogen backup power system for Russian telecom market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, V. I.; Dunikov, D. O.

    2017-11-01

    We performed feasibility analysis of 10 kW hydrogen backup power system (H2BS) consisting of a water electrolyzer, a metal hydride hydrogen storage and a fuel cell. Capital investments in H2BS are mostly determined by the costs of the PEM electrolyzer, the fuel cell and solid state hydrogen storage materials, for single unit or small series manufacture the cost of AB5-type intermetallic compound can reach 50% of total system cost. Today the capital investments in H2BS are 3 times higher than in conventional lead-acid system of the same capacity. Wide distribution of fuel cell hydrogen vehicles, development of hydrogen infrastructure, and mass production of hydrogen power systems will for sure lower capital investments in fuel cell backup power. Operational expenditures for H2BS is only 15% from the expenditures for lead acid systems, and after 4-5 years of exploitation the total cost of ownership will become lower than for batteries.

  3. Smartphone and Mobile Application Utilization Prior to and Following Treatment Among Individuals Enrolled in Residential Substance Use Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahne, Jennifer; Lejuez, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Following completion of substance use treatment, it is crucial for patients to continue to utilize skills learned in treatment for optimal treatment outcomes. Mobile applications (apps) on smartphones offer a unique platform to promote utilization of evidence-based skills following completion of substance use treatment. Despite the promise of mobile apps and smartphones for treatment delivery, it remains unknown whether patients in substance use treatment in the United States have access to smartphones and utilize mobile apps on smartphones. The present study sought to determine smartphone utilization among individuals enrolled in one residential substance use treatment center in the U.S catering specifically to low-income adults. Methods Participants included 251 individuals at a residential substance use treatment center in Washington DC admitted to the center between March, 2014 and January, 2015. During the intake process, participants completed interviewer-administered demographics and psychiatric questionnaires as well as a self-report of technology utilization. Results Results indicated that the majority of patients in this residential substance use treatment center owned mobile phones prior to treatment entry (86.9%) and expected to own mobile phones after leaving treatment (92.6%). Moreover, the majority of these phones were (68.5%) or will be smartphones (72.4%) on which patients reported utilizing mobile applications (Prior to treatment: 61.3%; Post treatment: 64.3%) and accessing the internet (Prior to treatment: 61.3%; Post treatment: 65.9%). Conclusions Mobile phone and smartphone ownership among this sample were comparable to ownership among U.S. adults broadly. Findings suggest that smartphones and mobile apps may hold clinical utility for fostering continued use of treatment skills following substance use treatment completion. PMID:26231698

  4. Application of fuel cells with heat recovery for integrated utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, V.; King, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of fuel cell powerplants with heat recovery for use in an integrated utility system. Such a design provides for a low pollution, noise-free, highly efficient integrated utility. Use of the waste heat from the fuel cell powerplant in an integrated utility system for the village center complex of a new community results in a reduction in resource consumption of 42 percent compared to conventional methods. In addition, the system has the potential of operating on fuels produced from waste materials (pyrolysis and digester gases); this would provide further reduction in energy consumption.

  5. Auditory backup alarms: distance-at-first-detection via in-situ experimentation on alarm design and hearing protection effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Khaled; Casali, John G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess normal hearing listeners' performance in detecting a stationary backup alarm signal and to quantify the linear distance at detection point. Detection distances for 12 participants with normal hearing were measured while they were fitted with 7 hearing protectors and while they were unoccluded (open ear). A standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal and a broadband (pulsed white noise) backup alarm signal from Brigade[1] were used. The method of limits, with distance as the physical measurement variable and threshold detection as the task, was employed to find at which distance the participant could first detect the backup alarms. A within-subject Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant main effect of the listening conditions on the detection distance in feet. Post hoc analyses indicated that the Bilsom L3HV conventional passive earmuff (at 1132.2 ft detection distance) was significantly poorer compared to all other HPDs and the open ear in detection distance achieved, and that there were no statistically-significant differences between the unoccluded ear (1652.3 ft), EB-15-Lo BlastPLGTM (1546.2 ft), EB-15-Hi BlastPLGTM (1543.4 ft), E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-nonlinear, level-dependent state (1507.8 ft), E-A-R/3M HiFiTM earplug (1497.7 ft), and Bilsom ImpactTM dichotic electronic earmuff (1567.2 ft). In addition, the E-A-R/3M Combat ArmsTM earplug-passive steady state resulted in significantly longer detection distances than only the open ear condition, at 1474.1 ft versus 1652.3 ft for the open ear. ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of the backup alarm type on detection distance. The means were 1600.9 ft for the standard (narrowband) backup alarm signal, and a significantly closer 1379.4 ft was required for the Brigade broadband backup alarm signal. For on-ground workers, it is crucial to detect backup alarm signals as far away as possible rather than at close distances since this will provide them

  6. Improvement on Main/backup Controller Switching Device of the Nozzle Throat Area Control System for a Turbofan Aero Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Duan, Minghu; Yan, Maode; Li, Gang; Li, Xiaohui

    2014-06-01

    A full authority digital electronic controller (FADEC) equipped with a full authority hydro-mechanical backup controller (FAHMBC) is adopted as the nozzle throat area control system (NTACS) of a turbofan aero engine. In order to ensure the switching reliability of the main/backup controller, the nozzle throat area control switching valve was improved from three-way convex desktop slide valve to six-way convex desktop slide valve. Simulation results show that, if malfunctions of FAEDC occur and abnormal signals are outputted from FADEC, NTACS will be seriously influenced by the main/backup controller switching in several working states, while NTACS will not be influenced by using the improved nozzle throat area control switching valve, thus the controller switching process will become safer and smoother and the working reliability of this turbofan aero engine is improved by the controller switching device improvement.

  7. [Effects of phosphorus application rates and depths on P utilization and loss risk in a maize-soybean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Song, Chun; Zhou, Pan; Wang, Jia Yu; Xui, Feng; Ye, Fang; Wang, Xiao Chun; Yang, Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    In order to explore the advantage of intercropping on phosphorus (P) efficient utilization and the reduction of soil P loss, a field experiment in a maize-soybean intercropping system, which included three P application (P 2 O 5 ) rates (CP: 168 kg·hm -2 ; RP 1 : 135 kg·hm -2 ; RP 2 : 101 kg·hm -2 ) and three P application depths (D 1 : applied in 5 cm depth; D 2 : applied in 15 cm depth; D 3 : 1/2 of P fertilizer applied in 5 cm depth and another 1/2 in 15 cm depth) was carried out to analyze the effects of P application rates and depth on crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total and available P contents, and soil P adsorption-desorption characteristics. Compared with control treatment, the aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total P, and available P content were increased significantly by P application, regardless of P rate and application depth. Under the same application depth, RP 1 had similar grain yield but higher crop P uptake compared with CP, and thus higher P apparent utilization efficiency. Under the same P application rate, the application depth of D 2 had the highest crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, P uptake, soil total P, and available P. According to the characteristic of soil P adsorption-desorption, the treatment with the rate of RP 1 and the depth of D 2 had the strongest soil P retention capacity, which had advantage in alleviating P loss. These results suggested that reducing application rate but increasing application depth of P fertilizer could improve P use efficiency and reduce soil P loss without sacrifice in crop production in maize-soybean relay intercropping system.

  8. Project, building and utilization of a tomograph of micro metric resolution to application in soil science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Alvaro; Torre Neto, Andre; Cruvinel, Paulo Estevao; Crestana, Silvio

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes the project , building and utilization of a tomograph of micro metric resolution in soil science. It describes the problems involved in soil's science study and it describes the system and methodology

  9. The Application of Value Focused Thinking to Utilities Privatization Source Selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duncan, J

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Defense's utility systems have suffered from under-funding and lack of technology investment, thereby creating a service gap between these DoD systems and systems operated by commercial providers...

  10. Technology evaluation of control/monitoring systems for MIUS application. [utility services management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, L. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Potential ways of providing control and monitoring for the Modular Integrated Utility System (MIUS) program are elaborated. Control and monitoring hardware and operational systems are described. The requirements for the MIUS program and the development requirements are discussed.

  11. Space Storable Hybrid Rockets for Orbit Insertion or In Situ Resource Utilization Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research effort will pave the way towards a Mars Sample Return (MSR) campaign and potentially, future human exploration of Mars. Hybrid rockets utilize a solid...

  12. Using Neural Data to Test A Theory of Investor Behavior: An Application to Realization Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Cary; Barberis, Nicholas; Camerer, Colin; Bossaerts, Peter; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    We use measures of neural activity provided by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the "realization utility" theory of investor behavior, which posits that people derive utility directly from the act of realizing gains and losses. Subjects traded stocks in an experimental market while we measured their brain activity. We find that all subjects exhibit a strong disposition effect in their trading, even though it is suboptimal. Consistent with the realization utility explanation for this behavior, we find that activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area known to encode the value of options during choices, correlates with the capital gains of potential trades; that the neural measures of realization utility correlate across subjects with their individual tendency to exhibit a disposition effect; and that activity in the ventral striatum, an area known to encode information about changes in the present value of experienced utility, exhibits a positive response when subjects realize capital gains. These results provide support for the realization utility model and, more generally, demonstrate how neural data can be helpful in testing models of investor behavior.

  13. Optimal electricity dispatch on isolated mini-grids using a demand response strategy for thermal storage backup with genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Diana; Silva, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study uses the DHW (domestic hot water) electric backup from solar thermal systems to optimize the total electricity dispatch of an isolated mini-grid. The proposed approach estimates the hourly DHW load, and proposes and simulates different DR (demand response) strategies, from the supply side, to minimize the dispatch costs of an energy system. The case study consists on optimizing the electricity load, in a representative day with low solar radiation, in Corvo Island, Azores. The DHW backup is induced by three different demand patterns. The study compares different DR strategies: backup at demand (no strategy), pre-scheduled backup using two different imposed schedules, a strategy based on linear programming, and finally two strategies using genetic algorithms, with different formulations for DHW backup – one that assigns number of systems and another that assigns energy demand. It is concluded that pre-determined DR strategies may increase the generation costs, but DR strategies based on optimization algorithms are able to decrease generation costs. In particular, linear programming is the strategy that presents the lowest increase on dispatch costs, but the strategy based on genetic algorithms is the one that best minimizes both daily operation costs and total energy demand, of the system. - Highlights: • Integrated hourly model of DHW electric impact and electricity dispatch of isolated grid. • Proposal and comparison of different DR (demand response) strategies for DHW backup. • LP strategy presents 12% increase on total electric load, plus 5% on dispatch costs. • GA strategy presents 7% increase on total electric load, plus 8% on dispatch costs

  14. A technology-assessment methodology for electric utility planning: With application to nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lough, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Electric utilities and public service commissions have not taken full advantage of the many proven methodologies and techniques available for evaluating complex technological issues. In addition, evaluations performed are deficient in their use of (1) methods for evaluating public attitudes and (2) formal methods of analysis for decision making. These oversight are substantiated through an examination of the literature relevant to electric utility planning. The assessment process known as technology assessment or TA is proposed, and a TA model is developed for route in use in utility planning by electric utilities and state regulatory commissions. Techniques to facilitate public participation and techniques to aid decision making are integral to the proposed model and are described in detail. Criteria are provided for selecting an appropriate technique on a case-by-case basis. The TA model proved to be an effective methodology for evaluating technological issues associated with electric utility planning such as decommissioning nuclear power plants. Through the use of the nominal group technique, the attitudes of a group of residential ratepayers were successfully identified and included in the decision-making process

  15. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, S. [University of California (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee.

  16. MO-FG-207-03: Maximizing the Utility of Integrated PET/MRI in Clinical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behr, S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of integrated PET/MRI systems in clinical applications can best benefit from understanding their technological advances and limitations. The currently available clinical PET/MRI systems have their own characteristics. Thorough analyses of existing technical data and evaluation of necessary performance metrics for quality assurances could be conducted to optimize application-specific PET/MRI protocols. This Symposium will focus on technical advances and limitations of clinical PET/MRI systems, and how this exciting imaging modality can be utilized in applications that can benefit from both PET and MRI. Learning Objectives: To understand the technological advances of clinical PET/MRI systems To correctly identify clinical applications that can benefit from PET/MRI To understand ongoing work to further improve the current PET/MRI technology Floris Jansen is a GE Healthcare employee

  17. Applications of supercomputing and the utility industry: Calculation of power transfer capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.D.; Behling, S.R.; Betancourt, R.

    1990-01-01

    Numerical models and iterative simulation using supercomputers can furnish cost-effective answers to utility industry problems that are all but intractable using conventional computing equipment. An example of the use of supercomputers by the utility industry is the determination of power transfer capability limits for power transmission systems. This work has the goal of markedly reducing the run time of transient stability codes used to determine power distributions following major system disturbances. To date, run times of several hours on a conventional computer have been reduced to several minutes on state-of-the-art supercomputers, with further improvements anticipated to reduce run times to less than a minute. In spite of the potential advantages of supercomputers, few utilities have sufficient need for a dedicated in-house supercomputing capability. This problem is resolved using a supercomputer center serving a geographically distributed user base coupled via high speed communication networks

  18. A fiber optics system for monitoring utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds during desulfurization for logistic fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujan, Achintya; Yang, Hongyun; Dimick, Paul; Tatarchuk, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    An in-situ fiber optic based technique for direct measurement of capacity utilization of ZnO adsorbent beds by monitoring bed color changes during desulfurization for fuel cell systems is presented. Adsorbents composed of bulk metal oxides (ZnO) and supported metal oxides (ZnO/SiO2 and Cusbnd ZnO/SiO2) for H2S removal at 22 °C are examined. Adsorbent bed utilization at breakthrough is determined by the optical sensor as the maximum derivative of area under UV-vis spectrum from 250 to 800 nm observed as a function of service time. Since the response time of the sensor due to bed color change is close to bed breakthrough time, a series of probes along the bed predicts utilization of the portion of bed prior to H2S breakthrough. The efficacy of the optical sensor is evaluated as a function of inlet H2S concentration, H2S flow rate and desulfurization in presence of CO, CO2 and moisture in feed. A 6 mm optical probe is employed to measure utilization of a 3/16 inch ZnO extrudate bed for H2S removal. It is envisioned that with the application of the optical sensor, desulfurization can be carried out at high adsorbent utilization and low operational costs during on-board miniaturized fuel processing for logistic fuel cell power systems.

  19. Lithium-ion backup batteries for coping extended loss of AC power (ELAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Choong-koo

    2017-01-01

    Per NRC Regulations Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 50.63 'Loss of all alternating current power' all Korean nuclear power plants have a coping capability for SBO conditions for a limited time ranging from approximately eight (8) to sixteen (16) hours. The 125V DC systems are designed for eight (8) hours range except Class 1E channel A and B 125V DC system of which duty cycle is 2 hours in APR1400. The strategies proposed by this paper for coping extended loss of AC power (ELAP) involve a three-phase approach. In the first extend class 1E batteries' backup time until 24 hours. Then augment class 1E batteries with Lithium-ion batteries by 72 hours from the event initiation. In addition, obtain additional capability and redundancy from off-site equipment until power systems are restored or commissioned. (author)

  20. High-Temperature Polymer Composites Tested for Hypersonic Rocket Combustor Backup Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, James K.; Shin, E. Eugene; Thesken, John C.; Fink, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Significant component weight reductions are required to achieve the aggressive thrust-toweight goals for the Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) third-generation, reusable liquid propellant rocket engine, which is one possible engine for a future single-stage-toorbit vehicle. A collaboration between the NASA Glenn Research Center and Boeing Rocketdyne was formed under the Higher Operating Temperature Propulsion Components (HOTPC) program and, currently, the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project to develop carbon-fiber-reinforced high-temperature polymer matrix composites (HTPMCs). This program focused primarily on the combustor backup structure to replace all metallic support components with a much lighter polymer-matrixcomposite- (PMC-) titanium honeycomb sandwich structure.

  1. Backup control airstart performance on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100-engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The air start capability of a backup control (BUC) was tested for a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equipped F100 engine, which was installed in an F-15 aircraft. Two air start schedules were tested. Using the group 1 start schedule, based on a 40 sec timer, an air speed of 300 knots was required to ensure successful 40 and 25% BUC mode spooldown airstarts. If core rotor speed (N2) was less than 40% a stall would occur when the start bleed closed, 40 sec after initiation of the air start. All jet fuel starter (JFS) assisted air starts were successful with the group 1 start schedule. For the group 2 schedule, the time between pressurization and start bleed closure ranged between 50 sec and 72 sec. Idle rps was lower than the desired 65% for air starts at higher altitudes and lower air speeds.

  2. IAEA ICSP on HWR moderator subcooling requirements to demonstrate backup heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.; Nitheanandan, T.

    2013-01-01

    The IAEA launched a new International Collaborative Standard Problem (ICSP) on 'HWR Moderator Subcooling Requirements to Demonstrate Backup Heat Sink Capabilities of Moderator during Accidents'. The purpose of the ICSP is to benchmark analysis computer codes in simulating contact boiling experimental data to assess the subcooling requirements for an overheated pressure tube, plastically deforming into contact with the calandria tube during a postulated large break loss of coolant accident. The experimental data obtained for the ICSP blind simulation can be used to assess safety analysis computer codes simulating thermal radiation heat transfer to the pressure tube, pressure tube deformation or failure, pressure tube to calandria tube heat transfer, calandria tube to moderator heat transfer, and calandria tube deformation or failure. (author)

  3. Benefit of adaptive FEC in shared backup path protected elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Dai, Hua; Wang, Chao; Li, Yongcheng; Bose, Sanjay K; Shen, Gangxiang

    2015-07-27

    We apply an adaptive forward error correction (FEC) allocation strategy to an Elastic Optical Network (EON) operated with shared backup path protection (SBPP). To maximize the protected network capacity that can be carried, an Integer Linear Programing (ILP) model and a spectrum window plane (SWP)-based heuristic algorithm are developed. Simulation results show that the FEC coding overhead required by the adaptive FEC scheme is significantly lower than that needed by a fixed FEC allocation strategy resulting in higher network capacity for the adaptive strategy. The adaptive FEC allocation strategy can also significantly outperform the fixed FEC allocation strategy both in terms of the spare capacity redundancy and the average FEC coding overhead needed per optical channel. The proposed heuristic algorithm is efficient and not only performs closer to the ILP model but also does much better than the shortest-path algorithm.

  4. Cassini Spacecraft In-Flight Swap to Backup Attitude Control Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, David M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Cassini Spacecraft, launched on October 15th, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30th, 2004, is the largest and most ambitious interplanetary spacecraft in history. In order to meet the challenging attitude control and navigation requirements of the orbit profile at Saturn, Cassini is equipped with a monopropellant thruster based Reaction Control System (RCS), a bipropellant Main Engine Assembly (MEA) and a Reaction Wheel Assembly (RWA). In 2008, after 11 years of reliable service, several RCS thrusters began to show signs of end of life degradation, which led the operations team to successfully perform the swap to the backup RCS system, the details and challenges of which are described in this paper. With some modifications, it is hoped that similar techniques and design strategies could be used to benefit other spacecraft.

  5. On the nonlinear dynamics of two types of backup bearings - Theoretical and experimental aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar F.; Weber, Hans I.

    2012-01-01

    mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and bearings among others. The contact event gives rise to normal and friction forces exerted on the rotor at impact events. The friction force plays a significant role by transferring some rotational energy...... bearing (annular guide) and for the new disk-pin backup bearing. For the conventional annular guide setup, it is reasonable to superpose an impact condition to the rub, where the rotor spin energy can be fully transformed into rotor lateral movements. Using a nonideal drive, i.e., an electric motor...... without any kind of velocity feedback control, it is even possible to almost stop the rotor spin under rubbing conditions. All the rotational energy will be transformed in a kind of self-excited rotor lateral vibration with repeated impacts against the housing. The vibration of the housing is coupled...

  6. On the nonlinear dynamics of two types of backup bearings - Theoretical and experimental aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar; Hartmann, Henning

    2012-01-01

    sudden mass unbalance, instabilities generated by aerodynamic and hydrodynamic forces in seals and bearings among others. The contact event gives rise to normal and friction forces exerted on the rotor at impact events. The friction force plays a significant role by transferring some rotational energy...... bearing (annular guide) as well for the new disk-pin backup bearing. For the conventional annular guide setup, it is reasonable to superpose an impact condition to the rub, where the rotor spin energy can be fully transformed into rotor lateral movements. Using a non ideal drive, i.e. an electric motor...... without any kind of velocity feedback control, it is even possible to almost stop the rotor spin under rubbing conditions. All the rotational energy will be transformed in a kind of "self-excited" rotor lateral vibration with repeated impacts against the housing. The vibration of the housing is coupled...

  7. STS-65 crewmembers and backup participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 crewmembers, wearing clean suits, look over equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Surrounding a table full of equipment at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, and backup (alternate) payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Favier represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  8. Application of a systematic methodology for sustainable carbon dioxide utilization process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaza, Cristina Calvera; Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    than carbon capture and storage. To achieve this a methodology is developed to design sustainable carbon dioxide utilization processes. First, the information on the possible utilization alternatives is collected, including the economic potential of the process and the carbon dioxide emissions...... emission are desired in order to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. Using this estimated preliminary evaluation, the top processes, with the most negative carbon dioxide emission are investigated by rigorous detailed simulation to evaluate the net carbon dioxide emissions. Once the base case design...

  9. Application of nanotechnologies for solving ecological problems on produced water utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajiyev, S.K.; Kalbaliyeva, E.S.; Kazimov, F.K.

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of produced water is connected with the problems of its purification, repeated use and following the corresponding ecological requirements.Constant growth of the amount of produced water in extracted fluid and contaminating components require improvement of existing methods of utilization and development of advanced technologies. In the result of development of nanocomposites on the base of metallic nanoparticles it has been achieved significant improvement of purification efficiency of produced water, as well as decrease of surface tension, viscosity, increase of corrosion resistance and protection against salt deposition.

  10. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  11. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  12. Utilizing the Quantile Regression to Explore the Determinants on the Application of E-Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Linh Huynh; Thuy Lan Le Thi

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the quantile regression is applied to investigate the affecting factors associated with the application of e-learning. The findings provide a comprehensive picture about the relationships between the application of e-learning and its determinants. It sheds light on these complicated relationships that, at the different quantiles of the conditional distribution of e-learning adopting levels, the influence of the determinants on the application of e-learning is different. More...

  13. Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant applicability study. Volume II. BNFP: utilization alternatives, evaluations, and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    Descriptions and status of the Barnwell separations facility and related fuel cycle facilities are given. Alternative uses other than reprocessing, evaluation of uses for reprocessing alternatives, resource utilization and its relationship to U.S. security objectives, and evaluation of ownership-management options are discussed

  14. Estimating the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives in carrying out the present study are twofold, namely to estimate the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector and to compare those of various countries with each other. In this regard, Turkey is given as an illustrative example with its latest figures in 2002 since the data related to the following years are still being processed. Total energy and exergy inputs in this year are calculated to be 3257.20 and 3212.42 PJ, respectively. Annual fuel consumptions in space heating, water heating and cooking activities as well as electrical energy uses by appliances are also determined. The energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for the Turkish residential-commercial sector are obtained to be 55.58% and 9.33%, respectively. Besides this, Turkey's overall energy and exergy utilization efficiencies are found to be 46.02% and 24.99%, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the necessity of the planned studies toward increasing exergy utilization efficiencies in the sector studied

  15. Generative Adversarial Networks Based Heterogeneous Data Integration and Its Application for Intelligent Power Distribution and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanpeng Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous characteristics of a big data system for intelligent power distribution and utilization have already become more and more prominent, which brings new challenges for the traditional data analysis technologies and restricts the comprehensive management of distribution network assets. In order to solve the problem that heterogeneous data resources of power distribution systems are difficult to be effectively utilized, a novel generative adversarial networks (GANs based heterogeneous data integration method for intelligent power distribution and utilization is proposed. In the proposed method, GANs theory is introduced to expand the distribution of completed data samples. Then, a so-called peak clustering algorithm is proposed to realize the finite open coverage of the expanded sample space, and repair those incomplete samples to eliminate the heterogeneous characteristics. Finally, in order to realize the integration of the heterogeneous data for intelligent power distribution and utilization, the well-trained discriminator model of GANs is employed to check the restored data samples. The simulation experiments verified the validity and stability of the proposed heterogeneous data integration method, which provides a novel perspective for the further data quality management of power distribution systems.

  16. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  17. Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic Preference Utility Set and Its Application in Selection of Fire Rescue Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Guangsen; Xu, Zeshui

    2018-01-01

    Hesitant fuzzy linguistic term set provides an effective tool to represent uncertain decision information. However, the semantics corresponding to the linguistic terms in it cannot accurately reflect the decision-makers’ subjective cognition. In general, different decision-makers’ sensitivities towards the semantics are different. Such sensitivities can be represented by the cumulative prospect theory value function. Inspired by this, we propose a linguistic scale function to transform the semantics corresponding to linguistic terms into the linguistic preference values. Furthermore, we propose the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility set, based on which, the decision-makers can flexibly express their distinct semantics and obtain the decision results that are consistent with their cognition. For calculations and comparisons over the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets, we introduce some distance measures and comparison laws. Afterwards, to apply the hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility sets in emergency management, we develop a method to obtain objective weights of attributes and then propose a hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference utility-TOPSIS method to select the best fire rescue plan. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified by some comparisons of the method with other two representative methods including the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-TOPSIS method and the hesitant fuzzy linguistic-VIKOR method. PMID:29614019

  18. Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of 50Cr5NiMoV steel for forged backup roll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, X.Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Fu, L.C.; Yang, H.B.; Yang, K.; Zhu, L., E-mail: zl508@126.com

    2016-11-20

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of forged 50Cr5NiMoV steel backup roll were evaluated in this study. The microstructure characteristics from surface to center along radial direction of the backup roll were carefully observed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the chemical composition, hardness, tensile property, impact and fracture toughness in different position of the backup roll were also examined. The results indicate that the finely precipitated carbides at different matrix during heat treatment process strongly influence mechanical properties of the backup roll. Especially, the spheroidized pearlite at the inner regions which consists of large globular or rod-like M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and a little of small globular M{sub 23}C{sub 6} possesses much better toughness and fracture resistance properties than those of the lamellar pearlite with lamellar M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and a little of globular M{sub 7}C{sub 3}.

  19. Innovative nuclear thermal rocket concept utilizing LEU fuel for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Venneri, Paolo; Choi, Jae Young; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung

    2015-01-01

    Space is one of the best places for humanity to turn to keep learning and exploiting. A Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a viable and more efficient option for human space exploration than the existing Chemical Rockets (CRs) which are highly inefficient for long-term manned missions such as to Mars and its satellites. NERVA derived NTR engines have been studied for the human missions as a mainstream in the United States of America (USA). Actually, the NERVA technology has already been developed and successfully tested since 1950s. The state-of-the-art technology is based on a Hydrogen gas (H_2) cooled high temperature reactor with solid core utilizing High-Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel to reduce heavy metal mass and to use fast or epithermal neutron spectrums enabling simple core designs. However, even though the NTR designs utilizing HEU is the best option in terms of rocket performance, they inevitably provoke nuclear proliferation obstacles on all Research and Development (R and D) activities by civilians and non-nuclear weapon states, and its eventual commercialization. To surmount the security issue to use HEU fuel for a NTR, a concept of the innovative NTR engine, Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket utilizing Low-Enriched Uranium fuel (KANUTER-LEU) is presented in this paper. The design goal of KANUTER-LEU is to make use of a LEU fuel for its compact reactor, but does not sacrifice the rocket performance relative to the traditional NTRs utilizing HEU. KANUTER-LEU mainly consists of a fission reactor utilizing H_2 propellant, a propulsion system and an optional Electricity Generation System as a bimodal engine. To implement LEU fuel for the reactor, the innovative engine adopts W-UO_2 CERMET fuel to drastically increase uranium density and thermal neutron spectrum to improve neutron economy in the core. The moderator and structural material selections also consider neutronic and thermo-physical characteristics to reduce non-fission neutron loss and

  20. Application of a disease-specific mapping function to estimate utility gains with effective treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupnow Marcia FT

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most tools for estimating utilities use clinical trial data from general health status models, such as the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. A disease-specific model may be more appropriate. The objective of this study was to apply a disease-specific utility mapping function for schizophrenia to data from a large, 1-year, open-label study of long-acting risperidone and to compare its performance with an SF-36-based utility mapping function. Methods Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder by DSM-IV criteria received 25, 50, or 75 mg long-acting risperidone every 2 weeks for 12 months. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and SF-36 were used to assess efficacy and health-related quality of life. Movement disorder severity was measured using the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS; data concerning other common adverse effects (orthostatic hypotension, weight gain were collected. Transforms were applied to estimate utilities. Results A total of 474 patients completed the study. Long-acting risperidone treatment was associated with a utility gain of 0.051 using the disease-specific function. The estimated gain using an SF-36-based mapping function was smaller: 0.0285. Estimates of gains were only weakly correlated (r = 0.2. Because of differences in scaling and variance, the requisite sample size for a randomized trial to confirm observed effects is much smaller for the disease-specific mapping function (156 versus 672 total subjects. Conclusion Application of a disease-specific mapping function was feasible. Differences in scaling and precision suggest the clinically based mapping function has greater power than the SF-36-based measure to detect differences in utility.

  1. Design fractures and commercial potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, energy storage in the United States has been provided by a few pumped hydroelectric plants, but siting constraints and high cost severely limit the use of this option. Two other options which will soon be in use are batteries and compressed air energy storage. A fourth option, currently being developed for load leveling is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). This paper reports the design features and estimated costs of utility scale SMES plants. For moderate discharge duration, SMES is projected to have substantially lower revenue requirements and better availability than other load leveling options. The Electric Power Research Institute has prepared a plan for commercialization which could, if aggressively pursued, lead to a demonstrated SMES technology that is available for utility commitment by the late 1990's

  2. Expected Utility Based Decision Making under Z-Information and Its Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Rashad R; Mraiziq, Derar Atallah Talal; Huseynov, Oleg H

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decision relevant information is often partially reliable. The reasons are partial reliability of the source of information, misperceptions, psychological biases, incompetence, and so forth. Z-numbers based formalization of information (Z-information) represents a natural language (NL) based value of a variable of interest in line with the related NL based reliability. What is important is that Z-information not only is the most general representation of real-world imperfect information but also has the highest descriptive power from human perception point of view as compared to fuzzy number. In this study, we present an approach to decision making under Z-information based on direct computation over Z-numbers. This approach utilizes expected utility paradigm and is applied to a benchmark decision problem in the field of economics.

  3. Application of Information Technology Solution for Early Warning Systems at Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałut, Alicja

    2018-02-01

    Deployment of IT solutions in water utilities in Poland concerns nowadays lots beyond GIS implementation projects [1]. The scope of modern IT platforms is truly advanced software for complete management of water treatment processes and involved objects, including ranges of various types of equipment. There are multiply factors that disrupt required volumes of supplied water. They are normally classified as natural, accidental and intentional. This paper addresses potential residing in already deployed IT solutions of water utilities in and also in new ones being now developed. Primarily- from the perspective of intentional, terrorist threats. This document depicts operating procedures that are called in case of spotted contamination in a water supply (damage of key elements of the network infrastructure) or in case of an introduction factors. This paper also discusses relevant IT tools with access provided to network operators or water plant owners that are extremely useful in accurate pinpointing the treat and in following relevant operating procedures and related actions.

  4. Development of a reference system and a methodology for the calibration of ophthalmic applicators utilized in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia Liane de

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y beta radiation sources are widely utilized in brachytherapy, in the treatment of superficial lesions of eyes and skin. According to international recommendations, these applicators should be specified in terms of the absorbed dose rate to water at the reference point (1 mm from the source surface, along its axis of symmetry). Two mini-extrapolation chambers were developed with adequate geometrical characteristics for the dosimetry of plane and concave 90 Sr+ 90 Y sources. These chambers have 3.0 cm of outer diameter and 11.3 cm of length. Aluminized polyester foils are used as entrance windows, and the collecting electrodes were made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. The mini-chambers were tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta check source and plane and concave ophthalmic applicators. All results obtained show the usefulness of these chambers as reference primary standards for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators. The previous calibration of the mini-chambers in relation to a standard ionization chamber or to a standard beta source is unnecessary. The minichamber with plane window showed utility for low energy X-rays too. In order to establish an alternative method for the calibration of beta radiation sources, different thermoluminescent materials were tested: LiF, CaF 2 :Mn, CaF 2 :Dy and CaS0 4 :Dy. For their characterization, the response reproducibility, calibration curves, TL response as a function of the source-detector distance, transmission factors and the linearity of the sample response were determined. The calibration procedures of ophthalmic applicators were established utilizing the ionometric technique and thermoluminescence dosimetry. (author)

  5. Examination of incentive mechanisms for innovative technologies applicable to utility and nonutility power generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, K.A. [Illinois Commerce Commission, Springfield, IL (United States); Bailey, K.A.; South, D.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.

    1993-08-01

    Innovative technologies, built by either utility or nonutility power generators, have the potential to lower costs with less environmental emissions than conventional technologies. However, the public-good nature of information, along with uncertain costs, performance, and reliability, discourages rapid adoption of these technologies. The effect of regulation of electricity production may also have an adverse impact on motivation to innovate. Slower penetration of cleaner, more efficient technologies could result in greater levels of pollution, higher electricity prices, and a reduction in international competitiveness. Regulatory incentives could encourage adoption and deployment of innovative technologies of all kinds, inducting clean coal technologies. Such incentives must be designed to offset risks inherent in innovative technology and encourage cost-effective behavior. To evaluate innovative and conventional technologies equally, the incremental cost of risk (ICR) of adopting the innovative technology must be determined. Through the ICR, the magnitude of incentive required to make a utility (or nonutility) power generator equally motivated to use either conventional or innovative technologies can be derived. Two technology risks are examined: A construction risk, represented by a 15% cost overrun, and an operating risk, represented by a increased forced outage rate (decreased capacity factor). Different incentive mechanisms and measurement criteria are used to assess the effects of these risks on ratepayers and shareholders. In most cases, a regulatory incentive could offset the perceived risks while encouraging cost-effective behavior by both utility and nonutility power generators. Not only would the required incentive be recouped, but the revenue requirements would be less for the innovative technology; also, less environmental pollution would be generated. In the long term, ratepayers and society would benefit from innovative technologies.

  6. A random utility model of delay discounting and its application to people with externalizing psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Junyi; Gunn, Rachel L; Gerst, Kyle R; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Finn, Peter R

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that working memory capacity plays a central role in delay discounting in people with externalizing psychopathology. These studies used a hyperbolic discounting model, and its single parameter-a measure of delay discounting-was estimated using the standard method of searching for indifference points between intertemporal options. However, there are several problems with this approach. First, the deterministic perspective on delay discounting underlying the indifference point method might be inappropriate. Second, the estimation procedure using the R2 measure often leads to poor model fit. Third, when parameters are estimated using indifference points only, much of the information collected in a delay discounting decision task is wasted. To overcome these problems, this article proposes a random utility model of delay discounting. The proposed model has 2 parameters, 1 for delay discounting and 1 for choice variability. It was fit to choice data obtained from a recently published data set using both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian parameter estimation. As in previous studies, the delay discounting parameter was significantly associated with both externalizing problems and working memory capacity. Furthermore, choice variability was also found to be significantly associated with both variables. This finding suggests that randomness in decisions may be a mechanism by which externalizing problems and low working memory capacity are associated with poor decision making. The random utility model thus has the advantage of disclosing the role of choice variability, which had been masked by the traditional deterministic model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Application of Information Technology Solution for Early Warning Systems at Water Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałut Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deployment of IT solutions in water utilities in Poland concerns nowadays lots beyond GIS implementation projects [1]. The scope of modern IT platforms is truly advanced software for complete management of water treatment processes and involved objects, including ranges of various types of equipment. There are multiply factors that disrupt required volumes of supplied water. They are normally classified as natural, accidental and intentional. This paper addresses potential residing in already deployed IT solutions of water utilities in and also in new ones being now developed. Primarily- from the perspective of intentional, terrorist threats. This document depicts operating procedures that are called in case of spotted contamination in a water supply (damage of key elements of the network infrastructure or in case of an introduction factors. This paper also discusses relevant IT tools with access provided to network operators or water plant owners that are extremely useful in accurate pinpointing the treat and in following relevant operating procedures and related actions.

  8. Electrostatic Beneficiation of Lunar Regolith: Applications in In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, Steve; Captain, James; Weis, Kyle; Quinn, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Upon returning to the moon, or further a field such as Mars, presents enormous challenges in sustaining life for extended periods of time far beyond the few days the astronauts experienced on the moon during the Apollo missions. A stay on Mars is envisioned to last several months, and it would be cost prohibitive to take all the requirements for such a stay from earth. Therefore, future exploration missions will be required to be self-sufficient and utilize the resources available at the mission site to sustain human occupation. Such an exercise is currently the focus of intense research at NASA under the In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program. As well as oxygen and water necessary for human life, resources for providing building materials for habitats, radiation protection, and landing/launch pads are required. All these materials can be provided by the regolith present on the surface as it contains sufficient minerals and metals oxides to meet the requirements. However, before processing, it would be cost effective if the regolith could be enriched in the mineral(s) of interest. This can be achieved by electrostatic beneficiation in which tribocharged mineral particles are separated out and the feedstock enriched or depleted as required. The results of electrostatic beneficiation of lunar simulants and actual Apollo regolith, in lunar high vacuum are reported in which various degrees of efficient particle separation and mineral enrichment up to a few hundred percent were achieved.

  9. Experience of the application of the distribution of utilities for the non agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Alfonso Alemán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperatives in Cuba assumes a series of particularities characteristic of the concrete conditions of our country, it is an autochthonous fruit of the measures carried out soon after the victory of the Revolution that in the current moments with the implementation of the Limits of the Economic and Social Politics of the Party and the Revolution transcends the sphere of the agricultural production and sandal other sectors of the national economy. Even when the nature of this process is of experimental character and in spite of the remarkable youth of the on experiences in practice, important results are obtained that sustain the viability and sostenibility of this implementation project. Nevertheless, they are revealed a group of inadequacies that you/they affect in a direct way the administration in these new cooperative ways whose solution will allow to base new decisions for the sake of its improvement, one of these he/she has to do with the current system of distribution of utilities that doesn't guarantee the efficient and effective development of the process of socioeconomic administration of these entities. For it the objective of this work consists on structuring a system of distribution of utilities in the non Agricultural Cooperatives that it allows the constitution of funds of own resources that you/they contribute to the efficient and effective development of its process socioeconomic administration.

  10. Optimized Heat Pipe Backup Cooling System Tested with a Stirling Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Carl L.; Tarau, Calin; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Anderson, William G.; Garner, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor by bypassing the heat during stops. In a previous NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for the Stirling RPS. In 2012, one of these VCHPs was successfully tested at NASA Glenn Research Center with a Stirling convertor as an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) backup cooling system. The prototype; however, was not optimized and did not reflect the final heat rejection path. ACT through further funding has developed a semioptimized prototype with the finalized heat path for testing at Glenn with a Stirling convertor. The semioptimized system features a two-phase radiator and is significantly smaller and lighter than the prior prototype to reflect a higher level of flight readiness. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the GPHS during stoppage with a small temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. This small temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the multilayer insulation (MLI). The VCHP passively allows the Stirling convertor to be turned off multiple times during a mission with potentially unlimited off durations. Having the ability to turn the Stirling off allows for the Stirling to be reset and reduces vibrations on the platform during sensitive measurements or

  11. Risk evaluation method for faults by engineering approach. (2) Application concept of margin analysis utilizing accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Masanobu; Kanaida, Syuuji; Kamiya, Kouichi; Sato, Kunihiko; Kuroiwa, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the fault displacement on the facility should to be evaluated not only by the activity of the fault but also by obtaining risk information by considering scenarios including such as the frequency and the degree of the hazard, which should be an appropriate approach for nuclear safety. An applicable concept of margin analysis utilizing accident sequences for evaluating the influence of the fault displacement is proposed. By use of this analysis, we can evaluate of the safety functions and margin for core damage, verify the efficiency of equipment of portable type and make a decision to take additional measures to reduce the risk by using obtained risk information. (author)

  12. Improving Utility of GPU in Accelerating Industrial Applications With User-Centered Automatic Code Translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Po; Dong, Feng; Codreanu, Valeriu; Williams, David; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Liu, Baoquan; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Min, Geyong

    Small to medium enterprises (SMEs), particularly those whose business is focused on developing innovative produces, are limited by a major bottleneck in the speed of computation in many applications. The recent developments in GPUs have been the marked increase in their versatility in many

  13. 78 FR 38307 - Gresham Municipal Utilities; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Gresham, Wisconsin, Attn: Art Bahr, Village Administrator, 1126 Main Street, PO Box 50, Gresham, WI 54128... of the Commission's regulations, if any resource agency, Indian Tribe, or person believes that an... analysis of the application on its merit, the resource agency, Indian Tribe, or person must file a request...

  14. 78 FR 38308 - Gresham Municipal Utilities; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Gresham, Wisconsin, Attn: Art Bahr, Village Administrator, 1126 Main Street, PO Box 50, Gresham, WI 54128... of the Commission's regulations, if any resource agency, Indian Tribe, or person believes that an... analysis of the application on its merit, the resource agency, Indian Tribe, or person must file a request...

  15. International topical meeting on nuclear research applications and utilization of accelerators. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Applications of particle accelerators cover a number of areas, from strategic and applied research, safety and security, environmental applications, materials research and analytical sciences, to radioisotope production and radiation processing. Accelerator based techniques and pulsed neutron sources are expected to lead to new initiatives in materials research of relevance for both the nuclear and non-nuclear fields. Material science studies with the use of accelerators, neutron beams and other nuclear analytical methods are relevant to the development of advanced reactors, nuclear fuel cycle needs and fusion research. In this regard, a better understanding of the irradiation effects in materials for energy and non-energy applications is needed, and is reflected in accelerator techniques for modification and analysis of materials for nuclear technologies. Accelerator applications for innovative nuclear systems aiming at rad-waste transmutation (e.g., accelerator driven systems) are being pursued in many countries. Research and development using accelerators involves a broad spectrum of skills to build a cadre of trained experts in nuclear techniques in IAEA Member States, and to generate knowledge for innovative methodologies and tools. The present conference is also being held in cooperation with the American Nuclear Society (ANS), which successfully organized the series of accelerator applications conferences known as AccApp. The ANS series of topical meetings has provided a forum for the global exchange of scientific and technical knowledge on a wide variety of related topics since the first AccApp took place in 1997 in Albuquerque, USA. The last conference which was held in 2007 in Pocatello, USA, was jointly organized by the ANS and the IAEA. The main objectives of the conference are to promote exchange of information among IAEA Member States representatives/delegates and to discuss new trends in accelerator applications including nuclear materials research

  16. Advantages of utilizing DMD based rapid manufacturing systems in mass customization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Siblani, A.

    2010-02-01

    The Use of DMD based Rapid Manufacturing Systems has proven to be very advantageous in the production of highly accurate plastic based components for use in mass customization market such as hearing aids, and dental markets. The voxelization process currently afforded with the DLP technology eliminates any layering effect associated with all existing additive Rapid Manufacturing technologies. The smooth accurate surfaces produced in an additive process utilizing DLP technology, through the voxelization approach, allow for the production of custom finished products. The implementation of DLP technology in rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing systems allow for the usage of highly viscous photopolymer based liquid and paste composites for rapid manufacturing that could not be used in any other additive process prior to implementation of DLP technology in RP and RM systems. It also allowed for the greater throughput in production without sacrificing quality and accuracy.

  17. Economic Valuation on Change of Tourism Quality in Rawapening, Indonesia: An Application of Random Utility Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Irawan, B. R. M. B.; Sasongko, G.; Hakim, A. R.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine the profit (loss) earned economic actors tourism activities if the condition or quality of tourism in Rawapening be improved (deteriorated). Change condition or quality can be seen by traveling expenses, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets. The method used to measure changes in the economic benefits or economic loss with a random utility approach. The study was found that travel cost, natural environment, Japanese cultural performances, and traditional markets have significant factors about respondent preferences to choose the change of tourism condition. The value of compensation received by visitors as a result of changes in conditions improved by 2,932 billion, while the change in the condition worsens by 2,628 billion. Recommendation of this study is the local government should consider environmental factors in the formulation of tourism development in Rawapening.

  18. Radiological guidelines for application to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    The US Department of Energy has implemented a program to evaluate and, where necessary, take action to protect the public from contamination at sites that were used in the past to process and/or store radioactive materials for the former US Army Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District or the US Atomic Energy Commission. The program is identified as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This document describes methods considered appropriate for the evaluation of health effects that might possible be caused by radioactive contamination at FUSRAP sites. This assessment methodology is applied to a typical site for the purposeof deriving guidelines for the cleanup of contaminated soil. Additional guidance is provided for planning site-specific remedial action that is consistent with the overall objectives of FUSRAP

  19. Application of Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) instrument in a global setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimo, Anders; Gustavsson, Anders; Jönsson, Linus; Winblad, Bengt; Hsu, Ming-Ann; Gannon, Brenda

    2013-07-01

    The Resource Utilization in Dementia (RUD) questionnaire is the most widely used instrument for resource use data collection in dementia, enabling comparison of costs of care across countries with differing health care provisions. Recent feedback from payers questioned its face validity given that health care provisions have changed since the initial development of the RUD in 1998. The aim of this study was to update the RUD to improve its face validity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical research and its utility for health care resource allocation. An extensive PubMed review was conducted of current relevant resource items in AD in 15 countries. The findings were complemented by interviews with local care providers and experts in dementia care and health economics. Their proposed revisions were discussed with five leading dementia experts in North and South America, northern and southern Europe, and Asia. A new version of the RUD was developed based on their recommendations. RUD users identified a need for more information relevant to coverage decisions. Proposed revisions included changes to existing questions (e.g., to capture more accurately the number and type of health care visits) and the addition of new questions (e.g., on informal caregiver hours and the primary caregiver's hours of sleep). Several minor changes were made to the RUD instrument to improve the accuracy and precision of the data while maintaining comparability with the original version and reflecting current medical practice. The RUD Complete Version 4.0 is now available for use in future AD clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Component Approach to Collaborative Scientific Software Development: Tools and Techniques Utilized by the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Kenny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting-edge scientific computing software is complex, increasingly involving the coupling of multiple packages to combine advanced algorithms or simulations at multiple physical scales. Component-based software engineering (CBSE has been advanced as a technique for managing this complexity, and complex component applications have been created in the quantum chemistry domain, as well as several other simulation areas, using the component model advocated by the Common Component Architecture (CCA Forum. While programming models do indeed enable sound software engineering practices, the selection of programming model is just one building block in a comprehensive approach to large-scale collaborative development which must also address interface and data standardization, and language and package interoperability. We provide an overview of the development approach utilized within the Quantum Chemistry Science Application Partnership, identifying design challenges, describing the techniques which we have adopted to address these challenges and highlighting the advantages which the CCA approach offers for collaborative development.

  1. [The Utilization of Health-Related Applications in Chronic Disease Self-Management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Wen; Chuang, Hui-Wan; Chen, Ting-Yu

    2017-08-01

    The dramatic increase in smartphone usage has spurred the development of many health-related mobile applications (apps). On the other hand, population aging and the associated rise in the incidence of chronic disease is increasing the demand for long-term care. Effective chronic disease self-management has been shown to help patients improve their health condition. Numerous smartphone applications currently support patient self-management of chronic disease, facilitating health management and health promotion. The purpose of the present article was to introduce the definition, contents, and types of health-related apps; to discuss the effectiveness of self-management health-related apps in promoting chronic disease management; and to assess and evaluate these apps. We hope that the present article helps give to healthcare professionals and patients who are willing to manage their diseases a general understanding of health-related apps and their potential to facilitate the self-management of chronic diseases.

  2. Application of linear programming and perturbation theory in optimization of fuel utilization in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavaljevski, N.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed optimization procedure is fast due to application of linear programming. Non-linear constraints which demand iterative application of linear programming are slowing down the calculation. Linearization can be done by different procedures starting from simple empirical rules for fuel in-core management to complicated general perturbation theory with higher order of corrections. A mathematical model was formulated for optimization of improved fuel cycle. A detailed algorithm for determining minimum of fresh fuel at the beginning of each fuel cycle is shown and the problem is linearized by first order perturbation theory and it is optimized by linear programming. Numerical illustration of the proposed method was done for the experimental reactor mostly for saving computer time

  3. Synthesis, Characterization and Utility of Carbon Nanotube Based Hybrid Sensors in Bioanalytical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhulika, Sushmee

    The detection of gaseous analytes and biological molecules is of prime importance in the fields of environmental pollution control, food and water - safety and analysis; and medical diagnostics. This necessitates the development of advanced and improved technology that is reliable, inexpensive and suitable for high volume production. The conventional sensors are often thin film based which lack sensitivity due to the phenomena of current shunting across the charge depleted region when an analyte binds with them. One dimensional (1-D) nanostructures provide a better alternative for sensing applications by eliminating the issue of current shunting due to their 1-D geometries and facilitating device miniaturization and low power operations. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are 1-D nanostructures that possess small size, high mechanical strength, high electrical and thermal conductivity and high specific area that have resulted in their wide spread applications in sensor technology. To overcome the issue of low sensitivity of pristine CNTs and to widen their scope, hybrid devices have been fabricated that combine the synergistic properties of CNTs along with materials like metals and conducting polymers (CPs). CPs exhibit electronic, magnetic and optical properties of metals and semiconductors while retaining the processing advantages of polymers. Their high chemical sensitivity, room temperature operation and tunable charge transport properties has made them ideal for use as transducing elements in chemical sensors. In this dissertation, various CNT based hybrid devices such as CNT-conducting polymer and graphene-CNT-metal nanoparticles based sensors have been developed and demonstrated towards bioanalytical applications such as detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and saccharides. Electrochemical polymerization enabled the synthesis of CPs and metal nanoparticles in a simple, cost effective and controlled way on the surface of CNT based platforms thus resulting in

  4. Recent advances in engineering microparticles and their nascent utilization in biomedical delivery and diagnostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Andrew; Seo, Kyoung Duck; Kim, Do Wan; Kim, Bum Chang; Kim, Dong Sung

    2017-02-14

    Complex microparticles (MPs) bearing unique characteristics such as well-tailored sizes, various morphologies, and multi-compartments have been attempted to be produced by many researchers in the past decades. However, a conventionally used method of fabricating MPs, emulsion polymerization, has a limitation in achieving the aforementioned characteristics and several approaches such as the microfluidics-assisted (droplet-based microfluidics and flow lithography-based microfluidics), electrohydrodynamics (EHD)-based, centrifugation-based, and template-based methods have been recently suggested to overcome this limitation. The outstanding features of complex MPs engineered through these suggested methods have provided new opportunities for MPs to be applied in a wider range of applications including cell carriers, drug delivery agents, active pigments for display, microsensors, interface stabilizers, and catalyst substrates. Overall, the engineered MPs expose their potential particularly in the field of biomedical engineering as the increased complexity in the engineered MPs fulfills well the requirements of the high-end applications. This review outlines the current trends of newly developed techniques used for engineered MPs fabrication and focuses on the current state of engineered MPs in biomedical applications.

  5. Novel fabrication of fluorescent silk utilized in biotechnological and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Seong-Wan; Ki, Chang Seok; Chao, Janet Ren; Yoo, Hyojong; Yoon, Sung-Il; Lee, Jeong Eun; Park, Ye Ri; Kweon, HaeYong; Lee, Kwang Gill; Kaplan, David L; Park, Chan Hum

    2015-11-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural polymer widely used and studied for diverse applications in the biomedical field. Recently, genetically modified silks, particularly fluorescent SF fibers, were reported to have been produced from transgenic silkworms. However, they are currently limited to textile manufacturing. To expand the use of transgenic silkworms for biomedical applications, a solution form of fluorescent SF needed to be developed. Here, we describe a novel method of preparing a fluorescent SF solution and demonstrate long-term fluorescent function up to one year after subcutaneous insertion. We also show that fluorescent SF labeled p53 antibodies clearly identify HeLa cells, indicating the applicability of fluorescent SF to cancer detection and bio-imaging. Furthermore, we demonstrate the intraoperative use of fluorescent SF in an animal model to detect a small esophageal perforation (0.5 mm). This study suggests how fluorescent SF biomaterials can be applied in biotechnology and clinical medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compressed-air and backup nitrogen systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, E.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report reviews and evaluates the performance of the compressed-air and pressurized-nitrogen gas systems in commercial nuclear power units. The information was collected from readily available operating experiences, licensee event reports, system designs in safety analysis reports, and regulatory documents. The results are collated and analyzed for significance and impact on power plant safety performance. Under certain circumstances, the fail-safe philosophy for a piece of equipment or subsystem of the compressed-air systems initiated a series of actions culminating in reactor transient or unit scram. However, based on this study of prevailing operating experiences, reclassifying the compressed-gas systems to a higher safety level will neither prevent (nor mitigate) the reoccurrences of such happenings nor alleviate nuclear power plant problems caused by inadequate maintenance, operating procedures, and/or practices. Conversely, because most of the problems were derived from the sources listed previously, upgrading of both maintenance and operating procedures will not only result in substantial improvement in the performance and availability of the compressed-air (and backup nitrogen) systems but in improved overall plant performance

  7. An FPGA based backup version of the TileCal digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, D; Muschter, S; Bohm, C

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front end digitization and readout system comprises about 1800 digitizer boards with two TileDMU ASICs on each board. The TileDMUs are responsible for storing, derandomising and reading out digitized data from twelve ADCs. An ample number of board spares are available. However, a backup solution is desirable in the event of unexpected failure modes. The original version contains both outdated and custom made circuits that are difficult or impossible to find in sufficient numbers. We have developed a new version using inexpensive off the shelf FPGAs (Spartan 6). The FPGAs have all the necessary functionality to emulate the TileDMU and will be readily available for a considerable time. The new board is functionally compatible with the current version and to a large extent uses the same code. The design goal was to leave the digitizer design as intact as possible since it is well tested and performs well. As radiation tolerance is an issue we have implemented triple mode redundancy in the FPGA. To further improve the system we added in system programmability via TTCrx for both the FPGA and the configuration memory using one way JTAG. This provides a way to recover from radiation damage to the configuration PROM or to remotely upgrade system firmware.

  8. An FPGA based backup version of the TileCal digitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, D.; Muschter, S.; Bohm, C.

    2010-11-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front end digitization and readout system comprises about 1800 digitizer boards with two TileDMU ASICs on each board. The TileDMUs are responsible for storing, derandomising and reading out digitized data from twelve ADCs. An ample number of board spares are available. However, a backup solution is desirable in the event of unexpected failure modes. The original version contains both outdated and custom made circuits that are difficult or impossible to find in sufficient numbers. We have developed a new version using inexpensive off the shelf FPGAs (Spartan 6). The FPGAs have all the necessary functionality to emulate the TileDMU and will be readily available for a considerable time. The new board is functionally compatible with the current version and to a large extent uses the same code. The design goal was to leave the digitizer design as intact as possible since it is well tested and performs well. As radiation tolerance is an issue we have implemented triple mode redundancy in the FPGA. To further improve the system we added in system programmability via TTCrx for both the FPGA and the configuration memory using one way JTAG. This provides a way to recover from radiation damage to the configuration PROM or to remotely upgrade system firmware.

  9. Technical Challenges and Lessons from the Migration of the GLOBE Data and Information System to Utilize Cloud Computing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Overoye, D.; Littlefield, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data and Information System supports an international science and education program with capabilities to accept local environment observations, archive, display and visualize them along with global satellite observations. Since its inception twenty years ago, the Web and database system has been upgraded periodically to accommodate the changes in technology and the steady growth of GLOBE's education community and collection of observations. Recently, near the end-of-life of the system hardware, new commercial computer platform options were explored and a decision made to utilize Cloud services. Now the GLOBE DIS has been fully deployed and maintained using Amazon Cloud services for over two years now. This paper reviews the early risks, actual challenges, and some unexpected findings as a result of the GLOBE DIS migration. We describe the plans, cost drivers and estimates, highlight adjustments that were made and suggest improvements. We present the trade studies for provisioning, for load balancing, networks, processing , storage, as well as production, staging and backup systems. We outline the migration team's skills and required level of effort for transition, and resulting changes in the overall maintenance and operations activities. Examples include incremental adjustments to processing capacity and frequency of backups, and efforts previously expended on hardware maintenance that were refocused onto application-specific enhancements.

  10. Technical Challenges and Lessons from the Migration of the GLOBE Data and Information System to Utilize Cloud Computing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, John F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Overoye, David; Littlefield, Brain

    2017-01-01

    The Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Data and Information System supports an international science and education program with capabilities to accept local environment observations, archive, display and visualize them along with global satellite observations. Since its inception twenty years ago, the Web and database system has been upgraded periodically to accommodate the changes in technology and the steady growth of GLOBEs education community and collection of observations. Recently, near the end-of-life of the system hardware, new commercial computer platform options were explored and a decision made to utilize Cloud services. Now the GLOBE DIS has been fully deployed and maintained using Amazon Cloud services for over two years now. This paper reviews the early risks, actual challenges, and some unexpected findings as a result of the GLOBE DIS migration. We describe the plans, cost drivers and estimates, highlight adjustments that were made and suggest improvements. We present the trade studies for provisioning, for load balancing, networks, processing, storage, as well as production, staging and backup systems. We outline the migration teams skills and required level of effort for transition, and resulting changes in the overall maintenance and operations activities. Examples include incremental adjustments to processing capacity and frequency of backups, and efforts previously expended on hardware maintenance that were refocused onto application-specific enhancements.

  11. ASCE application guide for recommended practice for fiber-reinforced polymer products for overhead utility line structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnandt, E. [T and D High Voltage Consulting, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The participants to the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) prepared an application guide to provide guidelines to utilities and manufacturers on topics ranging from design to manufacture, testing and installation of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) products. The intent was also to help utilities with a possible replacement material for wood, steel and pre-stressed concrete. FRP products are constructed from fiber and resin and offer several advantages such as light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio, low maintenance, dimensional stability, resistance to rot, corrosion, chemicals and pest damage. FRP products can be used for lighting poles, ladders and grating, transformer pads, pole line hardware and crossarms, and other applications. There are five structural configurations: (1) cantilevered structures (single pole), (2) guyed structures, framed structures (H-Frame), (4) a combination of (1), (2), and (3), and (5) lattice structures (transmission class). The author listed some of the initial considerations: physical characteristics, guying and grounding, deflection and load testing, attached items, and durability to name only a few. The materials and manufacturing processes were briefly explained, namely the pultrusion method, the filament winding method, and the centrifugal casting method. Design loads considerations are discussed, as are performance-based criteria such as mechanical, coating durability and electrical. Quality control, assembly erection and storage, and in-service considerations are also discussed. The author concluded the presentation with a section dealing with field inspections. figs.

  12. XEUS: Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s for Fission Fusion Hybrid Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Kune Y.; Jeong, Wi S.; Son, Hyung M.

    2008-01-01

    World energy outlook requires environmental friendliness, sustain ability and improved economic feasibility. The Exploratory Energy Utilization Systemic s (XEUS) is being developed at the Seoul National University (SNU) to satisfy these demands. Generation IV (Gen IV) and fusion reactors are considered as candidates for the primary system. Battery Omnibus Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor which is one of the Gen IV concepts. Fusion Engineering Lifetime Integral Explorer (FELIX) is a fusion demonstration reactor for power generation. These two concepts are considered as dominant options for future nuclear energy source from the environmental, commercial and nonproliferation points of view. XEUS may as well be applied to the fusion-fission hybrid system. The system code is being developed to analyze the steady state and transient behavior of the primary system. Compact and high efficiency heat exchangers are designed in the Loop Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS). Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) incorporates a Brayton cycle with supercritical fluid to achieve high power conversion ratio. The high volumetric energy density of the Brayton cycle enables designers to reduce the size and eventually the cost of the system when compared with that of the Rankine cycle. MOBIS is home to heat exchangers and turbo machineries. The advanced shell-and-tube or printed circuit heat exchanger is considered as heat transfer components to reduce size of the system. The supercritical fluid driven turbines and compressor are designed to achieve higher component efficiency. Thermo hydrodynamic characteristics of each component in MOBIS are demonstrated utilizing computational fluid dynamics software CFX R . Another key contributor to the reduction of capital costs per unit energy has to do with manufacturing and assembly processes that streamline plant construction by minimizing construction work and time. In a three

  13. Construction and clinical application of complex utility programs in the SEGAMS-80 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mate, E.; Csirik, J.; Csernay, L.; Makay, A.

    1981-01-01

    SEGAMS-80 is a system for processing isotope-diagnostic pictures easily and safely for physicians. The functions built into the system form a tree-structure. In certain stages of processing, tables completed according to the medical point of view show identification and a short description of the actual performable functions. The functions available allow an interactive performance of diagnostic processes for different purposes. Interactivity is undesirable while processing routine examinations, since the functions to be performed, their sequence and parameters could be identical in all cases. SEGAMS-80 makes it possible to construct complex programs, to put them into the system and execute them. During the complex program the desired functions are automatically executed. The operator's interference is needed only where the author of the complex program has stated that it is necessary from the medical aspects. Experience gained with several SEGAMS-80 systems has shown that they can be successfully used in isotope diagnostics, without requiring any training in computing techniques from the physicians. A schematic description is given of the structure of SEGAMS-80 together with a detailed account of how to construct complex utility programs. (author)

  14. [Isolation of a methanol-utilizing strain and its application for determining methanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Qu, Fei; Lu, Dongtao; Zheng, Jun; Pang, Jinmei; Yang, Yujing

    2013-08-04

    To isolate and characterize bacteria that can be used todevelop microbial biosensor for methanol (MeOH) determination. We used selective medium and streak plate to isolate bacteria. Morphological, physiological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis were used to identify the strain. An MeOH biosensor was then developed by immobilizing M211 along with dissolved oxygen (O2) sensor. An MeOH utilizing bacterium was isolated from biogas-producing tank using methanol as the sole carbon source, and identified as Methylobacteriumorganophilium. Decrease of O2 concentration is linearly related to the MeOH concentration in the range from 0.02% to 1%, with the MeOH detection limit of 0.27 mg/L. The response time of the biosensor is within 20 min. Furthermore, the result of interference test and the detection of methanol sample are both satisfactory. Good results are obtained in interference test and the detection of methanol sample. The proposed method seems very attractive in monitoring methanol.

  15. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition

  16. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments

  17. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping, E-mail: zongpingw@hust.edu.cn; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  18. Development and application of a continuous fast microwave pyrolysis system for sewage sludge utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junwen; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Peng, Peng; Anderson, Erik; Ding, Kuan; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2018-05-01

    A continuous fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system was designed, fabricated, and tested with sewage sludge. The system is equipped with continuous biomass feeding, mixing of biomass and microwave absorbent, and separated catalyst upgrading. The effect of the sludge pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, and 600 °C) on the products yield, distribution and potentially energy recovery were investigated. The physical, chemical, and energetic properties of the raw sewage sludge and bio-oil, char and gas products obtained were analyzed using elemental analyzer, GC-MS, Micro-GC, SEM and ICP-OES. While the maximum bio-oil yield of 41.39 wt% was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, the optimal pyrolysis temperature for maximum overall energy recovery was 500 °C. The absence of carrier gas in the process may be responsible for the high HHV of gas products. This work could provide technical support for microwave-assisted system scale-up and sewage sludge utilization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of the NJOY code for unresolved resonance treatment in the MCNP utility code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.; Greenspan, E.; Vujic, J. . E-mail addresses of corresponding authors: mmilos@vin.bg.ac.yu , vujic@nuc.berkeley.edu ,; Milosevic, M.; Vujic, J.)

    2005-01-01

    There are numerous uncertainties in the prediction of neutronic characteristics of reactor cores, particularly in the case of innovative reactor designs, arising from approximations used in the solution of the transport equation, and in nuclear data processing and cross section libraries generation. This paper describes the problems encountered in the analysis of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) benchmark core and the new procedures and cross section libraries developed to overcome these problems. The ENHS is a new lead-bismuth or lead cooled novel reactor concept that is fuelled with metallic alloy of Pu, U and Zr, and it is designed to operate for 20 effective full power years without refuelling and with very small burnup reactivity swing. The computational tools benchmarked include: MOCUP - a coupled MCNP-4C and ORIGEN2.1 utility codes with MCNP data libraries based on the ENDF/B-VI evaluations; and KWO2 - a coupled KENO-V.a and ORIGEN2.1 code with ENDFB-V.2 based 238 group library. Calculations made for the ENHS benchmark have shown that the differences between the results obtained using different code systems and cross section libraries are significant and should be taken into account in assessing the quality of nuclear data libraries. (author)

  20. Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and applications for market-based rates in a deregulating electric utility industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1999-05-01

    In this article, the author reviews FERC's current procedures for undertaking competitive analysis. The current procedure for evaluating the competitive impact of transactions in the electric utility industry is described in Order 592, in particular Appendix A. These procedures effectively revised criteria that had been laid out in Commonwealth Edison and brought its merger policy in line with the EPAct and the provisions of Order 888. Order 592 was an attempt to provide more certainty and expedition in handling mergers. It established three criteria that had to be satisfied for a merger to be approved: Post-merger market power must be within acceptable thresholds or be satisfactorily mitigated, acceptable customer protections must be in place (to ensure that rates will not go up as a result of increased costs) and any adverse effect on regulation must be addressed. FERC states that its Order 592 Merger Policy Statement is based upon the Horizontal Merger Guidelines issued jointly by the Federal Trade Commission and the Antitrust Division Department of Justice (FTC/DOJ Merger Guidelines). While it borrows much of the language and basic concepts of the Merger Guidelines, FERC's procedures have been criticized as not following the methodology closely enough, leaving open the possibility of mistakes in market definition.

  1. Applications of custom scripting in digital micrograph: general image manipulation and utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Gatan Imaging Filter (GIF) uses a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to capture images and spectra. Image capture and manipulation is achieved through Gatan's Digital Micrograph software. This has many capabilities built-in, and can be further extended through installation of custom scripts. These are typically short programs written in a powerful scripting language, which permits many aspects of image acquisition and subsequent manipulation to be controlled by the user. Custom scripts can be added to the normal pull down menus, producing a very flexible and easy to use environment. The scripts described here demonstrate how custom scripting can enhance the functionality of a modem analytical TEM equipped with, in this instance, a GIF. However, scripting will enhance any TEM using a CCD camera controlled through Digital Micrograph. The examples shown here include: a) a script to rotationally average a selected area diffraction pattern and produce a calibrated radial intensity profile, b) a utility script which monitors and graphically displays the CCD temperature as a function of time and c) a simple script to propagate image spatial calibrations to uncalibrated images, such as EFTEM images. Other scripts by the author along with some scripting resources are also discussed. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  2. Effective Grid Utilization: A Technical Assessment and Application Guide; April 2011 - September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balser, S.; Sankar, S.; Miller, R.; Rawlins, A.; Israel, M.; Curry, T.; Mason, T.

    2012-09-01

    In order to more fully integrate renewable resources, such as wind and solar, into the transmission system, additional capacity must be realized in the short term using the installed transmission capacity that exists today. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Transmission and Grid Integration Group supported this study to assemble the history of regulations and status of transmission technology to expand existing grid capacity. This report compiles data on various transmission technology methods and upgrades for increased capacity utilization of the existing transmission system and transmission corridors. The report discusses the technical merit of each method and explains how the method could be applied within the current regulatory structure to increase existing transmission conductor and/or corridor capacity. The history and current state of alternatives to new construction is presented for regulators, legislators, and other policy makers wrestling with issues surrounding integration of variable generation. Current regulations are assessed for opportunities to change them to promote grid expansion. To support consideration of these alternatives for expanding grid capacity, the report lists relevant rules, standards, and policy changes.

  3. An Effective Numerical Method and Its Utilization to Solution of Fractional Models Used in Bioengineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the fractional-order linear and nonlinear models used in bioengineering applications and an effective method for their numerical solution. The proposed method is based on the power series expansion of a generating function. Numerical solution is in the form of the difference equation, which can be simply applied in the Matlab/Simulink to simulate the dynamics of system. Several illustrative examples are presented, which can be widely used in bioengineering as well as in the other disciplines, where the fractional calculus is often used.

  4. Application of communications satellites to educational development. [technology utilization/information systems - bibliographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of research is presented. The broad objectives of this interdisciplinary research effort were: (1) to assess the role of satellite communications as a means of improving education in the United States, as well as in less-developed areas of the world; (2) to generate basic knowledge which will aid in making rational decisions about satellite application in the field of education in the years ahead; (3) to devise systems and strategies for improving education; and (4) to educate individuals who will be knowledgeable about aspects of satellite communications policy which transcend any single discipline.

  5. Backup of Renewable Energy for an Electrical Island: Case Study of Israeli Electricity System—Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A.; Kuperman, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources. PMID:24624044

  6. Backup of renewable energy for an electrical island: case study of Israeli electricity system--current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, A; Kuperman, A

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of Israeli Government's targets of 10% renewable energy penetration by 2020 and determining the desired methodology (models) for assessing the effects on the electricity market, addressing the fact that Israel is an electricity island. The main objective is to determine the influence of achieving the Government's goals for renewable energy penetration on the need for backup in the Israeli electricity system. This work presents the current situation of the Israeli electricity market and the study to be taken in order to assess the undesirable effects resulting from the intermittency of electricity generated by wind and solar power stations as well as presents some solutions to mitigating these phenomena. Future work will focus on a quantitative analysis of model runs and determine the amounts of backup required relative to the amount of installed capacity from renewable resources.

  7. Extended outlook: description, utilization, and daily applications of cloud technology in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Perry; Kapadia, Neil; Chang, Patricia T; Acharya, Jay; Seiler, Michael; Lefkovitz, Zvi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the concept of cloud technology, its role in medical applications and radiology, the role of the radiologist in using and accessing these vast resources of information, and privacy concerns and HIPAA compliance strategies. Cloud computing is the delivery of shared resources, software, and information to computers and other devices as a metered service. This technology has a promising role in the sharing of patient medical information and appears to be particularly suited for application in radiology, given the field's inherent need for storage and access to large amounts of data. The radiology cloud has significant strengths, such as providing centralized storage and access, reducing unnecessary repeat radiologic studies, and potentially allowing radiologic second opinions more easily. There are significant cost advantages to cloud computing because of a decreased need for infrastructure and equipment by the institution. Private clouds may be used to ensure secure storage of data and compliance with HIPAA. In choosing a cloud service, there are important aspects, such as disaster recovery plans, uptime, and security audits, that must be considered. Given that the field of radiology has become almost exclusively digital in recent years, the future of secure storage and easy access to imaging studies lies within cloud computing technology.

  8. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Park, Man-Jin; Moon, Dae Won

    2012-01-01

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m 2 SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  9. Brightness enhancement of plasma ion source by utilizing anode spot for nano applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yeong-Shin; Lee, Yuna; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yoon-Jae [Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Man-Jin [Research Institute of Nano Manufacturing System, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Won [Nanobio Fusion Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Anode spots are known as additional discharges on positively biased electrode immersed in plasmas. The anode spot plasma ion source (ASPIS) has been investigated as a high brightness ion source for nano applications such as focused ion beam (FIB) and nano medium energy ion scattering (nano-MEIS). The generation of anode spot is found to enhance brightness of ion beam since the anode spot increases plasma density near the extraction aperture. Brightness of the ASPIS has been estimated from measurement of emittance for total ion beam extracted through sub-mm aperture. The ASPIS is installed to the FIB system. Currents and diameters of the focused beams with/without anode spot are measured and compared. As the anode spot is turned on, the enhancement of beam current is observed at fixed diameter of the focused ion beam. Consequently, the brightness of the focused ion beam is enhanced as well. For argon ion beam, the maximum normalized brightness of 12 300 A/m{sup 2} SrV is acquired. The ASPIS is applied to nano-MEIS as well. The ASPIS is found to increase the beam current density and the power efficiency of the ion source for nano-MEIS. From the present study, it is shown that the ASPIS can enhance the performance of devices for nano applications.

  10. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  11. Utilization and application of wet potato processing coproducts for finishing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M L

    2010-04-01

    Wet coproducts fed to beef cattle include processing coproducts of the fruit, vegetable, juice, and brewing industries. Considerations for their utilization in beef cattle diets include quantity available, feeding value, quality of animal products produced, economics (e.g., transportation of water), storage and preservation, consumer perception, nuisance concerns, contaminants, and interactions with other diet ingredients. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) coproducts from processing for frozen food products may be quantitatively most important because the 11.3 million t of potatoes (fresh weight) processed in the United States and Canada in 2008 resulted in an estimated 4.3 million t (as-is basis) of coproduct. Chemical composition and feeding value of potato coproducts depends on the coproduct type. The names of coproducts vary among potato processors and some processors combine the different coproducts into one product commonly called slurry. The 4 main potato coproducts are 1) potato peels; 2) screen solids (small potatoes and pieces); 3) fried product (fries, hash browns, batter, crumbles); and 4) material from the water recovery systems (oxidation ditch, belt solids, filter cake). The coproducts, except the fried products, ensile rapidly, reaching pH 5 in 7 d or less. Dry matter content varies from 10 to 30% and on a DM basis varies in CP (5 to 27%), starch (3 to 56%), NDF (4 to 41%), and ether extract (3 to 37%) content among potato coproducts. Type of coproduct and frying greatly affect the energy value (0.6 to 1.6 Mcal of NE(g)/kg of DM). Composition, quality, and shelf life of beef was not affected by potato coproduct feeding in contrast to perceptions of some purveyors and chefs. Potato coproducts are quantitatively important energy sources in beef cattle diets, which, in turn, solve a potentially massive disposal problem for the food processing industry.

  12. Comparing architectural solutions of IPT application SDKs utilizing H.323 and SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinarkaus, Anja; Korhonen, Jani; Ohtonen, Timo; Kilpelanaho, Vesa; Koskinen, Esa; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents two approaches to efficient service development for Internet Telephony. In first approach we consider services ranging from core call signaling features and media control as stated in ITU-T's H.323 to end user services that supports user interaction. The second approach supports IETF's SIP protocol. We compare these from differing architectural perspectives, economy of network and terminal development, and propose efficient architecture models for both protocols. In their design, the main criteria were component independence, lightweight operation and portability in heterogeneous end-to-end environments. In proposed architecture, the vertical division of call signaling and streaming media control logic allows for using the components either individually or combined, depending on the level of functionality required by an application.

  13. Effective utilization of agro-waste by application of CMC dry-gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Fumio

    2008-01-01

    Radiation crosslinking, graft polymerization and degradation are useful technologies to improve polymer materials. Processability of radial tires and heat resistance of wire/cable is improved by crosslinking technology. Polysaccharides such as starch/cellulose of natural polymers and their derivatives are typical degradable polymers. Molecular weight of polysaccharides was remarkably reduced at lower dose, 50 kGy. To expand application field of polysaccharides, it is essential to obtain crosslinking structure. It was found that polysaccharide derivatives such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan undergo crosslinking at past-like condition and form hydrogels. Concentration of past-like condition to induce crosslinking should be more than 10%. High molecular weight (Mw) and high degree of substitution (DS) is preferable for crosslinking of polysaccharide derivatives. In this paper, treatment of agro waste and improvement of Japanese traditional paper by addition of CMC dry gel is reported. (author)

  14. Prospects and strategy for large scale utility applications of photovoltaic power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.; Vigotti, R.; Lysen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews the status and prospects of photovoltaic power systems and the R and D trends (silicon performances, thin films, balance of systems components), and describes the market diffusion strategy for the application of PV systems: at the short and medium term level, isolated systems for rural electricity supply in IEA member countries and decentralized energy supply (remote users and village power) in developing countries; at the medium and long term level, decentralized building integration in urban and rural areas, power stations for peak power and local grid support. The objectives of the IEA collaboration programme launched among 18 industrialized countries are summarized, with particular reference to technology transfer to developing countries. 4 figs

  15. Utilizing HyspIRI Prototype Data for Geological Exploration Applications: A Southern California Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Calvin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the value of the proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI instrument for geological mapping applications. HyspIRI-like data were collected as part of the HyspIRI airborne campaign that covered large regions of California, USA, over multiple seasons. This work focused on a Southern California area, which encompasses Imperial Valley, the Salton Sea, the Orocopia Mountains, the Chocolate Mountains, and a variety of interesting geological phenomena including fumarole fields and sand dunes. We have mapped hydrothermal alteration, lithology and thermal anomalies, demonstrating the value of this type of data for future geologic exploration activities. We believe HyspIRI will be an important instrument for exploration geologists as data may be quickly manipulated and used for remote mapping of hydrothermal alteration minerals, lithology and temperature anomalies.

  16. Effect of different nitrogen application types on nitrogen utilization efficiency and fate of fertilizer for sugacane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Jianfeng; Wei Dongping; Liu Huanyu; Chen Chaojun; Lan Libin; Liang He

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted with "1"5N-labeled urea 5 g/pot (equal to 450 kg · hm"-"2) total nitrogen by three kinds of treatments of disposable bottom application nitrogen before sowing (T1), 50% nitrogen before sowing and 50% nitrogrn during tillering stage (T2), and 30% nitrogen before sowing, 30% nitrogen during tillering stage and 40% nitrogen applied during elongation stage (T3) to investigate the use efficiency and fate of fertilizer nitrogen using the sugarcane cultivar ROC22. Results showed that almost 18% ∼ 29% of total N uptake by sugarcane was supplied by fertilizer, and 71% ∼ 82% N derived from soil and seed-stem. Nitrogen use efficiency ranged from 21.0% to 34.52%, with "1"5N-fertilizer residue of 37.61% ∼ 44.13%, and "1"5N-fertilizer loss of 21.35% ∼ 41.39% among three treatments. Under the three levels of nitrogen application, residual was "1"5N-fertilizer was mainly distributed in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil. The uptake of nitrogen and the proportion of total N from fertilizer in sugarcane plant, the yield of stalk and sugar after the nitrogen applied, and the use efficiency and residue ratio of "1"5N-fertilizer increased significantly over time, while loss rate of "1"5N-fertilizer decreased significantly with a slight decline trend of nitrogen distribution and sucrose accumulation in stalk. The results also indicated that after the nitrogen applied the amounts "1"5N-fertilizer residue in 0 ∼ 20 cm top soil showed a rising trend, but dropped in 20 ∼ 40 cm soil profile. From the viewpoints of economic benefit and ecological benefit, the nitrogen fertilizer applied of T3 could be optimal treatment. (authors)

  17. Multifunctional Nanomaterials Utilizing Hybridization Chain Reaction for Molecular Diagnostics and Bioanalytical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Md. Muhit

    DNA nanotechnology has shown great promise in molecular diagnostic, bioanalytical and biomedical applications. The great challenge of detecting target analytes, biomarkers and small molecules, in molecular diagnostics is low yield sensitivity. To address this challenge, different nanomaterials have been used for a long time and to date there is no such cost-effective bioanalytical technique which can detect these target biomarkers (DNA, RNA, circulating DNA/miRNA) or environmental heavy metal ions (Hg2+ and Ag+) in a cost-effective and efficient manner. Herein, we initially discuss two possible bioanalytical detection methods- a) colorimetric and b) fluorometric assays which are very popular nowadays due to their distinctive spectroscopic properties. Finally, we report the promising colorimetric assay using a novel DNA based amplification strategy know as hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for potential application in the visual detection of low copies of biomarkers (miRNAs as little as 20 femtomole in an RNA pool and cell extracts in seven different combinations and Ebola virus DNA as low as 400 attomoles in liquid biopsy mimics in sixteen different combinations), environmental and biological heavy metal ions (mercury and silver concentrations as low as 10 pM in water, soil and urine samples) and also successfully applied to a molecular logic gate operation to distinguish OR and AND logic gates. No results showed any false-positive or false-negative information. On the other hand, we also discuss the future possibilities of HCR amplification technology, which is very promising for fluorometric bioanalysis. The HCR based nanoprobe technology has numerous remarkable advantages over other methods. It is re-programmable, simple, inexpensive, easy to assemble and operate and can be performed with visual and spectroscopic read-outs upon recognition of the target analytes. This rapid, specific and sensitive approach for biomarkers and heavy metal ion detection generates

  18. Experimental sea slicks: Their practical applications and utilization for basic studies of air-sea interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Garrett, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Practical applications of organic surface films added to the sea surface date back to ancient times. Aristotle, Plutarch, and Pliny the Elder describe the seaman's practice of calming waves in a storm by pouring oil onto the sea [Scott, 1977]. It was also noted that divers released oil beneath the water surface so that it could rise and spread over the sea surface, thereby suppressing the irritating flicker associated with the passage of light through a rippled surface. From a scientific point of view, Benjamin Franklin was the first to perform experiments with oils on natural waters. His experiment with a `teaspoonful of oil' on Clapham pond in 1773 inspired many investigators to consider sea surface phenomena or to conduct experiments with oil films. This early research has been reviewed by Giles [1969], Giles and Forrester [1970], and Scott [1977]. Franklin's studies with experimental slicks can be regarded as the beginning of surface film chemistry. His speculations on the wave damping influence of oil induced him to perform the first qualitative experiment with artificial sea slicks at Portsmouth (England) in October of 1773. Although the sea was calmed and very few white caps appeared in the oil-covered area, the swell continued through the oiled area to Franklin's great disappointment.

  19. Implementation of Naive Bayes Classifier Algorithm to Evaluation in Utilizing Online Hotel Tax Reporting Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dimas Adityo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current implementation of tax reporting regional Pasuruan hotels have used online (Web-based, with the aim of reporting systems can run effectively and efficiently in receiving the financial statements especially from taxpayer property. Pasuruan as one small town quite rapidly in East Java, have implemented role models online tax filing system starting in 2015, with the amount of 6 hotels, there are several classes of hotels ranging from the budget class up to class three stars. After the application of the system running for 18 months (2015-2016, from existing data, conducted research on the analysis of the level of compliance of taxpayers reporting incomes in a hotel. On the research was designed and built a system to evaluate the level of compliance with the performance from the taxpayer (WP in the 2nd year (2016 and are classified in categories (1 the taxpayer (WP very obedient (ST, (2 the taxpayer (WP is quite obedient (CT, (3 Taxpayers (WP less obedient (KT. Input data will be processed using the technique of data mining algorithms Naive Bayes Classifier (NBC to form the table of probability as a basis for the process of classification levels of taxpayer compliance. Based on the results of the measurement, the test results show with an accuracy of 50% i.e. 3 taxpayers is the very obedient (ST to pay taxes. Then from the classification, the study could be made of recommendation solutions to guide the taxpayer in reporting revenues well and true.

  20. Case-study application of venture analysis: the integrated energy utility. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, E; Gordon, T J; King, R; Kropp, F G; Shuchman, H L; Stover, J; Hausz, W; Meyer, C

    1978-11-01

    Application of venture analysis would, at a minimum, need to address issues involving careful definition of the product/service being considered; market needs that the product will satisfy; investment/manufacturing costs; minimum selling price needed to achieve desired ROI or other financial measure; market potential at relevant prices; potential for competitors to obsolete the product before investment is recovered; assessment of companies' resources and capabilities to supply the product. There is clearly no single method for performing every venture analysis, because the economic and structural environment associated with each industry varies widely. These and other factors produce differences in cost structure, marketing organizations, and nature of products which dictate that an appropriate method of venture analysis must be tailored to each industry. The initial chapter of the report presents some brief remarks concerning the important concepts that all venture analyses must consider and then describes in detail the method used for the venture analyzed in this report. The case study addresses IEUS for commercialization. The type of IEUS investigated supplies electricity and thermal energy; the thermal energy distributed in the form of high-temperature water, i.e., water from at least 90/sup 0/C upwards to 200/sup 0/C. (MCW)

  1. The backup is active in Alzheimer's disease: a hypothesis from problem theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Problem theory distinguishes between six general problems of everyday life, which people work through in turn during childhood, learning to switch between them. One of them requires the protection of a cut-out and an override. People who develop Alzheimer's disease (AD), and apolipoprotein allele epsilon 4 carriers, are preoccupied with this problem, or readily switch back to it. It is the freedom problem, of raising hope or confidence of freedom or power to control. Here people try to raise hope of success with any task on which attention happens to rest. This indiscriminateness means that there is no basis for giving up on a task, or for avoiding dangerous environments. Thus the cut-out is needed when someone becomes stuck on a mental task and the override is needed so as to help in avoiding danger. Activity relevant to the freedom problem is confined to the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere operates the cut-out and override. In providing these two forms of protection the right hemisphere can be said to act as a backup. Accordingly EEG, metabolism, and atrophy findings indicate that both cut-out and override are active in mild clinical impairment, especially among patients who later develop AD. The pattern of atrophy of AD matches what would be expected from disuse caused by an overactive cut-out followed by an overactive override. A parallel loss of testosterone might contribute to the weakening of resistance to infections leading to autoimmune effects. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Piloted Simulation Tests of Propulsion Control as Backup to Loss of Primary Flight Controls for a B747-400 Jet Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose

    1997-01-01

    Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.

  3. Changing the paradigm: a radiation protection model for utilizing active systems in homeland defense applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, Nolan E.; Shannon, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The emerging threat from non-state actors and terrorist organizations openly asserting the use of weapons of mass destruction has led to an increased global emphasis on homeland defense and national security. The threat is real and thus many states are spending large amounts of resources to combat the problem. Issues such as unsecured radioactive sources, illicit movement of nuclear material, the use of radioactive sources in the medical and industrial sectors are just a few of the areas being examined. Countering these threats involves a major paradigm shift in the manner in which radiation is viewed. Radiation-based technologies are playing a key role in this emerging area from the development of new passive detection modalities to the use of active systems for detecting illicit materials. The screening of humans, baggage and cargo present overwhelming challenges. With these developments comes the concern from both governmental agencies and the public as to the safety of such systems. This paper will explore one such modality; the employment of radiation-based illicit material detection systems. The authors will present a review of the international (IAEA) and US regulatory and statutory documents as well as recommendations from scientific bodies such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. This review coupled with sound scientific data are used to develop a proposed framework for the future employment of active systems for homeland defense applications. Issues considered include the ability to effectively measure and/or predict dose, is the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) concept appropriate?, how much dose should be allowed relative to national security?, where does the linear-no-threshold hypothesis fit in? The authors use this analysis to develop a model which examines the trade-offs and cost-benefits in using the proposed systems. The major findings of

  4. A theoretical investigation of spectra utilization for a CMOS based indirect detector for dual energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalyvas, N; Michail, C; Valais, I; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G; Martini, N; Koukou, V; Sotiropoulou, P

    2015-01-01

    Dual Energy imaging is a promising method for visualizing masses and microcalcifications in digital mammography. Currently commercially available detectors may be suitable for dual energy mammographic applications. The scope of this work was to theoretically examine the performance of the Radeye CMOS digital indirect detector under three low- and high-energy spectral pairs. The detector was modeled through the linear system theory. The pixel size was equal to 22.5μm and the phosphor material of the detector was a 33.9 mg/cm 2 Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor screen. The examined spectral pairs were (i) a 40kV W/Ag (0.01cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations, (ii) a 40kV W/Cd (0.013cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations and (iii) a 40kV W/Pd (0.008cm) and a 70kV W/Cu (0.1cm) target/filter combinations. For each combination the Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE), showing the signal to noise ratio transfer, the detector optical gain (DOG), showing the sensitivity of the detector and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the detector output signal were calculated. The second combination exhibited slightly higher DOG (326 photons per X-ray) and lower CV (0.755%) values. In terms of electron output from the RadEye CMOS, the first two combinations demonstrated comparable DQE values; however the second combination provided an increase of 6.5% in the electron output. (paper)

  5. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  6. Application of laser-based profilometry to tubing in power generating utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, James L.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past several years lasers have been employed in an ever widening number of applications in an incredibly diverse set of markets. In the area of nondestructive testing, however, laser-based systems have only recently made inroads into the commercial markets. About ten years ago QUEST Integrated, Inc., began working with the U.S. Navy to adapt the principal of laser triangulation to solve a serious maintenance related problem. The internal surfaces of marine boiler tubes were experiencing pitting and corrosion which had resulted in catastrophic shipboard failures. At that time, conventional visual methods only allowed operators to inspect the first eighteen inches of the tube using a rigid borescope. If any pits were located, a mechanical stylus mechanism was used to obtain an approximate depth measurement of the pit. The condition of the balance of the tube was then extrapolated based on this extremely limited amount of information. Often the worst pitting was found in the bends of the tube, which could not be inspected by the visual method. Finally, a catastrophic boiler failure on an aircraft carrier resulted in the initiation of a search by the U.S. Navy for a better solution. Quest was contracted to develop an articulated probe which could negotiate the full length of a boiler tube with multiple bends, and generate a complete digital map of the inside surface. A key requirement of this probe would be rapid and quantitative measurement of internal features such as ID pits and corrosion. In 1987 QUEST delivered the first laser- optic tube inspection system to the U.S. Navy for use in marine boiler tubes. The Laser Optic Tube Inspection System (LOTISTM) was immediately put to use and paid for itself many times over in reduced maintenance costs. Over the next six years several generations of LOTIS were developed for the U.S. Navy, each one providing more capabilities, improved inspection speeds, and more user friendly operator interface. Today, LOTIS is

  7. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  8. A novel Silicon Photomultiplier with bulk integrated quench resistors: utilization in optical detection and tracking applications for particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovics, Stefan, E-mail: stp@hll.mpg.de [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Andricek, Ladislav [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Diehl, Inge; Hansen, Karsten [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Jendrysik, Christian [Infineon Technologies AG, Am Campeon 1-12, D-85579 Neubiberg (Germany); Krueger, Katja [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Lehmann, Raik; Ninkovic, Jelena [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Reckleben, Christian [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Richter, Rainer; Schaller, Gerhard; Schopper, Florian [Halbleiterlabor der Max-Planck Gesellschaft, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Sefkow, Felix [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a promising candidate for replacing conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in many applications, thanks to ongoing developments and advances in their technology. Conventional SiPMs are generally an array of avalanche photo diodes, operated in Geiger mode and read out in parallel, thus leading to the necessity of a high ohmic quenching resistor. This resistor enables passive quenching and is usually located on top of the array, limiting the fill factor of the device. In this paper, a novel detector concept with a bulk integrated quenching resistor will be recapped. In addition, due to other advantages of this novel detector design, a new concept, in which these devices will be utilized as tracking detectors for particle physics applications will be introduced, as well as first simulation studies and experimental measurements of this new approach. - Highlights: • A novel SiPM concept with bulk integrated quenching resistor is shown. • First prototypes of these SiPMs as tracking detectors are proposed. • Simulations of the Geiger efficiency suggest feasible operations at low overbias. • First measurements of the electron detection efficiency show promising results. • Measurements are in good agreement with the simulations.

  9. Feasibility and Acceptability of Utilizing a Smartphone Based Application to Monitor Outpatient Discharge Instruction Compliance in Cardiac Disease Patients around Discharge from Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee M. Layton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing a smartphone based application to monitor compliance in patients with cardiac disease around discharge. For 60 days after discharge, patients’ medication compliance, physical activity, follow-up care, symptoms, and reading of education material were monitored daily with the application. 16 patients were enrolled in the study (12 males, 4 females, age 55 ± 18 years during their hospital stay. Five participants were rehospitalized during the study and did not use the application once discharged. Seven participants completed 1–30 days and four patients completed >31 days. For those 11 patients, medication reminders were utilized 37% (1–30-day group and 53% (>31-day group of the time, education material was read 44% (1–30 and 53% (>31 of the time, and physical activity was reported 25% (1–30 and 42% (>31 of the time. Findings demonstrated that patients with stable health utilized the application, even if only minimally. Patients with decreased breath sounds by physical exam and who reported their health as fair to poor on the day of discharge were less likely to utilize the application. Acceptability of the application to report health status varied among the stable patients.

  10. 2010 Manufacturing Readiness Assessment Update to the 2008 Report for Fuel Cell Stacks and Systems for the Backup Power and Materials Handling Equipment Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.; Ulsh, M.

    2012-08-01

    In 2008, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted a manufacturing readiness assessment (MRA) of fuel cell systems and fuel cell stacks for back-up power and material handling applications (MHE). To facilitate the MRA, manufacturing readiness levels (MRL) were defined that were based on the Technology Readiness Levels previously established by the US Department of Energy (DOE). NREL assessed the extensive existing hierarchy of MRLs developed by Department of Defense (DoD) and other Federal entities, and developed a MRL scale adapted to the needs of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program (FCTP) and to the status of the fuel cell industry. The MRL ranking of a fuel cell manufacturing facility increases as the manufacturing capability transitions from laboratory prototype development through Low Rate Initial Production to Full Rate Production. DOE can use MRLs to address the economic and institutional risks associated with a ramp-up in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell production. In 2010, NREL updated this assessment, including additional manufacturers, an assessment of market developments since the original report, and a comparison of MRLs between 2008 and 2010.

  11. A right hemisphere safety backup at work: hypotheses for deep hypnosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, and dissociation identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Problem theory points to an a priori relation between six key problems of living, to which people have adapted through evolution. Children are guided through the problems one by one, learning to switch between them automatically and unawares. The first problem of raising hope of certainty (about the environment), is dealt with in the right hemisphere (RH). The second of raising hope of freedom (or power to control), is dealt with in the left hemisphere (LH). Here adventurousness and ignoring the goodness of outcomes potentially create recklessness. When uncertainty rises the RH activates a backup with an override that substitutes immobility, takes over sensory inputs, but allows obedience to parental commands, and a cut-out that stops new work on the freedom problem. Support for the use of the backup by infants is found in the immobility that precedes the crying in strange conditions, and in childhood EEGs. The hypothesis that the backup is active in deep hypnosis imposes accord on findings that appear contradictory. For example it accounts for why observations during deep hypnosis emphasize the activity of the RH, but observations of responsive people not under hypnosis emphasize the activity of the LH. The hypothesis that the backup is active in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is supported by (a) fMRI observations that could reflect the cut-out, in that part of the precuneus has low metabolism, (b) the recall of motionlessness at the time of the trauma, (c) an argument that playing dead as a defence against predators is illogical, (d) the ease of hypnosis. With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state where childhood traumas are re-experienced. Support for the cut-out affecting the trauma identity state comes from suppression of part of the precuneus and other parts of the parietal lobe when the trauma identity state is salient and a general script about a

  12. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  13. Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

  14. Phosphorus(V)-corrole: synthesis, spectroscopic properties, theoretical calculations, and potential utility for in vivo applications in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xu; Mack, John; Zheng, Li-Min; Shen, Zhen; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2014-03-17

    The synthesis and properties of phosphorus(V) 5,10,15-tris(4-methoxycarbonylphenyl)corrole (1) have been investigated, and its potential utility for bioimaging applications in living cells has been explored. As would normally be anticipated for corrole complexes, the intensity of the Q(0,0) bands of 1 is greater than those of comparable phosphorus(V) tetraphenylporphyrins, but the ΦF values (0.25 for 1) are found to be comparable. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of the complex was carried out by comparing electronic absorption and MCD spectral data to the results of TD-DFT calculations. The meso-aryl substituents, which enhance the lipophilicity of 1 and hence result in its localization in intracellular membranes during HeLa cell experiments, are predicted to result in a narrowing of the HOMO-LUMO gap and hence a red shift of the Q(0,0) bands toward the optical window in biological tissues.

  15. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR A RADICALLY SMALLER, HIGHLY ADAPTIVE AND APPLICATION-FLEXIBLE MINING MACHINE FOR UTILITY AND DEVELOPMENT WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew H. Stern

    2004-12-20

    The aim of this research project was to develop a preliminary ''conceptual design'' for a radically smaller, highly adaptive and application-flexible underground coal mining machine, for performing non-production utility work and/or also undertake limited production mining for the recovery of reserves that would otherwise be lost. Whereas historically, mining philosophies have reflected a shift to increasing larger mechanized systems [such as the continuous miner (CM)], specific mining operations that do not benefit from the economy of the large mining equipment are often ignored or addressed with significant inefficiencies. Developing this prototype concept will create a new class of equipment that can provide opportunities to re-think the very structure of the mining system across a broad range of possibilities, not able to be met by existing machinery. The approach involved pooling the collective input from mining professionals, using a structured listing of desired inputs in the form of a questionnaire, which was used to define the range of desired design specifications. From these inputs, a conceptual specification was blended, by the author, to embody the general concurrence of mission concepts for this machine.

  16. Utilization of Solar Dynamics Observatory space weather digital image data for comparative analysis with application to Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekoyan, V.; Dehipawala, S.; Liu, Ernest; Tulsee, Vivek; Armendariz, R.; Tremberger, G.; Holden, T.; Marchese, P.; Cheung, T.

    2012-10-01

    Digital solar image data is available to users with access to standard, mass-market software. Many scientific projects utilize the Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) format, which requires specialized software typically used in astrophysical research. Data in the FITS format includes photometric and spatial calibration information, which may not be useful to researchers working with self-calibrated, comparative approaches. This project examines the advantages of using mass-market software with readily downloadable image data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory for comparative analysis over with the use of specialized software capable of reading data in the FITS format. Comparative analyses of brightness statistics that describe the solar disk in the study of magnetic energy using algorithms included in mass-market software have been shown to give results similar to analyses using FITS data. The entanglement of magnetic energy associated with solar eruptions, as well as the development of such eruptions, has been characterized successfully using mass-market software. The proposed algorithm would help to establish a publicly accessible, computing network that could assist in exploratory studies of all FITS data. The advances in computer, cell phone and tablet technology could incorporate such an approach readily for the enhancement of high school and first-year college space weather education on a global scale. Application to ground based data such as that contained in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey is discussed.

  17. An investigation into the application of modern heuristic optimisation techniques to problems in power and processing utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahal, Keshav Prasad

    2000-01-01

    The work contained in this thesis demonstrates that there is a significant requirement for the development and application of new optimisation techniques for solving industrial scheduling problems, in order to achieve a better schedule with significant economic and operational impact. An investigation of how modern heuristic approaches, such as genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing (SA), fuzzy logic and hybrids of these techniques, may be developed, designed and implemented appropriately for solving short term and long term NP-hard scheduling problems that exist in electric power utilities and process facilities. GA and SA based methods are developed for generator maintenance scheduling using a novel integer encoding and appropriate GA and SA operators. Three hybrid approaches (an inoculated GA, a GA/SA and a GA with fuzzy logic) are proposed in order to improve the solution performance, and to take advantage of any flexibilities inherent in the problem. Five different GA-based approaches are investigated for solving the generation scheduling problem. Of those, a knowledge-based hybrid GA approach achieves better solutions in a shorter computational time. This approach integrates problem specific knowledge, heuristic dispatch calculation and linear programming within the GA-framework. The application of a GA-based methodology is proposed for the scheduling of storage tanks of a water treatment facility. The proposed approach is an integration of a GA and a heuristic rule-base. The GA string considers the tank allocation problem, and the heuristic approach solves the rate determination problems within the framework of the GA. For optimising the schedule of operations of a bulk handling port facility, a generic modelling tool is developed characterising the operational and maintenance activities of the facility. A GA-based approach is integrated with the simulation software for optimising the scheduling of operations of the facility. Each of these approaches is

  18. A portable backup power supply to assure extended decay heat removal during natural phenomena-induced station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, L.D.; Merryman, L.D.; Sallee, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a light water cooled and moderated flux-trap type research reactor located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Coolant circulation following reactor shutdown is provided by the primary coolant pumps. DC-powered pony motors drive these pumps at a reduced flow rate following shutdown of the normal ac-powered motors. Forced circulation decay heat removal is required for several hours to preclude core damage following shutdown. Recent analyses identified a potential vulnerability due to a natural phenomena-induced station blackout. Neither the offsire power supply nor the onsite emergency diesel generators are designed to withstand the effects of seismic events or tornadoes. It could not be assured that the capacity of the dedicated batteries provided as a backup power supply for the primary coolant pump pony motors is adequate to provide forced circulation cooling for the required time following such events. A portable backup power supply added to the plant to address this potential vulnerability is described

  19. Power backup Density based Clustering Algorithm for Maximizing Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagh, Sanjeev; Prasad, Ramjee

    2014-01-01

    WSNs consists several nodes spread over experimental fields for specific application temporarily. The spatially distributed sensor nodes sense and gather the information for intended parameters like temperature, sound, vibrations, etc for the particular application. In this paper, we evaluate the...

  20. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In the conceptual design task, several feasible wind generator systems (WGS) configurations were evaluated, and the concept offering the lowest energy cost potential and minimum technical risk for utility applications was selected. In the optimization task, the selected concept was optimized utilizing a parametric computer program prepared for this purpose. In the preliminary design task, the optimized selected concept was designed and analyzed in detail. The utility requirements evaluation task examined the economic, operational, and institutional factors affecting the WGS in a utility environment, and provided additional guidance for the preliminary design effort. Results of the conceptual design task indicated that a rotor operating at constant speed, driving an AC generator through a gear transmission is the most cost effective WGS configuration. The optimization task results led to the selection of a 500 kW rating for the low power WGS and a 1500 kW rating for the high power WGS.

  1. Application opportunities of systems of control and monitoring for engineering processes fading by JSC 'Instrumental plant 'Tenzor', for utilization and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitsky, V.J.; Esaulkov, R.O.; Maslova, M.V.; Kujil, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Use of unique automated technological process control systems (ATPCS) on objects of storage of radiation hazardous and nuclear materials is offered. The application opportunity of diagnostic complex consisting of specialized software 'Cruise' and infra-red detection system for control and diagnostics of utilization of nuclear waste products in subcritical thermonuclear equipment is considered

  2. Utilization of smart phones related medical applications among medical students at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayedalamin, Zaid; Alshuaibi, Abdulaziz; Almutairi, Osama; Baghaffar, Mariam; Jameel, Tahir; Baig, Mukhtiar

    The present study explored the utility, attitude, and trends regarding Smartphone related Medical Applications (Apps) among medical students of King Abdulaziz University (KAU) Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (SA) and their perceptions of the impact of Medical Apps in their training activities. This survey was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine, Jeddah, and Rabigh campuses, KAU, Jeddah, SA. All participants were medical students of 2nd to 6th year. The data was collected by using an anonymous questionnaire regarding the perception of medical students about Medical Apps on the smart devices and the purpose of installation of the Apps. Additionally examined was the use of different Medical Apps by the students to investigate the impact of Medical Apps on the clinical training/practice. Data was analyzed on SPSS 21. The opinion of 330/460 medical students from all academic years was included in the study with a response rate of 72%. There were 170 (51.5%) males and 160 (48.5%) females with a mean age of 21.26±1.86 years. Almost all participating students 320 (97%) were well aware of Medical Apps for smart devices and 89.1% had installed different applications on their smart devices. The main usage was for either revision of courses (62.4%) or for looking up of medical information (67.3%), followed by preparing for a presentation (34.5%) and getting the medical news (32.1%). Regarding the impact of Medical Apps, most of the students considered these helpful in clinical decision-making, assisting in differential diagnosis, allowing faster access to Evidence-Based Medical practice, saving time and others. The practical use of these Apps was found to be minimal in medical students. Around 73% were occasional users of Medical Apps, and only 27% were using Medical Apps at least once a day. The regular use of Medical Apps on mobile devices is not common among medical students of KAU. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  3. Uses of communication satellites in water utility operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, W. S.

    This paper proposes a system to serve the communications needs of the operating side of a water utility and estimates the requirements and capabilities of the equipment needed. The system requires the shared use of a satellite transponder with 100% backup. Messages consist of data packets containing data and control information, plus voice transmission. Satellite communication may have a price advantage in some instances over wire line or VHF radio and have greater survivability in case of a natural disaster. Water and other utilities represent a significant market for low cost mass produced satellite earth terminals.

  4. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance.

  5. A Novel Wide-Area Backup Protection Based on Fault Component Current Distribution and Improved Evidence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Kong, Xiangping; Yin, Xianggen; Yang, Zengli; Wang, Lijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the existing wide-area backup protection (WABP) algorithms, the paper proposes a novel WABP algorithm based on the distribution characteristics of fault component current and improved Dempster/Shafer (D-S) evidence theory. When a fault occurs, slave substations transmit to master station the amplitudes of fault component currents of transmission lines which are the closest to fault element. Then master substation identifies suspicious faulty lines according to the distribution characteristics of fault component current. After that, the master substation will identify the actual faulty line with improved D-S evidence theory based on the action states of traditional protections and direction components of these suspicious faulty lines. The simulation examples based on IEEE 10-generator-39-bus system show that the proposed WABP algorithm has an excellent performance. The algorithm has low requirement of sampling synchronization, small wide-area communication flow, and high fault tolerance. PMID:25050399

  6. PVMaT - OMNION Series 3000: Photovoltaic Power Conversion System for Utility Interconnected Application; Annual Report, May 1997 - February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.

    2000-09-13

    This report details the work performed which was geared towards making advancements in three major areas (cost, reliability and performance) of three-phase, utility interconnected and photovoltaic power conversion.

  7. Effect of depth of application of 15N tagged urea on its utilization efficiency by irrigated rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, M.M.; Mahapatra, P.; Mohanty, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The present communication reports the effect of depth of urea placement on increasing its utilization efficiency under pot culture condition in the field environment in the dry season. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

    2010-07-19

    The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient.

  9. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  10. Interpretation of Ersec tests on the backup cooling of pressurized water reactors, by using the FLIRA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviglio, Christiane

    1977-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the most severe accident, or reference accident, which might occur in nuclear reactors, a clean break of a cold branch of the primary circuit, which may put the integrity of barriers against radioactive products dispersion outside of the reactor into question again. More particularly, the thesis addresses the study of the backup cooling system, and the fact that fluid flow during re-flooding must be predicted, and that heat exchange coefficients must be known in order to assess the evolution of sheath temperatures. The research comprised an experimental part which aimed at reproducing as faithfully as possible the re-flooding sequence on a tube with internal flow or on a cluster for a better core simulation. These are the ERSEC tests which are to be interpreted. It also comprised a theoretical part based on the use of computational codes which simulate the different phases of the accident and of backup fluid injection. These codes are based on physical models which describe two-phase flows and heat exchanges, and are adjusted to experimental results. The FLIRA code is used which simulates the re-flooding of a reactor duct, and determines the evolution of different values (pressure, temperatures, flow rate, and so on) during the re-flooding process. Thus, the author presents the reference accident, reports studies performed in the USA and in France (ERSEC tests), indicates the various flow regimes and describes heat exchange mechanisms during re-flooding, presents ERSEC test results, presents the FLIRA code, reports the elaboration of governing equations, indicates the various models introduced in the FLIRA code, and describes the numerical processing of equations. He finally gives a first interpretation of ERSEC tests based on the use of the FLIRA code

  11. Telemedicine in general neurology: use of audiovisual consultation for on call back-up service in an acute care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Frank; Awadallah, Mohammed; Alhalabi, Awed; Körber, Barbara; Lang, Reinhard; Scibor, Mateusz; Handschu, René

    2018-04-01

    While telemedicine is in expanding use in acute stroke care, little is known about its use in general neurology, especially in acute care. We sought to investigate the feasibility and possible effects of a telemedicine device within the neurological back-up service of an acute care hospital. In a 450 bed academic teaching hospital an experienced neurologist (EN) is on call to support the junior doctor at the hospital. Support was possible whether by standard telephone advice (TA) or by audiovisual consultations (AVC). In AVC the expert used a mobile telemedicine device and so he could establish audiovisual contact from his home to the emergency room and examine newly admitted patients. Technical and patient details including timing and diagnosis were recorded. Video and audio quality as well as impact of AVC on diagnosis was rated by the EN. Out of about 1200 cases in off peak times, during the study period, 164 AVC including remote video examination were done (13.6%). Also 48 cases were documented by pure TA. Video quality was rated to a medium of 1.7, audio quality to 2.1. In 36 cases the audiovisual consultation was influenced by technical issues leading to cessation of AVC in 8 cases. Duration of teleconsultation was 17.3 min in AVC compared to 8.7 min for TA. The consultation diagnosis in AVC was confirmed in 74.4% of all cases compared to 57.7% in TA. AVC was rated as a valuable contribution to the diagnostic workup in 74.3% of all cases seen. In about 40% of all cases AVC was not possible due to technical or organizational reasons. Audiovisual consultation seems to be a feasible and useful support in routine neurology back-up service of an acute care hospital. Better mobility of devices and flexibility of service is needed to improve availability and quality of this valuable tool.

  12. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  13. The use of information systems to transform utilities and regulatory commissions: The application of geographic information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirick, D.W.; Montgomery, G.E.; Wagman, D.C.; Spiers, J.

    1995-09-01

    One technology that can assist utilities remain financially viable in competitive markets and help utilities and regulators to better serve the public is information technology. Because geography is an important part of an electric, natural gas, telecommunications, or water utility, computer-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and related Automated Mapping/Facilities Management systems are emerging as core technologies for managing an ever-expanding variety of formerly manual or paper-based tasks. This report focuses on GIS as an example of the types of information systems that can be used by utilities and regulatory commissions. Chapter 2 provides general information about information systems and effects of information on organizations; Chapter 3 explores the conversion of an organization to an information-based one; Chapters 4 and 5 set out GIS as an example of the use of information technologies to transform the operations of utilities and commissions; Chapter 6 describes the use of GIS and other information systems for organizational reengineering efforts; and Chapter 7 examines the regulatory treatment of information systems.

  14. Comparison of circular orbit and Fourier power series ephemeris representations for backup use by the upper atmosphere research satellite onboard computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) is a three-axis stabilized Earth-pointing spacecraft in a low-Earth orbit. The UARS onboard computer (OBC) uses a Fourier Power Series (FPS) ephemeris representation that includes 42 position and 42 velocity coefficients per axis, with position residuals at 10-minute intervals. New coefficients and 32 hours of residuals are uploaded daily. This study evaluated two backup methods that permit the OBC to compute an approximate spacecraft ephemeris in the event that new ephemeris data cannot be uplinked for several days: (1) extending the use of the FPS coefficients previously uplinked, and (2) switching to a simple circular orbit approximation designed and tested (but not implemented) for LANDSAT-D. The FPS method provides greater accuracy during the backup period and does not require additional ground operational procedures for generating and uplinking an additional ephemeris table. The tradeoff is that the high accuracy of the FPS will be degraded slightly by adopting the longer fit period necessary to obtain backup accuracy for an extended period of time. The results for UARS show that extended use of the FPS is superior to the circular orbit approximation for short-term ephemeris backup.

  15. Effects of urea foliar application and of ammonium sulphate and urea applied to the soil on yield and N utilization by beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Victoria, R.L.; Oliveira, J.P.; Boaretto, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen applied to the soil (as ammonium sulphate and urea) and foliar application of urea supplementing or not the soil application, on bean yield and nitrogen utilization are studied in a cerrado soil. Labelled ammonium sulphate is applied at the rate of 20Kg N/ha at seeding or 15 or 25 days after seeding and 40 Kg N/ha at seeding or in two different applications. Labelled urea is applied at the rate of 20kg N/ha at seeding and 40 Kg N/ha splitted. Foliar application is done at 15,22, 29,36 and 45 days after seeding, with 2% urea solution labelled with 10% 15 N. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Project selection problem under uncertainty: An application of utility theory and chance constrained programming to a real case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Hosnavi Atashgah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Selecting from a pool of interdependent projects under certainty, when faced with resource constraints, has been studied well in the literature of project selection problem. After briefly reviewing and discussing popular modeling approaches for dealing with uncertainty, this paper proposes an approach based on chance constrained programming and utility theory for a certain range of problems and under some practical assumptions. Expected Utility Programming, as the proposed modeling approach, will be compared with other well-known methods and its meaningfulness and usefulness will be illustrated via two numerical examples and one real case.

  17. The application of financial options theory to electric utility decision making in integrated resource planning and maintenance shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, F.

    1995-01-01

    Increased competition in wholesale power generation will allow electric utilities to use financial models to improve their decision making. This competition will result in the creation of electricity spot, futures, and forward markets, which will provide necessary information for utility executives to used advance financial tools, such as random walk models and options theory. These models will allow executives to place a value on risk. Once this value is known, executives can determine how best to manage that risk, whether by entering into financial transactions, adjusting their operational and planning decisions, or both

  18. Investigation of solar parabolic trough power plants with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system) using thermic oil and solar salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukelia, T.E.; Mecibah, M.S.; Kumar, B.N.; Reddy, K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic, economic and environmental analyses of concentrating solar power plants assist in identifying an effective and viable configuration. In this paper, a 4E (energy-exergy-environmental-economic) comparative study of 8 different configurations of parabolic trough solar thermal power plants with two different working fluids (Therminol VP-1 -oil and molten solar salt), with and without integrated thermal energy storage or/and backup fuel system is presented. The results of the comparative study indicate relevant differences among the 8 configurations. The molten solar salt configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system exhibits the highest overall energy efficiency (18.48%) compared to other configurations. Whereas, the highest overall exergy efficiency (21.77%), capacity factor (38.20%) and annual energy generation (114 GWh) are found for the oil based configuration with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system. The results indicate that the configurations based on molten salt are better in terms of environmental and economical parameters. The configurations with integrated thermal energy storage and fossil fuel backup system are found to be techno-economical, but on the other hand are less environment friendly. A detailed comparison of these plants after optimization must be performed before drawing a final conclusion about the best configuration to be adopted in parabolic trough solar thermal power plant. - Highlights: • 4E comparative study of 8 configurations of PTSTPP with two different fluids. • Comparison of the configurations with and without integrated TES (thermal energy storage) and FBS (fuel backup system). • The overall energy efficiency of the salt plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The overall exergy efficiency of the oil plant with TES and FBS is the highest. • The salt plants are the best configurations in terms of environ–eco parameters

  19. Validation of the conceptual research utilization scale: an application of the standards for educational and psychological testing in healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a lack of acceptable, reliable, and valid survey instruments to measure conceptual research utilization (CRU). In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of a newly developed scale (the CRU Scale). Methods We used the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing as a validation framework to assess four sources of validity evidence: content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables. A panel of nine international research utilization experts performed a formal content validity assessment. To determine response process validity, we conducted a series of one-on-one scale administration sessions with 10 healthcare aides. Internal structure and relations to other variables validity was examined using CRU Scale response data from a sample of 707 healthcare aides working in 30 urban Canadian nursing homes. Principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine internal structure. Relations to other variables were examined using: (1) bivariate correlations; (2) change in mean values of CRU with increasing levels of other kinds of research utilization; and (3) multivariate linear regression. Results Content validity index scores for the five items ranged from 0.55 to 1.00. The principal components analysis predicted a 5-item 1-factor model. This was inconsistent with the findings from the confirmatory factor analysis, which showed best fit for a 4-item 1-factor model. Bivariate associations between CRU and other kinds of research utilization were statistically significant (p use, and longitudinal work to determine CRU Scale sensitivity to change. PMID:21595888

  20. Modeling Just-in-Time Communication On the Optimal Resource Utilization in Distributed Real-Time Multimedia Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Yang (Ran); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); D. Roubos; F.J. Seinstra; H. Bal

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractThe applications of multimedia content analysis (MMCA) operating in real-time environments must run under extremely strict time constraints. To meet these requirements, large-scale multimedia applications are typically executed on Grid systems consisting of large collections of

  1. Modeling Just-in-Time Communication On the Optimal Resource Utilization in Distributed Real-Time Multimedia Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Yang (Ran); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); D. Roubos; F.J. Seinstra; H. Bal

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe applications of multimedia content analysis (MMCA) operating in real-time environments must run under extremely strict time constraints. To meet these requirements, large-scale multimedia applications are typically executed on Grid systems consisting of large collections of

  2. Customer prime s choice between quality and price of electric service. Denryoku hinshitsu to kakaku ni taisuru juyoka no sentaku. ; Ogata computerter dot user ni okeru back-up dengen kiki sentaku no suryo bunseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Y.; Matsukawa, I.

    1990-03-01

    This study is done for the purpose of numerically analyzing how customers react to make their choice between quality and price, as well as to evaluating the marketability of the new electric service differentiated by quality, on the assumption that electric utility is capable of providing the multi-product of the service with various combinations instead of the conventional single product between price and quality. An analysis was made for the customers like the large-scale computer users those who attach importance to quality. As for the method of the analysis, the choice (the introduction of emergency power source or uninterruptible power system) which have been actually done by the customers for the following two conditions, were used as the model of the analysis: The one was the standard of the requirements for the quality of electric power, of which requirements were composed of the two factors, such as the reliability on power supply and momentary voltage drop; The other was the cost (purchased power price plus investment by consumers for back-up power system) necessary to maintain the quality. Consequently, it was found that in order to heighten the competitiveness for the competition in electricity market, electric utility had to establish their service rate corresponding to the load, as well as that the quality was a important strategic factor for them. 30 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Possibilities for improved practice, decision support for permit applications of ash utilization in constructions; Laett att goera raett, beslutsunderlag foer miljoeproevning av askor i anlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna; Johansson, Mats; Wik, Ola; Erlandsson, Aasa; Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Combustion of solid biofuels, peat and different types of waste in Sweden for the purpose of energy production generates approximately 1.3 million tonnes of residues yearly. These have varying chemical and technical properties, depending on the type of fuel, the combustion process and the type of furnace. From a technical point of view, some of the ashes may be used for civil works. However, the Swedish Environmental Code requires that operators obtain a permit from the local environmental authorities if ashes are utilized for construction purposes. Previous studies on the application and permitting process have indicated that it can be improved, in particular both the information provided by the operators and the decision process. The stakeholders involved in the decision process have expressed that they have limited knowledge on expected environmental impacts from the utilization of ashes in civil works and that existing knowledge not is being fully applied in practice. The aim of this project was to improve the decision support for permit application of ash utilization in constructions. The goals were to - initiate and develop the discussion regarding which information should be used in the decision process - suggest the scope and content of the information to be supplied in the permit application - contribute to improved communication between different stakeholders - identify possibilities of using the knowledge obtained by research for decision support The stakeholders' (operators and environmental authorities) opinions and viewpoint on the assessment and application process were achieved through interviews. The results from the interviews were presented and discussed during a seminar. Both the interviews and the seminar provided information, but at the same time they served to initiate a discussion on permit application procedure and to increase the communication between different stakeholders. The outcomes from these activities (interviews and seminar

  4. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on technologies to effectively utilize biologically originated organic wastes, and the scenarios for proliferation thereof; 1999 nendo seibutsu kigen yukihaikibutsu no yuko riyo gijutsu to sono fukyu scenario no chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With the biologically originated organic wastes (biomass) left unattended in Japan without being given effective measures as the object, effects are presented on contribution to reducing greenhouse effect gas emission and reducing environmental load, and considerations were given on scenarios to proliferate the utilization technologies. These actions were carried out upon identifying the trends inside and outside the country of developing methods and technologies to utilize them effectively as energy sources. Because of the present shortage in support from the policy aspects for regenerative energies themselves, the back-up from energy policy aspect is an urgent necessity by establishing such a law as the 'natural energy utilization promotion law' whose legislation is proposed by citizens. Appropriate useful technologies would have to be introduced into appropriate applications under such legislative support. For the time being, the 'wastes electric power generation' and 'bio-gasification power generation' systems that have been established already will be utilized. Furthermore, methanol and hydrogen will be synthesized from biomass to be used as fuel for fuel cells. Utilization of the cascade type system is advocated that uses substances sequentially from better ones to utilize woody biomass without waste. (NEDO)

  5. Economic Value of Li-ion Energy Storage System in Frequency Regulation Application from Utility Firm’s Perspective in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonchang Hur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy Storage Systems (ESSs have recently been highlighted because of their many benefits such as load-shifting, frequency regulation, price arbitrage, renewables, and so on. Among those benefits, we aim at evaluating their economic value in frequency regulation application. However, unlike previous literature focusing on profits obtained from participating in the ancillary service market, our approach concentrates on the cost reduction from the perspective of a utility firm that has an obligation to pay energy fees to a power exchange. More specifically, we focus on the payments between the power exchange market and the utility firm as a major source of economic benefits. The evaluation is done by cost- benefit analysis (CBA with a dataset of the Korean market while considering operational constraint costs as well as scheduled energy payments, and a simulation algorithm for the evaluation is provided. Our results show the potential for huge profits to be made by cost reduction. We believe that this research can provide a guideline for a utility firm considering investing in ESSs for frequency regulation application as a source of cost reduction.

  6. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  7. Prismatic sealed nickel-cadmium batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes. II - Applications as a maintenance free aircraft battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderman, Menahem; Benczur-Urmossy, Gabor; Haschka, Friedrich

    Test data on prismatic sealed Ni-Cd batteries utilizing fiber structured electrodes (sealed FNC) is discussed. It is shown that, under a voltage limited charging scheme, the charge acceptance of the sealed FNC battery is far superior to that of the standard vented aircraft Ni-Cd batteries. This results in the sealed FNC battery maintaining its capacity over several thousand cycles without any need for electrical conditioning or water topping. APU start data demonstrate superior power capabilities over existing technologies. Performance at low temperature is presented. Abuse test results reveal a safe fail mechanism even under severe electrical abuse.

  8. Solar thermal energy utilization. German studies on technology and application. Vol. 1. General investigations on energy availability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, M. (Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR), Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Energietechnik) (ed.)

    1987-01-01

    The first volume of a three-volume series titled 'Solar thermal energy utilization' comprises three papers dealing with general investigations into energy availability. Their titles are: Yearly yield of solar CRS-process heat and temperature of reaction; - literature survey in the field of primary and secondary concentrating solar energy systems concerning the choice and manufacturing process of suitable materials; - considerations and proposals for future research and development of high temperature solar processes. Each of the three chapters was abstracted for entry into the database. (HWJ).

  9. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    , and (3) innovation, has been developed. In order to facilitate the implementation and ensure sustainability, this framework integrates a number of computer-aided methods and tools, that are important for carbon dioxide capture and utilization. Applying this framework helps to address the questions about...... opportunities and products are explored. Second, the selected processing route is designed and analyzed by using simulation software and sustainability (economic, environmental and LCA) analysis tools. From this stage, hot spotsand areas for improvement are also generated. Third, the targets for improvement...

  10. Design and implementation of a web-based data grid management system for enterprise PACS backup and disaster recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Ma, Kevin; Talini, Elisa; Documet, Jorge; Lee, Jasper; Liu, Brent

    2007-03-01

    A cross-continental Data Grid infrastructure has been developed at the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) research laboratory as a fault-tolerant image data backup and disaster recovery solution for Enterprise PACS. The Data Grid stores multiple copies of the imaging studies as well as the metadata, such as patient and study information, in geographically distributed computers and storage devices involving three different continents: America, Asia and Europe. This effectively prevents loss of image data and accelerates data recovery in the case of disaster. However, the lack of centralized management system makes the administration of the current Data Grid difficult. Three major challenges exist in current Data Grid management: 1. No single user interface to access and administrate each geographically separate component; 2. No graphical user interface available, resulting in command-line-based administration; 3. No single sign-on access to the Data Grid; administrators have to log into every Grid component with different corresponding user names/passwords. In this paper we are presenting a prototype of a unique web-based access interface for both Data Grid administrators and users. The interface has been designed to be user-friendly; it provides necessary instruments to constantly monitor the current status of the Data Grid components and their contents from any locations, contributing to longer system up-time.

  11. Comparison of sound propagation and perception of three types of backup alarms with regards to worker safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Vaillancourt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A technology of backup alarms based on the use of a broadband signal has recently gained popularity in many countries. In this study, the performance of this broadband technology is compared to that of a conventional tonal alarm and a multi-tone alarm from a worker-safety standpoint. Field measurements of sound pressure level patterns behind heavy vehicles were performed in real work environments and psychoacoustic measurements (sound detection thresholds, equal loudness, perceived urgency and sound localization were carried out in the laboratory with human subjects. Compared with the conventional tonal alarm, the broadband alarm generates a much more uniform sound field behind vehicles, is easier to localize in space and is judged slighter louder at representative alarm levels. Slight advantages were found with the tonal alarm for sound detection and for perceived urgency at low levels, but these benefits observed in laboratory conditions would not overcome the detrimental effects associated with the large and abrupt variations in sound pressure levels (up to 15-20 dB within short distances observed in the field behind vehicles for this alarm, which are significantly higher than those obtained with the broadband alarm. Performance with the multi-tone alarm generally fell between that of the tonal and broadband alarms on most measures.

  12. The Potential and Utilization of Unused Energy Sources for Large-Scale Horticulture Facility Applications under Korean Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tak Hyun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. In addition, we utilized available unused energy as a heat source for a heat pump in a large-scale horticulture facility and analyzed its feasibility through EnergyPlus simulation modeling. Accordingly, the discharge flow rate from the Fan Coil Unit (FCU in the horticulture facility, the discharge air temperature, and the return temperature were analyzed. The performance and heat consumption of each heat source were compared with those of conventional boilers. The result showed that the power load of the heat pump was decreased and thus the heat efficiency was increased as the temperature of the heat source was increased. Among the analyzed heat sources, power plant waste heat which had the highest heat source temperature consumed the least electric energy and showed the highest efficiency.

  13. Long-Term Monitoring of Utility-Scale Solar Energy Development and Application of Remote Sensing Technologies: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Grippo, Mark A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division; Smith, Karen P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Division

    2014-09-30

    In anticipation of increased utility-scale solar energy development over the next 20 to 50 years, federal agencies and other organizations have identified a need to develop comprehensive long-term monitoring programs specific to solar energy development. Increasingly, stakeholders are requesting that federal agencies, such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM), develop rigorous and comprehensive long-term monitoring programs. Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) is assisting the BLM in developing an effective long-term monitoring plan as required by the BLM Solar Energy Program to study the environmental effects of solar energy development. The monitoring data can be used to protect land resources from harmful development practices while at the same time reducing restrictions on utility-scale solar energy development that are determined to be unnecessary. The development of a long-term monitoring plan that incorporates regional datasets, prioritizes requirements in the context of landscape-scale conditions and trends, and integrates cost-effective data collection methods (such as remote sensing technologies) will translate into lower monitoring costs and increased certainty for solar developers regarding requirements for developing projects on public lands. This outcome will support U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Sunshot Program goals. For this reason, the DOE provided funding for the work presented in this report.

  14. Utilization of research reactor to the environmental application in Thailand. Air quality study in Saraburi Province, central Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Ninlaphruk, Sumalee; Mungpayaban, Harinate; Siese, Piyamaporn; Suanmamuang, Boonlert

    2007-01-01

    Saraburi Province is facing difficulties due to high dust generating Industries which is the major economy of the area. Thus, the elemental composition of SPMs in Tumbon Na Phra Lan, Saraburi Province is being monitored. The samples were collected in each quarter from May 2005 to March 2006. Soil as well as fine particles from stacks of some selected manufacturers were also analyzed. The average weight of SPM was found lowest in wet season and highest in the middle of dry season. The average weight of SPM is also high in dry season and low in wet season. The elements found in the samples are Na, Mg, Al, As, Sr, Br, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn. Calcium is selected as the key elements since most postulated source of pollution is due industrial utilization of the limestone deposit. It is observed that the fine partials form stack are quite low which mean an effective emission control of fine particles form the selected manufacturers. The data is being utilized by the Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the environmental authority in Thailand. The authority will use this data to find possible solution for air quality improvement of the area. Future collaboration with environmental authority will be on the study of Thalenoi conservation area in the southern part of Thailand. (author)

  15. Absorption and utilization of fertilizer-N and soil-N with mixed application of straw and urea by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinwei; Liu Feng; Ye Shuya; Zhu Hongbin; Ye Chengxin

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen absorption of mixed application of straw and urea by rice was studied by using 15 N isotope tracing technique. The results show that the sole application of straw would result in biological immobilization of available soil N. The insufficient N supply was the limiting factor for rice tiller and spikelets development. Mixed use of straw and urea obviously improved nitrogen supply from both fertilizer and soil, which in turn, promoted the yield of growing rice and increased the soil fertility and productivity of later crop

  16. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  17. Supercapacitors technical requirements for new applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, M. [Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, l' Energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostenibile (ENEA), Technical Unit ' Advanced Technologies for Energy and Industry' , C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00066 Roma (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The supercapacitors (SCs), also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, are devices with a very high specific power and high capacitance, available for a long period of time with negligible deterioration, that have been historically proposed in small applications (memory back-up in consumer electronics and storage systems for microsolar power generators) and now are proposed for high power/energy applications, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, power quality systems and smart grids. The advancements in new materials and the rapid growth of more demanding storage systems in a variety of applications have created a lack of universally accepted definitions of these devices and, consequently, a real difficulty in describing developments and progress in the SC field. This paper contains a brief survey of the history of the SC development, which is strongly related to the evolution of the SC technologies, tentatively classified in symmetric, asymmetric and hybrid. A short presentation of key parameters has been given to introduce the description of new applications with large SC devices, covering transport, industrial and electric utility sectors, with some reflections about the foreseen impacts on the future market more than quadrupled in 5 years up to almost $877 million worldwide. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Effect of salinization, Rbizobium inoculation, genotypic variation and P-application on drymatter yield and utilization of P by pea (Pisum sativum L.) and lentil (Lens Culinaris Medic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Irrigation with saline water significantly reduced the drymatter production and uptake of phosphorus in both pea and lentil crops. Between the two crops pea was found relativley more tolerant to a given level of salinity. Soil application of phosphate in association with rbizobium inoculated seeds enhanced drymatter production, total P uptake, P derived from fertilizer and its utilization in both the crops. Amongst the cultivars tested, KPSD-5 of pea and PL-639 of lentil extracted native soil phosphorus more efficiently while cultivar Pusa-10 of pea and cultivar PL-406 of lentil showed more affinity towards applied phosphorus. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Design for a sustainable society utilizing information and communication technologies (ICT) - proposal: a new EcoDesign method and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, J. [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, the Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, M. [Fundamental and Environment Labs., NEC Corp. (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    We discuss a new EcoDesign method, with a goal of improving the economy, and its application to a sustainable networked society. The new EcoDesign method differs from conventional EcoDesign in three respects: it utilizes a top-down approach, project-style research, and fact-finding and benchmarking. We systematize EcoDesign for a networked society from the viewpoint of technology and divide it into four components. Feasibility studies of the individual components reveal that if we promote ICT diffusion with EcoDesign in mind, we can suppress CO2 emissions and move towards a more sustainable society. (orig.)

  20. Stabilization of the outputs of pulse amplifiers utilizing non-linear feedback networks. Application to nuclear spectrometer amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henein, K.L.

    1978-02-01

    In nuclear spectroscopy, baseline instability and random fluctuations at the output of the amplifier create imperfectly solved problems mainly at high counting rates. After a critical examination of current systems, solutions are proposed which surpass existing ones. It is shown that restorers and stabilizers of baselines have their own preferential application. Considering natural limits of performance the proposed solutions give entirely satisfactory results [fr

  1. Comparative water and N fertilizer utilization in fertigation v/s soil application under drip and macro sprinkler systems of spring potatoes utilizing 15N in Central Beqaa, Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, T.; Atallah, T.; Hajhasan, S.; Chranek, A.

    2002-01-01

    The experiment aimed at studying the impact of type of fertilizer application and irrigation techniques on the yield parameters of spring potatoes by using 15 N. In 1997 and 1998, a potato crop (Spunta) was planted in a clayey soil in Tell Amara, Central Beqaa, in a randomized block design. It consisted of five treatments and four replicates. The goal of the research was to study the effect of three rates of N fertigation (N1=240, N2=360, N3=480 kg N/ha for 1997 and N1=120, N2=240, N3=360 kg N/ha for 1998) on potato performance and production, comparing full fertigation with conventional fertilizer application and irrigated with drip and macro sprinkler. Water demands and irrigation were scheduled according to the mean annual potential evapotranspiration in 1997 and Class A pan in 1998, and monitored by the neutron probe and tensiometers. The results show that, at harvest, both crops followed the same yield pattern. The highest tuber yield was obtained from N1 and the lowest from N3. These values were 58 ton/ha for 1997 and 32.5 ton/ha for the 1998 trial. The 1998 spring crop was more efficient in terms of N utilization. The reduction of N input in N1 resulted in 90% N-fertilizer recovery. In the treatment with soil N application, drip irrigation saved up to 50% of water and improved the efficiency of removed N. Starting from the 89th day after planting, sprinklers caused a significant difference in NO3- concentration leached beyond 60 cm depth. Thus, fertigation was superior with regard to fertilizer and water saving and it decreased the risk of N building up in the soil and shallow groundwater resulting in pollution. (author)

  2. Is modification of the VVI backup mode in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators from St Jude medical required due to increased risk of inappropriate shocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philbert, Berit Thornvig; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jacobsen, Peter K

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock therapy is painful, stressful, and typically occurs unexpected in conscious patients and may be related to a less favourable prognosis. In our institution, we have observed four cases of multiple inappropriate ICD shocks during reset...... a ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone starting at 146 b.p.m., with shock therapy only and changes in sensitivity settings making the ICD more sensitive. In all cases, the reason for the multiple inappropriate shocks was that the VF zone was reached due to exercise-induced sinus tachycardia or due to oversensing...... during sinus rhythm. The VVI backup mode has to balance between protection from failure of ICD therapy during life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and from inappropriate shocks. It seems the non-programmable parameters in VVI backup mode of St Jude Medical ICDs carry an unacceptable high risk...

  3. Application of a computer-aided framework for the design of CO2 capture and utilization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide capture and utilization is a vital element of carbon dioxide emission reduction to address global warming. An integrated, computer-aided framework has been developed to achieve this. This framework adopts a three-stage approach to sustainable process synthesis-design: (i) process...... synthesis, (ii) process design and (iii) innovative design. In the first stage, reaction path synthesis is used to determine the reactions and products that are considered in processing route selection and/or generation. Various scenarios are then considered for the superstructure optimization. The selected...... steps. Then, the superstructure optimization is performed on a network containing 13 likely products giving 30 feasible processing routes, considering different scenarios and objectives. Stages 2 and 3 have been applied to the optimal solution of the first scenario, which selects the production...

  4. Radioiostope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical application of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brill, A.B.; Price, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    The main emphasis of these studies is the development of methods (hardware and software) for the quantitation of body and specific organ burdens of radioactivity. Current work is directed toward the evaluation of radiation dose distributions in human beings from new radioactive tracers and new procedures used in nuclear medicine. Dosimetry and clinical studies will be carried out on patients using new radiopharmaceuticals where dosimetry data are lacking. Future efforts will be directed toward the development of systems that will facilitate the collection of dosimetry data using less specialized facilities. The availability of instrumentation and analytic techniques that provide clinical images as well as dosimetry data should enhance the rate of collection of data on human exposures in medicine and assist in the optimization of diagnostic strategies. In parallel with these efforts, we are developing a new computer assisted technique for diagnostic decision making. The basic aim is to utilize efficiently all the available data to maximize information gain while minimizing cost factors

  5. Radiological guidelines for application to DOE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. [FUSRAP sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-03-01

    The US Department of Energy has implemented a program to evaluate and, where necessary, take action to protect the public from contamination at sites that were used in the past to process and/or store radioactive materials for the former US Army Corps of Engineers Manhattan Engineer District or the US Atomic Energy Commission. The program is identified as the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This document describes methods considered appropriate for the evaluation of health effects that might possible be caused by radioactive contamination at FUSRAP sites. This assessment methodology is applied to a typical site for the purposeof deriving guidelines for the cleanup of contaminated soil. Additional guidance is provided for planning site-specific remedial action that is consistent with the overall objectives of FUSRAP.

  6. Application of the Garrlic Algorithm for the Characterization of Dust and Marine Particles Utilizing the Lidar-Sunphotometer Synergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of studying the vertical distribution of aerosol plumes is prominent in regional and climate studies. The new Generalized Aerosol Retrieval from Radiometer and Lidar Combined data algorithm (GARRLiC provides this opportunity combining active and passive ground-based remote sensing from lidar and sunphotometer measurements. Here, we utilize GARRLiC capabilities for the characterization of Saharan dust and marine particles at the Eastern Mediterranean region during the Characterization of Aerosol mixtures of Dust And Marine origin Experiment (CHARADMExp. Two different case studies are presented, a dust-dominated case which we managed to characterize successfully in terms of the particle microphysical properties and their vertical distribution and a case of two separate layers of marine and dust particles for which the characterization proved to be more challenging.

  7. Development and application of some fast neutron dosimetry techniques utilizing plastic track detectors for therapeutic and health physics related applications. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.; Sohrabi, M.

    1975-01-01

    The electrochemical-etch-foil technique continues to look extremely promising for neutron monitoring of personnel and applications in medicine and research. Some of the most important parameters that must be controlled are presented and discussed. (U.S.)

  8. A technical analysis for cogeneration systems with potential applications in twelve California industrial plants. [energy saving heat-electricity utility systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, V. C.; Davis, H. S.; Slonski, M. L.

    1978-01-01

    In a study sponsored by the State of California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, 12 industrial plants in five utility districts were surveyed to assess the potential applications of the cogeneration of heat and electricity in California industry. Thermodynamic calculations were made for each plant in determining the energy required to meet the existing electrical and steam demands. The present systems were then compared to conceptual cogeneration systems specified for each plant. Overall energy savings were determined for the cogeneration applications. Steam and gas turbine topping cycle systems were considered as well as bottoming cycle systems. Types of industries studied were: pulp and paper, timber, cement, petroleum refining, enhanced oil recovery, foods processing, steel and glass

  9. Characterization of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering of Nicotine Utilizing Plasmonic Nanometals for the Applications of Medical and Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ashley; Rigo, Maria; Seo, Jaetae; HU Team

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy has received a great deal of interest for its applications in biological sensing and cell imaging due to the ease with which it can be used to extract significant data from tissue and cells. This study has focused on the application of SERS for nicotine detection. Liquid nicotine was diluted and combined with Au nanoparticles (NPs). The nicotine-gold solution was analyzed by acquiring Raman spectra data using a Delta Nu Spectrometer. Absorption data shows the characteristic peak of Au NPs at ~528 nm while showing successful aggregation of the nicotine particles. Data taken from Raman spectra shows characteristic Raman shifts of nicotine at ~1030 cm-1 and ~1590 cm-1. Currently work is being done to optimize the SERS signal for nicotine in the 1590-1600 region using higher concentrations of nicotine and various sizes of Au NPs. This work at Hampton University was supported by the National Science Foundation (HRD-0734635 and HRD-063037).

  10. [Effects of different nitrogen application rates on 15N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality of dwarf apple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Ning; Peng, Ling; Ge, Shun Feng; Jiang, Yuan Mao

    2017-07-18

    Seven-year-old 'Yanfu3'/M 26 /M. hupehensis Rehd. seedlings and 15 N trace technique were used to explore the characteristics of 15 N-urea absorption, utilization, loss and fruit yield and quality under different nitrogen application rates (N 100 , N 200 and N 300 ). The main results were as follows: the plant growth, 15 N absorption, utilization and loss differed significantly under different treatments. The plant leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value), photosynthetic rate (P n ), total N content of leaves and the biomass, as well as the root-shoot ratio of N 200 treatment were obviously higher than the N 100 and N 300 treatments. Significant differences were observed in the 15 N derived from fertilizer (Ndff value) of different organs under different nitrogen application rates. The Ndff of fruits (flowers), leaves, one-year-old branch, and perennial branches in each measurement period was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , while that of the roots at full-bloom and spring shoot growing slowly stage was N 100 >N 200 >N 300 , and in a trend of N 200 >N 100 >N 300 at autumn shoot growing stage, fruit rapid-swel-ling stage and fruit maturity stage. At fruit maturity stage, plant 15 N nitrogen utilization ratio of N 200 treatment was 23.6%, which was obviously higher than the N 100 (16.3%) and N 300 (14.4%) treatments, with the 15 N loss rate of 56.4%, obviously lower than the N 100 (60.6%) and N 300 (66.1%) treatments. There were significant differences among the treatments in fruit mass, yield per plant, soluble solid, fruit firmness, soluble sugar, titratable acids and sugar-acid ratio of different nitrogen rates, and the N 200 treatment showed the best performance, followed by the N 300 treatment, and then the N 100 treatment.

  11. Utilization of Supercapacitors in Adaptive Protection Applications for Resiliency against Communication Failures: A Size and Cost Optimization Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Hany F [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); El Hariri, Mohamad [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Elsayed, Ahmed [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Mohammed, Osama [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-03-30

    Microgrids’ adaptive protection techniques rely on communication signals from the point of common coupling to ad- just the corresponding relays’ settings for either grid-connected or islanded modes of operation. However, during communication out- ages or in the event of a cyberattack, relays settings are not changed. Thus adaptive protection schemes are rendered unsuc- cessful. Due to their fast response, supercapacitors, which are pre- sent in the microgrid to feed pulse loads, could also be utilized to enhance the resiliency of adaptive protection schemes to communi- cation outages. Proper sizing of the supercapacitors is therefore im- portant in order to maintain a stable system operation and also reg- ulate the protection scheme’s cost. This paper presents a two-level optimization scheme for minimizing the supercapacitor size along with optimizing its controllers’ parameters. The latter will lead to a reduction of the supercapacitor fault current contribution and an increase in that of other AC resources in the microgrid in the ex- treme case of having a fault occurring simultaneously with a pulse load. It was also shown that the size of the supercapacitor can be reduced if the pulse load is temporary disconnected during the transient fault period. Simulations showed that the resulting super- capacitor size and the optimized controller parameters from the proposed two-level optimization scheme were feeding enough fault currents for different types of faults and minimizing the cost of the protection scheme.

  12. Utility of high-altitude infrared spectral data in mineral exploration: Application to Northern Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; King, T.V.V.; Morath, L.C.; Phillips, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Synoptic views of hydrothermal alteration assemblages are of considerable utility in regional-scale minerals exploration. Recent advances in data acquisition and analysis technologies have greatly enhanced the usefulness of remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy for reliable alteration mineral assemblages mapping. Using NASA's Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, this study mapped large areas of advanced argillic and phyllic-argillic alteration assemblages in the southeastern Santa Rita and northern Patagonia mountains, Arizona. Two concealed porphyry copper deposits have been identified during past exploration, the Red Mountain and Sunnyside deposits, and related published hydrothermal alteration zoning studies allow the comparison of the results obtained from AVIRIS data to the more traditional field mapping approaches. The AVIRIS mapping compares favorably with field-based studies. An analysis of iron-bearing oxide minerals above a concealed supergene chalcocite deposit at Red Mountain also indicates that remotely sensed data can be of value in the interpretation of leached caps above porphyry copper deposits. In conjunction with other types of geophysical data, AVIRIS mineral maps can be used to discriminate different exploration targets within a region.

  13. The new framework for resolving the energy problem and its application to the utilization of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, the energy problem in Japan had been the problem of how enough energy could be supplied to various sectors in society under Japan's conditions of only a few energy resources existing within its territory. However, recently new environmental and social conditions are arising. These new conditions strongly affect not only concrete measures for solving the energy problem but also the characteristics of the energy problem itself. Nowadays, it seems to be impossible to resolve the energy problem without taking these conditions into consideration. For this reason, a new framework, which enables various social values to be reflected in concrete measures, is urgently needed to resolve the energy problem. This thesis uses the ISO14001 framework to consider a possible solution over the energy problem. In the first part of this thesis, an examination shows that the ISO14001 framework should be generalized beyond the original objective of dealing with environmental problems to accommodate any kind of problems caused by newly arising social values. This generalized framework is defined as a 'Social measure' and expected to enhance the resolution of the problem in socially appropriate manner. In the second part, this paper uses the idea of the Social measure to consider a possible solution to recover public trust on the utilization of nuclear technology, which is regarded as a typical energy problem under the social condition. (author)

  14. Application of the Andersen's health care utilization framework to secondary complications of spinal cord injury: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilcher, Sara J T; Craven, B Cathy; McColl, Mary Ann; Lemieux-Charles, Louise; Casciaro, Tiziana; Jaglal, Susan B

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to identify research priority areas related to secondary complications and associated health care use for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Peer-reviewed journals were identified using CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Works Abstract and PsycInfo search engines. Key references were hand searched. A total of 289 abstracts were identified from the initial search strategy. We removed studies that did not measure health care and those that did not involve analytical investigation. The selected 31 studies were reviewed in detail using a coding template based on the domains and sub-components of the Andersen model (i.e. environmental, population characteristics, health behavior and outcome). Most studies measured predisposing characteristics (e.g., age, gender) and need characteristics (e.g., level of injury). There was a notable absence of environmental characteristics (e.g., health system, neighborhood variables), enabling characteristics and health behaviors (beyond diet and nutrition). We identified a gap in the SCI literature. Future research should focus on longitudinal study designs with more representation of non-traumatic spinal cord injury, as well as utilizing more advanced statistical analyses (i.e., multivariate level) to adjust for confounding variables.

  15. BCR/ABL downregulates DNA-PK(CS)-dependent and upregulates backup non-homologous end joining in leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplawski, Tomasz; Blasiak, Janusz

    2010-06-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination repair (HRR) are the main mechanisms involved in the processing of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in humans. We showed previously that the oncogenic tyrosine kinase BCR/ABL stimulated DSBs repair by HRR. To evaluate the role of BCR/ABL in DSBs repair by NHEJ we examined the ability of leukemic BCR/ABL-expressing cell line BV173 to repair DNA damage induced by two DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors: etoposide and sobuzoxane. DNA lesions induced by sobuzoxane are repaired by a NHEJ pathway which is dependent on the catalytic subunit of protein kinase dependent on DNA (DNA-PK(CS); D-NHEJ), whereas damage evoked by etoposide are repaired by two distinct NHEJ pathways, dependent on or independent of DNA-PK(CS) (backup NHEJ, B-NHEJ). Cells incubated with STI571, a highly specific inhibitor of BCR/ABL, displayed resistance to these agents associated with an accelerated kinetics of DSBs repair, as measured by the neutral comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. However, in a functional NHEJ assay, cells preincubated with STI571 repaired DSBs induced by a restriction enzyme with a lower efficacy than without the preincubation and addition of wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK(CS), did not change efficacy of the NHEJ reaction. We suggest that BCR/ABL switch on B-NHEJ which is more error-prone then D-NHEJ and in such manner contribute to the increase of the genomic instability of leukemic cells.

  16. Widespread Dependence of Backup NHEJ on Growth State: Ramifications for the Use of DNA-PK Inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satyendra K.; Wu Wenqi; Zhang Lihua; Klammer, Holger; Wang Minli; Iliakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The backup pathway of nonhomologous end joining (B-NHEJ) enables cells to process DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) when the DNA-PK-dependent pathway of NHEJ (D-NHEJ) is compromised. Our previous results show marked reduction in the activity of B-NHEJ when LIG4 -/- mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) cease to grow and enter a plateau phase. The dependence of B-NHEJ on growth state is substantially stronger than that of D-NHEJ and points to regulatory mechanisms or processing determinants that require elucidation. Because the different D-NHEJ mutants show phenotypes distinct in their details, it is necessary to characterize the dependence of their DSB repair capacity on growth state and to explore species-specific responses. Methods and Materials: DSB repair was measured in cells of different genetic background from various species using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, or the formation of γ-H2AX foci, at different stages of growth. Results: Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we report a marked reduction of B-NHEJ during the plateau phase of growth in KU and XRCC4, mouse or Chinese hamster, mutants. Notably, this reduction is only marginal in DNA-PKcs-deficient cells. However, reduced B-NHEJ is also observed in repair proficient, plateau-phase cells after treatment with DNA-PK inhibitors. The reduction of B-NHEJ activity in the plateau phase of growth does not derive from the reduced expression of participating proteins, is detectable by γ-H2AX foci analysis, and leads to enhanced cell killing. Conclusions: These results further document the marked dependence on growth state of an essential DSB repair pathway and show the general nature of the effect. Molecular characterization of the mechanism underlying this response will help to optimize the administration of DNA repair inhibitors as adjuvants in radiation therapy.

  17. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae Hoon [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Jae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwang Yang Health Collage, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam{sub t}ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule.

  18. Utility estimation of the application of auditory-visual-tactile sense feedback in respiratory gated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jung Hun; KIm, Byeong Jin; Roh, Shi Won; Lee, Hyeon Chan; Jang, Hyeong Jun; Kim, Hoi Nam; Song, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Jae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to optimize the gated treatment delivery time and maintenance of stable respiratory by the introduction of breath with the assistance of auditory-visual-tactile sense. The experimenter's respiration were measured by ANZAI 4D system. We obtained natural breathing signal, monitor-induced breathing signal, monitor and ventilator-induced breathing signal, and breath-hold signal using real time monitor during 10 minutes beam-on-time. In order to check the stability of respiratory signals distributed in each group were compared with means, standard deviation, variation value, beam t ime of the respiratory signal. The stability of each respiratory was measured in consideration of deviation change studied in each respiratory time lapse. As a result of an analysis of respiratory signal, all experimenters has showed that breathing signal used both Real time monitor and Ventilator was the most stable and shortest time. In this study, it was evaluated that respiratory gated radiation therapy with auditory-visual-tactual sense and without auditory-visual-tactual sense feedback. The study showed that respiratory gated radiation therapy delivery time could significantly be improved by the application of video feedback when this is combined with audio-tactual sense assistance. This delivery technique did prove its feasibility to limit the tumor motion during treatment delivery for all patients to a defined value while maintaining the accuracy and proved the applicability of the technique in a conventional clinical schedule

  19. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-15

    Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm(3) can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement-sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants.

  1. Insight into the applications of palm oil mill effluent: A renewable utilization of the industrial agricultural waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2010-01-01

    Water scarcity and pollution rank equal to climate change as the most intricate environmental turmoil for the 21st century. Today, the percolation of palm oil mill effluents into the waterways and ecosystems, remain a fastidious concern towards the public health and food chain interference. With the innovation of palm oil residue into a high valuable end commodity, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of palm oil mill effluent industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of palm oil mill effluent in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy. (author)

  2. Utilization of recycled cathode ray tubes glass in cement mortar for X-ray radiation-shielding applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, Tung-Chai; Poon, Chi-Sun; Lam, Wai-Shung; Chan, Tai-Po; Fung, Karl Ka-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► It is feasible to use recycled CRT glass in mortar as shield against X-ray radiation. ► Shielding properties of CRT mortar is strongly depended on CRT content. ► Linear attenuation coefficient was reduced by 142% upon 100% CRT glass in mortar. ► Effect of mortar thickness and irradiation energies on shielding was investigated. - Abstract: Recycled glass derived from cathode ray tubes (CRT) glass with a specific gravity of approximately 3.0 g/cm 3 can be potentially suitable to be used as fine aggregate for preparing cement mortars for X-ray radiation-shielding applications. In this work, the effects of using crushed glass derived from crushed CRT funnel glass (both acid washed and unwashed) and crushed ordinary beverage container glass at different replacement levels (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by volume) of sand on the mechanical properties (strength and density) and radiation-shielding performance of the cement–sand mortars were studied. The results show that all the prepared mortars had compressive strength values greater than 30 MPa which are suitable for most building applications based on ASTM C 270. The density and shielding performance of the mortar prepared with ordinary crushed (lead-free) glass was similar to the control mortar. However, a significant enhancement of radiation-shielding was achieved when the CRT glasses were used due to the presence of lead in the glass. In addition, the radiation shielding contribution of CRT glasses was more pronounced when the mortar was subject to a higher level of X-ray energy.

  3. 50 ns Backup Solution

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Iadarola, G; Meddahi, M; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    The baseline bunch spacing for LHC high luminosity proton-proton operation after LS3 is 25 ns to maximize the integrated luminosity while keeping the pile-up low. The success of this mode of operation is not guaranteed. Electron cloud, UFOs, long-range beambeam, heating and other effects might make 25 ns operation in the LHC and/or the injectors difficult. This talk will review possible showstoppers in the LHC and injectors for 25 ns operation and discuss possible remedies. An alternative would be re-considering 50 ns operation. An estimate of the 50 ns performance will be given. The question of whether a different upgrade path would have to be chosen in case of 50 ns operation will also be addressed.

  4. 50 ns Backup Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Bartosik, H; Goddard, B; Höfle, W; Iadarola, G; Meddahi, M; Pieloni, T; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    The baseline bunch spacing for LHC high luminosity proton-proton operation after LS3 is 25 ns to maximize the integrated luminosity while keeping the pile-up low. The success of this mode of operation is not guaranteed. Electron cloud, UFOs, long-range beambeam, heating and other effects might make 25 ns operation in the LHC and/or the injectors difficult. This talk will review possible showstoppers in the LHC and injectors for 25 ns operation and discuss possible remedies. An alternative would be re-considering 50 ns operation. An estimate of the 50 ns performance will be given. The question of whether a different upgrade path would have to be chosen in case of 50 ns operation will also be addressed

  5. Backup, Archive, Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearring, John

    2012-01-01

    The education sector remains abuzz with cost-cutting expectations despite pressures to increase services. Automation of costly manual tasks could save funds for many of these institutions, specifically in data protection. The IT departments of schools and universities can take advantage of a proven cost-savings opportunity in data protection that…

  6. Clinical practice guidelines for the utilization of positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in selected oncologic applications: suggestions from a provider group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Ken; Tepfer, Beth; Goldklang, Gerald; Loyd, Richard; Garimella, Prasad; Halkar, Raghuveer

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) has provided clinicians with useful information regarding the diagnosis, initial staging, restaging, and therapy monitoring of malignancies since the beginning of the current century. Our intent here is to identify the critical steps in clinical workups and follow-up, in the true outpatient clinical setting of a freestanding imaging center, for utilization of PET/CT in four different cancer types. The four most common reasons for referrals to our facility were identified by reviewing two years of referral data. They were lung cancer (including solitary pulmonary nodule), lymphomas, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer. A review of published literature from 1996 and later was accepted as evidence of appropriateness for utilizing PET/CT in various clinical scenarios. In addition, a medical advisory board consisting of 15 referring physicians representing various specialties was established to provide practical advice regarding the appropriate use of PET/CT in clinical situations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines were also referenced to establish a baseline for clinical workups at various stages of disease. Several inconsistencies were identified among the three primary sources of information leading to the establishment of a standardized algorithm for each cancer type. NCCN data did not always agree with published literature, which was also often different from actual clinical practices of referring physicians. The most common inconsistencies included differing opinions from the referrers vs what was published in the NCCN guidelines, especially with regard to the utilization of PET/CT for applications not yet covered by insurance companies. After a reconciliation of the medical advisory board's clinical practices and several published articles, a consensus was established by the medical advisory board for the use of PET/CT imaging for the four cancer types, enabling us to

  7. Changes in soil N fractions and utilization of recently immobilized fertilizer N by wheat as influenced by application of some organic chemicals in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.P.; Jain, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of two organic chemicals viz., 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazone (C 1 ) and naphthyl ethylene diamine (C 2 ) was studied by their application alone and together (Csub(1+2) at the rate of 10 ppm by growing wheat on a loamy soil (Typic ustochrept) containing recently immobilized fertilizes N of 15 N - urea applied at 60, 120 and 180 ppm N to preceding rice under greenhouse conditions of a rice-wheat sequence. The application of C 1 and C 2 alone; and their combined application (Csub(1+2) produced 12, 15 and 18 per cent higher wheat grain yield over no-chemical application i.e. Co (3.50 g/pot). The chemicals also showed their beneficial effect on utilization of recently immobilized fertilizer N, as was evidenced by significantly higher 15 N recovery values in wheat with C 1 , C 2 and Csub(1+2)(2.84, 3.63 and 3.54 per cent, respectively) than that of Co (2.29 per cent). The soil N fractions were affected by chemical application during wheat as total hydrolyzable N, hydrolyzable unidentified N and hydrolyzable ammonia N registered a decrease in the presence of chemicals whereas the contents of acid insoluble N and amino acid N fractions were found to be increased compared to respective contents after rice, and inorganic N showed a continuous decrease irrespective of the treatments. Amino acid N and hydrolyzable ammonia N were found to be dominant fractions whereas amino sugar N contributed minimum towards total hydrolyzable N at all stages of rice-wheat sequence. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Development of a code MOGRA for predicting the migration of ground additions and its application to various land utilization areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Uchida, Shigeo; Matsuoka, Syungo; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Kurosawa, Naohiro

    2003-01-01

    A Code MOGRA (Migration Of GRound Additions) is a migration prediction code for toxic ground additions including radioactive materials in a terrestrial environment, which consists of computational codes that are applicable to various evaluation target systems, and can be used on personal computers. The computational code has the dynamic compartment analysis block at its core, the graphical user interface (GUI) for model formation, computation parameter settings, and results displays. The compartments are obtained by classifying various natural environments into groups that exhibit similar properties. The functionality of MOGRA is being verified by applying it in the analyses of the migration rates of radioactive substances from the atmosphere to soils and plants and flow rates into the rivers. In this report, a hypothetical combination of land usage was supposed to check the function of MOGRA. The land usage was consisted from cultivated lands, forests, uncultivated lands, urban area, river, and lake. Each land usage has its own inside model which is basic module. Also supposed was homogeneous contamination of the surface land from atmospheric deposition of 137 Cs(1.0Bq/m 2 ). The system analyzed the dynamic changes of 137 Cs concentrations in each compartment, fluxes from one compartment to another compartment. (author)

  9. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu Dongjie, E-mail: niudongjie@tongji.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Huang Hui [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Dai Xiaohu [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Urban Pollution Control, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhao Youcai [Key Laboratory of Yangtze Aquatic Environment, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Engineering of Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO{sub 2}, biogenic CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4,} and avoided CO{sub 2} as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO{sub 2}-eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO{sub 2}), while the net CO{sub 2}-eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO{sub 2}). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO{sub 2}-eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO{sub 2}-eq reduction.

  10. Greenhouse gases emissions accounting for typical sewage sludge digestion with energy utilization and residue land application in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Dongjie; Huang Hui; Dai Xiaohu; Zhao Youcai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► GHGs emissions from sludge digestion + residue land use in China were calculated. ► The AD unit contributes more than 97% of total biogenic GHGs emissions. ► AD with methane recovery is attractive for sludge GHGs emissions reduction. - Abstract: About 20 million tonnes of sludge (with 80% moisture content) is discharged by the sewage treatment plants per year in China, which, if not treated properly, can be a significant source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Anaerobic digestion is a conventional sewage sludge treatment method and will continue to be one of the main technologies in the following years. This research has taken into consideration GHGs emissions from typical processes of sludge thickening + anaerobic digestion + dewatering + residue land application in China. Fossil CO 2 , biogenic CO 2 , CH 4, and avoided CO 2 as the main objects is discussed respectively. The results show that the total CO 2 -eq is about 1133 kg/t DM (including the biogenic CO 2 ), while the net CO 2 -eq is about 372 kg/t DM (excluding the biogenic CO 2 ). An anaerobic digestion unit as the main GHGs emission source occupies more than 91% CO 2 -eq of the whole process. The use of biogas is important for achieving carbon dioxide emission reductions, which could reach about 24% of the total CO 2 -eq reduction.

  11. Consolidating a Distributed Compound Management Capability into a Single Installation: The Application of Overall Equipment Effectiveness to Determine Capacity Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Clive; Taylor, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    Compound management (CM) is a critical discipline enabling hit discovery through the production of assay-ready compound plates for screening. CM in pharma requires significant investments in manpower, capital equipment, repairs and maintenance, and information technology. These investments are at risk from external factors, for example, new technology rendering existing equipment obsolete and strategic site closures. At AstraZeneca, we faced the challenge of evaluating the number of CM sites required to support hit discovery in response to site closures and pressure on our operating budget. We reasoned that overall equipment effectiveness, a tool used extensively in the manufacturing sector, could determine the equipment capacity and appropriate number of sites. We identified automation downtime as the critical component governing capacity, and a connection between automation downtime and the availability of skilled staff. We demonstrated that sufficient production capacity existed in two sites to meet hit discovery demand without the requirement for an additional investment of $7 million in new facilities. In addition, we developed an automated capacity model that incorporated an extended working-day pattern as a solution for reducing automation downtime. The application of this solution enabled the transition to a single site, with an annual cost saving of $2.1 million. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  12. [Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen application on cotton biomass, nitrogen utilization and soil urease activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ning; Yin, Fei-hu; Chen, Yun; Gao, Zhi-jian; Liu, Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-01

    under the ambient CO2- (360 µmol · mol(-1)) treatment. The order of nitrogen accumulation content in organs was bud > leaf > stem > root. Soil urease activity of both layers increased significantly with the elevation of CO2 concentration in all the nitrogen treatments. Under each CO2 concentration treatment, the soil urease activity in the upper layer (0-20 cm) increased significantly with nitrogen application, while the urease activity under the application of 300 kg · hm(-2) nitrogen was highest in the lower layer (20- 40 cm). The average soil urease activity in the upper layer (0-20 cm) was significantly higher than that in the lower layer (20-40 cm). This study suggested that the cotton dry matter accumulation and nitrogen absorption content were significantly increased in response to the elevated CO2 concentration (540 µmol · mol(-1)) and higher nitrogen addition (300 kg · hm(-2)).

  13. Utilization of bio-degradable fermented tapioca to synthesized low toxicity of carbon nanotubes for drug delivery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurulhuda, I.; Poh, R.; Mazatulikhma, M. Z.; Rusop, M.; Salman, A. H. A.; Haseeb, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have potential biomedical applications, and investigations are shifting towards the production of such nanotubes using renewable natural sources. CNTs were synthesized at various temperatures of 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C, respectively, using a local fermented food known as “tapai ubi” or fermented tapioca as a precursor. The liquid part of this fermented food was heated separately at 80°C and channeled directly into the furnace system that employs the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Ferrocene, which was the catalyst was placed in furnace 1 in the thermal CVD process. The resulting CNTs produced from the process were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The FESEM images showed the growth morphology of the CNTs at the different temperatures employed. It was observed that the higher the synthesis temperature up to a point, the diameter of CNTs produced, after which the diameter increased. CNTs with helical structures were observed at 700 °C with a diameter range of 111 - 143 nm. A more straightened structure was observed at 750 °C with a diameter range of 59 - 121 nm. From 800 °C onwards, the diameters of the CNTs were less than 60 nm. Raman analysis revealed the present of D, G and G’ peak were observed at 1227-1358, 1565-1582, and 2678-2695 cm −1 , respectively. The highest degree of crystallity of the carbon nanotubes synthesized were obtained at 800 °C. The radial breathing mode (RBM) were in range between 212-220 and 279-292 cm −1 . Carbon nanotubes also being functionalized with Polyethylene bis(amine) Mw2000 (PEG 2000-NH2) and showed highly cells viability compared to non-functionalized CNT. The nanotubes synthesized will be applied as drug delivery in future study.

  14. Utilization of bio-degradable fermented tapioca to synthesized low toxicity of carbon nanotubes for drug delivery applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurulhuda, I., E-mail: nurulnye@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Poh, R. [Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mazatulikhma, M. Z. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-Electronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Salman, A. H. A.; Haseeb, A. K.

    2016-07-06

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have potential biomedical applications, and investigations are shifting towards the production of such nanotubes using renewable natural sources. CNTs were synthesized at various temperatures of 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900 °C, respectively, using a local fermented food known as “tapai ubi” or fermented tapioca as a precursor. The liquid part of this fermented food was heated separately at 80°C and channeled directly into the furnace system that employs the thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Ferrocene, which was the catalyst was placed in furnace 1 in the thermal CVD process. The resulting CNTs produced from the process were studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The FESEM images showed the growth morphology of the CNTs at the different temperatures employed. It was observed that the higher the synthesis temperature up to a point, the diameter of CNTs produced, after which the diameter increased. CNTs with helical structures were observed at 700 °C with a diameter range of 111 - 143 nm. A more straightened structure was observed at 750 °C with a diameter range of 59 - 121 nm. From 800 °C onwards, the diameters of the CNTs were less than 60 nm. Raman analysis revealed the present of D, G and G’ peak were observed at 1227-1358, 1565-1582, and 2678-2695 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The highest degree of crystallity of the carbon nanotubes synthesized were obtained at 800 °C. The radial breathing mode (RBM) were in range between 212-220 and 279-292 cm{sup −1}. Carbon nanotubes also being functionalized with Polyethylene bis(amine) Mw2000 (PEG 2000-NH2) and showed highly cells viability compared to non-functionalized CNT. The nanotubes synthesized will be applied as drug delivery in future study.

  15. Introducing a novel method to estimate the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities utilizing thermoelectric modules; Special application in solar engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asadi, Amin; Rahbar, Nader; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza

    The main objective of the present study is to introduce a novel method to measure the total heat transfer coefficient inside irregular-shape cavities, used in solar applications, utilizing thermoelectric modules. Applying mathematical and thermodynamics modeling, the governing equations related...... to the total heat transfer coefficient between thermoelectric and glass cover as a function of ambient temperature, glass temperature, and output voltage has been derived. Investigating the accuracy of the proposed equation, an experimental case study has been performed. The experimental setup consists...... of three parts; a heat sink, a thermoelectric module, and a glass cover. All the experiments have been performed on the typical winter day and under the real climatic conditions of Semnan (35° 33′ N, 53° 23′ E), Iran. The results showed that the proposed method has the ability to measure the total heat...

  16. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  17. Emergency contraceptive pills as a backup for lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) of contraception: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Hassen, Shaimaa G; Nour, Sanna A; Kames, Mervat A; Yones, Entsar M

    2013-03-01

    The use of breastfeeding as a method of birth spacing occasionally ends in "unplanned pregnancy." This is due to unexpected expiration of one or more of the lactation amenorrhea method (LAM) prerequisites. The current study tests a new concept that the in-advance provision of single packet of progestogen emergency contraception (EC) pills during the postpartum LAM counseling may decrease the incidence of unplanned pregnancy during breastfeeding. This was a registered two-armed randomized controlled trial (NCT 01111929). Women intending to breastfeed and to postpone pregnancy for 1 year or more were approached. They received adequate postpartum contraceptive counseling. Women intending to use LAM were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The LAM-only group received the proper LAM counseling and did not receive counseling about EC. The LAM-EC group received counseling for both LAM and EC with in-advance provision of one packet of EC pills. They were advised to use these pills if one of the prerequisites of LAM expires and sexual relation has occurred before the initiation of another regular contraceptive protection. All the participants were advised that they need to use another regular method upon expiration of any of the LAM prerequisites. Eligible women were 1158 parturients randomized into two equal groups. Forty-four percent of the women provided with EC used them. Significantly more women in the LAM-EC group initiated regular contraception within or shortly after the first 6 months postpartum when compared with those in the LAM-only group (30.5% vs. 7.3%, respectively; p=.0004). Pregnancy occurred in 5% of the LAM-only group as compared with 0.8% in the LAM-EC group (p=.005). Minimal side effects were reported after EC use. In-advance provision of EC pills can increase the rate of initiation of regular contraception once one or more of the prerequisites of LAM expire. Consequently, the use of EC pills as a temporary backup of LAM can decrease the incidence

  18. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hoon Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  19. Central-Approach Surgical Repair of Coarctation of the Aorta with a Back-up Left Ventricular Assist Device for an Infant Presenting with Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Shin, Yu Rim; Kim, Young Sam; Kim, Do Jung; Kim, Hyohyun; Shin, Hong Ju; Htut, Aung Thein; Park, Han Ki

    2015-12-01

    A two-month-old infant presented with coarctation of the aorta, severe left ventricular dysfunction, and moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. Through median sternotomy, the aortic arch was repaired under cardiopulmonary bypass and regional cerebral perfusion. The patient was postoperatively supported with a left ventricular assist device for five days. Left ventricular function gradually improved, eventually recovering with the concomitant regression of mitral regurgitation. Prompt surgical repair of coarctation of the aorta is indicated for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. A central approach for surgical repair with a back-up left ventricular assist device is a safe and effective treatment strategy for these patients.

  20. Supply of clean water to the bearings and mechanical seals of the backup pumps; Alimentation en eau propre des paliers et garnitures mecaniques des pompes de sauvetage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolas, C. [Department Machines, Service Ensembles de Production, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the backup pumps is to cool the primary circuit and pressurised water reactor containment in the case of a primary cooler loss accident. The water taken in by these pumps in the case of accident is loaded with solid particles. In order to ensure correct operation of the bearings and mechanical seals of these machines, they must be supplied with clean water. In other words, the solid particles must be removed from the water intake. Manufacturers generally use cyclonic separators to achieve this. (author) 5 refs., 14 figs.

  1. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This... the utility supplier to pay the utility bill on behalf of the family. If the PHA elects to pay the utility supplier, the PHA must notify the family of the amount paid to the utility supplier. (3) In the...

  2. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go test: the utility and psychometric properties of using a mobile application to determine prosthetic mobility in people with lower limb amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Sheila M; Gailey, Robert S; Bennett, Christopher L; Pasquina, Paul F; Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A

    2018-03-01

    Using a custom mobile application to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Component Timed-Up-and-Go test to assess prosthetic mobility in people with lower limb amputation. Cross-sectional design. National conference for people with limb loss. A total of 118 people with non-vascular cause of lower limb amputation participated. Subjects had a mean age of 48 (±13.7) years and were an average of 10 years post amputation. Of them, 54% ( n = 64) of subjects were male. None. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go was administered using a mobile iPad application, generating a total time to complete the test and five component times capturing each subtask (sit to stand transitions, linear gait, turning) of the standard timed-up-and-go test. The outcome underwent test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and convergent validity analyses through correlation with self-report measures of balance and mobility. The Component Timed-Up-and-Go exhibited excellent test-retest reliability with ICCs ranging from .98 to .86 for total and component times. Evidence of discriminative validity resulted from significant differences in mean total times between people with transtibial (10.1 (SD: ±2.3)) and transfemoral (12.76 (SD: ±5.1) amputation, as well as significant differences in all five component times ( P < .05). Convergent validity of the Component Timed-Up-and-Go was demonstrated through moderate correlations with the PLUS-M ( r s  = -.56). The Component Timed-Up-and-Go is a reliable and valid clinical tool for detailed assessment of prosthetic mobility in people with non-vascular lower limb amputation. The iPad application provided a means to easily record data, contributing to clinical utility.

  3. Developing a High Fidelity Martian Soil Simulant Based on MSL Measurements: Applications for Habitability, Exploration, and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, K.; Britt, D. T.; Smith, T. M.; Fritsche, R. F.; Covey, S. D.; Batcheldor, D.; Watson, B.

    2017-12-01

    applications include studies of habitability, toxicity, and in-situ resource utilization, among others. Through a partnership with Deep Space Industries we intend to produce industrial quantities of Mars Global from consistently maintained feedstocks, making it available to researchers, engineers, and educators.

  4. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  5. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  6. Marketing CE approved off-the-shelf FC-operated power backup units for the telecom industry at competitive prices : a continuing success story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, P. [Dantherm Power, Skive (Denmark)

    2009-07-01

    Dantherm Power receives a steady supply of fuel cell stacks packed on pallets at its factory in Denmark. Once unpacked, they go to an assembly line to be integrated into power modules designed for telecom- and IT network-base-stations around the world. The CE approved units are designed and tested to meet current telecom standards. Customers can purchase the off-the-shelf units at competitive prices. Dantherm Power has brought fuel-cell technology beyond the research and development stage. Since 2005, the company has sold backup units providing uninterruptible power supply (UPS) to the telecom industry on standard commercial terms. Their fuel cell-based-solutions have proven to be successful. The company began in 2003 as a research and development project within Dantherm Air Handling A/S. Development was driven by the idea that a UPS-system based on hydrogen and fuel-cell-technology may be better solution than traditional battery and diesel driven backup for many of the company's existing clients.

  7. Portable broadband cavity-enhanced spectrometer utilizing Kalman filtering: application to real-time, in situ monitoring of glyoxal and nitrogen dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bo; Zhao, Weixiong; Xu, Xuezhe; Zhou, Jiacheng; Ma, Xiao; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Weijun; Venables, Dean S; Chen, Weidong

    2017-10-30

    This article describes the development and field application of a portable broadband cavity enhanced spectrometer (BBCES) operating in the spectral range of 440-480 nm for sensitive, real-time, in situ measurement of ambient glyoxal (CHOCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). The instrument utilized a custom cage system in which the same SMA collimators were used in the transmitter and receiver units for coupling the LED light into the cavity and collecting the light transmitted through the cavity. This configuration realised a compact and stable optical system that could be easily aligned. The dimensions and mass of the optical layer were 676 × 74 × 86 mm 3 and 4.5 kg, respectively. The cavity base length was about 42 cm. The mirror reflectivity at λ = 460 nm was determined to be 0.9998, giving an effective absorption pathlength of 2.26 km. The demonstrated measurement precisions (1σ) over 60 s were 28 and 50 pptv for CHOCHO and NO 2 and the respective accuracies were 5% and 4%. By applying a Kalman adaptive filter to the retrieved concentrations, the measurement precisions of CHOCHO and NO 2 were improved to 8 pptv and 40 pptv in 21 s.

  8. Utilization of Industrial Waste for the Production of Bio-Preservative from Bacillus licheniformis Me1 and Its Application in Milk and Milk-Based Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Prakash, Maya; Halami, Prakash M

    2018-06-01

    The bio-preservative efficacy of a partially purified antibacterial peptide (ppABP) produced by Bacillus licheniformis Me1 in an economical medium developed using agro-industry waste was evaluated by direct application in milk and milk-based food products. The addition of ppABP in milk samples stored at 4 ± 2 °C and 28 ± 2 °C resulted in the growth inhibition of pathogens Listeria monocytogenes Scott A, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341, and Staphylococcus aureus FRI 722. The shelf life of milk samples with added ppABP increased to 4 days at 28 ± 2 °C, whereas curdling and off-odor were noticed in samples without ppABP. Furthermore, the milk samples with ppABP were sensorily acceptable. Antilisterial effect was also observed in cheese and paneer samples treated with ppABP. These results clearly indicate that the ppABP of B. licheniformis Me1 can be utilized as a bio-preservative to control the growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, thereby reducing the risk of food-borne diseases.

  9. Application and utility of a low-cost unmanned aerial system to manage and conserve aquatic resources in four Texas rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, Timothy W.; Bean, Megan; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Hardy, Thomas B.; Heard, Thomas; Holdstock, Derrick; Kollaus, Kristy; Magnelia, Stephan J.; Tolman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have recently gained increasing attention in natural resources management due to their versatility and demonstrated utility in collection of high-resolution, temporally-specific geospatial data. This study applied low-cost UAS to support the geospatial data needs of aquatic resources management projects in four Texas rivers. Specifically, a UAS was used to (1) map invasive salt cedar (multiple species in the genus Tamarix) that have degraded instream habitat conditions in the Pease River, (2) map instream meso-habitats and structural habitat features (e.g., boulders, woody debris) in the South Llano River as a baseline prior to watershed-scale habitat improvements, (3) map enduring pools in the Blanco River during drought conditions to guide smallmouth bass removal efforts, and (4) quantify river use by anglers in the Guadalupe River. These four case studies represent an initial step toward assessing the full range of UAS applications in aquatic resources management, including their ability to offer potential cost savings, time efficiencies, and higher quality data over traditional survey methods.

  10. Study on the cloud detection of GOCI by using the simulated surface reflectance from BRDF-model for the land application and meteorological utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Won; Yeom, Jong-Min; Woo, Sun-Hee; Chae, Tae-Byeong

    2016-04-01

    COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite) was launched at French Guiana Kourou space center on 27 June 2010. Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), which is the first ocean color geostationary satellite in the world for observing the ocean phenomena, is able to obtain the scientific data per an hour from 00UTC to 07UTC. Moreover, the spectral channels of GOCI would enable not only monitoring for the ocean, but for extracting the information of the land surface over the Korean Peninsula, Japan, and Eastern China. Since it is extremely important to utilize GOCI data accurately for the land application, cloud pixels over the surface have to be removed. Unfortunately, infra-red (IR) channels that can easily detect the water vapor with the cloud top temperature, are not included in the GOCI sensor. In this paper, the advanced cloud masking algorithm will be proposed with visible and near-IR (NIR) bands that are within GOCI bands. The main obstacle of cloud masking with GOCI is how to handle the high variable surface reflectance, which is mainly depending on the solar zenith angle. In this study, we use semi-empirical BRDF model to simulate the surface reflectance by using 16 day composite cloudy free image. When estimating the simulated surface reflectance, same geometry for GOCI observation was applied. The simulated surface reflectance is used to discriminate cloud areas especially for the thin cloud and shows more reasonable result than original threshold methods.

  11. Supercapacitors technical requirements for new applications

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The supercapacitors (SCs), also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, are devices with a very high specific power and high capacitance, available for a long period of time with negligible deterioration, that have been historically proposed in small applications (memory back-up in consumer electronics, storage systems for micro solar power generators) and now are proposed for high power/energy applications, such as hybrid and electric vehicles, power quality...

  12. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  13. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  14. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  15. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  16. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  17. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  18. GIS UTILITY FOR HYDROLOGICAL IMPACT EVALUATION CAUSED BY DAMAGES OF WATER SUPPLY NETWORK IN RURAL AREAS. APPLICATIONS IN BAIA MARE DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU ALEXANDRU MARIAN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available GIS utility for hydrological impact evaluation caused by damages of water supply network in rural areas. Applications in Baia Mare Depression. Occurrence of a failure within the water supply network is an element of risk with important hydrological implications. Although at first glance you might think that a pipe diameter of only 20 cm can generate large effects, however, in case of significant damage or even burst pipe, a good part of high water flow in the pipe (approx. 25 m3/h on average in the Baia Mare associated with a long duration of failure (several hours may be in the drain area, impact on the local community. Regarding rural settlements, surface drainage allow a quantity of water retention tank underground infiltration but in many cases lack of a sewage system effectively contribute to increased negative consequences related to such damage (flooding farms, roads, crops compromise of flooding or drought in the event of damage to the hot water supply pipe and so on. This paper focuses on the role of Geographic Information Systems (GIS to assess the impact of runoff induced by damages in rural areas. The study therefore spatial aspect, through GIS, on the one hand runoff along the flow path with the start point of the network fault location and view previous hydrological conditions of the terrain, and on the other hand the impact of runoff the rural community. Study area Dumbrăviţa settlement located in Baia Mare Depression. This village is part of water supply system to the south and southeast of Baia Mare.

  19. [Effects of nitrogen and irrigation water application on yield, water and nitrogen utilization and soil nitrate nitrogen accumulation in summer cotton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Zhuan Yun; Gao, Yang; Shen, Xiao Jun; Liu, Hao; Gong, Xue Wen; Duan, Ai Wang

    2017-12-01

    NO 3 - -N accumulation layer moved downward. By comprehensively considering above-ground biomass, seed cotton yield, water and nitrogen uptake and utilization, and soil NO 3 - -N accumulation in the soil profile, the treatment N 3 I 1 could be recommended as the optimal water and nitrogen application pattern for summer cotton production in the experimental region.

  20. A high-speed, multi-input serial-interfacing system for a computer with simultaneous back-up recording on magnetic tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andeweg, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    A system has been developed that interfaces nuclear-instrument data modules and a multichannel analyser into a computer. The interface converts 4-bit binary-coded decimal (BCD) data into 8-bit packed BCD data, and converts the parallel data into serial data. The data are transmitted up to a distance of 500m at a transfer rate of 153,6kbaud via an RS422 transmission link to a central computer system. One or more multichannel analyser systems can be connected to the system via a routine device. The routing device serves these analysers on a first-come-first-served mode. The data transmitted to the computer system are recorded simultaneously on a digital magnetic-tape drive to provide a back-up facility

  1. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  2. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  3. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  4. NASA fuel cell applications for space: Endurance test results on alkaline fuel cell electrolyzer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheibley, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cells continue to play a major role in manned spacecraft power generation. The Gemini and Apollo programs used fuel cell power plants as the primary source of mission electrical power, with batteries as the backup. The current NASA use for fuel cells is in the Orbiter program. Here, low temperature alkaline fuel cells provide all of the on-board power with no backup power source. Three power plants per shipset are utilized; the original power plant contained 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. For extended life and better power performance, each power plant now contains three 32-cell substacks connected in parallel. One of the possible future applications for fuel cells will be for the proposed manned Space Station in low earth orbit (LEO)(1, 2, 3). By integrating a water electrolysis capability with a fuel cell (a regenerative fuel cell system), a multikilowatt energy storage capability ranging from 35 kW to 250 kW can be achieved. Previous development work on fuel cell and electrolysis systems would tend to minimize the development cost of this energy storage system. Trade studies supporting initial Space Station concept development clearly show regenerative fuel cell (RFC) storage to be superior to nickel-cadmium and nickel-hydrogen batteries with regard to subsystem weight, flexibility in design, and integration with other spacecraft systems when compared for an initial station power level ranging from 60 kW to 75 kW. The possibility of scavenging residual O 2 and H 2 from the Shuttle external tank for use in fuel cells for producing power also exists

  5. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  6. Stittco Utilities Man Ltd. application for an interim ex parte order under section 45 of the Public Utilities Board Act for the approval of a change to its schedule of rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-15

    Stittco Utilities, a company distributing propane in Manitoba, applied to the Manitoba Public Utilities Board for an interim order authorizing an increase in rates for all domestic and commercial customers in 3 Manitoba localities. The rate increase requested is based on the increase in the commodity price of propane and related changes in freight rates. If approved, the average rate will increase by ca 28% for residential customers and 27% for commercial customers. With the expectation that the price of propane would decrease in the near future, Stittco proposed to base its rates on a propane price lower than the current market price, in an effort to retain existing customers. Stittco also proposed to establish a variance account, in which the difference between the cost of propane built into the rates and the actual market price would be accumulated. From time to time Stittco would apply to adjust the rate schedule to refund overages or collect shortfalls contained in this variance account. It is Stittco's intention to cancel its new propane supply contract when propane prices stabilize and enter into a new fixed-price contract. Stittco would then apply for a new rate schedule based on the long-term price of propane. Based on the evidence, the Board decided that a prima facie case has been made showing a 105% increase in Stittco's cost of product and delivery, and that this increase should be passed through to Stittco customers effective November 16, 1990. Status reports were required for the variance account starting December 1990.

  7. Migrating enterprise storage applications to the cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vrable, Michael Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cloud computing has emerged as a model for hosting computing infrastructure and outsourcing management of that infrastructure. It offers the promise of simplified provisioning and management, lower costs, and access to resources that scale up and down with demand. Cloud computing has seen growing use for Web site hosting, large batch processing jobs, and similar tasks. Despite potential advantages, however, cloud computing is not much used for enterprise applications such as backup, shared fi...

  8. IP Telephony Applicability in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Palacios

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper carries out a research related to the applicability of VoIP over Cloud Computing to guarantee service stability and elasticity of the organizations. In this paper, Elastix is used as an open source software that allows the management and control of a Private Branch Exchange (PBX; and for developing, it is used the services given Amazon Web Services due to their leadership and experience in cloud computing providing security, scalability, backup service and feasibility for the users.

  9. Productivity, part 2: cloud storage, remote meeting tools, screencasting, speech recognition software, password managers, and online data backup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackey, Amanda E; Pandey, Tarun; Moshiri, Mariam; Lalwani, Neeraj; Lall, Chandana; Bhargava, Puneet

    2014-06-01

    It is an opportune time for radiologists to focus on personal productivity. The ever increasing reliance on computers and the Internet has significantly changed the way we work. Myriad software applications are available to help us improve our personal efficiency. In this article, the authors discuss some tools that help improve collaboration and personal productivity, maximize e-learning, and protect valuable digital data. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Eliciting and Combining Decision Criteria Using a Limited Palette of Utility Functions and Uncertainty Distributions: Illustrated by Application to Pest Risk Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Johnson; Leach, Adrian W; Schrader, Gritta; Petter, Françoise; MacLeod, Alan; van der Gaag, Dirk Jan; Baker, Richard H A; Mumford, John D

    2014-01-01

    Utility functions in the form of tables or matrices have often been used to combine discretely rated decision-making criteria. Matrix elements are usually specified individually, so no one rule or principle can be easily stated for the utility function as a whole. A series of five matrices are presented that aggregate criteria two at a time using simple rules that express a varying degree of constraint of the lower rating over the higher. A further nine possible matrices were obtained by using a different rule either side of the main axis of the matrix to describe situations where the criteria have a differential influence on the outcome. Uncertainties in the criteria are represented by three alternative frequency distributions from which the assessors select the most appropriate. The output of the utility function is a distribution of rating frequencies that is dependent on the distributions of the input criteria. In pest risk analysis (PRA), seven of these utility functions were required to mimic the logic by which assessors for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization arrive at an overall rating of pest risk. The framework enables the development of PRAs that are consistent and easy to understand, criticize, compare, and change. When tested in workshops, PRA practitioners thought that the approach accorded with both the logic and the level of resolution that they used in the risk assessments. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. A hybrid choice model with nonlinear utility functions and bounded distributions for latent variables : application to purchase intention decisions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid choice model (HCM) provides a powerful framework to account for heterogeneity across decision-makers in terms of different underlying latent attitudes. Typically, effects of the latent attitudes have been represented assuming linear utility functions. In contributing to the further

  12. A hybrid choice model with a nonlinear utility function and bounded distribution for latent variables : application to purchase intention decisions of electric cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid choice model (HCM) provides a powerful framework to account for heterogeneity across decision-makers in terms of different underlying latent attitudes. Typically, effects of the latent attitudes have been represented assuming linear utility functions. In contributing to the further

  13. Investigation of utilization of process of polyethylene waste of low density for creation of competitive materials with application of phenol formaldehyde oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishieva, M.A.; Bilalov, Ya. M; Ibragimova, S. M; Dadasheva, G. I; Rezaei, Rudabeh

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The possibility of the utilization of low density polyethylene wastes by means of their modification with phenol formaldehyde oligomers (Ph FO) and PhFO with the thiourathenes has been investigation. Theology properties of the investigated systems showed that the obtained compositions can be able to be processed by the ordinary methods such as extrusion and casting

  14. Studies of an application of mobile communication system to the private telecommunication network. Part 2. Trend of mobile communication systems and application to power utility; Idotai tsushin system no denryoku tsushinmo eno tekiyo. 2. Idotai tsushin system no genjo to denki jigyo eno tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents future prospects on development of different mobile communication systems operated by public communications operators, and discusses their application to power utilities. For automobile and cellular telephones, discussions are being made on the code division multiple access (CDMA) system which multiplexes and transmits information by using tally codes. Influence of noise decreases, and so does the need of retransmission due to code errors. Higher speed transmission than conventional systems may be expected. The system can be utilized for transmitting still images, such as for status of construction being carried out by power utility companies. For PHS, a discussion will start on 32 to 64-kbps transmission in fiscal 1997. By using the system together with an image compression technology, the system may be expected of utilization as a moving image transmission method for supporting site works by utility companies. The low and medium orbit satellite communications whose use is scheduled to start shortly can be utilized as construction and emergency disaster communication networks for mountainous areas and islands. Movements around the frequency band utilization and communication systems of IMT-2000 are becoming more complex. The Japanese proposal plans transmission of moving images, whereas more diverse utilization can be expected, such as for voice, data and images, in areas where no ground communication facilities are available for electric power operations. 16 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Water experiments on thermal striping in reactor vessel of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactor. Influence of flow collector of backup CR guide tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Ezure, Toshiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kamide, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Design study of an advanced large-scale sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) has been conducted in JAEA. In the region between the bottom of the Upper Internal Structure (UIS) and the core outlet, the hot sodium from the fuel subassembly mixes with the cold sodium from the neighbor control rod (CR) channel. Therefore, temperature fluctuation due to mixing fluids at different temperatures may cause high cycle thermal fatigue at the bottom of the UIS. In the advanced design, installation of a flow guide structure named Flow-Collector (FC) to the backup control rod (BCR) guide tube is considered to enhance reliable operation of self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) and to ensure reactor shutdown operation. Previously, water experiments without the FC model had been examined in JAEA to investigate effective countermeasures to the significant temperature fluctuation generation at the bottom of the UIS. Since the FC may affect the thermal mixing behavior at the bottom of the UIS, influence of the FC on characteristics of the temperature fluctuation around the BCR channels was investigated using a water experimental facility with structure model of the FC. Through the experiment, small influence of the FC on the temperature fluctuation distribution at the bottom of the UIS was indicated. (author)

  16. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping; Wang Zhicheng; Fan Shaoyun

    2006-01-01

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  17. 移动支付的智能网关备份策略研究%Research on Intelligent Gateway Backup Strategy for Mobile Payment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春

    2016-01-01

    The spread of 4G provided the basis for the development of mobile electronic commerce, and the mobile payment in mobile terminals was with the tide of development and spread. By analyzing mobile payment, this paper found the major risk for disruption in operation to be technical risks, and then proposed the use of technology and business strategy to construct the intelligent gateway backup, to make sure the continued stability of business operation.%4G的普及给移动电子商务的发展提供了基础,移动支付环节也随之在移动终端中进一步发展和普及。主要通过对移动支付的分析,发现移动支付开展中面临的中断风险主要为技术风险,随后通过运用技术和商业策略建设智能网关备份,保障业务的持续稳定开展。

  18. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  19. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  20. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Bradley, Keith; Jones, Edwin D.; Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Robel, Martin; Sleaford, Brad W.

    2010-01-01

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  2. The application of a figure of merit for nuclear explosive utility as a metric for material attractiveness in a nuclear material theft scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Wayne E., E-mail: weking@llnl.go [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bradley, Keith [Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Jones, Edwin D. [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kramer, Kevin J.; Latkowski, Jeffery F. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Robel, Martin [Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Sleaford, Brad W. [Engineering Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Effective integration of nonproliferation management into the design process is key to the broad deployment of advanced nuclear energy systems, and is an explicit goal of the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The nuclear explosives utility of a nuclear material to a state (proliferator) or sub-state (terrorist) is a critical factor to be assessed and is one aspect of material attractiveness. In this work, we approached nuclear explosives utility through the calculation of a 'figure of merit' (FOM) that has recently been developed to capture the relative viability and difficulty of constructing nuclear explosives starting from various nuclear material forms and compositions. We discuss the integration of the figure of merit into an assessment of a nuclear material theft scenario and its use in the assessment. This paper demonstrates that material attractiveness is a multidimensional concept that embodies more than the FOM. It also seeks to propose that other attributes may be able to be quantified through analogous FOMs (e.g., transformation) and that, with quantification, aggregation may be possible using concepts from the risk community.

  3. Backup Expression of the PhaP2 Phasin Compensates for phaP1 Deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Maintaining Fitness and PHB Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luis P S; Teixeira, Cícero S; Tirapelle, Evandro F; Donatti, Lucélia; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Steffens, Maria B R; de Souza, Emanuel M; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fabio; Chubatsu, Leda S; Müller-Santos, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Phasins are important proteins controlling poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈50% in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was sixfold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  4. Backup expression of the PhaP2 phasin compensates for phaP1 deletion in Herbaspirillum seropedicae, maintaining fitness and PHB accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Paulo Silveira Alves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phasins are important proteins controlling PHB granules formation, their number into the cell and stability. The genome sequencing of the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae SmR1 revealed two homologous phasin genes. To verify the role of the phasins on PHB accumulation in the parental strain H. seropedicae SmR1, isogenic strains defective in the expression of phaP1, phaP2 or both genes were obtained by gene deletion and characterized in this work. Despite of the high sequence similarity between PhaP1 and PhaP2, PhaP1 is the major phasin in H. seropedicae, since its deletion reduced PHB accumulation by ≈ 50 % in comparison to the parental and ΔphaP2. Upon deletion of phaP1, the expression of phaP2 was 6-fold enhanced in the ΔphaP1 strain. The responsive backup expression of phaP2 partially rescued the ΔphaP1 mutant, maintaining about 50% of the parental PHB level. The double mutant ΔphaP1.2 did not accumulate PHB in any growth stage and showed a severe reduction of growth when glucose was the carbon source, a clear demonstration of negative impact in the fitness. The co-occurrence of phaP1 and phaP2 homologous in bacteria relatives of H. seropedicae, including other endophytes, indicates that the mechanism of phasin compensation by phaP2 expression may be operating in other organisms, showing that PHB metabolism is a key factor to adaptation and efficiency of endophytic bacteria.

  5. Current status, research needs, and opportunities in applications of surface processing to transportation and utilities technologies. Proceedings of a December 1991 workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Landgrebe, A.R. [eds.

    1992-09-01

    Goal of surface processing is to develop innovative methods of surface modification and characterization for optimum performance and environmental protection for cost-effective operational lifetimes of systems, materials, and components used in transportation and utilities. These proceedings document the principal discussions and conclusions reached at the workshop; they document chapters about the current status of surface characterization with focus on composition, structure, bonding, and atomic-scale topography of surfaces. Also documented are chapters on the current status of surface modification techniques: electrochemical, plasma-aided, reactive and nonreactive physical vapor deposition, sol-gel coatings, high-energy ion implantation, ion-assisted deposition, organized molecular assemblies, solar energy. Brief chapters in the appendices document basic research in surface science by NSF, Air Force, and DOE. Participants at the workshop were invited to serve on 10 working groups. Separate abstracts were prepared for the data base where appropriate.

  6. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 2: Analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    All possible overall system configurations, operating modes, and subsystem concepts for a wind turbine configuration for cost effective generation of electrical power were evaluated for both technical feasibility and compatibility with utility networks, as well as for economic attractiveness. A design optimization computer code was developed to determine the cost sensitivity of the various design features, and thus establish the configuration and design conditions that would minimize the generated energy costs. The preliminary designs of both a 500 kW unit and a 1500 kW unit operating in a 12 mph and 18 mph median wind speed respectively, were developed. The various design features and components evaluated are described, and the rationale employed to select the final design configuration is given. All pertinent technical performance data and component cost data is included. The costs of all major subassemblies are estimated and the resultant energy costs for both the 500 kW and 1500 kW units are calculated.

  7. Design study of wind turbines 50 kW to 3000 kW for electric utility applications. Volume 1: Summary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Wind turbine configurations that would lead to generation of electrical power in a cost effective manner were considered. All possible overall system configurationss, operating modes, and sybsystem concepts were evaluated for both technical feasibility and compatibility with utility networks, as well as for economic attractiveness. A design optimization computer code was developed to determine the cost sensitivity of the various design features, and thus establish the configuration and design conditions that would minimize the generated energy costs. The preliminary designs of both a 500 kW unit and a 1500 kW unit operating in a 12 mph and 18 mph median wind speed respectively, were developed. The rationale employed and the key findings are summarized.

  8. Application of National Emergency X-Ray Utilizations Study low-risk c-spine criteria in high-risk geriatric falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel; Vera, Luis; Jeanmonod, Donald; Pester, Jonathan; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2015-09-01

    We sought to validate National Emergency X-Radiography Utilizations Study low-risk cervical spine (C spine) criteria in a geriatric trauma population. We sought to determine whether patients' own baseline mental status (MS) could substitute for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) to meet the criteria "normal alertness." We further sought to refine the definition of "distracting injury." This is a retrospective review of geriatric fall patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center and triaged to the trauma bay. We queried our database from 2008 to 2013. Abstractors recorded GCS, deviation from baseline MS, midline neck tenderness, intoxication, focal deficit, signs of trauma, and presence of other injury. Patients were considered at baseline MS if specific documentation was present on the chart, or if their GCS was 15. Six hundred sixty elderly fall patients were trauma alerts during the study period. Seventeen were excluded for incomplete records/death before imaging, leaving 647. The median age was 81 (interquartile range, 74-87). Fifty patients (8.0%) had C spine or cord injury. Two hundred ninety-four (44.5%) had baseline MS (including GCS 13-15), no spine tenderness, no intoxication, and no focal neurologic deficit. Of these, 18 had C-spine injury. Using physical findings of head trauma as the only "distracting injury," no injury would have been missed (sensitivity, 100% [confidence interval, 91.1-100]; specificity, 14.2%). Our study suggests that National Emergency X-Radiography Utilizations Study can be safely applied in elderly fall patients who are at their personal baseline MS. Furthermore, our data support a more narrow definition of distracting injury to include only patients with signs of trauma to the head. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  10. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  11. Utilization of a Si-surface-barrier-detector for alpha-spectrometry and its application in radiation protection for the detection of law alpha-activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, F.; Urbanich, E.; Lovranich, E.; Hefner, A.

    1974-12-01

    Due to the construction of the ''Safeguard Analytical Laboratory''(IAEA), the institute for radiation protection at the Research Center Seibersdorf is interested in a method for the alpha-spectroscopic determination of Pu-239 for personnel and environmental monitoring. Therefore an alpha-spectrometer has been built which will mainly be used for the excretion analysis. The design of the apparatus is described, results of measurements are given and other fields of its application are discussed. (C.R.)

  12. Backup_of_journaldec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the problems faced at the operational level of TB control in Ekiti State. Methods:The ... Ten Local. Government Areas (LGA) out of the 16 LGAs in the state, selected by simple ... Therefore periodic evaluation of from participants was maintained. Data was the success and ... integrated into the primary health care services.

  13. Backup_of_journaldec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JCHEWs and SCHEWs, the two cadres that form the bulk of community health care workers ... The practice of not recapping, bending and breaking of needles and “hands ... have better practice profile. ..... were in the habit of using gloves in. 16.

  14. Backup_of_journaldec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (99% and 80%), keeping of information shared (86% and 56%) (p<0.05) in. Surulere and Ikorodu ... for assessing providers' behavior and exit. 1 ... Consumers judge quality by assessing factors pregnancy ... The economy is based to a large.

  15. ITK optical links backup document

    CERN Document Server

    Huffman, B T; The ATLAS collaboration; Flick, T; Ye, J

    2013-01-01

    This document describes the proposed optical links to be used for the ITK in the phase II upgrade. The current R&D for optical links pursued in the Versatile Link group is reviewed. In particular the results demonstrating the radiation tolerance of all the on-detector components are documented. The bandwidth requirements and the resulting numerology are given.

  16. Backup_of_journaldec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n = (1.96) (0.033)(0.967) educators amongst female sex workers on. 2. 0.02 ... in the selection of respondents for the survey centre of Nigeria with an .... Mutual fidelity. Regular condom use. Avoid sex outside marriage. Avoid sharing sharp objects. Avoid blood transfusion. Others. Source(s) of information. Relations. Friends.

  17. Backup_of_journaldec 2009

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce emissions today, the benefits of reduced climate change will occur decades or centuries later .... The study suggested that economies on ... countries are worse off. Global insured ... social determinants of health the conditions supplies ...

  18. PHOBINS: an index file of photon production cross section data and its utility code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Koyama, Kinji; Ido, Masaru; Hotta, Masakazu; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi

    1978-08-01

    The code System PHOBINS developed for reference of photon production cross sections is described in detail. The system is intended to grasp the present status of photon production data and present the information of available data. It consists of four utility routines, CREA, UP-DT, REF and BACK, and data files. These utility routines are used for making an index file of the photon production cross sections, updating the index file, searching the index file and producing a back-up file of the index file. In the index file of the photon production cross sections, a data base system is employed for efficient data management in economical storage, ease of updating and efficient reference. The present report is a reference manual of PHOBINS. (author)

  19. Midclerkship feedback in the surgical clerkship: the "Professionalism, Reporting, Interpreting, Managing, Educating, and Procedural Skills" application utilizing learner self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Mark; Berman, Russell; Ogilvie, Jennifer; Yingling, Sandra; Lee, Sabrina; Pusic, Martin; Pachter, H Leon

    2017-02-01

    The Liaison Committee on Medical Education requires midclerkship formative (low stakes) feedback to students regarding their clinical skills. Student self-assessment is not commonly incorporated into this evaluation. We sought to determine the feasibility of collecting and comparing student self-assessment with that of their preceptors using an iPad application. These student self-ratings and preceptor ratings are jointly created and reviewed as part of a face-to-face midclerkship feedback session. Using our iPad application for Professionalism, Reporting, Interpreting, Managing, Educating, and Procedural Skills ("PRIMES"), students answer 6 questions based on their self-assessment of performance at midclerkship. Each skill is rated on a 3-point scale (beginning, competent, and strong) with specific behavioral anchors. The faculty preceptors then complete the same PRIMES form during the face-to-face meeting. The application displays a comparison of the 2 sets of ratings, facilitating a discussion to determine individualized learning objectives for the second half of the clerkship. A total of 209 student-preceptor pairs completed PRIMES ratings. On average, student-preceptor ratings were in agreement for 38% of the time. Agreement between students and preceptors was highest for Professionalism (70%) and lowest for Procedural Skills (22%). On average, 60% of student-preceptor ratings did not agree. Students rated themselves lower than preceptors 52% of the time, while only 8% of students rated themselves higher than their preceptors' ratings (this difference is significant at the P value self-assessment into formative face-to-face midclerkship feedback sessions with their preceptors with the goal to improve performance during the second half of the clerkship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of solid waste from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter in Agrocybe aegerita cultivation: mushroom production, lignocellulolytic enzymes activity and substrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S; Mikiashvili, Nona A; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-06-01

    The degradation and utilization of solid waste (SW) from anaerobic digestion of poultry litter by Agrocybe aegerita was evaluated through mushroom production, loss of organic matter (LOM), lignocellulolytic enzymes activity, lignocellulose degradation and mushroom nutrients content. Among the substrate combinations (SCs) tested, substrates composed of 10-20% SW, 70-80% wheat straw and 10% millet was found to produce the highest mushroom yield (770.5 and 642.9 g per 1.5 kg of substrate). LOM in all SCs tested varied between 8.8 and 48.2%. A. aegerita appears to degrade macromolecule components (0.6-21.8% lignin, 33.1-55.2% cellulose and 14-53.9% hemicellulose) during cultivation on the different SCs. Among the seven extracellular enzymes monitored, laccase, peroxidase and CMCase activities were higher before fruiting; while xylanase showed higher activities after fruiting. A source of carbohydrates (e.g., millet) in the substrate is needed in order to obtain yield and biological efficiency comparable to other commercially cultivated exotic mushrooms.

  1. Utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 Transgenic Mice in Research of Alzheimer's Disease: Focus on Gene Therapy and Cell-Based Therapy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Malm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most extensively used transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, which over express the Swedish mutation of APP together with PS1 deleted in exon 9. These mice show increase in parenchymal Aβ load with Aβ plaques starting from the age of four months, glial activation, and deficits in cognitive functions at the age of 6 months demonstrated by radial arm water maze and 12-13 months seen with Morris Water Maze test. As gene transfer technology allows the delivery of DNA into target cells to achieve the expression of a protective or therapeutic protein, and stem cell transplantation may create an environment supporting neuronal functions and clearing Aβ plaques, these therapeutic approaches alone or in combination represent potential therapeutic strategies that need to be tested in relevant animal models before testing in clinics. Here we review the current utilization of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice in testing gene transfer and cell transplantation aimed at improving the protection of the neurons against Aβ toxicity and also reducing the brain levels of Aβ. Both gene therapy and cell based therapy may be feasible therapeutic approaches for human AD.

  2. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  3. SU-F-BRA-05: Utility of the Combined Use of Two Types of HDR Sources with the Direction Modulation Brachytherapy (DMBT) Tandem Applicator for Cervical Cancer Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safigholi, H; Soliman, A; Song, W [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Han, D [Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, U of T, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Meigooni, A Soleimani [Comprehensive Cancer Center of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Scanderbeg, D [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To maximize the dose to HRCTV while minimizing dose to the OARs, the combination of two HDR brachytherapy sources, 192-Ir and 169-Yb, used in combination with the recently-proposed novel direction modulated brachytherapy (DMBT) tandem applicator were examined. Methods: The DMBT tandem, made from nonmagnetic tungsten-alloy rod, with diameter of 5.4mm, has 6 symmetric peripheral holes of 1.3mm diameter. The 0.3mm thick bio-compatible plastic tubing wraps the tandem. MCNPX v.2.6 was used to simulate the mHDR 192-Ir V2 and 4140 HDR 169-Yb sources inside the DMBT applicator. Thought was by combining the higher energy 192-Ir (380keV) and lower energy 169-Yb (92.7keV) sources could create unprecedented level of dose conformality when combined with the high-degree intensity modulation capable DMBT tandem applicator. 3D dose matrices, with 1 mm3 resolution, were imported into an in-house-coded inverse optimization planning system to evaluate plan quality of 19 clinical patient cases. Prescription dose was 15Gy. All plans were normalized to receive the same HRCTV D90. Results: Generally, the use of dual sources produced better plans than using either of the sources alone, with significantly better performance in some patients. The mean D2cc for bladder, rectum, and sigmoid were 11.65±2.30Gy, 7.47±3.05Gy, and 9.84±2.48Gy for 192-Ir-only, respectively. For 169 -Yb-only, they were 11.67±2.26Gy, 7.44±3.02Gy, and 9.83±2.38Gy, respectively. The corresponding data for the dual sources were 11.51±2.24Gy, 7.30±3.00Gy, and 9.68 ±2.39Gy, respectively. The HRCTV D98 and V100 were 16.37±1.86Gy and 97.37±1.92Gy for Ir-192-only, respectively. For 169-Yb-only, they were 16.43±1.86Gy, and 97.51±1.91Gy, respectively. For the dual source, they were 16.42±1.87Gy and 97.47±1.93Gy, respectively. Conclusion: The plan quality improves, in some cases quite significantly, for when dual 192-Ir and 169-Yb sources are used in combination with highly intensity modulation capable

  4. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wang Hui [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gil-Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  5. Pulmonary vessel segmentation utilizing curved planar reformation and optimal path finding (CROP) in computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) for CAD applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuan; Chan, Heang-Ping; Kuriakose, Jean W.; Chughtai, Aamer; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Guo, Yanhui; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2012-03-01

    Vessel segmentation is a fundamental step in an automated pulmonary embolism (PE) detection system. The purpose of this study is to improve the segmentation scheme for pulmonary vessels affected by PE and other lung diseases. We have developed a multiscale hierarchical vessel enhancement and segmentation (MHES) method for pulmonary vessel tree extraction based on the analysis of eigenvalues of Hessian matrices. However, it is difficult to segment the pulmonary vessels accurately under suboptimal conditions, such as vessels occluded by PEs, surrounded by lymphoid tissues or lung diseases, and crossing with other vessels. In this study, we developed a new vessel refinement method utilizing curved planar reformation (CPR) technique combined with optimal path finding method (MHES-CROP). The MHES segmented vessels straightened in the CPR volume was refined using adaptive gray level thresholding where the local threshold was obtained from least-square estimation of a spline curve fitted to the gray levels of the vessel along the straightened volume. An optimal path finding method based on Dijkstra's algorithm was finally used to trace the correct path for the vessel of interest. Two and eight CTPA scans were randomly selected as training and test data sets, respectively. Forty volumes of interest (VOIs) containing "representative" vessels were manually segmented by a radiologist experienced in CTPA interpretation and used as reference standard. The results show that, for the 32 test VOIs, the average percentage volume error relative to the reference standard was improved from 32.9+/-10.2% using the MHES method to 9.9+/-7.9% using the MHES-CROP method. The accuracy of vessel segmentation was improved significantly (pvolume between the automated segmentation and the reference standard was improved from 0.919 to 0.988. Quantitative comparison of the MHES method and the MHES-CROP method with the reference standard was also evaluated by the Bland-Altman plot. This preliminary

  6. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min; Lee, Wang Hui

    2016-01-01

    99mTc-MAG 3 Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG 3 and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG 3 Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  7. Utilization of control rod drive (CRD) system for long term core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta B, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we consider an application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to risk management. Foreseeable risk management strategies to prevent core damage are constrained by the availability of first line systems as well as support systems. The actual trend in the evaluation of risk management options can be performed in a number of ways. An example is the identification of back-up systems which could be used to perform the same safety functions. In this work we deal with the evaluation of the feasibility, for BWR's, to use the Control Rod Drive system to maintain an adequate reactor core long term cooling in some accident sequences. This preliminary evaluation is carried out as a part of the Internal Events Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) that is currently under way by the Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Body. This analysis addresses the evaluation and incorporation of all the systems, including the safety related and the back-up non safety related systems, that are available for the operator in order to prevent core damage. As a part of this analysis the containment venting capability is also evaluated as a back-up of the containment heat removal function. This will prevent the primary containment overpressurization and loss of certain core cooling systems. A selection of accident sequences in which the Control Rod Drive system could be used to mitigate the accident and prevent core damage are discussed. A personal computer transient analysis code is used to carry out thermohydraulic simulations in order to evaluate the Control Rod Drive system performance, the corresponding results are presented. Finally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  8. Modern utilization of accurate methods for gamma-ray spectral analysis detected by high pure germanium (HPGE) detectors through different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    this thesis presents a novel way for application of wavelet trans-from theory in gamma -ray spectroscopy. this technique was applied for searching real and weak peaks, solving problem of multiplets, smoothing and de-noising gamma-ray spectra, and using artificial neural network for identifying peaks. a brief description about gamma-ray spectrum analysis is presented . we discussed the necessary formulas and algorithms of wavelet theory to solve these main problems in gamma ray spectrum analysis. the algorithm of peak search was applied on different types of spectra, IAEA spectra and other sources of gamma spectra. the algorithm of multiplets algorithm was applied successfully on different types of multiplets. the algorithm of denoising was applied successfully on different sources of spectra

  9. modern utilization of accurate methods for gamma-ray spectral analysis detected by high pure germanium (HPGE) detectors through different applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    this thesis presents a novel way for application of wavelet transform theory in gamma-ray spectroscopy . this technique was applied for searching real and weak peaks, solving problem of multiplets, smoothing and de-noising gamma-ray spectra, and using artificial neural network for identifying peaks. a brief description about gamma-ray spectrum analysis is presented. we discussed the necessary formulas and algorithms of wavelet theory to solve these main problems in gamma -ray spectrum analysis. the algorithm of peak search was applied on different types of spectra, IAEA spectra and other sources of gamma spectra. the algorithm of multiplets algorithm was applied successfully on different types of multiplets. the algorithm of de noising was applied successfully on different sources of spectra.finally, a database for neutron activation laboratory is created. this data base consists of five routines, wavelet gamma spectrum analysis, peak identification, elemental concentration , neutron flux determination,and detector efficiency calculation

  10. A pilot study to assess the utility of a freely downloadable mobile application simulator for undergraduate clinical skills training: a single-blinded, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Richard D; Radenkovic, Dina; Mitrasinovic, Stefan; Cole, Andrew; Pavkovic, Iva; Denn, Peyton Cheong Phey; Hussain, Mahrukh; Kogler, Magdalena; Koutsopodioti, Natalia; Uddin, Wasima; Beckley, Ivan; Abubakar, Hana; Gill, Deborah; Smith, Daron

    2017-12-11

    Medical simulators offer an invaluable educational resource for medical trainees. However, owing to cost and portability restrictions, they have traditionally been limited to simulation centres. With the advent of sophisticated mobile technology, simulators have become cheaper and more accessible. Touch Surgery is one such freely downloadable mobile application simulator (MAS) used by over one million healthcare professionals worldwide. Nevertheless, to date, it has never been formally validated as an adjunct in undergraduate medical education. Medical students in the final 3 years of their programme were recruited and randomised to one of three revision interventions: 1) no formal revision resources, 2) traditional revision resources, or 3) MAS. Students completed pre-test questionnaires and were then assessed on their ability to complete an undisclosed male urinary catheterisation scenario. Following a one-hour quarantined revision period, all students repeated the scenario. Both attempts were scored by allocation-blinded examiners against an objective 46-point mark scheme. A total of 27 medical students were randomised (n = 9 per group). Mean scores improved between baseline and post-revision attempts by 8.7% (p = 0.003), 19.8% (p = 0.0001), and 15.9% (p = 0.001) for no resources, traditional resources, and MAS, respectively. However, when comparing mean score improvements between groups there were no significant differences. Mobile simulators offer an unconventional, yet potentially useful adjunct to enhance undergraduate clinical skills education. Our results indicate that MAS's perform comparably to current gold-standard revision resources; however, they may confer significant advantages in terms of cost-effectiveness and practice flexibility. Not applicable.

  11. Light duty utility arm software requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the software requirements for the integrated control and data acquisition system of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. It is intended to be used to guide the design of the application software, to be a basis for assessing the application software design, and to establish what is to be tested in the finished application software product

  12. Improved sample utilization in thermal ionization mass spectrometry isotope ratio measurements: refined development of porous ion emitters for nuclear forensic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baruzzini, Matthew Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-08

    The precise and accurate determination of isotopic composition in nuclear forensic samples is vital for assessing origin, intended use and process history. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) is widely accepted as the gold standard for high performance isotopic measurements and has long served as the workhorse in the isotopic ratio determination of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensic and safeguard specialists have relied heavily on such methods for both routine and atypical e orts. Despite widespread use, TIMS methods for the assay of actinide systems continue to be hindered by poor ionization e ciency, often less than tenths of a percent; the majority of a sample is not measured. This represents a growing challenge in addressing nextgeneration nuclear detection needs by limiting the ability to analyze ultratrace quantities of high priority elements that could potentially provide critical nuclear forensic signatures. Porous ion emitter (PIE) thermal ion sources were developed in response to the growing need for new TIMS ion source strategies for improved ionization e ciency, PIEs have proven to be simple to implement, straightforward approach to boosting ion yield. This work serves to expand the use of PIE techniques for the analysis of trace quantities of plutonium and americium. PIEs exhibited superior plutonium and americium ion yields when compared to direct lament loading and the resin bead technique, one of the most e cient methods for actinide analysis, at similar mass loading levels. Initial attempts at altering PIE composition for the analysis of plutonium proved to enhance sample utilization even further. Preliminary investigations of the instrumental fractionation behavior of plutonium and uranium analyzed via PIE methods were conducted. Data collected during these initial trial indicate that PIEs fractionate in a consistent, reproducible manner; a necessity for high precision isotope ratio measurements. Ultimately, PIEs methods were applied for

  13. Utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation" (CORE)-index in predicting obesity in childhood and adolescence in Greece from early life: the "National Action Plan for Public Health".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis; Moschonis, George; Karachaliou, Feneli; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Bogdanis, Gregory; Carayanni, Vilelmine; Hatzakis, Angelos; Michalacos, Stefanos

    2016-12-01

    Early identification of infants being at high risk to become obese at their later childhood or adolescence can be of vital importance in any obesity prevention initiative. The aim of the present study was to examine the utility and applicability of the "Childhood Obesity Risk Evaluation (CORE)" index as a screening tool for the early prediction of obesity in childhood and adolescence. Anthropometric, socio-demographic data were collected cross-sectionally and retrospectively from a representative sample of 5946 children, and adolescents and were combined for calculating the CORE-index score. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of the CORE-index score with obesity by gender and age group, and cut-off point analysis was also applied to identify the optimal value of the CORE-index score that differentiates obese from non-obese children. Mean CORE-index score in the total sample was 3.06 (sd 1.92) units (range 0-11 units). Each unit increase in the CORE-index score was found to be associated with a 30 % (95 % C.I. 1.24-1.36) increased likelihood for obesity in childhood or adolescence, while the optimal cut-off value of the CORE-index score that predicted obesity with the highest possible sensitivity and specificity was found to be 3.5. The present study supports the utility and applicability of the CORE-index as a screening tool for the early identification of infants that are potentially at a higher risk for becoming obese at their childhood and adolescence. This tool could be routinely used by health professionals to identify infants at high risk and provide appropriate counselling to their parents and caregivers so as to maximize the effectiveness of early obesity prevention initiatives. What is known? • Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. • Certain perinatal and socio-demographic indices that were previously identified as correlates of childhood obesity in children were combined to develop the

  14. An applicable method for efficiency estimation of operating tray distillation columns and its comparison with the methods utilized in HYSYS and Aspen Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza

    2015-10-01

    Developing general methods that rely on column data for the efficiency estimation of operating (existing) distillation columns has been overlooked in the literature. Most of the available methods are based on empirical mass transfer and hydraulic relations correlated to laboratory data. Therefore, these methods may not be sufficiently accurate when applied to industrial columns. In this paper, an applicable and accurate method was developed for the efficiency estimation of distillation columns filled with trays. This method can calculate efficiency as well as mass and heat transfer coefficients without using any empirical mass transfer or hydraulic correlations and without the need to estimate operational or hydraulic parameters of the column. E.g., the method does not need to estimate tray interfacial area, which can be its most important advantage over all the available methods. The method can be used for the efficiency prediction of any trays in distillation columns. For the efficiency calculation, the method employs the column data and uses the true rates of the mass and heat transfers occurring inside the operating column. It is highly emphasized that estimating efficiency of an operating column has to be distinguished from that of a column being designed.

  15. Beyond labels: A review of the application of quantum dots as integrated components of assays, bioprobes, and biosensors utilizing optical transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algar, W. Russ; Tavares, Anthony J. [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada); Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca [Chemical Sensors Group, Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2010-07-12

    A comprehensive review of the development of assays, bioprobes, and biosensors using quantum dots (QDs) as integrated components is presented. In contrast to a QD that is selectively introduced as a label, an integrated QD is one that is present in a system throughout a bioanalysis, and simultaneously has a role in transduction and as a scaffold for biorecognition. Through a diverse array of coatings and bioconjugation strategies, it is possible to use QDs as a scaffold for biorecognition events. The modulation of QD luminescence provides the opportunity for the transduction of these events via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), charge transfer quenching, and electrochemiluminescence (ECL). An overview of the basic concepts and principles underlying the use of QDs with each of these transduction methods is provided, along with many examples of their application in biological sensing. The latter include: the detection of small molecules using enzyme-linked methods, or using aptamers as affinity probes; the detection of proteins via immunoassays or aptamers; nucleic acid hybridization assays; and assays for protease or nuclease activity. Strategies for multiplexed detection are highlighted among these examples. Although the majority of developments to date have been in vitro, QD-based methods for ex vivo biological sensing are emerging. Some special attention is given to the development of solid-phase assays, which offer certain advantages over their solution-phase counterparts.

  16. Application of Coal Ash to Postmine Land for Prevention of Soil Erosion in Coal Mine in Indonesia: Utilization of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of coal-fired power plants with the increase in coal production and its consumption has caused the problem of the treatment of a large amount of coal ash in Indonesia. In the past studies, coal ash was applied to postmine land with the aim of improving soil conditions for plant growth; however, heavy rain in the tropical climate may cause soil erosion with the change in soil conditions. This study presents the effects of application of coal ash to postmine land on soil erosion by performing the artificial rainfall test as well as physical testing. The results indicate that the risk of soil erosion can be reduced significantly by applying the coal ash which consists of more than 85% of sand to topsoil in the postmine land at the mixing ratio of over 30%. Additionally, they reveal that not only fine fractions but also microporous structures in coal ash enhance water retention capacity by retaining water in the structure, leading to the prevention of soil erosion. Thus, the risk of soil erosion can be reduced by applying coal ash to topsoil in consideration of soil composition and microporous structure of coal ash.

  17. Present and possible utilization of PUSPATI reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Ah Auu.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization of PUSPATI TRIGA Mark II Reactor (PTR) has increased reasonably well since its commissioning last year. PTR was used mainly for training of operators, neutron flux measurements and neutron activation analysis. However, the present utilization data indicates that further increase in PTR utilization to include teaching and the usage of the beam ports is desirable. Some possible areas of PTR applications in the future in relevance to our needs are also described in this paper. (author)

  18. Function Preservation After Conservative Resection and Radiotherapy for Soft-tissue Sarcoma of the Distal Extremity: Utility and Application of the Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Richard J; Indelicato, Daniel J; Gibbs, Charles P; Scarborough, Mark T; Morris, Christopher G; Zlotecki, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate outcomes after conservative resection and radiotherapy (RT) for soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) of the distal extremity, with assessment of functional quality of life using the validated Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) questionnaire and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), v4.0. Thirty-three patients with STS involving the hand/wrist (N=18) or foot/ankle (N=15) complex received adjuvant RT with conservative resection and were evaluated for local tumor control, survival, toxicities, and preservation of objective functional ability. Eight patients were treated with preoperative RT (median dose, 50.4 Gy) and 25 with postoperative RT (median dose, 61.8 Gy). Median follow-up was 11.5 years. Functional outcomes were measured using TESS; patients with amputations were excluded from the TESS analysis. Adverse events related to gait, limb edema, skin infection, wound complication, and wound dehiscence were assessed using the CTCAE. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were both 90%. The 10-year cause-specific, absolute, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 97%, 87%, and 84%, respectively. Three patients had an amputation for reasons other than local recurrence or treatment complications and underwent amputation for patient preference. One third of the subjects (11/33 patients) were able to complete the TESS questionnaire; scores ranged from 88 to 100 (mean, 98.2). CTCAEv4 acute adverse events occurred in 2 cases: 1 patient had a grade 3 skin infection and 1 had a grade 2 wound complication of dehiscence. For management of distal extremity STS, the combination of adjuvant RT and conservative surgery achieves excellent local control and overall survival with few adverse events. In addition, through application of the TESS survey instrument, we have demonstrated that this treatment plan achieves robust functional preservation objectively and quantifiably.

  19. ARC Code TI: CFD Utility Software Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CFD Utility Software Library consists of nearly 30 libraries of Fortran 90 and 77 subroutines and almost 100 applications built on those libraries. Many of the...

  20. mathematical models for estimating radio channels utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... Mathematical models for radio channels utilization assessment by real-time flows transfer in ... data transmission networks application having dynamic topology ..... Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 56(2): 85–90.