WorldWideScience

Sample records for backing strips

  1. Optimization of Stripping Voltammetric Sensor by a Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network for the Accurate Determination of Pb(II) in the Presence of Cd(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo; Wang, Hui; Liu, Gang; Wang, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-21

    An easy, but effective, method has been proposed to detect and quantify the Pb(II) in the presence of Cd(II) based on a Bi/glassy carbon electrode (Bi/GCE) with the combination of a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) and square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) without further electrode modification. The effects of Cd(II) in different concentrations on stripping responses of Pb(II) was studied. The results indicate that the presence of Cd(II) will reduce the prediction precision of a direct calibration model. Therefore, a two-input and one-output BP-ANN was built for the optimization of a stripping voltammetric sensor, which considering the combined effects of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on the SWASV detection of Pb(II) and establishing the nonlinear relationship between the stripping peak currents of Pb(II) and Cd(II) and the concentration of Pb(II). The key parameters of the BP-ANN and the factors affecting the SWASV detection of Pb(II) were optimized. The prediction performance of direct calibration model and BP-ANN model were tested with regard to the mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), average relative error (ARE), and correlation coefficient. The results proved that the BP-ANN model exhibited higher prediction accuracy than the direct calibration model. Finally, a real samples analysis was performed to determine trace Pb(II) in some soil specimens with satisfactory results.

  2. Development and Application of Pressure-Equalizing Back-Up Roll Contour in Hot Strip Mill%宽带钢热连轧机组均压支承辊辊形开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 李飞; 李本海; 张宝辉; 王磊; 陈超超

    2012-01-01

    CVC(Continuous Variable Crown) work roll contour technology since its invention was applied in more than 150 hot rolling mills throughout the world for controlling strip shape.However,in actual application,there were uneven wear on rolls or even roll spalling problems because contact pressure concentrations existed between work and back-up rolls when flat or CVC back-up roll was used for configuration with CVC work roll during the rolling.For solving these defects,a pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour with combination of VCR(Variable Crown Back-up Roll) and CVC back-up roll contours was designed and applied on a hot rolling mill.It not only has the feature of VCR back-up roll contour,but also can improve the contact condition between work and back-up roll.After the application of pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour,roll spalling problem was solved,and strip profile quality was also improved.%CVC工作辊辊形自发明以来在全球150多条热连轧生产线上得到应用,以控制带钢的板形。实际应用中,与CVC工作辊配对使用的支承辊无论采用平辊还是CVC辊形均存在非均匀磨损甚至轧辊剥落失效的问题,主要原因是CVC支承辊辊形和平支承辊与CVC工作辊配置时存在接触压力集中。为了解决此问题,设计并应用了一种均压支承辊辊形与CVC工作辊配置使用。此辊形是变接触支承辊辊形(VCR)与CVC支承辊辊形的组合,具有变接触辊形的优点,同时又能更好地与CVC工作辊配置使用。均压支承辊辊形应用后,改善了CVC工作辊与支承辊辊间接触状态,解决了轧辊剥落问题,并改善了带钢凸度质量。

  3. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  4. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/1201/p1289.html . ...

  5. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  6. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  7. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oh, my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, ... 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

  8. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  9. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  10. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  11. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I....... At last a postprocessor will be included with facilities for statistical calculations and for plots and prints of the results.The project is divided into 7 tasks where the third is to be completed.This report has two aims. To give an introduction to the project of developing a strip theory module...

  12. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  13. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can increase your flexibility, strengthen your back and abdominal muscles, and improve your posture. Regular use of these ... best for you. Build muscle strength and flexibility. Abdominal and back muscle exercises (core-strengthening exercises) help condition these muscles ...

  14. Effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yu; Yonglin Kang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) to reduce the strength to a certain degree was investigated, which is quite different from that of high-strength low alloy steel. The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of the hot strip were studied using optical microscopy and tensile tests. By means of an electrolytic disso- lution technique and Thermo-Cal calculation, the precipitates containing boron were analyzed and detected. From the electron back- scattered diffraction analysis, it can be deciphered whether the microstructure has recrystallized or not. Furthermore, the effect of boron segregation on the recrystallization or non-recrystallization conditions can be distinguished. The segregation behavior of boron was investigated in boron-containing steel. The nonequilibrium segregation of boron during processing was discussed on the basis of the forming complexes with vacancies that migrate to the boundaries prior to annihilation, which was confirmed by the subsequent cold rolling with annealing experiments.

  15. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that ...

  16. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  17. [Post-stripping telangiectasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutinel, B; Maraval, M

    1985-01-01

    These telangiectasia appear between one and six months after the operation, especially in cases of capillary fragility. The most common localizations are the antero-internal and external sides of the thighs and knees. Unnecessary strippings, of continent saphenous veins, are the most frequent cause of these. Their prevention consists of the least possible traumatising stripping, using a fine stripper, a very rigorous post-operative support, and the wearing of light varicose stockings or tights for between one and three months. The treatment using microsclerosis, often delicate, should not be undertaken before six months.

  18. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  19. 12 CFR 204.132 - Treatment of loan strip participations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... selling the loan or participation in effect must buy back the loan or participation at the maturity of the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of loan strip participations. 204.132... RESERVE REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.132 Treatment of...

  20. Parabolic Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal of a new type of telescopes using a rotating parabolic strip as the primary mirror. It is the most principal modification of the design of telescopes from the times of Galileo and Newton. In order to demonstrate the basic idea, the image of an artificial constellation observed by this kind of telescope was reconstructed using the techniques described in this article. As a working model of this new telescope, we have used an assembly of the primary mirror---a strip of acrylic glass parabolic mirror 40 cm long and 10 cm wid shaped as a parabolic cylinder of focal length 1 m---and an artificial constellation, a set of 5 apertures in a distance of 5 m illuminated from behind. In order to reconstruct the image, we made a series of snaps, each after a rotation of the constellation by 15 degrees. Using Matlab we reconstructed the image of the artificial constellation.

  1. Prototype indicator strip for tank ammunition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, B.; Griest, W.

    1993-10-31

    Combustible nitrocellulose ordnance casings offer advantages of: light weight, low cost, low detectability, and quick cycling of rounds by immediate disposal. However, mechanical strength is degraded with time by the action of humidity and nitroester diffusion through the casing to adhesives. The primary development effort of this study is a means to detect nitroester migration to the crucial skive joint which binds an assortment of warhead choices to propellant casings. This work has developed a prototype colorimetric indicator strip which, when applied in a field environment, produces a purple tint proportional to casing nitroester concentration, and inversely proportional to remaining adhesive joint strength. This work addressed the three steps in indicator strip use: (1) A suggested protocol for indicator strip preparation was developed. Various coatings, support reagents, and backings were examined resulting in a choice of polyethylene tape coating over separate AB- and C-impregnated cellulose punches. Various methods of punch creation and impregnation were tried resulting in stirred aqueous solutions and suspensions of AB and C, respectively. (2) Suggested protocols for indicator strip application to lab backings and field casings were developed. After chemical stripper was applied to the alumina-polyurethane paint on casings, C and AB punches were stacked and double-tape sealed. (3) A means for indicator strip monitoring was developed. From known time of indicator reaction, casing humidity, and indicator color, a means for field concentration determination was determined. Lab time-lapse photography was used to calibrate the indicator at a single level of humidity.

  2. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  3. Strip shape control capability of hot wide strip rolling mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renzhong Wang; Quan Yang; Anrui He; Jian Shao; Haitao Bian

    2008-01-01

    The elasticity deformation of rolls was analyzed by means of two-dimensional f'mite element method (FEM) with vari-able thickness. Three typical mills were used as objects for analysis. A thorough study was done on the control capabilities of these mills on the strip shape. Then the strip shape control capabilities of the three mills was compared synthetically.

  4. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  5. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  6. Aptasensors Based on Stripping Voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Qi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aptasensors based on stripping voltammetry exhibit several advantages, such as high sensitivity and multi-target detection from stripping voltammetric technology, and high selectivity from the specific binding of apamers with targets. This review comprehensively discusses the recent accomplishments in signal amplification strategies based on nanomaterials, such as metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, and nanocomposite materials, which are detected by stripping voltammetry after suitable dissolution. Focus will be put in discussing multiple amplification strategies that are widely applied in aptasensors for small biomolecules, proteins, disease markers, and cancer cells.

  7. Microtube strip heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, F. D.

    1991-04-01

    During the last quarter, Doty Scientific, Inc. (DSI) continued to make progress on the microtube strip (MTS) heat exchangers. The team has begun a heat exchanger stress analysis; however, they have been concentrating the bulk of their analytical energies on a computational fluid dynmaics (CFD) model to determine the location and magnitude of shell-side flow maldistribution which decreases heat exchanger effectiveness. DSI received 120 fineblanked tubestrips from Southern Fineblanking (SFB) for manufacturing process development. Both SFB and NIST provided inspection reports of the tubestrips. DSI completed the tooling required to encapsulate a tube array and press tubestrips on the array. Pressing the tubestrips on tube arrays showed design deficiencies both in the tubestrip design and the tooling design. DSI has a number of revisions in process to correct these deficiencies. The research effort has identified a more economical fusible alloy for encapsulating the tube array, and determined the parameters required to successfully encapsulate the tube array with the new alloy. A more compact MTS heat exchanger bank was designed.

  8. A 77 GHz on-chip strip dipole antenna integrated with balun circuits for automotive radar

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, design and implementation of a 77 GHz on-chip strip dipole antenna integrated with both lumped and transmission line based balun circuits are presented. The on-chip antenna is realized by using IHP’s 0.25 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology with localized back-side etch (LBE) module to decrease substrate loss. The strip dipole antenna is fed by both a lumped LC circuit and strip line tapered baluns integrated on the same substrate and occupies an area of 1x1.2 mm2 including the RF pads. ...

  9. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  10. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or ...

  11. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  12. Restitution of enamel after interdental stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, T; Milleding, P; Mohlin, B; Nannmark, U

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of interdental stripping on the enamel surface and evaluates methods to restitute the treated surface. Extracted teeth mounted in a semielastic material were subjected to stripping by different kinds of steel strips. The treated enamel surfaces were then polished in several different ways. The effects were studied by SEM and profilometry. It was concluded that the coarsest strips produced irregularities of such a magnitude that polishing had very limited effect. Polishing starting with coarse polishing strips followed by gradually finer gave the best result. An increase in number of strokes and use of all grades of polishing strips slightly improved the result.

  13. Microstructure of AISI 304 stainless steel strips produced by a twin-roll caster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By optical inspection of macro-etched metallography and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) mapping,this paper analyzed the microstructure of anstenitic stainless steel strips produced with an equal-diameter twin-roll strip caster.The results indicate that the microstructure of the strips includes two columnar zones with highly compact dendrites and one equiaxed zone.The characteristics,such as grain size and growing direction of columnar grains and equiaxed grains,were investigated.An additional transitional area with many freer grains between the columnar zone and the equiaxed zone was found.As shown in EBSD analysis,small angle boundaries exist both in the columnar zone and the equiaxed zone,although they are especially more in the transitional area.Additionally,some twin boundaries were found in the mierostructure of the strips.

  14. An efficient plasmonic photovoltaic structure using silicon strip-loaded geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awal, M. A.; Ahmed, Zabir [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman, E-mail: anis@eee.buet.ac.bd [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We show that a silicon thin-film photovoltaic structure with silicon strips on the top and grooves on the silver back contact layer can absorb incident solar energy over a broad spectral range. The silicon strips on the top scatter the incident light and significantly help couple to the photonic modes in the smaller wavelength range. The grooves on the silver back contact layer both scatter the incident light and help couple to the photonic modes and resonant surface plasmon polaritons. We find an increase of ∼46% in total integrated solar absorption in the proposed strip-loaded structure compared to that in a planar thin film structure of same dimensions. The proposed structure offers simpler fabrication compared to similar plasmonic-inspired designs.

  15. Intraply Hybrid Composites Would Contain Control Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Shiao, Chi-Yu

    1996-01-01

    "Smart" structural components with sensors and/or actuators distributed throughout their volumes made of intraply hybrid composite materials, according to proposal. Strips of hybrid control material interspersed with strips of ordinary (passive) composite material in some layers, providing distributed control capability. For example, near and far edges of plate bent upward by commanding bottom control strips to expand and simultaneously commanding upper control strips to contract.

  16. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water).

  17. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  18. Fast variation method for elastic strip calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Sergey V

    2002-05-01

    A new, fast, variation method (FVM) for determining an elastic strip response to stresses arbitrarily distributed on the flat side of the strip is proposed. The remaining surface of the strip may have an arbitrary form, and it is free of stresses. The FVM, as well as the well-known finite element method (FEM), starts with the variational principle. However, it does not use the meshing of the strip. A comparison of FVM results with the exact analytical solution in the special case of shear stresses and a rectangular strip demonstrates an excellent agreement.

  19. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hurting your back when you exercise. How can pregnancy hormones contribute to back pain? To prepare for the ... of the baby through the birth canal, a hormone relaxes the ligaments in the ... back pain during pregnancy? To help prevent back pain, be aware of ...

  20. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  1. Buffer strips in composites at elevated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The composite material 'buffer strip' concept is presently investigated at elevated temperatures for the case of graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels using a (45/0/45/90)2S layup, where the buffer strip material was 0-deg S-glass/polyimide. Each panel was loaded in tension until it failed, and radiographs and crack opening displacements were recorded during the tests to determine fracture onset, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after crack arrest. At 177 + or - 3 C, the buffer strips increased the panel strength by at least 40 percent in comparison with panels without buffer strips. Compared to similar panels tested at room temperature, those tested at elevated temperature had lower residual strengths, but higher failure strains.

  2. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  3. Stripping, Sex, and Popular Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    At the heart of Stripping, Sex, and Popular Culture lies a very personal story, of author Catherine Roach's response to the decision of her life-long best friend to become an exotic dancer. Catherine and Marie grew up together in Canada and moved to the USA to enroll in PhD programs at prestigious universities. For various reasons, Marie left her program and instead chose to work as a stripper. The author, at first troubled and yet fascinated by her friend's decision, follows Marie's journey ...

  4. Army Back Complaint Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-13

    pain as there are doctors, 4 from chiropractic approaches through hypnotism and acupuncture . In the vast majority of cases, low back pain will disappear...initiatives to dispel fears and amc .!ticns about back pain , prmpt recognition and medical zwvaemet of affected aployees, and reduclM back complaints through...installation of ABC Programs. It is designed to be an educational tool to prevent injuries to the back, shoulder, or neck areas primarily as a result of

  5. Medications for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back pain often goes away on its own over several weeks. In some people, back pain persists. It may not go away completely or ... at times. Medicines can also help with your back pain. OVER-THE-COUNTER PAIN RELIEVERS Over-the-counter ...

  6. Solidification Structure of Low Carbon Steel Strips with Different Phosphorus Contents Produced by Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na LI; Zhenyu LIU; Yiqing QIU; Zhaosen LIN; Xianghua LIU; Guodong WANG

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, low carbon steel strips with different phosphorus contents were produced using a twin roll strip casting process. The solidification structure was studied and its features were analyzed in detail. It was found that the strips possessed a fine microstructure compared with the mould cast steels. With increasing phosphorus content more ferrite has been formed with finer grains.

  7. 7 CFR 29.6041 - Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strips. 29.6041 Section 29.6041 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6041 Strips. The sides of a tobacco leaf from which the stem has...

  8. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the following devices for stripping oil from each cargo tank: (1) A positive displacement pump. (2) A self-priming centrifugal pump. (3) An eductor (4) Any other device accepted by the Commandant. (d... positive displacement pump or a self-priming centrifugal pump, the stripping system must have the...

  9. Hardy inequalities in strips on ruled surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in infinite two-dimensional strips defined as uniform tubular neighbourhoods of curves on ruled surfaces. We show that the negative Gauss curvature of the ambient surface gives rise to a Hardy inequality and we use this to prove certain stability of spectrum in the case of asymptotically straight strips about mildly perturbed geodesics.

  10. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  11. Tactual Strip Maps as Navigational Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golledge, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the history and use of tactual maps by blind and visually impaired travelers. It discusses textual patterns, symbols, and graphics; differences between conventional geographic-cartographic maps and strip maps used as navigational aids; and current advances, including disposable, quick-to-produce, and easy-to-update strip maps.…

  12. Nephrolithiasis in "back-to-back" kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; King, Ray S; King, Sherita A; Bates, William B; Madi, Rabii

    2013-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of left lower quadrant pain and nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography without contrast demonstrated a left 2.3-cm calculus at the ureteropelvic junction and a 6-mm lower pole calculus. The kidneys were in the pelvis and oriented "back-to-back," with the lateral portions of the kidneys fused in the midline. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this renal fusion anomaly. The patient underwent robotic pyelolithotomy of the ureteropelvic junction calculus and subsequent flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of the lower pole calculus and ureteral stent placement through the assistant working port.

  13. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  14. Circuit realization microwave antennas-oscillator on strip antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Golynskyy, V. D.; Prudyus, I. N.

    2009-01-01

    Showing special feature of development circuitries microwave transistors antennasoscillator on strip dielectric-resonator-antennas. Showing circuitries and technical characteristics of developed microwave antennasoscillator on strip.

  15. Low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitto, Anthony; George, Steven Z; Van Dillen, Linda R; Whitman, Julie M; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Shekelle, Paul; Denninger, Thomas R; Godges, Joseph J

    2012-04-01

    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these low back pain clinical practice guidelines, in particular, is to describe the peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to (1) treatment matched to low back pain subgroup responder categories, (2) treatments that have evidence to prevent recurrence of low back pain, and (3) treatments that have evidence to influence the progression from acute to chronic low back pain and disability.

  16. Thermo-electromagnetic properties of a magnetically shielded superconductor strip: theoretical foundations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G. T.; Rauh, H.

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a thin type-II superconductor strip surrounded by open cavity soft-magnetic shields and exposed to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with the classical description of conduction of heat. The underlying definition of the superconducting constituent makes use of an extended ‘smoothed’ Bean model of the critical state, which includes the field and temperature dependence of the induced supercurrent as well. The delineation of the magnetic shields exploits the reversible-paramagnet approximation in the Langevin form, as appropriate for magnetizations with narrow Z-type loops, and considers induced eddy currents too. The coolant is envisaged as acting like a bath that instantly takes away surplus heat. Based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov approach and the backward Euler scheme, the numerical analysis at hand is tailored to the problem of a high width/thickness aspect ratio of the superconductor strip. Assigning representative materials characteristics and conditions of the applied magnetic field, the main findings for a practically relevant magnet configuration include: (i) an overall rise of the maximum temperature of the superconductor strip tending to saturation in a superconducting thermo-electromagnetic steady state above the operating temperature, magnetic shielding lending increased stability and smoothing the temperature profile along the width of the superconductor strip; (ii) a washing out of the profile of the magnetic induction and a lowering of its strength, a relaxation of the profile of the supercurrent density and an increase of its strength, a tightening of the power loss density and a reduction of its strength, all inside the superconductor strip. The hysteretic ac loss suffered by the superconductor strip is seen to be cut back or, at most, to converge on that of an

  17. Crystalline Silicon Interconnected Strips (XIS). Introduction to a New, Integrated Device and Module Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roosmalen, J.; Bronsveld, P.; Mewe, A.; Janssen, G.; Stodolny, M.; Cobussen-Pool, E.; Bennett, I.; Weeber, A.; Geerligs, B. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A new device concept for high efficiency, low cost, wafer based silicon solar cells is introduced. To significantly lower the costs of Si photovoltaics, high efficiencies and large reductions of metals and silicon costs are required. To enable this, the device architecture was adapted into low current devices by applying thin silicon strips, to which a special high efficiency back-contact heterojunction cell design was applied. Standard industrial production processes can be used for our fully integrated cell and module design, with a cost reduction potential below 0.5 euro/Wp. First devices have been realized demonstrating the principle of a series connected back contact hybrid silicon heterojunction module concept.

  18. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shen Siao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively.

  19. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears.

  20. 贵—广Ⅱ宝安站极2Y3阀因无回报信号导致极2跳闸的故障分析及相关反措的建议%Analysis and Suggestions on Pole 2 Strip Caused by No Check Back Signal from Y3 Valve of GGH Baoan Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李侠; 马振军

    2012-01-01

    The light triggered thyristor valves, which are directly triggered by laser, are used in Guizhou-Guangdong ±500 kV HVDC II power transmission lines. To ensure safe and reliable operation, thyristor voltage mornitors(TVM) are used to have on-line momitoring on each thyristor. By light cables, TVM sends real-time feedback signal to VBE, whose single-chip can judge the default of thyristor valves by reading such check back signals. When the number of default thyristors exceeds the number of thyristor redundancy, trip signal is sent. The author analyzes the default and provides the related suggestions on Pole 2 trip caused by no check back signal from Y3 valve of CCII Baoan station, 12th March, 2009 and 29 th May 2010.%中国贵—广Ⅱ±500 kV高压直流输电工程中均采用激光脉冲直接触发晶闸管的直接光控晶闸管换流阀(以下简称LTT阀).为了确保换流阀的安全可靠运行,对换流阀中的每个晶闸管用晶闸管电压监测电子线路(thyristor voltage momitoring,TVM)进行在线监测.TVM实时用回报信号将监测的结果通过光缆送往阀底部电子设备柜(VBE)中.VBE中的单片机监测系统根据回报信号分析判定晶闸管的故障,当阀内故障晶闸管教超过设计允许的冗余数,产生相应的跳闸信号.笔者就2009年3月12日和2010年5月29日贵—广Ⅱ宝安站极2 Y3阀因无回报信号导致极2跳闸的故障进行了分析,得出:跳闸故障并非由阀或VBE故障引起,而是由阀侧电压不稳定或扰动引起的结论,并提出相关反措的建议.

  1. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  2. High energy H- ion transport and stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    During the Proton Driver design study based on an 8 GeV superconducting RF H{sup -} linac, a major concern is the feasibility of transport and injection of high energy H{sup -} ions because the energy of H{sup -} beam would be an order of magnitude higher than the existing ones. This paper will focus on two key technical issues: (1) stripping losses during transport (including stripping by blackbody radiation, magnetic field and residual gases); (2) stripping efficiency of carbon foil during injection.

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FCC STRIPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhen-qian

    2003-01-01

    This article briefly describes the major patents domestic and the abroad,and the current situation and achievements of FCC stripping technology in China.The develping trend of FCC stripping technology is presented,including further developments of FCC stripper to improve unit performance,combination of the stripper and pre-stripper within disengager to from a complete high-efficiency FCC stripping system.In addition to high efficiency,simple structure and easiness of installation and maintenance for a new FCC stripper are all of consideration.

  4. School furniture match to students' anthropometry in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Salah R

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at comparing primary school students' anthropometry to the dimensions of school furniture and determining whether the furniture used matches the students' anthropometry. A sample of 600 male students, whose ages were between 6 and 11 years, from five primary schools in the Gaza Strip governorates participated in the study. Several students' body dimensions were measured. The dimensions measured included elbow-seat height, shoulder height, knee height, popliteal height and buttock-popliteal length. Measurements of the dimensions of the classroom furniture indicated that there was a considerable mismatch between the students' body dimensions and the classroom furniture. The mismatches in seat height, seat depth and desk height occurred for 99% of the students, while the mismatch for the back rest height was only 35%. Two design specifications were proposed in order to decrease the mismatch percentage based on the data obtained. The two proposed designs showed a considerable improvement in the match percentages as compared to the existing design. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Having identified mismatches between the dimensions of the school furniture used in primary schools in the Gaza Strip, two new design specifications are proposed and shown to improve match with the students' anthropometric dimensions. The findings of the study are also an important addition to local knowledge on school children's anthropometry.

  5. Inapproximability of maximal strip recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Minghui

    2009-01-01

    In comparative genomic, the first step of sequence analysis is usually to decompose two or more genomes into syntenic blocks that are segments of homologous chromosomes. For the reliable recovery of syntenic blocks, noise and ambiguities in the genomic maps need to be removed first. Maximal Strip Recovery (MSR) is an optimization problem proposed by Zheng, Zhu, and Sankoff for reliably recovering syntenic blocks from genomic maps in the midst of noise and ambiguities. Given $d$ genomic maps as sequences of gene markers, the objective of \\msr{d} is to find $d$ subsequences, one subsequence of each genomic map, such that the total length of syntenic blocks in these subsequences is maximized. For any constant $d \\ge 2$, a polynomial-time 2d-approximation for \\msr{d} was previously known. In this paper, we show that for any $d \\ge 2$, \\msr{d} is APX-hard, even for the most basic version of the problem in which all gene markers are distinct and appear in positive orientation in each genomic map. Moreover, we provi...

  6. Plaque accumulations caused by interdental stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, R J; Jäger, A; Schwestka, R; Bertzbach, F

    1988-11-01

    Human enamel surfaces were stripped with orthodontic grinding and finishing materials, and evaluated with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Even under in vitro conditions with the finest finishing strips, it was not possible to produce an enamel surface free of the furrows that result from the initial abrasion caused by the coarse strip. Enamel surfaces stripped gradually from coarse to superfine were left in the mouths of patients for 12 weeks and evaluated with the SEM. The edges of the furrows were found to be smoother but the furrows remained wide and deep enough to facilitate more plaque accumulations than those on untreated surfaces. The use of dental floss did not result in prevention of plaque accumulations along the bottom of the furrows.

  7. Strip Casting of High Performance Structural Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S S Park; J G Lee; Nack J Kim

    2004-01-01

    There exists a great need for the development of high performance alloys due to increasing demands for energy conservation and environmental protection. Application of strip casting shows a strong potential for the improvement of properties of existing alloys and also for the development of novel alloy systems with superior properties. The present paper reviews our Center's activities in the development of high performance alloys by strip casting. Examples include (1) Al alloys, (2) wrought Mg alloys, and (3) bulk metallic glass (BMG) alloys.

  8. Speed Control and Coiling Temperature Control of Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Xiao-hui; ZHANG Dian-hua; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua; FAN Lei

    2004-01-01

    Considering the strip speed during controlled laminar cooling on Baosteel 1580 hot strip mill in China, the influence of strip speed fluctuation on coiling temperature control for the tail and "neck" of the strip was analyzed. The optimization strategies were put forward and proved effective in operation.

  9. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  10. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  11. Back pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.

  12. Novel photoresist stripping technology using steam-water mixture*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Hui Yu; Gao Chaoqun; Jing Yupeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel wet vapor photoresist stripping technology is developed as an alternative to dry plasma ashing and wet stripping. Experiments using this technology to strip hard baked SU-8 photoresist, aurum and chromium film are carried out. Then the images of stripping results are shown and the mechanism is analyzed and discussed.The most striking result of this experiment is that the spraying mixture of steam and water droplets can strip photoresist and even metal film with ease.

  13. A Combination of Restoration, Enhancement and Skull Stripping for Brain MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Madhukumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The preprocessing steps have substantial influence on the accuracy of segmentation and classification of lesions. The background on the image grid, behind the brain structures in the MRI images may not be always homogeneous. The edges or sharp pixel intensity transitions present in the back ground may get preserved during edge sensitive noise restoration and highlighted during contrast enhancement. If conventional noise restoration methods as Gaussian Kernels are adopted, the weak edges of lesions and structures get smoothened. Similarly, common contrast enhancement schemes like Global/Local histogram equalization either over saturate the image or degrade the textural, intensity and geometrical features of the image above tolerable limit. This study proposes a novel combination of preprocessing methods which is exclusively suitable for MR images carrying weak edges. The proposed combination of preprocessing comprises back ground elimination, restoration with bilateral filter, enhancement with Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE and skull stripping. Back ground elimination and skull stripping are performed by multiplying the original image and contrast enhanced image respectively with a multiplication mask. Multiplication mask for background elimination is generated by gradient based thresholding and a series of morphological operations and the multiplication mask for skull stripping is generated via adaptive Otzu’s thresholding. MR images of tumor edema complex are used for testing the proposed strategy. The method is experimented in Matlab®. Qualitative inspection of the skull stripped images reveals that the weak edges of tumor-focus and perifocal edema are well preserved, inhomogeneity in the uniform regions is suppressed, CLAHE do not alter the textural intensity and geometrical image features and the brain region is accurately extracted.

  14. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...

  15. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... core strengthening. Ask your health care provider or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...

  16. Back pain and parenthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...

  17. Wideband Cavity Backed Spiral Antenna for Stepped Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2005-01-01

    A 1.7 turn cavity backed coplanar waveguide to coplanar strip-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna is presented and compared to a 1.5 turn spiral antenna. The 1.7 turn spiral antenna has a wide beamwidth, are circular polarised and has a bandwidth with a return loss better than 6 d...

  18. Investigation of the solute transportation coupled with heat transfer and fluid flow during twin-roll strip casting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongsheng WANG; Chenxi JI; Jiongming ZHANG; Xinhua WANG; Wanjun WANG

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical model of solute [C] distribution in twin-roll strip casting process has been setup successfully with Calcosoft for the first time. Simulation result shows that in the center of the molten steel pool between the two rolls there is a vortex flow, which is a solute enriched area. But the highest solute concentration position is at the solidification front of the columnar grain zone near the cooling roll surface. Another solute enriched position is in the back flow above the nip point. Combined with the formation mechanism of microstruoture in final as cast strip, analysis shows that solute enriched area is in the transitional area between columnar and equiaxed grain zone.

  19. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential (SSCP

  20. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  1. Anodic stripping voltammetry of silver nanoparticles: aggregation leads to incomplete stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloake, Samantha J; Toh, Her Shuang; Lee, Patricia T; Salter, Chris; Johnston, Colin; Compton, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    The influence of nanoparticle aggregation on anodic stripping voltammetry is reported. Dopamine-capped silver nanoparticles were chosen as a model system, and melamine was used to induce aggregation in the nanoparticles. Through the anodic stripping of the silver nanoparticles that were aggregated to different extents, it was found that the peak area of the oxidative signal corresponding to the stripping of silver to silver(I) ions decreases with increasing aggregation. Aggregation causes incomplete stripping of the silver nanoparticles. Two possible mechanisms of 'partial oxidation' and 'inactivation' of the nanoparticles are proposed to account for this finding. Aggregation effects must be considered when anodic stripping voltammetry is used for nanoparticle detection and quantification. Hence, drop casting, which is known to lead to aggregation, is not encouraged for preparing electrodes for analytical purposes.

  2. Effect of Load Distribution on Strip Crown in Hot Strip Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuang DI; Jianzhong XU; Dianyao GONG; Xianghua LIU; Guodong WANG; Xiaoming HE; Liying BA

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish precision model, a software to calculate the strip crown of four-high hot rolling mill was developed by using affecting function method according to the strip crown calculation theory. The effect of work roll diameter, unit width rolling load, roll bending force, work roll crown, initial strip crown and reduction, etc, on load distribution effect rate was simulated by using the software. The results show that the load distribution effect rate increases with the increase of strip width, work roll diameter, unit width rolling load, roll bending force, work roll crown, initial strip crown and reduction. Based on the simulation results, base value of load distribution effect rate and fitting coefficients of six power polynomial of load distribution effect rate modification coefficient were determined considering all of the above parameters. A simplified mathematical model for calculating load distribution effect rate was established.

  3. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  4. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  5. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M. C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, and the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  6. Modeling of continuous strip production by rheocasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumiya, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1981-03-01

    A process was experimentally and mathematically modeled for continuous and direct production of metal strip from its molten state by the use of Rheocasting. The process comprises 1) continuous production of a Rheocast semisolid alloy, and 2) direct shaping of the semisolid into strip. Sn-15 pct Pb was used as the modeling alloy. Crack formation and surface quality of the strip produced depend on fraction solid and deformation force. Continuous, sound strip could be obtained with good surface quality when fraction solid was between 0.50 and 0.70 and deformation force did not exceed a given maximum. Sheet thickness depends on deformation force, fraction solid, rotor rate of Rheocaster and production line speed. At constant deformation force, sheet thickness increases as fraction solid increases, rotor rate decreases and line speed is reduced. Sheet thickness is larger in the center than in the edge, but the difference is reduced by applying edgers. Some segregation of lead toward the edges is observed, ad the segregation increases as amount of deformation is increased. A mathematical model for heat flow, solidification and deformation was constructed. The model predicts the point of completion of solidification in the strip and sheet thickness as a function of deformation force and line speed. Calculations are in good agreement with experimental results.

  7. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  8. Effect of Initial Crown on Shape of Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yu; GONG Dian-yao; JIANG Zheng-yi; XU Jian-zhong; ZHANG Dian-hua; LIU Xiang-hua

    2009-01-01

    Based on the influence coefficient method, the effect of entry strip crown on the shape of hot rolled strip was analyzed using the software of roll elastic deformation simulation. According to the practical condition of a domestic hot roiled strip plant, the unit strip crown change from the first stand to the last stand was calculated when the entry crown of hot strip varies. The calculated result shows that the entry strip crown does not significantly affect the target strip crown at the exit of the last finishing stand in respect to a fixed strip shape control reference (such as bending force). The calculation was analyzed, and the research is helpful in modeling strip shape setup and shape control.

  9. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jachym, P; Palous, J; Combes, F

    2009-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping of galaxies in clusters can yield gas deficient disks. Previous numerical simulations based on various approaches suggested that, except for near edge-on disk orientations, the amount of stripping depends very little on the inclination angle. Following our previous study of face-on stripping, we extend the set of parameters with the disk tilt angle and explore in detail the effects of the ram pressure on the interstellar content (ISM) of tilted galaxies that orbit in various environments of clusters, with compact or extended distributions of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). We further study how results of numerical simulations could be estimated analytically. A grid of numerical simulations with varying parameters is produced using the tree/SPH code GADGET with a modified method for calculating the ISM-ICM interaction. These SPH calculations extend the set of existing results obtained from different codes using various numerical techniques. The simulations confirm the general trend of le...

  10. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argue for a more process-oriented patient......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre......, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical...

  11. Rapid diagnosis of meningitis using reagent strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Ramesh

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Identification of causative agent with estimation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF glucose, protein, cells is necessary for accurate diagnosis of meningitis. Unfortunately, even these facilities are not available in many areas. Reagent strips that measure glucose and protein in blood and urine can serve this task but have been used with varying results in the past. This study was carried out to evaluate the utility and efficacy of Combur 10 strips in the diagnosis of meningitis. DESIGN, SETTINGS AND METHODS: A prospective clinical single blinded study of 63 children suspected to have meningitis undergoing CSF analysis. Each CSF sample was divided in to two and was utilised for reagent strip analysis in addition to standard laboratory evaluation and a correlation analysis were made. Statistical Method used: Results were analysed using standard statistical tests. Accuracy of the reagent strips as a screening tool was established using Godyn′s test. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity of the reagent strips for the diagnosis of meningitis was 97.14%, 96.42%. The sensitivity, specificity for tuberculous meningitis and bacterial meningitis were 100%, and 96.55%. That for the aseptic meningitis was 70% and 96.55%. Accuracy for the diagnosis of meningitis as a whole, bacterial meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, and aseptic meningitis were 96.78%, 98.2%, 98.27% and 83.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: Combur10 strips thus can be used for the rapid CSF analysis and screening with good accuracy. In situations where facilities of routine laboratory testing are not available this can be of an immense help.

  12. Validation of the Hot Strip Mill Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Shulkosky; David Rosberg; Jerrud Chapman

    2005-03-30

    The Hot Strip Mill Model (HSMM) is an off-line, PC based software originally developed by the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) under the AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program. The HSMM was developed to predict the temperatures, deformations, microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of steel strip or plate rolled in a hot mill. INTEG process group inc. undertook the current task of enhancing and validating the technology. With the support of 5 North American steel producers, INTEG process group tested and validated the model using actual operating data from the steel plants and enhanced the model to improve prediction results.

  13. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  14. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    and complicate measurements on free-standing films. A model of the potential profile in a free-standing strip is derived. It is found that the active length (the length with a given potential change) of the polymer will scale as square root (d sigma /i/sub d/). (d is the thickness, sigma the conductivity...... of the film, and i/sub d/ the diffusion limited current density for oxygen reduction). The active length is typically of the order of millimeters. The model is compared with measurements on a strip of polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate...

  15. Multi-twist optical Mobius strips

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Isaac

    2009-01-01

    Circularly polarized Gauss-Laguerre GL(0,0) and GL(0,1) laser beams that cross at their waists at a small angle are shown to generate a quasi-paraxial field that contains an axial line of circular polarization, a C line, surrounded by polarization ellipses whose major and minor axes generate multi-twist Mobius strips with twist numbers that increase with distance from the C point. These Mobius strips are interpreted in terms of Berry's phase for parallel transport of the ellipse axes around the C point.

  16. Lubrication in strip cold rolling process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianlin Sun; Yonglin Kang; Tianguo Xiao; Jianze Wang

    2004-01-01

    A lubrication model was developed for explaining how to form an oil film in the deformation zone, predicting the film thickness and determining the characteristics of lubrication in the strip rolling process, combined with the knowledge of hydrodythicknesses in the strip cold rolling. Results from the experiment and calculation show that the oil film forming in hydrodynamic lubrication is up to the bit angle and a higher rolling speed or a higher rolling oil viscosity. The mechanism of mechanical entrainment always affects the film thickness that increases with the rolling oil viscosity increasing or the reduction rate decreasing in rolling.

  17. Myofascial low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsook, Ryan R; Malanga, Gerard A

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain is a common condition that is encountered by both primary care physicians as well as various specialists, which include: orthopedic surgeons, physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, neurologists, rheumatologists, and pain management specialists. Associated muscular pain is very common and often a reactive response from nociception from other structures. Myofascial pain may arise, which is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) that are located in fascia, tendons, and/or muscle. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, assessment, and recommended treatment options for myofascial low back pain.

  18. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  19. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth’s mantle by iron sulfide segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubie, David C.; Laurenz, Vera; Jacobson, Seth A.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Palme, Herbert; Vogel, Antje K.; Frost, Daniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) but are present in near-chondritic relative abundances. The conventional explanation is that the HSEs were stripped from the mantle by the segregation of metal during core formation but were added back in near-chondritic proportions by late accretion, after core formation had ceased. Here we show that metal-silicate equilibration and segregation during Earth’s core formation actually increased HSE mantle concentrations because HSE partition coefficients are relatively low at the high pressures of core formation within Earth. The pervasive exsolution and segregation of iron sulfide liquid from silicate liquid (the “Hadean matte”) stripped magma oceans of HSEs during cooling and crystallization, before late accretion, and resulted in slightly suprachondritic palladium/iridium and ruthenium/iridium ratios.

  20. Microstructure and strengthening parameters of ultra-thin hot strip of low carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The microstructure and precipitation mechanism of ultra-thinhot strip produced by CSP technology were analyzed by electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), H-800 transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermodynamics theory. The EBSD results show that the finishing hot rolling microstructures are mixture of recrystallized and deformed austenite. After phase transformation, ferrite grains embody substructures and dislocations that led ultra-thin hot strip high strength and relatively low elongation rate. TEM observations show that there are a lot of fine and dispersive precipitates in microstructures. Most of aluminium nitrides are in grains, while coexisted precipitates of MnS along grain boundaries. Coexisted precipitates compose cation-vacancy type oxides such as Al2O3 in the core , while MnS at the fringe of surface. At the same time, reasons for microstructure refinement and strengthening effect were investigated.

  1. Highly siderophile elements were stripped from Earth's mantle by iron sulfide segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Rubie, David C; Jacobson, Seth A; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Palme, Herbert; Vogel, Antje K; Frost, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSEs) are strongly depleted in the bulk silicate Earth (BSE) but are present in near-chondritic relative abundances. The conventional explanation is that the HSEs were stripped from the mantle by the segregation of metal during core formation but were added back in near-chondritic proportions by late accretion, after core formation had ceased. Here we show that metal-silicate equilibration and segregation during Earth's core formation actually increased HSE mantle concentrations because HSE partition coefficients are relatively low at the high pressures of core formation within Earth. The pervasive exsolution and segregation of iron sulfide liquid from silicate liquid (the "Hadean matte") stripped magma oceans of HSEs during cooling and crystallization, before late accretion, and resulted in slightly suprachondritic palladium/iridium and ruthenium/iridium ratios.

  2. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge...

  3. Rect-O-Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Garg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This document presents an approach towards developing an electronics device and a software application to maintain the correct body posture which is a mobile solution to keep our back strong and healthy. It presents the designing and functioning of equipment and software.

  4. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  5. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  6. Improved lower bound for online strip packing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harren, Rolf; Kern, Walter

    2015-01-01

    We study the online strip packing problem and derive an improved lower bound of ρ ≥ 2.589... for the competitive ratio of this problem. The construction is based on modified “Brown-Baker-Katseff sequences” (Brown et al. in Acta Inform. 18:207–225, 1982) using only two types of rectangles. In additio

  7. Cardiac Muscle Studies with Rat Ventricular Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Bert K.; Faleschini, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    Details undergraduate physiology laboratory experiments that demonstrate mechanical properties of cardiac muscle, using strips from the ventricle of a rat heart. Includes procedures for obtaining length-tension curves, demonstrating the role of calcium in excitation-contraction coupling, and showing effects of several cardiovascular drugs…

  8. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  9. Propulsion by Helical Strips in Circular Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Serhat; Demir, Ebru

    2016-11-01

    Progress in manufacturing techniques avails the production of artificial micro swimmers (AMS) in various shapes and sizes. There are numerous studies on the generation of efficient locomotion by means of helical tails with circular cross-sections. This work focuses on locomotion with helical strips in circular channels. A CFD model is used to analyze the effects of geometric parameters and the radius of the channel on swimming velocity of infinite helical-strips in circular channels. Results show that there is an optimum wavelength that depends on thickness to channel radius ratio, suggesting that these parameters need to be optimized simultaneously. With constant torque, thinner strips swim faster, whereas under constant angular velocity application, thicker strips (in radial direction) prevail. As width approaches the wavelength, velocity decreases under both conditions, unless a magnetically coated tail is simulated, for which width has an optimum value. Increasing channel radius to helix amplitude ratio increases the velocity up to a maximum and after a slight drop, saturation occurs as bulk swimming conditions are approached.

  10. ME1/1 Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Erchov, Yu V; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Khabarov, Serguei; Moissenz, P V; Moissenz, K P; Movchan, Sergey; Perelygin, Victor; Vassiliev, S E; Zarubin, Anatoli; Tchekhovski, V A

    2008-01-01

    The 76 innermost ME1/1 cathode strip chambers (CSC) of the CMS Experiment were designed and produced in Dubna. The chambers have been installed in the detector and commissioning has been completed. This paper describes the design of the CSCs, their main mechanical parameters and read-out electronics, and the results of tests with cosmic-ray muons.

  11. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  12. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  13. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  14. Comparative evaluation of scanned stripping techniques: SSCP vs. SSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic features of scanned deposition potential curves constructed from stripping chronopotentiometry (SSCP) and various modes of stripping voltammetry (SSV) are critically evaluated. The strengths and weaknesses of each method for identification of metal ion speciation features and susc

  15. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  16. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing.......Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  17. TOMOGRAPHIC MEASUREMENT OF LONGITUDINAL EMITTANCE GROWTH DUE TO STRIPPING FOILS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MONTAG, C.; AHRENS, L.; THIEBERGER, P.

    2005-05-16

    During beam acceleration in the Brookhaven accelerator complex, heavy ions are stripped of their electrons in several steps. Depending on the properties of the stripping foils, this process results in an increased energy spread and longitudinal emittance growth. A tomographic phase space reconstruction technique has been applied to measure the associated emittance growth for different stripping foil materials.

  18. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  19. /Au Back Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  20. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  1. Investigation of Mercury Reduction in Gold Stripping Process at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Irawan

    Mercury is present in many gold ores. By processing these ores, there is a potential of emitting mercury to the environment. Carbon regeneration kiln stacks have been observed as one of the primary source of mercury emission into the atmosphere. Before it is recycled back into the carbon in leach (CIL) or carbon in columns (CIC), carbon used in the gold extraction process needs to be reactivated thermally. Emission of mercury can be minimized by keeping the mercury left in the carbon low before it goes to the carbon regeneration kiln stacks. The objective of this study is establishing the optimum elution conditions of mercury cyanide from loaded carbon (which includes the eluent, concentration, temperature and elution time) with respect to gold stripping. Several methods such as acid washing (UNR-100, HCl or ethanol/UNR-100) were investigated prior to the stripping process. Furthermore, conventional pressurized Zadra and modified Zadra were also studied with regards to mercury concentration in the solution and vapor state as well as maximizing the gold stripping from industrial loaded carbon. 7% UNR-100 acid washing of loaded carbon at 80°C was able to wash out approximately 90% of mercury while maintaining the gold adsorption on the carbon (selective washing). The addition of alcohol in the UNR-100 acid washing solution was able to enhance mercury washing from 90% to 97%. Furthermore, mercury stripping using conventional pressurized (cyanide-alkaline) Zadra was best performed at 80°C (minimal amount of mercury reduced and volatilized) whereas using the same process only 40% of gold was stripped, which makes this process not viable. When alcohol was added to the stripping solution, at 80°C, 95% of gold was detected in the solution while keeping the reduction and volatilization of mercury low. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of mercury behavior during the acid washing and stripping processes so that the risk of mercury exposure and

  2. Bird community response to filter strips in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Dively, G.P.; Gill, D.E.; Rewa, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Filter strips are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted along agricultural field margins adjacent to streams or wetlands and are designed to intercept sediment, nutrients, and agrichemicals. Roughly 16,000 ha of filter strips have been established in Maryland through the United States Department of Agriculture's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program. Filter strips often represent the only uncultivated herbaceous areas on farmland in Maryland and therefore may be important habitat for early-successional bird species. Most filter strips in Maryland are planted to either native warm-season grasses or cool-season grasses and range in width from 10.7 m to 91.4 m. From 2004 to 2007 we studied the breeding and wintering bird communities in filter strips adjacent to wooded edges and non-buffered field edges and the effect that grass type and width of filter strips had on bird community composition. We used 5 bird community metrics (total bird density, species richness, scrub-shrub bird density, grassland bird density, and total avian conservation value), species-specific densities, nest densities, and nest survival estimates to assess the habitat value of filter strips for birds. Breeding and wintering bird community metrics were greater in filter strips than in non-buffered field edges but did not differ between cool-season and warm-season grass filter strips. Most breeding bird community metrics were negatively related to the percent cover of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) in ???1 yr. Breeding bird density was greater in narrow (60 m) filter strips. Our results suggest that narrow filter strips adjacent to wooded edges can provide habitat for many bird species but that wide filter strips provide better habitat for grassland birds, particularly obligate grassland species. If bird conservation is an objective, avoid planting orchardgrass in filter strips and reduce or eliminate orchardgrass from filter strips through management practices. Copyright ?? 2011 The

  3. Improving Thin Strip Profile Using Work Roll Cross and Work Roll Shifting Methods in Cold Strip Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tibar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of rolling parameters in order to achieve better strip shape and to reduce rolling force is a challenge in rolling practice. In this paper, thin strip asymmetrical rolling of aluminum at various speed ratios under lubricated condition has been investigated at various combinations of work rolls cross (WRC angles and work rolls shifting (WRS values. The effects of strip width, reduction, and rolling speed on strip shape taking WRC and WRS into consideration are discussed. Results show that strip profile improves significantly when the WRC angle is increased from 0° to 1°, with an associated reduction in rolling force. Increasing WRS value from 0 to 8 mm improves the strip profile as well but not as significantly as when WRC angle is increased. No significant improvement was found in strip shape when the strip width was increased. At higher reduction, the strip shape was improved; a decrease in the rolling force was also observed. A higher speed ratio was found to be effective only at a higher WRC angle. The effect of lubrication on the strip profile was significant. Results indicate that an optimum combination of WRC, WRS, reduction, width, and speed ratio under lubricated conditions can ensure an improved exit strip profile, reduce rolling force, and obtain a better quality strip.

  4. The Formation and Evolution of Stripped Dark Matter Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jessica; Tuan, Austin Zong; Lee, Christoph; Primack, Joel R.

    2016-01-01

    We implement a model to describe the density profiles of stripped dark matter halos. Our model generalizes the Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) distribution to allow for more flexibility in the slope of the outer halo. We find that the density distributions of stripped halos tend to have outer slopes steeper than assumed by the NFW distribution. We also examine the relationship between severity of stripping and halo shape, spin parameter and concentration, and find that highly stripped halos are more spheroidal, have lower spin parameters, and have higher concentrations compared to less stripped halos.

  5. Shape Setup System for 1700 Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Zhong-feng; XU Jian-zhong; LI Chang-sheng; LIU Xiang-hua

    2007-01-01

    Shape setup (SSU) system is the core technology for hot strip mill (HSM). A precise SSU system was used to improve the strip quality for HSM. The function of SSU, setup, and feedback was introduced. The main mathematical models of roll gap profile and longitudinal strain difference are set up. Strip profile allocation strategy was researched according to the SSU system of a domestic 1 700 mm HSM. The SSU system was put into practical use and the measurement results showed that strip flatness variation and strip profile variation could be controlled in target scope.

  6. ITCS Test Strip Development and Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigan, Caitlin; Adam, Niklas; Pickering, Karen; Gazda, Daniel; Piowaty, Hailey

    2011-01-01

    Internal coolant loops used for International Space Station thermal control must be periodically monitored for system health, including pH, biocide levels and any indication of ammonia. The presence of ammonia, possible via a microleak in the interface between the internal and external thermal control systems, could be a danger to the crew. The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) Sampling Kit uses test strips as a colorimetric indicator of pH and concentrations of biocide and free ammonia. This paper describes the challenges in designing an ammonia colorimetric indicator in a variable pH environment, as well as lessons learned, ultimately resulting in a robust test strip to indicate a hazardous ammonia leak.

  7. The Extent of the Stop Coannihilation Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Zheng, Jiaming

    2014-01-01

    Many supersymmetric models such as the CMSSM feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino \\chi is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic \\chi cold dark matter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the \\tilde t_1 may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper.

  8. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  9. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  10. Coiling Temperature Control in Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, Hiroyuki; Fujiyama, Hiroaki

    Coiling temperature is one of the most significant factors in products of hot strip mill to determine material properties such as strength, toughness of steel, so it is very important to achieve accurate coiling temperature control (CTC). Usually there are a few pyrometers on the run out table in hot strip mill, therefore temperature model and its adapting system have large influences on the accuracy of CTC. Also unscheduled change of rolling speed has a bad effect to keep coiling temperature as its target. Newly developed CTC system is able to get very accurate coiling temperature against uncertain factors and disturbances by adopting easily identified temperature model, learning method and dynamic set up function. The features of the CTC system are discussed with actual data, and the effectiveness of the system is shown by actual control results.

  11. Frequency dependent magnetization of superconductor strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Kailash Prasad [Landcare Research, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Raj, Ashish [Computer Science in Radiology, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, NY (United States); Brandt, Ernst Helmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, POB 800665, D-70506 Stuttgart (Germany); Sastry, Pamidi V P S S, E-mail: thakurk@landcareresearch.co.nz, E-mail: asr2004@med.cornell.edu, E-mail: ehb@mf.mpg.de, E-mail: pamidi@caps.fsu.edu [Center for Advanced Power Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The frequency dependence of magnetic ac loss of thin superconductor strip subjected to an ac magnetic field perpendicular to the surface of the strip is investigated by incorporating a flux creep model into the critical state model of Brandt and Indenbom. It is found that the reduced ac loss exhibits a maximum value at a frequency f{sub m}, which is a rapidly varying function of the applied ac magnetic field. At low magnetic field, f{sub m} becomes zero, and ac loss decreases with frequency as a power law ({approx}f{sup -2/n}). Whereas at high magnetic field f{sub m} becomes infinite and ac loss increases with frequency, still following the power law ({approx}f{sup 1/n}). The analytical results are substantiated with experimental data and the results of a 2D finite element simulation.

  12. PRESUPPOSITIONS AND IMPLICATURES IN COMIC STRIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed to find out the role of presuppositions, implicatures, as well as to see the maxims violated or flouted in the comic strips i.e. to whether there is a miscommunication among the characters in the comic strips. Data were taken from the three comics, those are Peanuts, Andy, and Tintin, and were analysed based on the pattern that the sender made a presupposition before transferring information and the receiver would try to get the implied message. The results show that presuppositions and implicatures are much influenced by the background knowledge. The more the speaker and hearer know each other’s background, the better presuppositions and implicatures they make and finally, the less miscommunication occurred.

  13. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance...

  14. Mechanics of Thin Strip Steering in Hot Rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhengyi; Tieu, Kiet A.

    2004-06-01

    The hot rolling of thin strip can result in several problems in hot rolling, for instance, the control of strip steering, strip shape and flatness and surface roughness etc. Therefore, the hot rolling of thin strip brings out a requirement of innovative technologies such as the extended control of shape and flatness, steering control and reduction of load by roll gap lubrication. In this paper, the authors focus on the analysis of thin strip snaking movement, as well as solve the related problems such as the shape and flatness due to a larger reduction applied when the strip is thinner. A finite element method was used to simulate this nonsymmetricity rolling considering the non-uniform reduction along the strip width. The calculated spread is compared with the measured values obtained from the rolling mill in laboratory and the friction effect is also discussed.

  15. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Payne, Jason A.; Ottesen, Cory W.

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  16. Development of Silicon Multi-strip Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanJilian; JinGenming; WangHongwei; YuanXiaohua; DuanLiming; LiSonglin; LuZiwei; XuHushan; NingBaojun; TianDayu; WangWei; ZhangLu

    2003-01-01

    Position sensitive detector is very important for nuclear physics experiment. There several techniques can be used to fabricate position sensitive detector, for example, Si-surface barrier method, diffusion method, ion implantation and planar process etc. Among all the techniques mentioned above planar process is the best one. We have developed batch of position sensitive detector -- silicon multi-strip detector by using planar process.

  17. A Spinning Particle in a Mobius Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Nieto, J A

    2011-01-01

    We develop the classical and quantum theory of a spinning particle moving in a Mobius strip. We first propose a Lagrangian for such a system and then we proceed to quantize the system via the constraint Hamiltonian system formalism. Our results may be of particular interest in several physical scenarios, including solid state physics and optics. In fact, the present work may shed some new light on the recent discoveries on condensed matter concerning topological insulators.

  18. Multitwist optical Möbius strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2010-01-15

    Circularly polarized Gauss-Laguerre GL00 and GL01 laser beams that cross at their waists at a small angle are shown to generate a quasi-paraxial field that contains a line of circular polarization, a C line, surrounded by polarization ellipses whose major and minor axes generate multitwist Möbius strips with twist numbers that increase with the distance from the C point.

  19. Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The control model of laminar cooling system for hot strip, including air-cooling model, water-cooling model, temperature distribution model along thickness direction, feedforward control model, feedback control model and self-learning model, was introduced. PID arithmetic and Smith predictor controller were applied to feedback control. The sample of model parameter classification was given. The calculation process was shown by flow chart. The model has been proved to be simple, effective and of high precision.

  20. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy ...

  1. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M

    2001-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m sup 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. I have modeled the charge collection in silicon detectors which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolut...

  2. Wakes of ram pressure stripped disc galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Hoeft, M

    2006-01-01

    Spiral galaxies that move through the intracluster medium lose a substantial amount of their gas discs due to ram pressure stripping. The recent observations of NGC 4388 by Oosterloo & van Gorkom 2005 reveal a tail of stripped gas of ~ 100 kpc behind the source galaxy. We present first 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the evolution of such ram pressure stripped tails. We find that if the ICM wind does not vary significantly over a period of a few 100 Myr, subsonic galaxies produce a tail with regular features similar to a von-Karman vortex street. In this case, the tail widens systematically by about 45 kpc per 100 kpc distance behind the source galaxy. The widening rate is independent of the galaxy's inclination for a large range of inclinations. For supersonic galaxies, the tail is more irregular than for subsonic ones. The tail observed for NGC 4388 is narrower than the tails in our simulations. Reasons for this difference may be additional physical processes such as heat conduction or viscosity. In ad...

  3. Anodic stripping voltammetry enhancement by redox magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily A; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2004-04-15

    The effect of an external magnetic field on linear scan anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) in solutions of 10(-6)-10(-7) M concentrations of lead, cadmium, and copper at mercury films on glassy carbon electrodes has been investigated. A high concentration of Hg(2+) was added to the analyte solution to induce a large cathodic current during the deposition step. Therefore, a large Lorentz force from the net flux of charge through the magnetic field resulted in convection due to magnetohydrodynamics. The faster delivery of analytes to the mercury film electrode during deposition caused an increase in the anodic stripping peaks. The effect of varying Hg(2+) concentrations (0-60 mM) and magnetic field strengths (0-1.77 T) on the enhancement of the stripping peaks was investigated. Enhancements as large as 129% for peak currents and 167% for peak areas were observed. An enhancement of approximately 100% was observed when 60 mM Fe(3+) replaced high concentrations of Hg(2+). This method of convection exhibits promise for small-volume ASV analysis with possible improved limits of detection and decreased preconcentration times.

  4. Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

    2007-12-01

    Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

  5. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\time...

  6. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  7. Back complaints in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scheele (Jantine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the aging of the Dutch population, the number of older aged back pain patients is also expected to increase. However, information on the course and prognosis of older patients with back pain in general practice is very scarce. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, also in

  8. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  9. Paschen is Partially Back

    CERN Document Server

    Stift, M J

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  10. Paschen is Partially Back

    OpenAIRE

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB reg...

  11. Paschen is partially Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-04-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden "ghost lines" appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeI λ6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  12. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; jordan, alan; mikkelsen, connie

    . Many of these patients will become free of pain and disability! This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest information regarding Modic changes that the Danish research group was primarily responsible for after 10 years of intensive research. The book explains what the research...... results can mean for back pain patients and information is provided as to how Modic changes take place and develop as well developments that took place such that we are now able to provide effective treatment for more than 50% of patients that have been diagnosed with Modic changes type 1. Readers...

  13. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE FIRST COLD ROLLING PASS OF A C-MN STRIP STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Costa do Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the modeling by the finite element method of the first cold rolling pass of a four-high mill at the CSN steel plant. For this purpose, a two dimensional model is proposed considering the work-roll as a rigid surface together with the assumptions of plane-strain state for the strip and material isotropy with nonlinear isotropic workhardening. A C-Mn steel strip with initial thickness of 3.5 mm was first characterized by means of uniaxial tensile tests in specimens cut along the rolling direction to evaluate the work-hardening parameters. In the finite element model, the contact is defined by means of the Coulomb’s law to describe the friction between the work-roll and the strip surfaces. Moreover, the industrial back and forward tensions are also taken into account as prescribed conditions in the finite element model. The numerical predictions of the rolling load show a good agreement with the measured data and the forecasted value is determined with the slab-method.

  15. Ram pressure stripping and galaxy orbits The case of the Virgo cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Balkowski, C; Duschl, W J

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the role of ram pressure stripping in the Virgo cluster using N-body simulations. Radial orbits within the Virgo cluster's gravitational potential are modeled and analyzed with respect to ram pressure stripping. The N-body model consists of 10000 gas cloud complexes which can have inelastic collisions. Ram pressure is modeled as an additional acceleration on the clouds located at the surface of the gas distribution in the direction of the galaxy's motion within the cluster. We made several simulations changing the orbital parameters in order to recover different stripping scenarios using realistic temporal ram pressure profiles. We investigate systematically the influence of the inclination angle between the disk and the orbital plane of the galaxy on the gas dynamics. We show that ram pressure can lead to a temporary increase of the central gas surface density. In some cases a considerable part of the total atomic gas mass (several 10^8 M_solar) can fall back onto the galactic disk after the s...

  16. Determination of water in room temperature ionic liquids by cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Bond, Alan M; Lu, Xunyu

    2012-03-20

    An electrochemical method based on cathodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode has been developed for the determination of water in ionic liquids. The technique has been applied to two aprotic ionic liquids, (1-butyl-3-ethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate), and two protic ionic liquids, (bis(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium acetate and triethylammonium acetate). When water is present in an ionic liquid, electrooxidation of a gold electrode forms gold oxides. Thus, application of an anodic potential scan or holding the potential of the electrode at a very positive value leads to accumulation of an oxide film. On applying a cathodic potential scan, a sensitive stripping peak is produced as a result of the reduction of gold oxide back to gold. The magnitude of the peak current generated from the stripping process is a function of the water concentration in an ionic liquid. The method requires no addition of reagents and can be used for the sensitive and in situ determination of water present in small volumes of ionic liquids. Importantly, the method allows the determination of water in the carboxylic acid-based ionic liquids, such as acetate-based protic ionic liquids, where the widely used Karl Fischer titration method suffering from an esterification side reaction which generates water as a side product.

  17. Prediction of Rolling Load in Hot Strip Mill by Innovations Feedback Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-yong; WANG Jun; MA Fu-ting

    2007-01-01

    Because the structure of the classical mathematical model of rolling load is simple, even with the self-adapting technology, it is difficult to accommodate the increasing dimensional accuracy. Motivated by this fact, an Innovations Feedback Neural Networks (IFNN) was presented based on the idea of Kalman prediction. The neural networks used the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm and applied it to the prediction of rolling load in hot strip mill. The theoretical results and the off-line simulation show that the prediction capability of IFNN is better than that of normal BP networks, namely, for the prediction of the rolling load in hot strip mill, the prediction precision of IFNN is higher than that of normal BP networks. Finally, a relative complete rolling load prediction system was developed on Windows 2003/XP platform using the OOP programming method and the SQL server2000 database. With this system, the rolling load of a 1700 strip mill was calculated, and the prediction results obtained correspond well with the field data. It shows that IFNN is valid for rolling load prediction.

  18. A Passive Temperature-Sensing Antenna Based on a Bimetal Strip Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianwei; Yang, Fan; Xu, Shenheng; Li, Maokun

    2017-03-23

    A passive temperature-sensing antenna is presented in this paper, which consists of a meandering dipole, a bimetal strip and a back cavity. The meandering dipole is divided into two parts: the lower feeding part and the upper radiating part, which maintain electric contact during operation. As a sensing component, a bimetal strip coil offers a twisting force to rotate the lower feeding part of the antenna when the temperature varies. As a result, the effective length of the dipole antenna changes, leading to a shift of the resonant frequency. Furthermore, a metal back cavity is added to increase the antenna's quality factor Q, which results in a high-sensitivity design. An antenna prototype is designed, fabricated, and measured, which achieves a sensitivity larger than 4.00 MHz/°C in a temperature range from 30 °C to 50 °C and a read range longer than 4 m. Good agreement between the simulation and measurement results is obtained.

  19. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  20. Uranium stripping from tributyl phosphate by urea solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripchenko, S. Yu.; Titova, S. M.; Smirnov, A. L.; Rychkov, V. N.

    2016-09-01

    The process of uranium stripping from tri-n-butyl phosphate in kerosene by urea solutions was investigated at the volume ratio of the organic and aqueous phases of (1-10) : 1 in the temperature range of 20-60 °C. The stripping of uranium from a loaded organic phase increased with increasing urea content in the solution and with increasing temperature. Maximum recovery of uranium from tributyl phosphate was obtained using a solution that contained 8-12 mol/l of urea. The application of a urea solution for uranium stripping resulted in the strip product solution containing 200-240 g/L of uranium. The process of uranium stripping by dilute nitric acid was also investigated. Results of uranium stripping by the two methods are compared and discussed.

  1. Gas Stripping in the Simulated Pegasus Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Francisco Javier; Samaniego, Alejandro; Wheeler, Coral; Bullock, James

    2017-01-01

    We utilize the hydrodynamic simulation code GIZMO to construct a non-cosmological idealized dwarf galaxy built to match the parameters of the observed Pegasus dwarf galaxy. This simulated galaxy will be used in a series of tests in which we will implement different methods of removing the dwarf’s gas in order to emulate the ram pressure stripping mechanism encountered by dwarf galaxies as they fall into more massive companion galaxies. These scenarios will be analyzed in order to determine the role that the removal of gas plays in rotational vs. dispersion support (Vrot/σ) of our galaxy.

  2. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  3. Intelligent Control on Hot Strip Coiling Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new intelligent control scheme for hot strip coiling temperature is presented. In this scheme, the prediction model of finishing temperature and the presetting model of main cooling zone are establish based on BP neural network, the feed-forward open-loop control model of main cooling zone is constructed based on T-S fuzzy neural network, a new improved structure of T-S fuzzy neural network is developed, and the feedback close-loop control model of precision cooling zone is obtained based on fuzzy control. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated by computer simulation with a satisfactory result.

  4. Fermilab silicon strip readout chip for BTev

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarema, Raymond; Hoff, Jim; Mekkaoui, Abderrezak; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Angeleri, Valentina; Manfredi, Pier Francesco; Ratti, Lodovico; Speziali, Valeria; /Fermilab /Bergamo U. /INFN, Pavia /Pavia U.

    2005-05-01

    A chip has been developed for reading out the silicon strip detectors in the new BTeV colliding beam experiment at Fermilab. The chip has been designed in a 0.25 {micro}m CMOS technology for high radiation tolerance. Numerous programmable features have been added to the chip, such as setup for operation at different beam crossing intervals. A full size chip has been fabricated and successfully tested. The design philosophy, circuit features, and test results are presented in this paper.

  5. Factors Influencing Bonding Strength of Laminated Bamboo Strips Lumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Factors influencing bonding strength of laminated bamboo strips lumber (LBSL) were investigated in this paper. In order to find an optimized technology, this paper investigated how the thickness of bamboo strips, the assembly orientation of bamboo curtain, the type of adhesives, as well as coupling agent treatment of bamboo curtain affected the bonding strength. The following conclusions were drawn: 1)The thinner the thickness of the bamboo strips, the bigger the bonding strength of LBSL; 2) The assembly or...

  6. Time domain non linear strip theory for ship motions

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Y.T.; Wilson, P. A.

    2004-01-01

    A new implementation of strip theory is proposed based on the strip theory by Salvesen, et al. [1] and early work by Westlake and Wilson [2]. Compared with traditional strip theory, the main difference is that the calculation is carried out in the time domain. This makes it possible to cope with relatively large-amplitude motions and non-constant forward speed problems. At each time step, the exact underwater sections are extracted; the velocity potential is required to satisfyt...

  7. Study on Production of Rubber Sealing Strips with Steel Bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Rubber sealing strips with steel bones are used in car manufacturing that produced in large quantities. Cutting processes, such as milling and punching, are needed when the strips are produced. Accuracy, smoothness and flatness of the machined surface have to be guaranteed in the cutting process; moreover, deformation of the steel bone and peeling-off of the rubber must be avoided. Therefore cutting action of rubber/steel strips differs from that of rubber or metal workpiece separately. In this paper, milli...

  8. Beam Test Results for MSGC's with Thick Metal Strips.

    CERN Document Server

    Beaumont, W; Bernier, K; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Daubie, Evelyne; De Troy, J G; Delentdecker, G; Devroede, O; Gregoire,,; Iacopi, F; Udo, Fred; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Van Lancker, L; Van der Velde, C; Verbeure, F; Zhukov, V

    1999-01-01

    Micro Strip Gas Counters with robust gold strips have been developed at IMEC, the Interuniversity Microelectronics Center at Leuven, in Belgium. The electroless plating technology was used, allowing to achieve a strip thickness of up to 1.6 mu m on 10 X 10 cm**2 substrates. Results on signal to noise ratio, spark rate, resulting damages and detector occupancy are presented for counters exposed to various intensities of heavily ionizing particles.

  9. Space Vehicle Heat Shield Having Edgewise Strips of Ablative Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Poteet, Carl C. (Inventor); Bouslog, Stan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A heat shield for a space vehicle comprises a plurality of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) blocks secured to a surface of the space vehicle and arranged in a pattern with gaps therebetween. The heat shield further comprises a plurality of PICA strips disposed in the gaps between the PICA blocks. The PICA strips are mounted edgewise, such that the structural orientation of the PICA strips is substantially perpendicular to the structural orientation of the PICA blocks.

  10. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  11. Clad strip casting by a twin roll caster

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Nakamura, R; S. Kumai; H. Watari

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Of this paper is to realize the casting of the clad strip by only one process. Therefore, the investigation of the ability of the casting of the clad strip by a vertical type twin roll caster was operated. The aim of the use of the twin roll caster to make clad strip was in the reduction of the production-energy of the clad strip.Design/methodology/approach: Used in the present study was a vertical type twin roll caster with the scriber. The scriber was used to prevent the mixture of...

  12. Back pain during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Carol C

    2013-01-08

    It is wrong to believe that back pain only burdens adults: the yearly incidence during growth ranges from 10-20%, continuously increasing from childhood to adolescence. Rapid growth-related muscular dysbalance and insufficiency, poor physical condition in an increasingly sedentary adolescent community or - vice versa - high level sports activities, account for the most prevalent functional pain syndromes. In contrast to adults the correlation of radiographic findings with pain is high: the younger the patient, the higher the probability to establish a rare morphologic cause such as benign or malignant tumours, congenital malformations and infections. In children younger than 5 years old, the likelihood is more than 50%. The following red flags should lower the threshold for a quick in-depth analysis of the problem: Age of the patient 4 weeks, history of tumour, exposition to tuberculosis, night pain and fever. High level sport equals a biomechanical field test which reveals the biologic individual response of the growing spine to the sports-related forces. Symptomatic or asymptomatic inhibitory or stimulatory growth disturbances like Scheuermann disease, scoliosis or fatigue fractures represent the most frequent pathomorphologies. They usually occur at the disk-growth plate compound: intraspongious disk herniation, diminuition of anterior growth with vertebral wedging and apophyseal ring fractures often occur when the biomechanical impacts exceed the mechanical resistance of the cartilaginous endplates. Spondylolysis is a benign condition which rarely becomes symptomatic and responds well to conservative measures. Associated slippage of L5 on S1 is frequent but rarely progresses. The pubertal spinal growth spurt is the main risk factor for further slippage, whereas sports activity - even at a high level - is not. Therefore, the athlete should only be precluded from training if pain persists or in case of high grade slips. Perturbance of the sagittal profile with

  13. Stripped elliptical galaxies as probes of ICM physics: I. Tails, wakes, and flow patterns in and around stripped ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Nulsen, P E J; Forman, W R; Machacek, M; Randall, S; Jones, C; Churazov, E; Kokotanekova, R

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) Elliptical cluster galaxies are successively stripped of their gaseous atmospheres due to their motion through the ICM. The stripped galactic gas forms a 'tail' in the galaxy's wake. Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the gas tail and of the interface between galactic gas and ICM. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit in the host cluster), stripping stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and on the still ill-constrained ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). In a series of papers, we aim at disentangling dynamic and plasma effects in order to use observed stripped ellipticals as probes of the ICM plasma properties. This first paper determines flow phases and flow patterns of successive gas stripping by means of hydrodynamical simulations. During quasi-steady stripping, the flow of ICM around the remnant atmosphere is similar to the flow around solid bodies, including...

  14. Myofascial low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar

    2014-09-01

    Myofascial pain is a common musculoskeletal problem, with the low back being one of the commonest affected regions. Several treatments have been used for myofascial low back pain through physical therapies, pharmacologic agents, injections, and other such therapies. This review will provide an update based on recently published literature in the field of myofascial low back pain along with a brief description of a sequenced, multidisciplinary treatment protocol called Skilled Hands-on Approach for the Release of myofascia, Articular, Neural and Soft tissue mobilization (SHARANS) protocol. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the successful management of individuals with myofascial low back pain.

  15. High Energy Cutting and Stripping Utilizing Liquid Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Howard; Noah, Donald E.; Hayes, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    The Aerospace Industry has endeavored for decades to develop hybrid materials that withstand the rigors of mechanized flight both within our atmosphere and beyond. The development of these high performance materials has led to the need for environmentally friendly technologies for material re-work and removal. The NitroJet(TM) is a fluid jet technology that represents an evolution of the widely used, large-scale water jet fluid jet technology. It involves the amalgamation of fluid jet technology and cryogenics technology to create a new capability that is applicable where water jet or abrasive jet (water jet plus entrained abrasive) are not suitable or acceptable because of technical constraints such as process or materials compatibility, environmental concerns and aesthetic or legal requirements. The NitroJet(TM) uses ultra high-pressure nitrogen to cut materials, strip numerous types of coatings such as paint or powder coating, clean surfaces and profile metals. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is used as the feed stream and is pressurized in two stages. The first stage pressurizes sub cooled LN2 to an intermediate pressure of between 15,000 and 20,000 psi at which point the temperature of the LN2 is about -250 F. The discharge from this stage is then introduced as feed to a dual intensifier system, which boosts the pressure from 15,000 - 20,000 psi up to the maximum operating pressure of 55,000 psi. A temperature of about -220 F is achieved at which point the nitrogen is supercritical. In this condition the nitrogen cuts, strips and abrades much like ultra high-pressure water would but without any residual liquid to collect, remove or be contaminated. Once the nitrogen has performed its function it harmlessly flashes back into the atmosphere as pure nitrogen gas. The system uses heat exchangers to control and modify the temperature of the various intake and discharge nitrogen streams. Since the system is hydraulically operated, discharge pressures can be easily varied over

  16. SKULL-STRIPPING WITH DEFORMABLE ORGANISMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Gautam; Joshi, Anand A; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Shattuck, David W; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2011-01-01

    Segmenting brain from non-brain tissue within magnetic resonance (MR) images of the human head, also known as skull-stripping, is a critical processing step in the analysis of neuroimaging data. Though many algorithms have been developed to address this problem, challenges remain. In this paper, we apply the "deformable organism" framework to the skull-stripping problem. Within this framework, deformable models are equipped with higher-level control mechanisms based on the principles of artificial life, including sensing, reactive behavior, knowledge representation, and proactive planning. Our new deformable organisms are governed by a high-level plan aimed at the fully-automated segmentation of various parts of the head in MR imagery, and they are able to cooperate in computing a robust and accurate segmentation. We applied our segmentation approach to a test set of human MRI data using manual delineations of the data as a reference "gold standard." We compare these results with results from three widely used methods using set-similarity metrics.

  17. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  18. Physics Back in TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  19. Stream Surface Strip Element Method and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Deformation of Continuous Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-min; WANG Ying-rui

    2004-01-01

    A new method, the stream surface strip element method, for simulating the three-dimensional deformation of plate and strip rolling process was proposed. The rolling deformation zone was divided into a number of stream surface (curved surface) strip elements along metal flow traces, and the stream surface strip elements were mapped into the corresponding plane strip elements for analysis and computation. The longitudinal distributions of the lateral displacement and the altitudinal displacement of metal were respectively constructed to be a quartic curve and a quadratic curve, of which the lateral distributions were expressed as the third-power spline function, and the altitudinal distributions were fitted in the quadratic curve. From the flow theory of plastic mechanics, the mathematical models of the three-dimensional deformations and stresses of the deformation zone were constructed. Compared with the streamline strip element method proposed by the first author of this paper, the stream surface strip element method takes into account the uneven distributions of stresses and deformations along altitudinal direction, and realizes the precise three-dimensional analysis and computation. The simulation example of continuous hot rolled strip indicates that the method and the model accord with facts and provide a new reliable engineering-computation method for the three-dimensional mechanics simulation of plate and strip rolling process.

  20. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day in a chair with inadequate back support. Mental health factors : Pre-existing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression can influence ... is particularly important for persons with skeletal irregularities. Health care ... benefits of yoga to ease chronic low back pain. Physical therapy ...

  1. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaopei [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Tang, Guoyi; Kuang, Jie; Li, Xiaohui [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Zhu, Jing, E-mail: jzhu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, School of Materials Science and Engineering, The State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Laboratory of Advanced Materials (MOE), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-08-26

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101{sup ¯}0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results.

  2. A strip array for spoligotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yiling; Zeng, Xiaohong; Li, Hui; Zheng, Rongrong; Xu, Ye; Li, Qingge

    2016-03-01

    A novel strip array was developed for a nine-spacer spoligotyping scheme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). The new method was evaluated using 211 MTBC isolates and the results were fully concordant with the traditional spoligotyping approach. The strip array proved to be rapid and convenient for spoligotyping of MTBC.

  3. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Maja-Lisa; Slotved, H-C; Krogfelt, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy...

  4. Modeling of Strip Heating Process in Vertical Continuous Annealing Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Fei; WANG Yong-qin; QIN Shu-ren

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism for heat transfer of radiation is usually adopted to heat strip in vertical continuous annealing furnace. The rate of heat transfer among strip and other objects can be hugely affected by the parameters of strip speed, geometry factors and radiating characteristic of surfaces of strip, radiating tubes and walls of furnace. A model including all parameters is proposed for calculating the heat transfer coefficient, predicting the strip tempera- ture and boundary temperature of strip through analyzing these parameters. The boundary temperature is a important datum and different from average arithmetic value of temperature of strip and temperature in furnace. Also, the model can be used to analyze the relation for temperature of strip and heat transfer coefficient, total heat transfer quantity and heating time. The model is built by using the radiating heat transfer rate, the Newtonrs law of cooling, and lumped system analysis. The results of calculation are compared to the data from production line. The comparisons indicate that the model can well predict the heating process. The model is already applied for process control in pro- duction line. Also, this research will provide a new method for analyzing the radiation heat transfer.

  5. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  6. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about young adults’ use of strip clubs and prostitution during their holidays abroad. This study examined this issue with a sample of 1125 Danish tourists between the ages of 16 and 34, and sought data about the frequency with which they paid for sex and attended strip clubs while...

  7. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.

  8. Status Quo of China’s Aluminum Sheet & Strip Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aluminum sheet & strip products are one of the major product varieties in the aluminum processing industry, they also provide indis-pensable basic materials for the development of national economy. In recent years, driven by rapid economic growth, China’s investment in aluminum sheet & strip industry continued to

  9. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  10. Flux avalanches in Nb superconducting shifted strip arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Mawatari, Y.; Ibuka, J.; Tada, S.; Pyon, S.; Nagasawa, S.; Hidaka, M.; Maezawa, M.; Tamegai, T.

    2013-09-01

    Flux penetrations into three-dimensional Nb superconducting strip arrays, where two layers of strip arrays are stacked by shifting a half period, are studied using a magneto-optical imaging method. Flux avalanches are observed when the overlap between the top and bottom layers is large even if the width of each strip is well below the threshold value. In addition, anomalous linear avalanches perpendicular to the strip are observed in the shifted strip array when the overlap is very large and the thickness of the superconductor is greater than the penetration depth. We discuss possible origins for the flux avalanches, including linear ones, by considering flux penetration calculated by the Campbell method assuming the Bean model.

  11. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  12. [Obstetrical handbook in comic strip form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    An obstetric handbook was created in comic strip form in cooperation with the Ministry of Health in the region of Segou, Mali, for training of traditional midwives living far from community health centers. The drawings illustrate pregnancies at risk that the midwife should be able to identify in order to advise women to stay near the health facility before onset of labor. Drawings indicate pregnancies that are at risk because of the following: small stature, limping as a result of polio or sciatic paralysis, high parity, prior cesarean delivery, heart disease, overly large uterus, or prior stillbirth. Serious complications requiring referral to a health service are also illustrated and include severe anemia, genital bleeding, and signs of toxemia and edema. The midwife should accompany the woman during transport.

  13. Synchronization of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Raknessa, G; Wang, D

    2007-01-01

    The synchronization of the trigger and data acquisition systems for the Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector at CERN is described. The CSC trigger system is designed to trigger CMS on muons with high efficiency (~99% per chamber) and is able to accurately identify its 25ns proton bunch crossing. To date, asynchronous cosmic ray data have been used to define the protocol and to refine timing algorithms, allowing synchronization to be realized within and between chambers to within ±10 ns. Final synchronization of the CSCs requires timing parameters to be accurate to 2 ns. This goal will be readily achieved from the cosmic ray baseline using data taken with the synchronous beam structure of the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  15. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  17. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  18. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  19. Application of WLS strips for position determination in Strip PET tomograph based on plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Smyrski, J; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Molenda, M; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Pawlik, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Strzelecki, A; Wiślicki, W; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2013-01-01

    A method of determination of a gamma quantum absorption point in a plastic scintillator block using a matrix of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is proposed. Application of this method for improvement of position resolution in newly proposed PET detectors based on plastic scintillators is presented. The method enables to reduce parallax errors in reconstruction of images which occurs in the presently used Positron Emission Tomography scanners.

  20. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  1. Rigorously Assessing Whether the Data Backs the Back School

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous between-subjects methodology employing independent random samples and having broad clinical applicability was designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of back safety and patient transfer training interventions for both hospital nurses and nursing assistants. Effects upon self-efficacy, cognitive, and affective measures are assessed for each of three back safety procedures. The design solves the problem of obtaining randomly assigned independent controls where all expe...

  2. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  3. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  4. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  5. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A;

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem...... and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations...... to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings...

  6. Chiropractic care for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...

  7. The water crisis in the gaza strip: prospects for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinthal, E; Vengosh, A; Marei, A; Kloppmann, W

    2005-01-01

    Israel and the Palestinian Authority share the southern Mediterranean coastal aquifer. Long-term overexploitation in the Gaza Strip has resulted in a decreasing water table, accompanied by the degradation of its water quality. Due to high levels of salinity and nitrate and boron pollution, most of the ground water is inadequate for both domestic and agricultural consumption. The rapid rate of population growth in the Gaza Strip and dependence upon ground water as a single water source present a serious challenge for future political stability and economic development. Here, we integrate the results of geochemical studies and numerical modeling to postulate different management scenarios for joint management between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. The chemical and isotopic data show that most of the salinity phenomena in the Gaza Strip are derived from the natural flow of saline ground water from Israel toward the Gaza Strip. As a result, the southern coastal aquifer does not resemble a classic "upstream-downstream" dispute because Israel's pumping of the saline ground water reduces the salinization rates of ground water in the Gaza Strip. Simulation of different pumping scenarios using a monolayer, hydrodynamic, two-dimensional model (MARTHE) confirms the hypothesis that increasing pumping along the Gaza Strip border combined with a moderate reduction of pumping within the Gaza Strip would improve ground water quality within the Gaza Strip. We find that pumping the saline ground water for a source of reverse-osmosis desalination and then supplying the desalinated water to the Gaza Strip should be an essential component of a future joint management strategy between Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

  8. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  9. Element Tracking Strategies for Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bin; ZHANG Zhong-ping; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2005-01-01

    Feedforward control is the core to control function in the cooling process of hot strip. One of the most important tasks in feedforward control is to determine the arrival time of the strip at various locations on the runout table for effective control. Based on the principles of element tracking and tracking strategies for variable rolling speed and constant rolling speed, a simple diagonal tracking method for an existing hot strip mill was proposed and tested. The test results show that the proposed strategies are effective for improving tracking control.

  10. Improvement of Prediction Method for Strip Coiling Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qing-bo; WANG Zhao-dong; WANG Zhe-ying; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the control precision of strip coiling temperature for hot strip mill, the BP neural network was combined with mathematical model to calculate convective heat-transfer coefficient of laminar flow cooling. The off-line calculated results indicate that the standard deviation of coiling temperature prediction is reduced by 22.84 % with the convective heat-transfer coefficient calculated by BP neural network. The prospects of this method for on-line application are bright. This method is more helpful to increasing the control precision of coiling temperature for hot strip steel.

  11. Roll caster for the three-layer clad-strip

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, R; T. Yamabayashi; T. Haga; S. Kumai; H. Watari

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to show the characteristics of two kinds of roll casters for three-layer clad strip of aluminium alloys. Moreover, the characteristics of these twin roll casters were compeered with the early type of roll casters for clad strip.Design/methodology/approach: Design was tried to attain the fabrication of the roll casters to cast the three-layers-clad-strip. One caster was an unequal diameter roll caster equipped with a scraper. The scraper was adopted to prevent the mix...

  12. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  13. Water Modeling of Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; ZHANG Jie-yu; FAN Jun-fei; ZHAO Shun-li; FANG Yuan; AN Sheng-li

    2006-01-01

    Twin-roll strip casting is regarded as a prospective technology of near net shape continuous casting. The fluid flow field and level fluctuation in the pool have a strong influence not only on composition and temperature homogeneity of pool, but also on the strip quality. A 1∶1 water model of a twin-roll strip caster was set up based on the criteria of Froude number and Reynold number similarity. The level fluctuation was measured. The influence of pool depth, casting speed and feeding system configuration on level fluctuation in the pool was studied. The experimental results provided a basis for the optimization of feeding system and process parameters.

  14. Back pain - when you see the doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007494.htm Back pain - when you see the doctor To use the ... you first see your health care provider for back pain, you will be asked about your back pain, ...

  15. Lower Back Pain Symptom Checker Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the back. Some causes and treatment of back pain are described in this chart.Our trusted Symptom ... Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back Pain Menstrual Cycle Problems Mouth Problems Mouth Problems in ...

  16. A photonic analog of Möbius strips using coupled optical ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Tie-Jun; Chen, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A Möbius strip has an intriguing topological property in that it only has one non-orientable side. Here we propose to utilize coupled optical ring resonators (ORRs) to simulate the topological effect of Möbius strips. This scheme is based on the fact that the counter-clockwise mode in an ORR only couples to the clockwise mode of an adjacent ORR. We show that if an odd number of ORRs form a closed loop, after a round trip the handedness of the excited mode does not return to the initial one. Only after a double round trip does the mode come back to its initial state. Such a kind of Möbius-type coupling topology can be observed from the strong backward reflection in a common bus that provides the initial excitation. Eigenmodes, reflection and transmission spectra, and field distributions are calculated and analyzed. We also study the situation without Möbius-type coupling. The difference between these two categories is discussed. COMSOL simulations verify our analysis. The importance of this investigation and potential applications are briefly discussed.

  17. FPHX: A New Silicon Strip Readout Chip for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R.; Zimmerman, Tom N.; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab; Kapustinsky, Jon S.; Brookes, Melynda L.; /LOS ALAMOS

    2009-01-01

    The FPHX chip is a silicon strip readout chip developed at Fermilab for use in the FVTX Detector of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Each front end consists of an integrator which is AC coupled to a shaper, followed by a discriminator and a 3-bit analog-to-digital converter. The backend is a novel architecture in two stages that permits dead-timeless operation and high-speed readout with very low latency. A slow controller provides an interface for all on-chip programmable functions. This chip has been fabricated in the 0.25um TSMC process. All functionality including the analog front-end, the digital back-end, and the slow controller has been verified experimentally.

  18. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  19. Non-Oriented Fe-Si Thin Strip Produced from Grain Oriented Fe-Si Strip by CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE He-zhou; QI Ke-min; GAO Xiu-hua; QIU Chun-lin; LIU En

    2004-01-01

    The grain oriented silicon strip was rolled by cross shear rolling (CSR) and then annealed to manufacture non-oriented thin silicon strip of high quality. The recrystallization of rolled grain-oriented silicon steel into non-oriented silicon steel was studied. For this purpose, CSR is better than conventional rolling, and the higher the mismatched speed rate is, the better the properties of the non-oriented thin silicon strip are. The optimum annealing schedule is heating at 1 000 ℃ for 1 h in pure hydrogen atmosphere added with H2S of 0.001 0 %.

  20. Stability of flow over axisymmetric bodies with porous suction strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Reed, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Linear triple deck, closed form solutions for mean-flow quantities are developed for axisymmetric incompressible flow past a body with porous strips. The solutions account for upstream influence and are linear superpositions of the flow past the body without suction plus the perturbations due to the suction strips. Flow past the suctionless body is calculated using the Transition Analysis Program System, and a simple linear optimization scheme to determine number, spacing, and mass flow rate through the strips on an axisymmetric body is developed using the linear, triple-deck, closed-form solutions. The theory is demonstrated by predicting optimal strip distributions, and the effect of various adverse pressure-gradient situations on stability is studied.

  1. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  2. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  3. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found...

  4. Installation of some Cathode Strip Chambers on March 2004

    CERN Multimedia

    Richard Breedon

    2004-01-01

    Installation on the Disk of some Cathode Strip Chambers, type ME3/1, produced in the US. The installation has been performed on March 2004 at the CMS experimental site SX5 (P5) in Cessy, neighbouring France.

  5. Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Children by Reagent Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Farahmand

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of dipstick tests (leukocyte esterase and nitrite in diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP in cirrhotic patients. Forty six children with ascites hospitalized between 2009 and 2010 in Children Medical Center were enrolled in this study. Reagent strip assays for leukocyte esterase and nitrite were performed on ascetic fluid and the results were compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a polymorphonuclear ascites count of ≥ 250/mm3. Twenty children were female and twenty six were male with mean age of 3±3.9 years. The sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were all 100%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strip test were 100%, 97%, 90% and 100% respectively. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for the diagnosis of SBP.

  6. SIMULATION OF THE TWIN ROLL STAINLESS STRIP CASTING PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.C. Miao; X.M. Zhang; G.D. Wang; H.S. Di; X.H. Liu

    2001-01-01

    The position of the solidification completed temperature of twin roll stainless strip casting process is very important to the quality of the casting strip. In order to control this position, the solidification completed temperature should be known at first.The present paper first simulated dendritic microsegregation under conditions of twin roll stainless strip casting, and got the relationship between the temperature and solid fraction of the mush zone. The temperatures such as ZDT (equal to the solidification completed temperature) and LIT (liquid impenetrable temperature), et al., also were obtained. Then by using the turbulent model, the flow and thermal fields of the pool of the twin roll stainless strip casting, and the speed and temperature fields of different casting speeds were given and also explained. The results are coincident with the experimental result. Combined with the results of these two simulations. the appropriated casting speed was found.

  7. Feasibility and energetic evaluation of air stripping for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schläfle, Sandra; Senn, Thomas; Gschwind, Peter; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2017-05-01

    Stripping of mashes with air as stripping gas and low ethanol contents between 3 and 5wt% was investigated in terms of its suitability for continuous bioethanol production. Experiments in a Blenke cascade system were carried out and the results were compared with values obtained from theoretical vapour-liquid-equilibrium calculations. The whole stripping process was energetically evaluated by a simulation in ChemCAD and compared to conventional distillation. Therefore several parameters such as temperature, air volume flow and initial ethanol load of the mash were varied. Air stripping was found to be a suitable separation method for bioethanol from mashes with low concentrations. However, energetic aspects have to be considered, when developing a new process.

  8. Flow and heat transfer in compact offset strip fin surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqi DONG; Jiangping CHEN; Zhijiu CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Experimental studies of air-side heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of offset strip fins and flat tube heat exchangers were performed. A series of tests were conducted for 9 heat exchangers with different fin space, fin height, fin strip length and flow length, at a constant tube-side water flow rate of 2.5 m3/h. The char-acteristics of the heat transfer and pressure drop of differ-ent fin space, fin height and fin length were analyzed and compared. The curves of the heat transfer coefficients vs. The pumping power per unit frontal area were then plot-ted. Moreover, the enhanced heat transfer mechanism of offset strip fins was analyzed using field synergy theory. The results showed that fin length and flow length have more obviously effect on the thermal hydraulic character-istics of offset strip fins.

  9. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  10. Laser pulse modulation instabilities in partially stripped plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qiang-Lin; Liu Shi-Bing; Jiang Yi-Jian

    2005-01-01

    The laser pulse modulation instabilities in partially stripped plasma were discussed based on the phase and group velocities of the laser pulse and the two processes that modulation instabilities excited. The excitation condition and growth rate of the modulation instability were obtained. It was found that the positive chirp and competition between normal and abnormal dispersions play important roles in the modulation instability. In the partially stripped plasma,the increased positive chirp enhances the modulation instability, and the dispersion competition reduces it.

  11. A CAD model for the inductive strip in finline

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, Jeffrey B.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a CAD compatible circuit model for an inductive strip centered in f inline with W/b=E r2 =1 . The circuit model is shown to predict, strip scattering coefficients which agree closly with those measured experimentally in X-band. By application of the scaling principle the model is generalized for use with any waveguide size over the normal frequency range for the dominant TE 10 mode. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA http://archive.o...

  12. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Sakaguchi, H.; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and rec...

  13. Development of Cooling Process Control Technique in Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bin; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong; SHE Guang-fu

    2005-01-01

    In order to ensure required mechanical properties of steel strip, various innovations in the cooling process control on the run-out table of a hot strip mill were actively promoted. The recent progress of process mathematical model and the new cooling strategy and equipment were discussed. The computer control system of high performance was introduced. The development trend in cooling process control was given.

  14. The development of drift-strip detectors based on CdZnTe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gostilo, V.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Kuvvetli, Irfan

    2002-01-01

    The design and technological development of a CdZnTe drift strip detector is described. The device is based on a monocrystal of dimensions 10 x 10 x 3 mm(3) and has a pitch of 200 mum and a strip width of 100 mum. The strip length is 9.5 mm. The distribution of the leakage currents of the strips...

  15. Preliminary Design and Evaluation of Portable Electronic Flight Progress Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Nathan A.; Hansman, R. John

    2002-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using electronic alternatives to the paper Flight Progress Strip (FPS) for air traffic control. However, most research has been centered on radar-based control environments, and has not considered the unique operational needs of the airport air traffic control tower. Based on an analysis of the human factors issues for control tower Decision Support Tool (DST) interfaces, a requirement has been identified for an interaction mechanism which replicates the advantages of the paper FPS (e.g., head-up operation, portability) but also enables input and output with DSTs. An approach has been developed which uses a Portable Electronic FPS that has attributes of both a paper strip and an electronic strip. The prototype flight strip system uses Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) to replace individual paper strips in addition to a central management interface which is displayed on a desktop computer. Each PDA is connected to the management interface via a wireless local area network. The Portable Electronic FPSs replicate the core functionality of paper flight strips and have additional features which provide a heads-up interface to a DST. A departure DST is used as a motivating example. The central management interface is used for aircraft scheduling and sequencing and provides an overview of airport departure operations. This paper will present the design of the Portable Electronic FPS system as well as preliminary evaluation results.

  16. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  17. Low Back Pain in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, G D

    1987-01-01

    In brief: Low back pain in seasoned athletes is not common, but when present it can limit participation. While direct blows or hyperlor-dotic positions can cause low back pain in certain sports, the most common cause is overuse and resultant strains or sprains of the paravertebral muscles and ligaments. Such injuries cause acute pain and spasm, which sometimes do not appear for 24 hours or longer. Diagnosis is based on history, ruling out of systemic maladies, physical examination, and, if necessary, supplemental tests such as x-rays, myelograms, and bone scans. Treatment of low back pain due to overuse is, sequentially, bed rest and ice for 24 to 36 hours, heat and massage, analgesics as needed, and a lumbosacral support until flexion and strengthening exercises have returned the damaged part to normal.

  18. Microstructure and Eutectic Carbide Morphology of the High Speed Steel Strips Produced by Twin Roll Strip Casting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongshuang DI; Xiaoming ZHANG; Guodong WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2003-01-01

    The M2 high-speed steel strip was produced by using the laboratory scale twin roll strip caster. The microstructureand eutectic carbide morphology of thus produced products were observed and analyzed, and the comparison ofthose with conventional products was carried out. The effects of the processing parameters such as the meltingtemperature, the pouring temperature, rolling speed and separating force on the microstructure and eutectic carbidemorphology and their distribution were analyzed. The spheroidizing process of the strips in the annealing process wasinvestigated. The relations between the growth and spheroidizing of the eutectic carbide and the annealing technologywere obtained, and the mechanism of the twin roll strip casting process improving the eutectic carbide spheroidizingwas discussed. The theoretical instruction for determining the subsequent treatment process was provided.

  19. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  20. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  1. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss in serious terms a statement made in the late 1980ies by Danish film director Lars von Trier—that Danish pop-duo Laid Back for him, at the time, should be considered a prominent example of contemporary avant-garde art. At the time, von Triers’ statement was deliberately...... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...

  2. Golf and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 豊

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar spinal disease is one of the“locomotive syndrome”. Most common disease for advanced people is lumbar spinal canal stenosis(LSCS), on the other hand, most common disease for young adult people is lumbar disc herniation(LDH). Both LSCS and LDH can cause low back pain and severe sciatica of lower extremities. Golf is one of the most favorite sports for any generation worldwide. Sometimes golf can cause low back pain, however we can prevent the injuries of lumbar from playing golf. The ach...

  3. A Low-Profile Dual-Band Micro-strip Antenna Having Open-Circuited Strip-line-Stub

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 孝明; 羽石, 操

    1986-01-01

    Copyright notice. c1986 IEICE All rights reserved. "A Low-Profile Dual-Band Micro-strip Antenna Having Open-Circuited Strip-line-Stub"Misao HANEISHI, Hidekazu SUGA, Takaaki HASEGAWA.The Transactions of the Institute of Electronics and Communication Engineers of Japan. Section E, English, 1986. Vol. E69 No.11 pp. 1165-1166 許諾No.07RB0055.

  4. Control Strategies of Asymmetric Strip Shape in Six-High Cold Rolling Mill%Control Strategies of Asymmetric Strip Shape in Six-High Cold Rolling Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yun; YANG Quan; WANG Xiao-chen

    2011-01-01

    It is a complicated problem for cold-rolled strip to improve asymmetric strip shape in strip production. A roll system and strip coupled model of six-high cold rolling mill was established with finite element method to estimate the effect of intermediate roll shifting, tilting, symmetric and asymmetric bending technologies on strip profile. To reduce asymmetric defects of strip shape as much as possible, some control strategies were proposed, including tilting and asymmetric bending of intermediate roll and work roll. The combinations of these three control strategies can effectively eliminate asymmetric strip shape defects. Finally, the closed-loop control model of asymmetric flat- ness at the last stand was given, and the flatness control system with the function of asymmetric strip shape control was also designed for cold tandem mill.

  5. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  6. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  7. Chiropractic management of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, M

    1983-05-01

    The vast majority of those with back pain respond extremely well to chiropractic spinal manipulation. There are several hundred procedures available to a well trained chiropractor, including high velocity manipulation, mobilisation, soft tissue techniques and pressure point therapy, which may be used to eliminate the need for manipulation under anaesthesia or surgery.

  8. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  9. Determination of Anionic Surfactants Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Richard; Lord, Daniel

    1999-09-01

    An experiment has been developed for our undergraduate analytical chemistry course that demonstrates the indirect analysis of anionic surfactants by techniques normally associated with metal ion determination; that is, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The method involves the formation of an extractable complex between the synthetic surfactant anion and the bis(ethylenediamine)diaqua copper(II) cation. This complex is extracted into chloroform and then back-extracted into dilute acid. The resulting Cu(II) ions are determined by AAS and ASV. Students are required to determine the concentration of a pre-prepared "unknown" anionic surfactant solution and to collect and analyze a real sample of their choice. After the two extraction processes, students typically obtain close to 100% analytical recovery. Correlation between student AAS and ASV results is very good, indicating that any errors that occur probably result from their technique (dilutions, extractions, preparation of standards, etc.) rather than from the end analyses. The experiment is a valuable demonstration of the following analytical principles: indirect analysis; compleximetric analysis; liquid-liquid (solvent) extraction; back-extraction (into dilute acid); analytical recovery; and metal ion analysis using flame-AAS and ASV.

  10. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  11. Microstructural Characterization of Novel Ni-Containing Nd-Fe-B Strips by Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of novel Nd-Fe(Ni, Co, Al)-B microstructure prepared by strip casting technique were studied. The novel microstructure was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Along the direction of heat flow, there are two kinds of different microstructures. Close to the wheel side, there is a thick layer containing many polygonal Nd2Fe14B grains. Near the free surface side, however, there are relative uniform platelike Nd2Fe14B grains whose growth direction is not completely the direction of the heat flow during solidification. The formation of the novel microstructure is presumed to be the contribution of the special temperature field and Ni component.

  12. Stripped Elliptical Galaxies as Probes of ICM Physics: I. Tails, Wakes, and Flow Patterns in and Around Stripped Ellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E.; Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C.; Churazov, E.; Kokotanekova, R.

    2015-06-01

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  13. STRIPPED ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AS PROBES OF ICM PHYSICS. I. TAILS, WAKES, AND FLOW PATTERNS IN AND AROUND STRIPPED ELLIPTICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, E. [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojensbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Kraft, R. P.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Forman, W. R.; Machacek, M.; Randall, S.; Jones, C. [Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street MS-4, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Churazov, E. [MPI für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Kokotanekova, R., E-mail: eroediger@hs.uni-hamburg.de [AstroMundus Master Programme, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstr. 25/8, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-06-10

    Elliptical cluster galaxies are progressively stripped of their atmospheres due to their motion through the intracluster medium (ICM). Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the galaxy’s remnant atmosphere and its gas tail and wake. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit through the host cluster), orbital stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). We aim to disentangle dynamic and plasma effects in order to use stripped ellipticals as probes of ICM plasma properties. This first paper of a series investigates the hydrodynamics of progressive gas stripping by means of inviscid hydrodynamical simulations. We distinguish a long-lasting initial relaxation phase and a quasi-steady stripping phase. During quasi-steady stripping, the ICM flow around the remnant atmosphere resembles the flow around solid bodies, including a “deadwater” region in the near wake. Gas is stripped from the remnant atmosphere predominantly at its sides via Kelvin–Helmholtz instabilities. The downstream atmosphere is largely shielded from the ICM wind and thus shaped into a tail. Observationally, both this “remnant tail” and the stripped gas in the wake can appear as a “tail”, but only in the wake can galactic gas mix with the ambient ICM. While the qualitative results are generic, the simulations presented here are tailored to the Virgo elliptical galaxy M89 (NGC 4552) for the most direct comparison to observations. Papers II and III of this series describe the effect of viscosity and compare to Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively.

  14. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to <1.7 μm, without sacrificing either SM operation or low propagation loss. This makes micron-scale Si waveguides particularly well-suited for spectroscopy and extensive wavelength division multiplexing. However, rib waveguides require large bending radii, which lead to large circuit sizes. There are two solutions for this. So-called Euler bends in Si strip waveguides enable low-loss bends down to 1 μm bending radius with less than 0.1 dB/90° loss for both polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  15. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In this paper, a finite element model is constructed for the temperature field in a rolling process. The temperature field of strip steel is modeled with a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA structure, simultaneously considering the distribution of the work roll temperature. Then the distribution of field is simulated numerically. From the model, the temperature contours can be obtained by analysis of the temperature distribution of contact area. At the same time, the distribution of temperature in any position at any time can be acquired. These efforts provide the reliable parameters for the later finishing temperature and shape control.  

  16. Nanozyme-strip for rapid local diagnosis of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Demin; Fan, Kelong; Zhang, Dexi; Tan, Shuguang; Liang, Mifang; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jianlin; Zhang, Panhe; Liu, Wei; Qiu, Xiangguo; Kobinger, Gary P; Gao, George Fu; Yan, Xiyun

    2015-12-15

    Ebola continues to rage in West Africa. In the absence of an approved vaccine or treatment, the priority in controlling this epidemic is to promptly identify and isolate infected individuals. To this end, a rapid, highly sensitive, and easy-to-use test for Ebola diagnosis is urgently needed. Here, by using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) as a nanozyme probe, we developed a MNP-based immunochromatographic strip (Nanozyme-strip), which detects the glycoprotein of Ebola virus (EBOV) as low as 1 ng/mL, which is 100-fold more sensitive than the standard strip method. The sensitivity of the Nanozyme-strip for EBOV detection and diagnostic accuracy for New Bunyavirus clinical samples is comparable with ELISA, but is much faster (within 30 min) and simpler (without need of specialist facilities). The results demonstrate that the Nanozyme-strip test can rapidly and sensitively detect EBOV, providing a valuable simple screening tool for diagnosis of infection in Ebola-stricken areas.

  17. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  18. Interdigitated back contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, and how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancies between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing.

  19. [Back ache in helicopter pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S; Jovelić, S; Manojlović, J

    1992-01-01

    Due to low back pain (LBP) and harmful effects of flying, questionnaires were sent to 71 helicopter pilots of the experimental group, 22 mechanics helicopter flyers and to the control group of 28 air-traffic controllers. The prevalence of LBP was the highest in helicopter pilots, then in helicomechanics and air-traffic controllers (53%, 50% and 36%). Effects of exposure to vibration, body posture and working load have not contributed significantly to the occurrence of LBP. LBP has not lead to an important difference in the strength of the back musculature, body mass index and spondylosis, that is, scoliosis. The necessity of further study of LBP and maintaining of specific preventive measures are indicated.

  20. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10...... and 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed...

  1. Thermoviscoelastic dynamic response for a composite material thin narrow strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Hong Liang; Qi, Li-Li; Liu, Hai-Bo [Hunan University, Changsha (China)

    2015-02-15

    Based on von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relationships and classical thin plate theory, a list of nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations for a viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under thermal and mechanic loads are deduced. According to the material constitutive relationship and the relaxation modulus in the form of the Prony series, combing with the Newmark method and the Newton-cotes integration method, a new numerical algorithm for direct solving the whole problem in the time domain is established. By applying this numerical algorithm, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip as the research subject is analyzed systematically, and its rich dynamical behaviors are revealed comprehensively. To verify the accuracy of the present work, a comparison is made with previously published results. Finally, the viscoelastic composite material thin narrow strip under harmonic excitation load and impact load are discussed in detail, and many valuable thermoviscoelastic dynamic characteristics are revealed.

  2. A Hybrid Algorithm for Strip Packing Problem with Rotation Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Strip packing is a well-known NP-hard problem and it was widely applied in engineering fields. This paper considers a two-dimensional orthogonal strip packing problem. Until now some exact algorithm and mainly heuristics were proposed for two-dimensional orthogonal strip packing problem. While this paper proposes a two-stage hybrid algorithm for it. In the first stage, a heuristic algorithm based on layering idea is developed to construct a solution. In the second stage, a great deluge algorithm is used to further search a better solution. Computational results on several classes of benchmark problems have revealed that the hybrid algorithm improves the results of layer-heuristic, and can compete with other heuristics from the literature.

  3. Development, prototyping and characterization of double sided silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, Anita; Singh, Arvind; Aggarwal, Bharti; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Arvind; Murali Krishna, L. V.; Das, D.

    2016-10-01

    Double sided DC-coupled silicon strip detectors with geometry of 65 mm×65 mm have been developed in India for nuclear physics experiments. The detectors have 64 P+ strips on the front side and 64 N+ strips on the backside with a pitch of 0.9 mm. These detectors were fabricated using a twelve mask layer process involving double sided wafer processing technology. Semiconductor process and device simulations were carried out in order to theoretically estimate the impact of important design and process parameters on the breakdown voltage of detectors. The performance of the first lot of prototype detectors has been studied using static characterization tests and using an alpha source. The characterization results demonstrate that the detectors have low leakage currents and good uniformity over the detector area of about 40 cm2. Overview of the detector design, fabrication process, simulation results and initial characterization results of the detectors are presented in this paper.

  4. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  5. Efficiency measurements for 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Koehler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN Trento and Universita di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    Silicon strip detectors are widely used as part of the inner tracking layers in particle physics experiments. For applications at the luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the sLHC, silicon detectors with extreme radiation hardness are required. The 3D detector design, where electrodes are processed from underneath the strips into the silicon bulk material, provides a way to enhance the radiation tolerance of standard planar silicon strip detectors. Detectors with several innovative 3D designs that constitute a simpler and more cost-effective processing than the 3D design initially proposed were connected to read-out electronics from LHC experiments and subsequently tested. Results on the amount of charge collected, the noise and the uniformity of charge collection are given.

  6. Fast image retargeting based on strip dividing and resizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shungang Hua; Honglei Wei; Tieming Su

    2014-01-01

    Based on image strip dividing, an effective and fast image retargeting algorithm is proposed for resizing images. First, we construct the image energy map using gradient magnitude of the pixels and calculate the accumulated energy of each column, dividing the image into several strips by integrating similar energy columns. The reduced amount of dimension is decided in inverse proportion to the average energy for each strip. Then we retar-get the image combining scaling with cropping in terms of each strip’s reduced ratio. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of implementing fast image retargeting and preserving both the local structures and the global visual effect of the image.

  7. Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Moving Strip with Inertial Boundary Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-yi Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the movement mechanism of strip and rollers in tandem mill, the strip between two stands was simplified to axially moving Euler beam and the rollers were simplified to the inertial component on the fixed axis rotation, namely, inertial boundary. Nonlinear vibration mechanical model of Euler beam with inertial boundary conditions was established. The transverse and longitudinal motion equations were derived based on Hamilton’s principle. Kantorovich averaging method was employed to discretize the motion equations and the inertial boundary equations, and the solutions were obtained using the modified iteration method. Depending on numerical calculation, the amplitude-frequency responses of Euler beam were determined. The axial velocity, tension, and rotational inertia have strong influences on the vibration characteristics. The results would provide an important theoretical reference to control and analyze the vertical vibration of moving strip in continuous rolling process.

  8. Analytical possibilities of microelectrode use for stripping voltammetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysik, F.M. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry); Glaeser, P. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry); Werner, G. (Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-07-01

    The analytical utility of microelectrodes for stripping voltammetry is discussed from several points of view. The application of microelectrodes for microanalysis is demonstrated using a novel capillary flow injection system. Heavy metals at [mu]g l[sup -1] concentrations have been determined in [mu]l-samples. The influence of electrode size and convection during the deposition period of anodic stripping voltammetry on the reproducibility of trace metal determination was studied for various types of electrodes. In the case of mercury film microelectrodes, the precision can be improved if the accumulation of the analyte is performed under quiescent conditions. Practical examples of stripping voltammetry with microelectrodes such as copper determination in whisky and trace metal measurements in drinking water are given. (orig.)

  9. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  10. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  11. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  12. High speed twin roll caste for aluminum alloy thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed twin roll caster for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The effects of the high-speed twin roll caster on alleviating the deterioration of mechanical properties by impurities were investigated. Properties of the cast strip were investigated by metalography, a tension test, and a bending test.Findings: A vertical type twin roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloys was devised. The strip, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast at speeds higher than 60 m/min. Features of the twin roll casters are as below. Copper rolls were used and lubricant was not used in order to increase the casting speed. A casting nozzle was used to set the solidification length precisely. Heat transfer between melt and the roll was improved by hydrostatic pressure of the melt. Separating force was very small in order to prevent sticking of the strip to the roll. Low superheat casting was carried out in order to improve microstructure of the strip. In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed and high-cooling rate twin roll caster of the present study for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated. Fe was added as impurity to 6063 and A356. The roll caster of the present study was useful to decrease the influence of impurity of Fe.Research limitations/implications: A high-speed twin roll caster of vertical type was designed and assembled to cast aluminum alloy thin strip.Originality/value: The results demonstrate that the high-speed twin roll caster can improve the deterioration by impurities.

  13. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A., E-mail: sanjuktaak301@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, Neha; Parab, Harshala J.; Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL{sup −1}. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL{sup −1} of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices.

  14. Study on increasing calculation precision and convergence speed of streamline strip element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳; 刘宏民

    2004-01-01

    The calculation precision and convergence speed of streamline strip element method are increased by using the method whose initial value of the exit lateral displacement is determined with strip element variation method, and the accurate tension lateral distribution model is adopted based on the original third power spline function streamline strip element method. The basic theory of the strip element method is developed. The calculated results by the improved streamline strip element method and the original streamline strip element method are compared with the measured results, showing that the calculated results of the improved method are in good agreement with the measured results.

  15. Stability of flow over plates with porous suction strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the stability of two-dimensional, incompressible boundary-layer flow over plates with suction through porous strips. The mean flow is calculated using linearized triple-deck, closed-form solutions. The stability results of the triple-deck theory are shown to be in good agreement with those of the interacting boundary layers. Then different configurations of number, spacing, and mass flow rate through such porous strips are analyzed and compared with nonsimilar uniform-suction stability results from the point of view of applicability to laminar flow control.

  16. Simulated Performance of a Strip-Based Upgraded VELO

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, T; Coutinho, R; Eklund, L; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Latham, T; Schindler, H

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the expected performance of an upgraded Vertex Locator based on silicon-strip sensors, two different sensor layouts and two different thermo-mechanical module designs were implemented in the LHCb simulation framework. In this note, the digitisation, clustering and track reconstruction algorithms are described, and the simulated performance, at beam conditions corresponding to instantaneous luminosities of 1 and 2$\\times 10^{33} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$, is compared to that of the current Vertex Locator. Results are presented on the material budget, strip and cluster occupancies, tracking efficiencies as well as on primary vertex, impact parameter and decay time resolutions.

  17. Development of thermochromic strips as a water pasteurization indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishtiaq A. Qazi; M. Ali Awan; M. Anwar Baig

    2003-01-01

    Boiling of water, for purification, commonly practiced in the world, has many problems associated with it like danger of scalding,scaling in the vessels, removal of useful minerals and blandness of taste etc. Water can be made safe for drinking simply by heating at 65℃ for 6 minutes. A colour indicating strip was developed which changes colour from red to purple at 67℃. Use of this strip can help in pasteurizing water without the above problems and with considerable energy saving.

  18. Application of Adaptive Threading Technique to Hot Strip Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jing-guo; HU Xian-lei; JIAO Jing-min; SHE Guang-fu; LIU Xiang-hua

    2008-01-01

    Thickness deviation of hot strip rolling needs to be strictly controlled in the computer system.An adaptive threading technique was researched,in which the measured data from threaded stands were used to predict thickness and material hardness errors,to modify the setup for the remaining unthreaded stands.After the adaptive threading model was used online on the hot strip mill of the Panzhihua Iron and Steel Group Co Ltd,the thickness deviation was decreased obviously.The hit rate of thickness control of different steel grades increases.

  19. Optical Möbius strips and twisted ribbon cloaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Isaac

    2014-02-15

    Optical Möbius strips that surround points of circular polarization, C points, in a generic three-dimensional optical field are cloaked by lines of twisted ribbons attached to the C points. When cloaking occurs, the observable signed twist index that counts the number of half-twists (one or three), and also measures the handedness (right or left), of a generic Möbius strip is determined by the twisted ribbon cloaks. Although some cloaks can be detached, they can never all be removed.

  20. A plane mirror experiment inspired by a comic strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio Prados Ribeiro, Jair

    2016-01-01

    A comic strip about a plane mirror was used in a high school optics test, and it was perceived that a large portion of the students believed that the mirror should be larger than the object so the virtual image could be entirely visible. Inspired on the comic strip, an experimental demonstration with flat mirrors was developed, in order to readdress this topic learning. Students were encouraged to create their own investigation of the phenomenon with a simple instrumental apparatus and also suggest different experimental approaches.

  1. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, T.; Ikawa, M; H.Watari; S. Kumai

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could...

  2. High resolution cross strip anodes for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Abiad, R.; Hull, J.

    2003-05-01

    A new photon counting, imaging readout for microchannel plate sensors, the cross strip (XS) anode, has been investigated. Charge centroiding of signals detected on two orthogonal layers of sense strip sets are used to derive photon locations. The XS anode spatial resolution (<3 μm FWHM) exceeds the spatial resolution of most direct charge sensing anodes, and does so at low gain (<2×10 6). The image linearity and fidelity are high enough to resolve and map 7 μm MCP pores, offering new possibilities for astronomical and other applications.

  3. The Las Vegas Strip as a Genuinely Invented Global Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ortega

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Vegas, Nevada, is typically recognised as a place via a single urban gesture, that gesture being Las Vegas Boulevard, which is more commonly referred to as "The Strip". In constructing a thesis around the theme, "Here or There? Interconnections between the Global and the Local", one cannot ignore the invitation to discuss globalisation and its effects on a particular local fabric. For the purpose of this text, globalisation can be thought of as what Carmona et al describe as an intricate series of events leading to the world "becoming increasingly interconnected, with centralised decision making exploiting economies of scale and standardisation" (2003: 101. The centralised decision-making process for The Strip is evident in the strategy to develop individually themed casino resorts along Las Vegas Boulevard that respond to a competitive economy, thus creating a newly standardised landscape. If we also understand that globalisation can be thought of as the development of an interconnected world where economic, political and cultural boundaries can be easily crossed, this work can begin to define how the Las Vegas Strip is a genuinely invented global landscape. This paper addresses the "here-ness" as well as the "there-ness" of The Strip, while offering a dialectical framework for establishing a meaning of place by having 'there' placed 'here'. By employing semiological interpretations of real landscapes from around the globe (for example, Venturi et al, 1972, The Strip becomes a newly invented landscape of "simulations" (Baudrillard, 1988. As such, The Strip acts as a narrative that forms a unique place, opening the door to questions of authenticity and identity. This paper concludes by focusing on the question of "Here or There?" as an appropriate deviation from the assumed role that the post-modern landscape of the Las Vegas Strip plays. This work is intended to be a point of departure from the frequent criticism of the Las Vegas Strip as

  4. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da-Li; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, heng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD). It provides the tracking information of incident particles. The low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used for signal readout of DSSD. A beam test of the DSSD module was performed in the Beijing test beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using proton beam of 400~800MeV/c. Results on pedestal analysis, RMSE noise, gain correction and reconstruction of incident position of DSSD module are presented.

  5. Ultra-stripped supernovae and double neutron star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of close-orbit progenitor binaries of double neutron star (DNS) systems leads to supernova (SN) explosions of ultra-stripped stars. The amount of SN ejecta mass is very limited from such, more or less, naked metal cores with envelope masses of only 0.01-0.2 Msun. The combination of little SN ejecta mass and the associated possibility of small NS kicks is quite important for the characteristics of the resulting DNS systems left behind. Here, we discuss theoretical predictions for DNS systems, based on Case BB Roche-lobe overflow prior to ultra-stripped SNe, and briefly compare with observations.

  6. Improvement of chronic back pain or failed back surgery with vitamin D repletion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews 6 selected cases of improvement/resolution of chronic back pain or failed back surgery after vitamin D repletion in a Canadian family practice setting. Pub Med was searched for articles on chronic back pain, failed back surgery, and vitamin D deficiency. Chronic low back pain and failed back surgery may improve with repletion of vitamin D from a state of deficiency/insufficiency to sufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency is common; repletion of vitamin D to normal levels in patients who have chronic low back pain or have had failed back surgery may improve quality of life or, in some cases, result in complete resolution of symptoms.

  7. A novel strip energy splitting algorithm for the fine granular readout of a scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Katsushige, E-mail: coterra@azusa.shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Jeans, Daniel [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Miyamoto, Akiya [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takeshita, Tohru [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2015-07-21

    We describe an algorithm which has been developed to extract fine granularity information from an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) with strip-based readout. Such a calorimeter, based on scintillator strips, is being developed to apply particle flow reconstruction to future experiments in high energy physics. The application of this algorithm to 100 GeV hadronic jets in an ECAL with 45×5 mm{sup 2} transverse segmentation improves the energy resolution from 3.6% to 3.0%, to be compared to the resolution of 2.9% achieved by an ECAL with 5×5 mm{sup 2} segmentation. The performance can be further improved by the use of 10×10 mm{sup 2} tile-shaped layers interspersed between strip layers.

  8. Forward-Thinking Tips for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163118.html Forward-Thinking Tips for Back Pain Certain behaviors can reduce your risk, doctor says ... 19, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Back pain is common but not inevitable, an orthopedist says. ...

  9. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO Video Library Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain Page Content A n estimated 50 million Americans ... natural tendency toward self-healing. Tips to Minimize Back Pain Here are some tips for preventing or minimizing ...

  10. Low Back Pain Common Among Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163320.html Low Back Pain Common Among Kids Sports injuries are ... 30, 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low back pain is common in school-age American ...

  11. Fast Facts: What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Is Back Pain? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Is Back Pain? (in Vietnamese bằng ... type of back pain. Behavior Changes You can learn to lift, push, and pull with less stress ...

  12. [My Back is Still Hurting!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Jäckel, Kristian; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A; Öhlschlegel, Christian

    2015-05-20

    We present the case of a 39-year-old man who reported to the primary care physician for low back pain. Pain persisted despite extensive assessment and therapy. During the course, bilateral femoral neck fractures occurred and due to multiple enrichments in scintigraphy chronic multifocal (sterile) osteomyelitis was suspected. In the further follow-up the appropriate diagnosis of osteomalacia was established in bone biopsy and adequate treatment with Vitamin D was initiated. During therapy, the patient was free of pain or discomfort.

  13. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  14. Magnetic stray fields of periodically arranged Co-Crmicro strips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintelo, te J.G.T.

    1993-01-01

    Research was carried out on magnetic stray fields of Co-Cr micro strips. This investigation was motivated by the search for increasing bit density and miniaturisation in magnetic data storage and magnetic sensor devices. In these devices the magnetisation is patterned, i.e. by writing bits or etchin

  15. Reactive strip method for mixing and reaction in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Méheust, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A numerical method to efficiently solve for mixing and reaction of scalars in a two-dimensional flow field at large P\\'eclet numbers but otherwise arbitrary Damk\\"ohler numbers is reported. We consider a strip of one reactant in a pool of another reactant, both of which are advected with the known velocity field. We first establish that the system evolution for such a system under certain conditions is described by a locally one-dimensional reaction-diffusion problem. The approximation of a locally one-dimensional dynamics is true for cases where the strip thickness is smaller than the local radius of curvature and also when the strip thickness is smaller than the distance between adjacent strips. We first demonstrate the method for the transport of a conservative scalar under a linear shear flow, point vortex and a chaotic sine flow. We then proceed to consider the situation with a simple bimolecular reaction between two reactants to yield a single product. The methodology presented herewith essentially gene...

  16. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeldt, J.; Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph.; Magallanes, L.; Müller, R.; Parodi, K.; Schlüter, T.; Voss, B.; Zibell, A.

    2017-02-01

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm2 with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X0. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF4 gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  17. Off-line Simulation of PFC for Hot Rolling Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangwei KONG; Hezhou YE; Jianzhong XU; Guodong WANG; Liying BA; Xiaoming HE

    2003-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the strip for the hot continuous rolling, the high accuracy set-up control must be applied toproduction. In the paper, we analyze the PFC (profile and flatness control) system and simulate the set-up process. Calculationresults are in agreement to the actual measurements. It is the basis on the developing model.

  18. A SILICON STRIP READOUT SYSTEM FOR A NEW ELECTROMAGNETIC POLARIMETER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOONEVELD, EM; VANEIJK, CWE; VANKLINKEN, J; HOOGDUIN, JM; SARRO, PM; VANDENBOOGAARD, A

    1994-01-01

    A strong interest exists in electromagnetic polarimetry at high energies. For energies in the 10 MeV to 200 MeV range, a new polarimeter has been proposed using magnetic layers sandwiched between Silicon Strip Detectors (SSDs). The SSDs have been chosen because of 1) their good energy resolution (

  19. Strip tillage for single and twin-row peanut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil degradation and rising production costs have prompted grower interest in conservation tillage with high residue cover crops for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). The objective was to evaluate single and twin-row peanut production across three different strip tillage implements with and without a c...

  20. A prototype of radiation imaging detector using silicon strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, S.; Hyun, H. J.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Kyeryung; Kim, Y. I.; Park, H.; Son, D. H.

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a strip sensor with a single photon counting data acquisition system based on VA1 readout chips to study the feasibility of a silicon microstrip detector for medical application. The sensor is an AC-coupled single-sided microstrip sensor and the active area of the sensor is 32.0 mm×32.0 mm with a thickness of 380 μm. The sensor has 64 readout strips with a pitch of 500 μm. The sensor was biased at 45 V and the experiment was performed at room temperature. Two silicon strip sensors were mounted perpendicularly one another to get two-dimensional position information with a 5 mm space gap. Two low noise analog ASICs, VA1 chips, were used for signal readout of the strip sensor. The assembly of sensors and readout electronics was housed in an Al light-tight box. A CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal and a 2-in. photomultiplier tube were used to trigger signal events. The data acquisition system was based on a 64 MHz FADC and control softwares for the PC-Linux platform. Imaging tests were performed by using a lead phantom with a 90Sr radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam at Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science in Seoul, respectively. Results of the S/ N ratio measurement and phantom images are presented.

  1. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  2. Evaluation of an automated urine chemistry reagent-strip analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, J A; Johnson, W R; Luke, K E

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the Miles Inc., Clinitek Atlas Automated Urine Chemistry Analyzer for 11 tests: bilirubin, color, glucose, ketones, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, occult blood, pH, protein, specific gravity, and urobilinogen. The instrument uses a roll of reagent strips affixed to a clear plastic support; urine specimens are automatically pipetted onto these strips. The instrument measures the pads' color using reflectance colorimetry. Specific gravity is measured using a fiberoptic refractive index method. Four hospitals participated in the evaluation, and tests were performed only on fresh urine samples. We found the instrument easy to use; it has walk-away capability with up to 40-specimen loading capacity plus spaces for STATs, calibrators and controls. We found good comparability with chemical tests and other nonreagent strip procedures, as well as good agreement with the Miles Inc. Clinitek 200+ urine chemistry analyzer and visual reading of the Miles Inc. Multistix Reagent Strips. The Clinitek Atlas is rugged and reliable, and is suitable for a high-volume urinalysis laboratory.

  3. Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) Sag Measurements and Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Kriesel, K; Loveless, D

    1997-01-01

    We describe the measurements of sag on P1A 2 layer prototype Cathode Strip Chamber and compare the results with calculated values. Using this information we predict the sag of P1 6-layer chamber with the present design for the aluminium frame, and compare this value to measured sag.

  4. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions (2.0 < | | < 2.7). Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  5. Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Muon Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Gough Eschrich, I

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS muon spectrometer employs cathode strip chambers (CSC) to measure high momentum muons in the forward regions $(2.0 < |eta| < 2.7)$. Due to the severe radiation levels expected in this environment, the on-detector electronics are limited to amplifying and digitizing the signal while sparsification, event building and other tasks are performed off-detector.

  6. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880.2200 Section 880.2200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the presence or absence of fever, or to monitor body temperature changes. The device displays...

  7. Stripping chronopotentiometry for metal ion speciation analysis at a microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.P.; Town, R.

    2002-01-01

    The features of metal ion speciation determination by stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) at a microelectrode are examined and compared with those of DP-SV. SCP measurements are essentially of a steady-state nature under experimentally achievable conditions and correspond to practically complete dep

  8. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  9. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  10. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  11. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  12. Gas Loss by Ram Pressure Stripping and Internal Feedback From Low Mass Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Grcevich, Jana; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites of the Milky Way is affected by the combination of ram pressure and tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the Milky Way using three-dimensional, high resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that ram pressure stripping is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that, although ram pressure stripping can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play t...

  13. Hardness of celluloid strip-finished or polished composite surfaces with time

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. H.; KREJCI,Ivo; Lutz, F

    2000-01-01

    An in-vitro study revealed that a celluloid strip-finished composite surface discolored more than the polished composite surface. Thus, the celluloid strip-finished composite surface may not cure enough compared with the polished composite surface.

  14. Air stripping. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the application of air stripping techniques to water treatment, including groundwater decontamination and wastewater purification. The advantages and disadvantages of air stripping over other water treatment processes are discussed. Cleanup of the organic emissions generated by air stripping is also considered. The primary applications of air stripping are in groundwater and soil cleanup. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. On the Formation & Growth of Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuoLing; LiuYu

    2005-01-01

    According to the essential features of urban economic strips, this paper is intended to point out that Chengdu-Chongqing strip has so far been an urban area in geographic or spatial sense, but not an urban economic strip in economic sense. On further basis of analyzing several problems existing in the developrnent of Chengdu-Chongqing economic strip, some countermeasures are correspondingly put forward hereafter.

  16. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  17. Technical updates to basic proteins focalization using IPG strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dépagne Jordane

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-based proteomic is a popular and versatile method of global protein separation and quantification. However, separation of basic protein still represents technical challenges with recurrent problems of resolution and reproducibility. Results Three different protocols of protein loading were compared using MCF7 cells proteins. In-gel rehydration, cup-loading and paper-bridge loading were first compared using 6–11 IPG strips, as attempted, in-gel rehydration gave large horizontal steaking; paper-bridge loading displayed an interesting spot resolution, but with a predominant loss of material; cup-loading was selected as the most relevant method, but still needing improvement. Twelve cup-loading protocols were compared with various strip rehydration, and cathodic wick solutions. Destreak appeared as better than DTT for strip rehydration; the use of isopropanol gave no improvement. The best 2DE separation was observed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution complemented with DTT. Paper-bridge loading was finally analyzed using non-limited samples, such as bovine milk. In this case, new spots of basic milk proteins were observed, with or without paper wicks. Conclusion According to this technical study of basic protein focalization with IPG strips, the cup-loading protocol clearly displayed the best resolution and reproducibility: strips were first rehydrated with standard solution, then proteins were cup-loaded with destreak reagent, and focalisation was performed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution and DTT. Paper-bridge loading could be as well used, but preferentially with non-limited samples.

  18. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  19. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;

    2006-01-01

    Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...

  20. Functional importance of stripping in NFκB signaling revealed by a stripping-impaired IκBα mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Holly E; Wismer, Kevin; Vargas, Jesse D; Suryawanshi, Gajendra W; Kern, Nadja; Kroon, Gerard; Dyson, H Jane; Hoffmann, Alexander; Komives, Elizabeth A

    2017-02-21

    Stress-response transcription factors such as NFκB turn on hundreds of genes and must have a mechanism for rapid cessation of transcriptional activation. We recently showed that the inhibitor of NFκB signaling, IκBα, dramatically accelerates the dissociation of NFκB from transcription sites, a process we have called "stripping." To test the role of the IκBα C-terminal PEST (rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine residues) sequence in NFκB stripping, a mutant IκBα was generated in which five acidic PEST residues were mutated to their neutral analogs. This IκBα(5xPEST) mutant was impaired in stripping NFκB from DNA and formed a more stable intermediate ternary complex than that formed from IκBα(WT) because DNA dissociated more slowly. NMR and amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry showed that the IκBα(5xPEST) appears to be "caught in the act of stripping" because it is not yet completely in the folded and NFκB-bound state. When the mutant was introduced into cells, the rate of postinduction IκBα-mediated export of NFκB from the nucleus decreased markedly.

  1. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from India for the period January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2007. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Preliminary Results...

  2. Kinetics of stripping of gold loaded in DBC organic phase by sodium sulfite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of stripping of gold loaded in dibutyl carbito (DBC) organic phase by sodium sulfite was investipseudo-first-order reaction. The stripping rate of gold was in direct proportion to interfacial area, concentration of sodium sulfite and reaction temperature. The experimental results showed that the process of stripping gold was controlled by interping by sodium sulfite.

  3. 76 FR 47546 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Strip from India, 67 FR 44175 (July 1, 2002) (PET Film India Order). On July 1, 2010, the Department... Duty Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From India, 67 FR... Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India, 66 FR 65893 (December 21, 2001),...

  4. Control of Cimex lectularius using heat combined with dichlorvos resin strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, M P; Pereira, R M; Koehler, P G; Walker, W; Lehnert, M S

    2011-12-01

    Successful management of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is difficult because of its pesticide resistance, which can allow a reduction in population, but not elimination. We evaluated the effect of heat and/or air circulation on the efficacy of dichlorvos resin strips in the control of bed bugs. Treatments were performed in unoccupied dormitory rooms and consisted of dichlorvos resin strips containing 18.6% active ingredient, the same strips + fan, and strips + fan + heat. The mortality of recently fed bed bugs and weight loss of the dichlorvos strips were evaluated over 7 days. Dichlorvos resin strips killed bed bugs and eggs in just over 7 days. The addition of a fan or a fan + heat decreased time to 100% mortality to 3 days and 36 h, respectively. Eggs located in treated rooms did not hatch. Resin strips in the strips + fan treatment and the strips + fan + heat treatment volatilized 10 and 70 times, respectively, faster than strips in the strips-only treatment. The addition of heat in treatments with dichlorvos resin strips enhances the overall efficacy of the volatile insecticide and reduces the time required to eliminate live bed bugs and eggs.

  5. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan AGENCY: United States International... brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence...

  6. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The... strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation...

  7. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan. SUMMARY: The Commission... sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  8. 77 FR 23508 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan Determination On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on brass sheet and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan...), entitled Brass Sheet and Strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-313,...

  9. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan... antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico,...

  10. Significance of wave form parameters in stripping chronopotentiometric metal speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the significance of stripping chronopotentiometric (SCP) stripping peak parameters (peak potential, Ep, and peak half-width, w1/2) for determination of metal ion speciation. This study focuses on depletive SCP (low stripping current, I¿ constant), and considers the change

  11. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ..., sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China; A-570-924; Request for New Shipper... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's...

  12. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    of potato tissue leading to an easier and more effective diffusion of asparaginase. On the other hand, par-fried potatoes of Bintje variety were prepared by cutting strips (0.8×0.8×5cm) which were blanched at 75°C for 10min. Unblanched strips were used as the control. Control or blanched strips were...

  13. Mathematical Model for Temperature Field of Strip Coil in Cooling and Heating Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-quan; SUN Jing-hong; WU Bin; LIAN Jia-chuang

    2005-01-01

    The convection between the strip coil boundary and the surrounding medium was studied,and the math ematical model and boundary conditions for the temperature field of anisotropic strip coil was proposed,and the temperature field of strip coil were calculated by the analytic method.

  14. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  15. DBMSs Should Talk Back Too

    CERN Document Server

    Simitsis, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    Natural language user interfaces to database systems have been studied for several decades now. They have mainly focused on parsing and interpreting natural language queries to generate them in a formal database language. We envision the reverse functionality, where the system would be able to take the internal result of that translation, say in SQL form, translate it back into natural language, and show it to the initiator of the query for verification. Likewise, information extraction has received considerable attention in the past ten years or so, identifying structured information in free text so that it may then be stored appropriately and queried. Validation of the records stored with a backward translation into text would again be very powerful. Verification and validation of query and data input of a database system correspond to just one example of the many important applications that would benefit greatly from having mature techniques for translating such database constructs into free-flowing text. ...

  16. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  17. Backscattering in a 2D topological insulator and the conductivity of a 2D strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magarill, L. I.; Entin, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    A strip of the 2D HgTe topological insulator is studied. The same-spin edge states in an ideal system propagate in opposite directions on different sides of the strip and do not mix by tunneling. Impurities, edge irregularities, and phonons produce transitions between the counterpropagating edge states on different edges. This backscattering determines the conductivity of an infinitely long strip. The conductivity at finite temperature is determined in the framework of the kinetic equation. It is found that the conductivity exponentially grows with the strip width. In the same approximation the nonlocal resistance coefficients of a four-terminal strip are found.

  18. Enhanced absorption of graphene strips with a multilayer subwavelength grating structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jin-Hua; Huang, Yong-Qing, E-mail: yqhuang@bupt.edu.cn; Duan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Jun; Ren, Xiao-Min [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Institute of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The optical absorption of graphene strips covered on a multilayer subwavelength grating (MSG) surface is theoretically investigated. The absorption of graphene strips with MSG is enhanced in the wavelength range of 1500 nm to 1600 nm by critical coupling, which is associated with the combined effects of a guided resonance of MSG and its photonic band gap effect. The critical coupling of the graphene strips can be controlled by adjusting the incident angle without changing the structural parameters of MSG. The absorption of graphene strips can also be tuned by varying key parameters, such as grating period, strip width, and incident angle.

  19. A vertical type twin roll caster for an aluminium alloy clad strip

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; Nakamura, R; Kuma, S; H. Watari

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper: Twin roll casters that can cast two layers and three layers clad strip of aluminium alloys were invented. One of the purposes of this paper is to report that the two layers and three layers clad strip could be cast by the twin roll caster of this study. The investigation of the characters of these casters and the clad strips was purpose of this paper, too. The connecting at the interface between the strips was most important in the casting of the clad strip. Therefore,...

  20. Carbon Diffusion in Hot Strips of Low Carbon Steel Produced by CSP Line under Different Thermal Histories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao YU; Hao REN; Yonglin KANG; Kelu WANG

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out on the same compact strip production (CSP) line, which differs in that one of them experienced γ→α→γ* thermal history. The differences in microstructure, precipitation, misorientation etc between two experiments were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and positron annihilation technique (PAT). The carbon concentration in matrix is more inhomogeneous in the experiment than that with γ→α→γ* thermal history. The specific precipitation characteristic in the experiment without γ→α→γ* thermal history is discussed on the basis of different carbon diffusion behavior and interaction between dislocation and excess carbon.

  1. MENDED GENETIC BP NETWORK AND APPLICATION TO ROLLING FORCE PREDICTION OF 4-STAND TANDEM COLD STRIP MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dazhi; Sun Yikang; Wang Yanping; Cai Hengjun

    2004-01-01

    In order to make good use of the ability to approach any function of BP (back propagation) network and overcome its local astringency,and also make good use of the overall search ability of GA (genetic algorithms),a proposal to regulate the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms is suggested.An integrated network system of MGA (mended genetic algorithms) and BP algorithms has been established.The MGA-BP network's functions consist of optimizing GA performance parameters,the network's structural parameters,performance parameters,and regulating the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms.Rolling forces of 4-stand tandem cold strip mill are predicted by the MGA-BP network,and good results are obtained.

  2. When looking back to nothing goes back to nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W

    2016-02-01

    Previous research showed that the eyes revisit the location in which the stimulus has been encoded when visual or verbal information is retrieved from memory. A recent study showed that this behavior still occurs 1 week after encoding, suggesting that visual, spatial and linguistic information is tightly associated with the oculomotor trace and stored as an integrated memory representation. However, it is yet unclear whether looking behavior simply remains stable between encoding and recall or whether it changes over time in a more fine-tuned manner. Here, we investigate the time course of looking behavior during recall in multiple sessions across 1 week. Participants encoded visual objects presented in one of the four locations on the computer screen. In five sessions during the week after encoding, they performed on a visual memory recall task. During retrieval, participants looked back to the encoding location, but only in the recall sessions within 1 day of encoding. We discuss different explanations for the temporal dynamics of looking behavior during recall, searching for the role of eye movements in memory.

  3. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly.

  4. Dietary behaviours and dental fluorosis among Gaza Strip children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhaloob, L; Abed, Y

    2013-07-01

    A high prevalence of dental fluorosis has been identified among children in the Gaza Strip. This study aimed to determine the history of breastfeeding and dietary behaviours among children in the Gaza Strip and to examine potential associations with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. A cross-sectional study recruited a stratified cluster random sample of 350 children aged 12-18 years and their mothers. Data about dietary behaviours in the first 7 years of life were collected by interview questionnaire. Dental fluorosis was determined using the Thyllstrup-Fejerskov index. A majority of children were breastfed exclusively in the first 6 months (82.9%) but 98.1% were given tea in the first year of life. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 78.0%. Both intake of animal proteins and plant proteins were negatively associated with the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis. Further studies to investigate fluoride intake is required to plan preventive interventions.

  5. Twin-roll strip casting of magnesium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The development status of twin-roll strip casting for magnesium alloys in China was summarized as well as the new progress when several kinds of twin-roll strip casting technologies were developed and used.Horizontal twin-roll casting (HTRC) of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention and has been industrialized in China.Vertical twin roll casting(VTRC) of the magnesium alloys can reach a speed of higher than 30 m/min and its research and development are just beginning and exhibit exciting potential.By comparing the process characteristics of the two technologies,the process stability of HTRC for the magnesium alloys is better,and the casting speed and the cooling rate of VTRC for the magnesium alloys are higher.The quality of the products by the two technologies needs to be improved and further investigated.

  6. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  7. FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF A FUNCTIONALLY GRADED STRIP UNDER PLANE DEFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Zhanqi; Zhong Zheng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the plane elasticity problem for a functionally graded strip containing a crack is considered. It is assumed that the reciprocal of the shear modulus is a linear function of the thickness-coordinate, while the Possion's ratio keeps constant. By utilizing the Fourier trans formation technique and the transfer matrix method, the mixed boundary problem is reduced to a system of singular integral equations that are solved numerically. The influences of the geometric parameters and the graded parameter on the stress intensity factors and the strain energy release rate are investigated. The numerical results show that the graded parameters, the thickness of the strip and the crack size have significant effects on the stress intensity factors and the strain energy release rate.

  8. Cooling hot rolling steel strip using combined tactics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Qing Li; Zhou Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The coiling temperature control of a typical steel strip mill was investigated. Due to the high speed of a strip and complex circumstance, it is very hard to set up a cooling model with high accuracy. A simplified dynamic model was proposed, based on which a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback and adaptive algorithms was developed. Meanwhile, the genetic algorithms were used for the optimization of model parameters. Simulations with a model validated using actual plant data were conducted, and the results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed control methods. At last, a simulation system for coiling temperature control was developed. It can be used for new product trials and newcomer training.

  9. Thermal Grease Evaluation for ATLAS Upgrade Micro-Strip Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Barbier, G; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Ferrère, D; Pernecker, S; Perrin, E; Streit, KP; Weber, M

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS upgrade detector foreseen at the phase 2 upgrade of LHC requires a complete new inner detector using silicon pixel and strip detectors. For both technologies, a specific mechanical and thermal design is required. Such a design may use soft thermal interfaces such as grease between the various parts. One foreseeable use would be between the cooling pipe and the thermal block allowing the strip modules to be decoupled from the mechanical and cooling structure. This note describes the technique used and the results obtained when characterizing a few grease samples. The results have been compared with thermal FEA simulations. A thermal conductivity measurement for each sample could be extracted from the measurements, with a systematic uncertainty of less than 6%. Some samples were irradiated to the expected fluence at sLHC and their resulting thermal conductivity compared with the non-irradiated samples.

  10. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line segments into different feature sequences as well as sequential groups of data points. A developable surface approximation procedure is employed to refine incident approximation planes of data points into developable strips. Some experimental results are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. A MOVING CRACK IN A NONHOMOGENEOUS MATERIAL STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baolin; Han Jiecai

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers an anti-plane moving crack in a nonhomogencous material strip of finite thickness. The shear modulus and the mass density of the strip are considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has analytical solutions. The problem is solved by means of the singular integral equation technique. The stress field near the crack tip is obtained. The results are plotted to show the effect of the material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip field. Crack bifurcation behaviour is also discussed. The paper points out that use of an appropriate fracture criterion is essential for studying the stability of a moving crack in nonhomogeneous materials. The prediction whether the unstable crack growth will be enhanced or retarded is strongly dependent on the type of the fracture criterion used. is a suitable failure criterion for moving cracks in nonhomogeneous materials.

  12. Transducer for Tension Force Measuring of Strip Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad S. Addasi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In winding-up motor drive systems, such as that used in textile industry, it is very important to get a constant tension force for the winding strip material (thread and to reduce its oscillations. This study recommends a transducer with a special design to be used in the mentioned motor drive systems. By using a piston damper, spring, levers, slider and other simple components the suggested sensor (transducer can be used to control the motor speed for getting the required thread tension force. Also the suggested transducer avoids the disadvantage of other used conventional transducer: the parasitic (detrimental oscillations of the thread tension force, which affect the quality of the produced strip material.

  13. MC-128 current commutator for silicon strip detector tests

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Chilingarov, A G; Kollegov, M; Ledenev, E K A; Ledenev, E Kuper A

    1996-01-01

    The MC-128 is a CAMAC module designed to simplify routine tests of multichannel semiconductor detectors. It was developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Novosibirsk in collaboration with RD2 as part of the ATLAS SCT development program. The module provides 128 channels, offering sequential measurements of the currents flowing grom detector strips to a grounded Common Bus. Each input stays virtually connected to the Common Bus independently on whether its current is measured or not. Eight inputs are permanently connected to the Common Bus, allowing the connection of additional elements like guard ring structures. The total detector current can be measured as the current flowing through the Common Bus. Measurements are accessible via a CAMAC bus and in analog form via a front panel detector. Optionally, the MC 128 allows the measurement of the capacitance between each strip and the common (high voltage) electrode of the detector at 10 kHz frequency.

  14. Architecture of a silicon strip beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstadt, R; Cooper, W; Demarteau, M; Green, J; Jakubowski, S; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Turqueti, M; Utes, M [Fermilab, Wilson Rd. and Pine Street, Batavia, IL (United States); Cai, X, E-mail: utes@fnal.gov [Institute for High Energy Physics, 19 Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, Beijing (China)

    2010-12-15

    A collaboration between Fermilab and the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing, has developed a beam position monitor for the IHEP test beam facility. This telescope is based on 5 stations of silicon strip detectors having a pitch of 60 microns. The total active area of each layer of the detector is about 12x10 cm{sup 2}. Readout of the strips is provided through the use of VA1' ASICs mounted on custom hybrid printed circuit boards and interfaced to Adapter Cards via copper-over-kapton flexible circuits. The Adapter Cards amplify and level-shift the signal for input to the Fermilab CAPTAN data acquisition nodes for data readout and channel configuration. These nodes deliver readout of triggered events and temperature data to an analysis computer over gigabit Ethernet links.

  15. Architecture of a Silicon Strip Beam Position Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angstadt, R.; /Fermilab; Cooper, W.; /Fermilab; Demarteau, M.; /Fermilab; Green, J.; /Fermilab; Jakubowski, S.; /Fermilab; Prosser, A.; /Fermilab; Rivera, R.; /Fermilab; Turqueti, M.; /Fermilab; Utes, M.; /Fermilab; Cai, X.; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.

    2010-10-01

    A collaboration between Fermilab and the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing, has developed a beam position monitor for the IHEP test beam facility. This telescope is based on 5 stations of silicon strip detectors having a pitch of 60 microns. The total active area of each layer of the detector is about 12 x 10 cm{sup 2}. Readout of the strips is provided through the use of VA1 ASICs mounted on custom hybrid printed circuit boards and interfaced to Adapter Cards via copper-over-kapton flexible circuits. The Adapter Cards amplify and level-shift the signal for input to the Fermilab CAPTAN data acquisition nodes for data readout and channel configuration. These nodes deliver readout and temperature data from triggered events to an analysis computer over gigabit Ethernet links.

  16. Architecture of a Silicon Strip Beam Position Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Angstadt, R; Demarteau, M; Green, J; Jakubowski, S; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Turqueti, M; Utes, M; Cai, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    A collaboration between Fermilab and the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Beijing, has developed a beam position monitor for the IHEP test beam facility. This telescope is based on 5 stations of silicon strip detectors having a pitch of 60 microns. The total active area of each layer of the detector is about 12x10 cm2. Readout of the strips is provided through the use of VA1` ASICs mounted on custom hybrid printed circuit boards and interfaced to Adapter Cards via copper-over-kapton flexible circuits. The Adapter Cards amplify and level-shift the signal for input to the Fermilab CAPTAN data acquisition nodes for data readout and channel configuration. These nodes deliver readout and temperature data from triggered events to an analysis computer over gigabit Ethernet links.

  17. H- Beam Stripping Loss at Background Partial Pressure of Ar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chundong; Wang Shaohu; Hu Liqun

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that H- current could be improved by adding Ar to H2 plasma.But due to a slower pumping speed for Ar with the existing pumping scheme, the tank pressure will increase quickly during the length of a beam pulse. Since H- stripping loss depends on the tank pressure and gas species, part of the H- beam can be converted to H0 and then H0 can be converted into H+ with background H2 and Ar gas thickness. Therefore, the H- beam current,measured by a Faraday cup, situated at a distance L from GG (ground grid), will decrease because it will be converted into a H+ current. This gives a ratio of the Faraday cup net current to the H- beam current before stripping at background partial pressure of Ar.

  18. Micro-strip metal detector for the beam profile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugatch, V.; Borysova, M.; Mykhailenko, A.; Fedorovitch, O.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Perevertaylo, V.; Franz, H.; Wittenburg, K.; Schmelling, M.; Bauer, C.

    2007-10-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Detector (MMD) design and production technology, readout electronics as well as areas of applications are described. The MMD was designed for beam profile monitoring of charged particle and synchrotron radiation beams. Using photolithography and plasma-chemistry etching technologies we succeeded in creating detectors with a metal strip's thickness of less than 2 μm and without any other materials in the working area. The principle of operation is based on the Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). The results obtained with the MMD at the monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam at HASYLAB (DESY) are also presented. The current version of the MMD allows measuring a beam profile and position with an accuracy of 20 μm.

  19. Micro-strip metal detector for the beam profile monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugatch, V.; Borysova, M. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Mykhailenko, A. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: mykhailenko@kinr.kiev.ua; Fedorovitch, O.; Pylypchenko, Y. [Kyiv Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Perevertaylo, V. [Institute of Micro Devices, Kyiv (Ukraine); Franz, H.; Wittenburg, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Schmelling, M.; Bauer, C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-10-21

    The Micro-strip Metal Detector (MMD) design and production technology, readout electronics as well as areas of applications are described. The MMD was designed for beam profile monitoring of charged particle and synchrotron radiation beams. Using photolithography and plasma-chemistry etching technologies we succeeded in creating detectors with a metal strip's thickness of less than 2{mu}m and without any other materials in the working area. The principle of operation is based on the Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). The results obtained with the MMD at the monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam at HASYLAB (DESY) are also presented. The current version of the MMD allows measuring a beam profile and position with an accuracy of 20{mu}m.

  20. Vacuum stripping of ethanol during high solids fermentation of corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Jameel K; Huang, Haibo; Rausch, Kent D; Tumbleson, Mike E; Singh, Vijay

    2014-05-01

    In corn-ethanol industry, yeast stress inducing glucose concentrations produced during liquefaction and subsequent high ethanol concentrations produced during fermentation restrict slurry solids to 32 % w/w. These limits were circumvented by combining two novel technologies: (1) granular starch hydrolyzing enzyme (GSHE) to break down starch simultaneously with fermentation and (2) vacuum stripping to remove ethanol. A vacuum stripping system was constructed and applied to fermentations at 30, 40, and 45 % solids. As solids increased from 30 to 40 %, ethanol yield decreased from 0.35 to 0.29 L/kg. Ethanol yield from 45 % solids was only 0.18 L/kg. An improvement was conducted by increasing enzyme dose from 0.25 to 0.75 g/g corn and reducing yeast inoculum by half. After improvement, ethanol yield from 40 % solids vacuum treatment increased to 0.36 L/kg, comparable to ethanol yield from 30 % solids (control).

  1. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  2. CZT strip detectors for imaging and spectroscopy: Collimated beam and ASIC readout experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurczynski, P. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Krizmanic, J.F.; Parsons, A. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We report the status of ongoing investigations into Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) strip detectors for application in hard x-ray astronomy. We have instrumented a nine strip by nine strip region of a two sided strip detector made in our detector fabrication facility. In order to measure the position resolution of our detectors, we have implemented a collimated beam that concentrates radiation to a spot size less than the strip width of our detector. We have also performed charge collection studies as a function of incident photon energy and bias voltage with a single sided, 100{mu}m pitch CZT strip detector wire bonded to an SVX ASIC charge amplifier. The detectors exhibited excellent strip uniformity in terms of photon count rate and spectroscopic information.

  3. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  4. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beissel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A.M.; Bernier, K.; Bluem, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J.M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; Troy, J. de; Drouhin, F.; Eberle, H.; Fluegge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J.M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M.R.; Kaercher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kraeber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Mueller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schunk, J.P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M.H.; Simonis, H.J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Velde, C. Vander. E-mail: vandervelde@hep.iihe.ac.be; Doninck, W. van; Dyck, Ch. van; Vanlaer, P.; Lancker, L. van; Verdini, P.G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  5. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Aulchenko, V M; Bachmann, S; Baibusinov, B O; Barthe, S; Beaumont, W; Beckers, T; Beissel, F; Benhammou, Ya; Bergdolt, A M; Bernier, K; Blüm, H P; Bondar, A E; Bouhali, O; Boulogne, I; Bozzo, M; Brom, J M; Camps, C; Chorowicz, V; Coffin, J P; Commichau, V; Contardo, D; Croix, J; De Troy, J G; Drouhin, F; Eberle, H; Flügge, G; Fontaine, J C; Geist, Walter M; Goerlach, U; Gundlfinger, K; Hangarter, K; Haroutunian, R; Helleboid, J M; Henkes, T; Hoffer, M; Hoffmann, C; Huss, D; Ischebeck, R; Jeanneau, F; Juillot, P; Junghans, S; Kapp, M R; Kärcher, K; Knoblauch, D; Kräber, M H; Krauth, M; Kremp, J; Lounis, A; Lübelsmeyer, K; Maazouzi, C; Macke, D; Metri, R; Mirabito, L; Müller, T; Nagaslaev, V; Neuberger, D; Nowak, A; Pallarès, A; Pandoulas, D; Petertill, M; Pooth, O; Racca, C; Ripp, I; Ruoff, E; Sauer, A; Schmitz, P; Schulte, R; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schunk, J P; Schuster, G; Schwaller, B; Shekhtman, L I; Siedling, R; Sigward, M H; Simonis, H J; Smadja, G; Stefanescu, J; Szczesny, H; Tatarinov, A A; Thümmel, W H; Tissot, S; Titov, V; Todorov, T; Tonutti, M; Udo, Fred; Van der Velde, C; Van Doninck, W K; Van Dyck, C; Vanlaer, P; Van Lancker, L; Verdini, P G; Weseler, S; Wittmer, B; Wortmann, R; Zghiche, A; Zhukov, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution. (8 refs).

  6. Multiplexed paper test strip for quantitative bacterial detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S M Zakir; Ozimok, Cory; Sicard, Clémence; Aguirre, Sergio D; Ali, M Monsur; Li, Yingfu; Brennan, John D

    2012-06-01

    Rapid, sensitive, on-site detection of bacteria without a need for sophisticated equipment or skilled personnel is extremely important in clinical settings and rapid response scenarios, as well as in resource-limited settings. Here, we report a novel approach for selective and ultra-sensitive multiplexed detection of Escherichia coli (non-pathogenic or pathogenic) using a lab-on-paper test strip (bioactive paper) based on intracellular enzyme (β-galactosidase (B-GAL) or β-glucuronidase (GUS)) activity. The test strip is composed of a paper support (0.5 × 8 cm), onto which either 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D: -glucuronide sodium salt (XG), chlorophenol red β-galactopyranoside (CPRG) or both and FeCl(3) were entrapped using sol-gel-derived silica inks in different zones via an ink-jet printing technique. The sample was lysed and assayed via lateral flow through the FeCl(3) zone to the substrate area to initiate rapid enzyme hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a change from colorless-to-blue (XG hydrolyzed by GUS, indication of nonpathogenic E. coli) and/or yellow to red-magenta (CPRG hydrolyzed by B-GAL, indication of total coliforms). Using immunomagnetic nanoparticles for selective preconcentration, the limit of detection was ~5 colony-forming units (cfu) per milliliter for E. coli O157:H7 and ~20 cfu/mL for E. coli BL21, within 30 min without cell culturing. Thus, these paper test strips could be suitable for detection of viable total coliforms and pathogens in bathing water samples. Moreover, inclusion of a culturing step allows detection of less than 1 cfu in 100 mL within 8 h, making the paper tests strips relevant for detection of multiple pathogens and total coliform bacteria in beverage and food samples.

  7. Onset of Vortices in Thin Superconducting Strips and Wires

    CERN Document Server

    Aranson, I S; Shapiro, B Y

    1994-01-01

    Spontaneous nucleation and the consequent penetration of vortices into thin superconducting films and wires, subjected to a magnetic field, can be considered as a nonlinear stage of primary instability of the current-carrying superconducting state. The development of the instability leads to the formation of a chain of vortices in strips and helicoidal vortex lines in wires. The boundary of instability was obtained analytically. The nonlinear stage was investigated by simulations of the time-dependent generalized Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  8. Ram Pressure Stripping and Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael; West, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The two largest spiral galaxies in the Coma cluster, NGC4911 and NGC4921, exhibit signs of being vigorously ram-pressure stripped by the hot intracluster medium. HST ACS and WFC3 images have revealed galactic scale shock fronts, giant "Pillars of Creation", rivulets of dust, and spatially coherent star formation in these grand design spirals. All evidence points to these galaxies being stressed by a global external source which can only be the hot intracluster medium (ICM). Inspired by these examples, we have obtained HST WFC3 imaging of five additional large spirals to search for and investigate the effects of ram pressure stripping across the wider Coma cluster. The results are equally spectacular as the first two examples. The geometry of the interactions in some cases allows us to estimate the various time scales involved, including gas flows out of the disk leading to creation of the ICM, and the attendant triggered star formation in the galaxy disks. The global star formation patterns and wholesale tidal stripping of matter yield insights into the spatial and temporal ISM-ICM interactions driving the evolution of galaxies in clusters and ultimately transforming their morphologies from spiral to S0. These processes, much more common in the early Universe, led to the wholesale morphological transformation of Hubble types during the assembly of rich clusters, when the intergalactic populations and hot ICM were first being created and laid down from such stripping and destruction of their member galaxies.We also report on two instrumental aspects of WFC3: 1) using the filter pair F350LP and F600LP to create an extremely broad pseudo Blue-Red color to achieve the greatest observing efficiency with HST, and 2) a WFC3 CCD effect which leads to apparent quantization of background counts, making automatic sky determination challenging when using drizzlepac routines.

  9. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  10. OBTAINING STRIPS WITH VARIABLE THICKNESS AND CONTROLLED WIDENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Isayevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes flow chart of strip rolling with variable thickness in the rolls with changeable clearance between them and non-driven rollers that ensure spread widening control. The paper presents necessary formulae for calculation of backward tension in the rolls which is considered as drawing tension in the rollers. Accomplishment of the given process is theoretically substantiated in the paper.

  11. System Electronics for the ATLAS Upgraded Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, T; The ATLAS collaboration; Clark, A; Dabrowskic, W; Dewitt, J; Diez Cornell, S; Dressdant, N; Fadeyev, V; Farthouat, P; Ferrere, D; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Kaplon, J; Key-Charriere, M; La Marra, D; Lipeles, E; Lynn, D; Newcomer, M; Pereirab, F; Phillips, P; Spencer, E; Swientekc, K; Warren, M; Weidberg, A

    2013-01-01

    The basic concept of the front-end system of the Silicon Strip Detector in the Atlas Detector upgraded for the HL-LHC is being elaborated and proposed. The readout electronics of this new detector is based on front-end chips (ABC130), Hybrid Controller chips (HCC) and End of Stave Controller chips (EOSC). This document defines the basic functionality of the front-end system and of the different ASICs.

  12. Furfural production by 'acidic steam stripping' of lignocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buijtenen, Jeroen; Lange, Jean-Paul; Espinosa Alonso, Leticia; Spiering, Wouter; Polmans, Rob F; Haan, Rene J

    2013-11-01

    Furfural and acetic acid are produced with approximately 60 and 90 mol % yield, respectively, upon stripping bagasse with a gaseous stream of HCl/steam and condensing the effluent to water/furfural/acetic acid. The reaction kinetics is 1(st)  order in furfural and 0.5(th)  order in HCl. A process concept with full recycling of the reaction effluents is proposed to reduce the energy demand to furfural-rich phase.

  13. Space-time principles of reducing stripping in furrow pits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The lower slope of furrow pits has following special features: small extent of weathering destruction, short time of production blasting damage, good arching effect of lower slope with small curvature radius, and good bottom effect ofa pit end for transferring and bearing initial horizontal stresses in lower slope. The new principles provided theoretical basis for convex slope in furrow pits to reduce stripping. Similar phenomena and examples are supplied simultaneously.

  14. An extremely faint stripped-envelope core-collapse supernova and its implications

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Benetti, Stefano; Mazzali, Paolo; Manteca, Jose; Taubenberger, Stefan; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Ferrando, Rafael; Harutyunyan, Avet; Hentunen, Veli-Pekka; Nissinen, Markku; Pian, Elena; Turatto, Massimo; Zampieri, Luca; Smartt, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    The final fate of massive stars depends on many factors, including the mass of the helium core, rotation rate, magnetic fields and metallicity. Theory suggests that some massive stars (initially greater than 25-30 solar masses) can die as under-luminous core-collapse supernovae (Ref.1,2,3). The models propose that the core mantle falls back onto the collapsed remnant, mass accretion leads to black hole formation and the remaining envelope including a very small fraction of radioactive elements is ejected with low kinetic energy. An alternative origin for low energy supernovae is the collapse of the oxygen-magnesium-neon core of a relatively low-mass star (7-8 solar masses) through electron capture (Ref 4,5). Only under-luminous type II-plateau (IIP) supernovae have been discovered so far (e.g. Ref. 6), and no weak hydrogen-stripped core-collapse supernova (of type Ib/c) has been detected. Here we show that faint Ib/c Supernovae do exist, and that they have been previously misclassified as peculiar thermonucle...

  15. Numerical simulation of transport phenomena during strip casting with EMBr in a single belt caster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海军; 李新中; 徐达鸣; 郭景杰

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification (solidification transfer phenomena, STP) was presented which coupled with direct-current (DC) magnetic fields in a high-speed strip-casting metal delivery system. The bidirectional interaction between the STP and DC magnetic fields was simplified as a unilateral one, and the fully coupled solidification transport equations were numerically solved by the finite volume method (FVM). While the magnetic field contours for a localized DC magnetic field were calculated by software ANSYS and then incorporated into a three-dimensional (3-D) steady model of the liquid cavity in the mold by means of indirect coupling. A new FVM-based direct-SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the iterations of pressure-velocity (P-V). The braking effects of DC magnetic fields with various configurations were evaluated and compared with those without static magnetic field (SMF). The results show that 0.6 T magnetic field with combination configuration contributes to forming an isokinetic feeding of melt, the re-circulation zone is shifted towards the back wall of reservoir, and the velocity difference on the direction of height decreases from 0.1 m/s to 0. Furthermore, the thickness of solidified skull increases uniformly from 0.45 mm to 1.36 mm on the chilled substrate (belt) near the exit.

  16. Upgrades to the CMS Cathode Strip Chamber Electronics for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Morse, David Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cathode strip chambers (CSCs) are used to detect muons in theend cap region of the CMS detector. The chambers are arrangedin rings in four planes on each end of the detector. The innerrings of CSCs in each station have the highest flux ofparticles and this presents challenges to efficient readout atthe luminosity, latency, and trigger rate foreseen at theHL-LHC.The existing front end electronics in Stations 2, 3, and 4 arebased on switched capacitor arrays with limited bufferingcapability. Queuing models have shown that significantsaturation of the buffers would occur for the luminosity, Level1 trigger rates, and required Level 1 latency for running atthe HL-LHC. In addition, the expected output rate of data isexpected to exceed the 1 Gbps bandwidth of the optical linksthat carry data to the back end, resulting in loss of eventsynchronization.The upgrade of the inner ring of CSCs addresses these problemsby replacing some types of electronics boards in these ringswith upgraded boards. In particular, the existi...

  17. Photometric Identification of Young Stripped-Core Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Gal-Yam, A; Maoz, D; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R J; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method designed to identify the spectral type of young (less than ~30 days after explosion) and nearby (z < ~0.05) supernovae (SNe) using their broad-band colors. In particular, we show that stripped-core SNe (i.e., hydrogen deficient core-collapse events, spectroscopically defined as SNe Ib and SNe Ic, including broad-lined SN 1998bw-like events) can be clearly distinguished from other types of SNe. Using the full census of nearby SNe discovered during the year 2002, we estimate the impact that prompt multi-band photometry, obtained by 1m class telescopes, would have on the early identification of stripped-core events. Combining this new approach with ongoing spectroscopic follow-up programs, one can expect ~20 nearby, stripped-core events to be identified, each year, around, or before, maximum light. Follow-up studies, including prompt, multi-epoch optical spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry, as well as radio and X-ray observations, could greatly increase our understanding of these events, a...

  18. The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade: Short Strips Detectors for the SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; Lacasta, C; Marti i García, S; Miñano, M

    2009-01-01

    It is foreseen to increase the luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN around 2018 by about an order of magnitude, with the upgraded machine dubbed Super-LHC or sLHC. The ATLAS experiment will require a new tracker for SLHC operation. In order to cope with the order of magnitude increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. The new strip detector will use significantly shorter strips than the current SCT in order to minimise the occupancy. As the increased luminosity will mean a corresponding increase in radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is required. A massive R&D programme is underway to develop silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness. New front-end electronics and readout systems are being designed to cope with the higher data rates. The challenges of powering and cooling a very large strip detector will be discussed. Ideas on possible schemes for the layout and support mechanics ...

  19. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Concept, Production, and Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Pooth, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    With the start of the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, and the huge detectors along this particle accelerator, the largest high energy physics experiments ever are underway. One of the experiments is the CMS detector (Compact Muon Solenoid). With this experiment over 3,000 scientists and engineers worldwide will search for answers to fundamental questions in high energy physics. Oliver Pooth describes the silicon strip tracker of the CMS detector. With a sensitive silicon area of 200 m² it is a central part of the experiment and able to precisely measure charged particles originating from high energy proton collisions at the LHC. In total, more than 15,000 individual silicon strip detector modules were built and tested before they were integrated on larger substructures of the silicon strip tracker. The author discusses methods of quality control that are new to the field of particle detector physics. These methods were established to guarantee a uniform behaviour of all detector m...

  20. Gold recovery by galvanic stripping of an anionic organic extractant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda D.F.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The galvanic stripping technique for metal recovery uses commercial organic extractants containing a metal to be recovered. The organic phase is placed in contact with a solid metal reducer that allows electrochemical reactions to occur. One product of these reactions is a metal layer deposited on the surface of the reducer consisting of reduced species desorbed from the organic phase. Another product is metal ions from the reducer adsorbed onto the organic phase. This work presents results for gold recovery by galvanic stripping of strong-base anionic extractants of a quaternary amine salt, ALIQUAT336®, in xylene using solid zinc as the metal reducer. The parameters studied were contact time for the organic phase containing gold and the samples of the reducing zinc metal, temperature of the system, gold concentration in the organic phase and type of stirring used in the galvanic stripping system. Experiments showed results higher than 28% of gold recovery and an adherent film of gold on the zinc surface. The Arrhenius plot for gold recovery from the organic extractant suggests a change in the rate- controlling step from mixed control to diffusion control with increasing temperature in the range of 20 to 50ºC.

  1. Science comic-strips on display at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Alix Marcastel

    2011-01-01

    To mark the publication of his new comic-strip "Les Vies de Marie Curie", the Genevan artist Fiami will be placing some of his previous creations on the theme "women and science" on display at CERN. The new comic-strip pays tribute to the illustrious Nobel prize-winner by taking a light-hearted look at the history of chemistry and how the role of women scientists in society has evolved through the ages.   It's no easy task,  presenting the history of science to the general public in a light-hearted way. As part of the various events organised in the Fête de la Science and the Europeans Researchers Night, CERN will be hosting an exhibition entirely devoted to the comic-strips created by Fiami. The artist describes his comics as "a relaxed way of looking at serious and apparently highly complex subjects."  Fiami's very latest creation, Les Vies de Marie Curie, published in June 2011, celebrates th...

  2. The ATLAS tracker strip detector for HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cormier, Kyle James Read; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    As part of the ATLAS upgrades for the High Luminsotiy LHC (HL-LHC) the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) will be replaced by a new Inner Tracker (ITk). The ITk will consist of two main components: semi-conductor pixels at the innermost radii, and silicon strips covering larger radii out as far as the ATLAS solenoid magnet including the volume currently occupied by the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT). The primary challenges faced by the ITk are the higher planned read out rate of ATLAS, the high density of charged particles in HL-LHC conditions for which tracks need to be resolved, and the corresponding high radiation doses that the detector and electronics will receive. The ITk strips community is currently working on designing and testing all aspects of the sensors, readout, mechanics, cooling and integration to meet these goals and a Technical Design Report is being prepared. This talk is an overview of the strip detector component of the ITk, highlighting the current status and the road ahead.

  3. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming of copper strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xinbing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It conducts a hot rolling process using waste heat after continuous extrusion. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming was simulated with DEFORM-3DT. Influences of extrusion wheel velocity and rolling reduction on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming were analyzed. It was shown that as extrusion wheel velocity increases, torque of extrusion wheel, chamber force and rolling force, will drop; temperature of the billet in the area of abutment which is highest will increase. As the rolling reduction is increased, torque of the extrusion wheel and force acting on the chamber decrease, while torque and force of the rolls increase. The experimental results showed that a homogeneously distributed and equiaxed grains microstructure can be formed in copper strip billets with an average grain size of about 80 μm, after continuous extrusion. Grains of the copper strips are stretched clearly, during rolling, along the rolling direction, to form a stable orientation. Nevertheless, the grain boundaries are still relatively clear to see.

  4. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nara, Seema, E-mail: seemanara@mnnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Mechanics (Biotechnology), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad 211004 (India); Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Tripathi, Vinay [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India); Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Singh, Harpal [Center for BioMedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Shrivastav, Tulsidas G. [Department of Reproductive Biomedicine, National Institute of Health and Family Welfare, Munirka, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2010-12-03

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL{sup -1} with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  5. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  6. Low dose radiation damage effects in silicon strip detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2016-11-01

    The radiation damage effects in silicon segmented detectors caused by X-rays have become recently an important research topic driven mainly by development of new detectors for applications at the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL). However, radiation damage in silicon strip is observed not only after extreme doses up to 1 GGy expected at E-XFEL, but also at doses in the range of tens of Gy, to which the detectors in laboratory instruments like X-ray diffractometers or X-ray spectrometers can be exposed. In this paper we report on investigation of radiation damage effects in a custom developed silicon strip detector used in laboratory diffractometers equipped with X-ray tubes. Our results show that significant degradation of detector performance occurs at low doses, well below 200 Gy, which can be reached during normal operation of laboratory instruments. Degradation of the detector energy resolution can be explained by increasing leakage current and increasing interstrip capacitance of the sensor. Another observed effect caused by accumulation of charge trapped in the surface oxide layer is change of charge division between adjacent strips. In addition, we have observed unexpected anomalies in the annealing process.

  7. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaußen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments being installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is located at the european organization for nuclear research CERN in Geneva. This proton-proton collider will explore a new energy regime of up to 14TeV center-of-mass energy. To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The entire strip tracker spans an active area of about 198m2 and consists of approximately 16000 modules. Before the silicon sensors were assembl...

  8. THE MICROSTRUCTURAL BANDING IN THE CENTER OF HOT ROLLLNG STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.L. Mo; Y.T. Zhang; D.Z. Li; Y.Y. Li

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural banding in steels is often found in hot rolling strips, which plays a very important role in mechanical properties. Much work has been done to investigate how the microstructural banding is formed during hot rolling. In the present study, the microstructure of hot rolling strips was examined in term of optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electron probe microanalysis was also used to decide the distribution of microchemical bands, by this means, the phases in these strips were found to be ferrite and pearlite. The average distance between the carbon lamellas in pearlite is about 0. 06-0. 1μm. It is also shown that microstructural banding in hot rolled carbon steel was closely related to the segregation of manganese and silicon into those bands. Based on the transformation kinetic, the simulated results pointed out that the thermodynamic stability of austenite would increase with the increasing of Mn, which led to a decrease of ferrite growth rate. The effect of Mn on the decomposition of austenite is attnbuted to segregation of Mn atoms along the ferrite/austenite phase boundary which causes a strong solute drag effect. The addition of Mn to steel decreases the activity of austenite, thereby it is beneficial to the formation of non-equilibrium phase, such as degenerate pearlite.The formation of banded structure on the hot rolled process was discussed.

  9. Acute and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.

  10. 75 FR 47548 - Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... International Trade Administration A-428-602 Brass Sheet and Strip from Germany: Notice of Rescission of... and strip from Germany. The review covers one producer/exporter of brass sheet and strip from Germany... and German manufacturer of brass sheet and strip, we are now ] rescinding this administrative...

  11. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  12. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  13. Effect of training on the performance of blood glucose monitoring using a reagent strip (Glucoprofil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E; Starostina, E G; Antsiferov, M B

    1990-11-01

    A relatively simple, new test-strip for blood-glucose monitoring, the Glucoprofil strip with a reaction-zone of film-foil, was evaluated by testing 100 different blood glucose concentrations between 2.1 and 29.7 mmol/l. The results were obtained visually before and after training to read the color changes of the strip according to the scale on the strip-container. Plasma glucose measurements with the Beckman Glucose-Analyzer were used for reference. The results show that the Glucoprofil-strip readings correlated well with the reference method (r = 0.97), thorough training provided. The mean deviation of the strip results was less than 1 mmol/l. Similar results were obtained using another blood glucose strip, the Haemoglukotest 20-800 R. Our study indicates that the performance of the Glucoprofil strip is satisfactory, and hence the strip may be useful for clinical purposes. Consistent with previous reports we could demonstrate that training improved the reading results of the Glucoprofil strip.

  14. Analytical Study on Inherent Properties of a Unidirectional Vibrating Steel Strip Partially Immersed in Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of singuarity functions is introduced to present an analytical approach for the natural properties of a unidirectional vibrating steel strip with two opposite edges simply supported and other two free, partially submerged in fluid and under tension. The velocity potential and Bernoulli's equation are used to describe the fluid pressure acting on the steel strip. The effect of fluid on vibrations of the strip may be equivalent to added mass of the strip. The math formula of added mass can be obtained from kinematic boundary conditions of the strip-fluid interfaces. Singularity functions are adopted to solve problems of the strip with discontinuous characteristics. By applying Laplace transforms, analytical solutions for inherent properties of the vibrating steel strip in contact with fluid are finally acquired. An example is given to illustrate that the proposed method matches the numerical solution using the finite element method (FEM very closely. The results show that fluid has strong effect on natural frequencies and mode shapes of vibrating steel strips partially dipped into a liquid. The influences such as tension, the submergence depth, the position of strip in the container and the dimension of the container on the dynamic behavior of the strip are also investigated. Moreover, the presented method can also be used to study vertical or angled plates with discontinuous characteristics as well as different types of pressure fields around.

  15. Validity of HydraTrend reagent strips for the assessment of hydration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Bryce M; Heelan, Kate A; Brown, Gregory A; Bartee, Rodrick T

    2014-09-01

    Hydration is used by athletic governing organizations for weight class eligibility. The measurement of urine specific gravity (USG) as a measure of hydration by reagent strips is a controversial issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of HydraTrend reagent strips that facilitate the correction of USG for alkaline urine samples against refractometry for the assessment of USG. Fifty-one participants (33 males, age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years; 18 females, age = 22.4 ± 1.2 years) provided 84 urine samples. The samples were tested for USG using refractometry and reagent strips and for pH using reagent strips and a digital pH meter. Strong correlation coefficients were found between refractometry and reagent strips for USG (rs(82) = 0.812, p refractometry with USG >1.020, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.020) occurred 39% (33/84) of the time and false negative results for National Federation of State High School Association (NFHS) requirements (fail refractometry with USG >1.025, pass reagent strips with USG ≤1.025) occurred 14% (12/84) of the time. There were no false positives (pass refractometry and fail reagent strips) for NCAA or NFHS requirements. These data show that refractometry and reagent strips have strong positive correlations. However, the risk of a false negative result leading to incorrect certification of euhydration status outweighs the benefits of the HydraTrend reagent strips for the measurement of USG.

  16. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T.

    1984-10-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  17. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  18. Put It Back in the Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A little boy and his grandfather are raking (用耙子耙) leaves in the yard.The little boy finds an earthworm (蚯蚓) trying to get back into its hole.He says,"Grandpa,I bet I can put that worm back in that hole."

  19. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  20. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  1. Back Channelling, Repair, Pausing, and Private Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on differences in back channelling, repair, repetition, pausing, and private speech among Japanese and American study participants, based on sales negotiations. Findings indicate that differences in the deployment of such features as back channelling and pausing can result in pragma-linguistic breakdown, which is linked to culturally…

  2. Cumulative mechanical low-back load at work is a determinant of low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reported associations of physical exposures during work (eg, lifting, trunk flexion or rotation) and low-back pain (LBP) are rather inconsistent. Mechanical back loads (eg, moments on the low back) as a result of exposure to abovementioned risk factors have been suggested to be important

  3. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experience...... is maintained over long periods: for example, people with pain continue to have it on and off for years, and people without pain do not suddenly develop long-term pain. A number of factors predict back pain presence in epidemiological studies, and these are often present, and predictive, at different life...... stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the development...

  4. Yoga to treat nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Catherine; Stratton, Carol; Mallory, Debra

    2011-08-01

    Low back pain is common and poses a challenge for clinicians to find effective treatment to prevent it from becoming chronic. Chronic low back pain can have a significant impact on an employee's ability to remain an active and productive member of the work force due to increased absenteeism, duty restrictions, or physical limitations from pain. Low back pain is the most common cause of work-related disability among employees younger than 46 years. Advancing technology and less invasive surgical procedures have not improved outcomes for employees who suffer from low back pain. Most continue to experience some pain and dysfunction after conventional treatments such as injections and surgery. An alternative treatment that could reduce nonspecific chronic low back pain would benefit both employees and employers. Exercising and remaining active are part of most guidelines' routine care recommendations but are not well defined.

  5. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  6. X-ray BodySearch eliminates strip search in Montana prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moulpied, David S.; Rothschild, Peter J.; Smith, Gerald J.

    1998-12-01

    Work release details at prisons have been a continuing source of inspection problems for prison wardens. At the Montana State Prison in deer Lodge 400 prisoners leave the prison in the morning to work outside the walls. They return at lunch and again in the evening. Past practice has been to do a 100% pat search and selective strip searches. These procedures are an irritant to both prisoners and prison personnel involved. However, they were felt to be essential based on the quantity of contraband materials being brought into the prison by these work release inmates. BodySearch is an x-ray scanning system which uses backscatter x-ray to form an image of prisoners as they stand next to the system. Typically prisoners are scanned two at a time, with one scan being taken from the back and the second from the front. Although privacy was considered to be an issue, the prisoners have been relived not to have to go through full pat searches and periodic strip searches. The automatic equipment has also sped up the inspection process and eliminated some of the waiting lines. The problem was so bad that one warden was contemplating having all prisoners issued two sets of clothing (a several hundred thousand dollar investment), which they would change on the way in and out of the prison facility. The new system has all but eliminated any attempt by prisoners to smuggle contraband into the prison by concealing it on their person as they return from work detail. Operationally, a pencil beam is generated by a rotating chopper, which scans horizontally as it is moved vertically. Scintillator detectors mounted adjacent and parallel to the direction of the scanning beam collect the scattered radiation. The result is a photo-like image of the body surface facing the system. The use of a scanning pencil beam in a backscatter geometry with a 140 kV x-ray source eliminates any issue of radiation safety. In fact, the dose delivered by the system (under 10 micro rem for a two

  7. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  8. Evaluation of Nobuto filter paper strips for the detection of avian influenza virus antibody in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (≥96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult.

  9. Distribution patterns of Macrobrachium rosenbergii relative to the presence of cover strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vascotto, G.L.

    1987-05-27

    The responses of adult Macrobrachium rosenbergii to the presence, absence and location of artificial cover strips in four different configurations were studied in aquaria. The animals displayed a strong preference for the cover strips. When strips dangling from the surface were presented, the animals could be induced to occupy the upper half of the water column at densities nearly 4.5 times higher than in a bare tank. Strips extending from the surface to bottom also resulted in a significant redistribution of animals. The animals associated with cover strips tended to favor horizontal surfaces such as those found at the tips of strips and at the bottom. The success of cover in redistributing the prawns appeared to be negatively influenced by the presence of dominant males who maintained a number of smaller animals herded in the corners of the aquaria.

  10. Evaluation of leukocyte esterase and nitrite strip tests to detect spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of leukocyte esterase and nitrite reagent strips for bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP).METHODS: A total of 63 consecutive patients with cirrhotic ascites (38 male, 25 female) tested between April 2005 and July 2006 were included in the study. Bedside reagent strip testing was performed on ascitic fluid and the results compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a olymorphonuclear ascites count of ≥ 250/mm3.RESULTS: Fifteen samples showed SBP. The sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were; 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity,specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strips were 13%, 93%, 40%, and 77%, respectively. The combination of leukocyte esterase and nitrite reagents strips did not yield statistically significant effects on diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSION: Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for SBP.

  11. Numerical analysis of edge effects in side illuminated strip detectors for digital radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Krizaj, D

    2000-01-01

    The influence of edge defects on side illuminated X-ray strip detectors for digital radiology is investigated by numerical device modeling. By assuming positive fixed oxide charges on side and top surfaces simulations have shown strong curvature of the equipotential lines in the edge region. A fraction of the edge generated current surpasses the edge guard-ring junction and is collected by the readout strips. As a consequence, strips cannot be placed close to the edge of the structure and collection efficiency is reduced. An n-on-n instead of a p-on-n strip detector is proposed enabling collection of edge generated carriers by a very narrow guard-ring junction and placement of the readout strip close to the edge without increase of the strip leakage current.

  12. Tracing ram-pressure stripping with warm molecular hydrogen emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Rm 101, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Rieke, Marcia J.; Rieke, George H., E-mail: sivanandam@dunlap.utoronto.ca [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We use the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph to study four infalling cluster galaxies with signatures of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. H{sub 2} emission is detected in all four, and two show extraplanar H{sub 2} emission. The emission usually has a warm (T ∼ 115-160 K) and a hot (T ∼ 400-600 K) component that is approximately two orders of magnitude less massive than the warm one. The warm component column densities are typically 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} with masses of 10{sup 6} to 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}. The warm H{sub 2} is anomalously bright compared with normal star-forming galaxies and therefore may be excited by ram-pressure. In the case of CGCG 97-073, the H{sub 2} is offset from the majority of star formation along the direction of the galaxy's motion in the cluster, suggesting that it is forming in the ram-pressure wake of the galaxy. Another galaxy, NGC 4522, exhibits a warm H{sub 2} tail approximately 4 kpc in length. These results support the hypothesis that H{sub 2} within these galaxies is shock-heated from the interaction with the intracluster medium. Stripping of dust is also a common feature of the galaxies. For NGC 4522, where the distribution of dust at 8 μm is well resolved, knots and ripples demonstrate the turbulent nature of the stripping process. The Hα and 24 μm luminosities show that most of the galaxies have star-formation rates comparable to similar mass counterparts in the field. Finally, we suggest a possible evolutionary sequence primarily related to the strength of ram-pressure that a galaxy experiences to explain the varied results observed in our sample.

  13. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião TOLEDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA, and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000 with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11 and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2 values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05 and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area.

  14. Photometric Identification of Young Stripped-Core Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method designed to identify the spectral type of young (less than ~30 days after explosion) and nearby (z < ~0.05) supernovae (SNe) using their broad-band colors. In particular, we show that stripped-core SNe (i.e., hydrogen deficient core-collapse events, spectroscopically defined as SNe Ib and SNe Ic, including broad-lined SN 1998bw-like events) can be clearly distinguished from other types of SNe. Using the full census of nearby SNe discovered during the year 2002, we estimate...

  15. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erol Uzal; Banu Korbahti

    2010-04-01

    Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homogeneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the -direction and the sides are simply supported. The size of the force is changed in proportion to the displacement measured at a certain point of the plate. The proportionality constant serves as the control parameter. The mathematical formulation of this distributed control problem and its analytical solution in terms of the vibration frequencies of the plate are given. The vibration frequencies are plotted as a function of the control parameter.

  16. Measurements with Irradiated 3D Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, M. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Bates, R. [University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [University of Trento and INFN sez. Trento (Italy); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Haerkoenen, J. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Jakobs, K. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Maeenpaeae, T.; Moilanen, H. [Helsinki Institute of Physics (Finland); Parkes, C. [University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Parzefall, U. [University of Freiburg (Germany); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics (United States); Spiegel, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia (United States); Wiik, L. [University of Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    For the unprecedentedly high radiation level at the sLHC, the luminosity upgrade of the LHC, new tracking detectors are investigated. Among different approaches, silicon detectors in 3D technology constitute a promising option. Columnar electrodes are etched into the substrate, therefore the distance for charge collection and depletion is decoupled from the detector thickness. Thus, two of the detrimental effects caused by radiation in silicon (increased depletion voltage and charge carrier trapping) can be reduced. Results of measurements with irradiated 3D silicon strip detectors produced by IMB-CNM are presented.

  17. Prediction of limits of lubrication in strip reduction testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2004-01-01

    Pick-up and galling due to lubricant film breakdown is a severe limitation in cold forming of tribologically difficult metals like stainless steel and aluminium. The present paper describes a method of combined experimental and numerical analysis to quantify the limits of lubrication in a dedicated...... simulative strip reduction test. The limit of lubrication is quantified as the threshold drawing length before galling occurs. A numerical model of the test is established calculating tool/work piece interface temperatures and normal pressures. Identifying a critical maximum value of the interface...

  18. Web-Based Cathode Strip Chamber Data Display

    CERN Multimedia

    Firmansyah, M

    2013-01-01

    Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is a detector that uses gas and high electric field to detect particles. When a particle goes through CSC, it will ionize gas particles and generate electric signal in the anode and cathode of the detector. Analysis of the electric signal data can help physicists to reconstruct path of the particles and determine what happen inside the detector. Using data display, analysis of CSC data becomes easier. One can determine which data is interesting, unusual, or maybe only contain noise.\

  19. Compressible Strips, Chiral Luttinger Liquids, and All That Jazz

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. H.

    1996-03-01

    When the quantum Hall effect occurs in a two-dimensional electron gas, all low-energy elementary excitations are localized near the system edge. The edge acts in many ways like a one-dimensional ring of electrons, except that a finite current flows around the ring in equilibrium. This article is a brief and informal review of some of the physics of quantum Hall system edges. We discuss the implications of macroscopic {\\em compressible strip} models for microscopic {chiral Luttinger liquid} models and make an important distinction between the origin of non-Fermi-liquid behavior in fractional quantum Hall edges and in usual one-dimensional electron gas systems.

  20. Apparatus and method for stripping tritium from molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David E.; Wilson, Dane F.

    2017-02-07

    A method of stripping tritium from flowing stream of molten salt includes providing a tritium-separating membrane structure having a porous support, a nanoporous structural metal-ion diffusion barrier layer, and a gas-tight, nonporous palladium-bearing separative layer, directing the flowing stream of molten salt into contact with the palladium-bearing layer so that tritium contained within the molten salt is transported through the tritium-separating membrane structure, and contacting a sweep gas with the porous support for collecting the tritium.

  1. Performance Testing of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, Richard; Andreev, M. Tripathi V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Lisowsky, B; Matthey, Christina; Rakness, Gregory; Wenman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The production, installation, and testing of 468 cathode strip chambers for the endcap muon system of the CMS experiment played a critical role in the preparation of the endcap muon system for the final commissioning. Common testing procedures and sets of standard equipment were used at 5 international assembly centers. The chambers were then thoroughly retested after shipment to CERN. Final testing was performed after chamber installation on the steel disks in the CMS detector assembly building. The structure of the detector quality control procedure is presented along with the results of chamber performance validation tests.

  2. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Kuno, Y.; Lim, C.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Redlinger, G.; Soluk, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McPherson, R.A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1998-02-21

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu} anti {nu} experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of twelve layers of axial wire cells and six layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150-250 MeV/c is found to be about 0.9%. (orig.). 16 refs.

  3. Strip Waveguide Directional Coupling Modulator with Equivalent Refractive Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-tao; HE Dui-yan

    2004-01-01

    The equivalent refractive index(ERI) method is employed to analyze the function of the strip waveguide directional coupling modulator(SWM). Through deducing the diagnostic equation of the Exmn mode of the four-layer media film waveguide equivalent to the SWM,the transmission constant of the symmetrical mode of the positive phase and negative one and the coupling length of powerful transference are obtained. The veracity of ERI is validated with the example of Ex11 basal mode under the condition of comparing the three results of ERI,EIM and Marcatili.

  4. Alteraciones dentales y periodontales causadas por el stripping en ortodoncia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Merchán, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace más de setenta años el desgaste interproximal o stripping forma parte de las opciones de las que disponemos en los tratamientos de ortodoncia. Inicialmente fue un procedimiento indicado solo para pacientes adultos principalmente para el tratamiento de las discrepancias dentarias y la prevención de las recidivas mediante la estabilización de los puntos de contacto. Además comenzó a emplearse como alternativa en los casos dudosos de extracción, la eliminación de triángulos n...

  5. Negative and nonlinear magnetoresistance effect in silicon strip

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fangcong; Guo, Hui; Fan, Xiaolong; Li, Zhankui

    2016-01-01

    Both negative magnetoresistance and nonlinear magnetoresisitance were observed in silicon strip nuclear radiation detector in room temperature if we applied high magnetic field intensity in different direction. This result is different with former report. We believe this is the result of coaction of high electric field (Gunn effect) and high magnetic field, or because of the variation of number of carriers and the carriers mobility. The weak localization and Landau energy levels also affect the magnetoresistance. Different crystal orientations have different energy band structures. Complex band structures lead complex carriers mobility plus Landau energy levels. So the magnetoresisitance effect is anisotropy.

  6. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  7. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; 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Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; 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Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  8. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  9. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  10. [Acupuncture and tuina clinical thoughts of "treating the back from abdomen" for low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinlong; Li, Rui

    2015-07-01

    In clinical treatment, it is found that certain patients always have some positive reaction points those are relevant with low back pain in the abdomen area. When the simple treatment on the low back is ineffective, the efficacy could be significantly improved if acupuncture or tuina is performed at the abdomen areas, which is called "regulating yin to treat yang", or "treating the back from abdomen". In this paper, with the diagnosis and treatment method of "treating the back from abdomen" for low back pain as principal line, the detailed manipulation is explained for low back pain that is induced by TCM meridian diseases or modern anatomy, which could open the methods for clinical treatment of low back pain and enrich the therapeutic options.

  11. Determination of Platinum Metals in Carbonaceous Mineral Raw Materials by Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kolpakova, Nina Alexandrovna; Oskina, Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Dyachenko, Elena Nikolaevna; Pshenichkin, Anatoliy Yakovlevich

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the possibility of determining platinum metals in mineral raw materials by stripping voltammetry on a graphite electrode modified by metals. Stripping voltammetry method is characterized by low determination limit, wide intervals of determined content and high sensitivity. As a result of the research the conditions for the determination of gold, platinum and palladium by stripping voltammetry have been selected. The comparison of the results of gold, palladium and platinum...

  12. COMIC STRIPS:A STUDY ON THE TEACHING OF WRITING NARRATIVE TEXTS TO INDONESIAN EFL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fika Megawati; Mirjam Anugerahwati

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research at MAN Bangil. The procedures included planning, implementing, observing, and reflecting. The results show that teaching writing using comic strips...

  13. Microstructures and Properties of X60 Grade Pipeline Strip Steel in CSP Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Rui-feng; SUN Li-gang; LIU Zhe; WANG Xue-lian; LIU Qing-you

    2008-01-01

    The microstruetures and properties of X60 grade pipeline strip steel were researched. With Nb microallo ying and TMCP, the X60 grade pipeline strip steel was developed in the Baotou CSP Plant. The mechanical proper ties meet the demands on machining and using of pipeline manufacture. The X60 strip steels had been used extensively, which had fine and uniform structures, good performance and excellent toughness.

  14. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF QUICK DISSOLVING ORAL STRIPs CONTAINING SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE

    OpenAIRE

    Pandit Mihir; Gandhi Nirvi; Bonde Smita; Pandya Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluate quick dissolving oral strips (QDOS) of Sumatriptan succinate for the treatment of migraine headaches. Sumatriptan succinate is 5-HT1D agonist which is antimigraine. Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose is used as film forming agent. Quick dissolving oral strips are meant to be dissolved in saliva and remain in oral cavity until swallowed. Hence, taste masking becomes critically important. The strips were prepared by solvent casting method and ...

  15. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  16. Performance of a wide pitch n-on-n silicon detector with floating strips

    CERN Document Server

    Charles, M J; Dijkstra, H; Dormond, O; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Frei, R; Gagliardi, G; Kappert, L; Ketel, T; Klous, S; Libby, J; Malinow, D; Österberg, K; Palacios, J P; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Ruf, T; Sizun, P; Teubert, F; Witek, M

    2002-01-01

    First measurements of charge sharing and collection for a 95 micron pitch n-on-n silicon sensor with floating strips are presented. These measurements were made with an analogue front-end sampling at 40 MHz. The charge collection performance is compared to a region of the detector where the strips are bonded consecutively. Strips with a significant signal are found to be correlated with opposite polarity signals in the strips neighbouring them. This phenomenon is described and compared to measurements with alternative silicon sensors and electronics.

  17. FEM Analysis of Rolling Pressure Along Strip Width in Cold Rolling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-hua; SHI Xu; LI Shan-qing; XU Jian-yong; WANG Guo-dong

    2007-01-01

    Using 3-D elastic-plastic FEM, the cold strip rolling process in a 4-high mill was simulated. The elastic deformation of rolls, the plastic deformation of the strip, and the pressure between the work roll and the backup roll were taken into account. The distribution of rolling pressure along the strip width was obtained. Based on the simulation results, the peak value of rolling pressure and the location of the peak were analyzed under different rolling conditions. The effects of the roll bending force and the strip width on the distribution of rolling pressure along the width direction were determined.

  18. High-resolution tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S R; Ambrosi, G; Balboni, C; Battiston, R; Burger, W J; Chang, Y H; Geissel, H; Ionica, M; Lustermann, W; Maehlum, G; Menichelli, M; Pauluzzi, M; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rapin, D; Ren, D; Ribordy, M; Sann, H; Schardt, D; Sümmerer, K; Viertel, Gert M

    1999-01-01

    Tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions has been investigated using a sup 1 sup 2 C beam of 1.5 GeV/u at GSI. The ionization charge spectrum and the charge sharing between strips are presented. The strip cluster of carbon ion can be selected based on the cluster charge with high efficiency and little contamination. The spatial resolution of the silicon strip detectors is evaluated. The angular distribution of multiple Coulomb scattering was investigated with lead absorbers. The results are compared to the Moliere theory and the Gaussian approximation of GEANT calculations. (author)

  19. Generalized thick strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y.; Palacios, R.; Graham, M.; Sherwin, S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip-theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into "thick" strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this approach is able to cover the full spectrum for fully resolved 3D modelling to 2D strip theory. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single "thick" strip would fill the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip-structure interactions. Numerical tests on both laminar and turbulent flows as well as the comparison against the fully resolved DNS are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.

  20. B3 Spline Function Method Used in Simulating Flatness and Profile of Cold Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-hong; QI Xiang-dong; LIAN Jia-chuang

    2004-01-01

    Flatness and profile are important quality indexes of strip. Combining the influence function method to solve the elastic deformation of roll system with the variational method to solve the lateral flow of metal, the flatness and profile of the strip during cold continuous rolling were simulated. The B3 spline function was used to analogize the lateral distribution of strip thickness. The transverse distributions of the exit thickness and the front tension stress for each pass were obtained. Compared with the measured results, it is proved that using the spline function to analogize the lateral distribution of strip thickness can improve the calculation accuracy of flatness and profile largely.

  1. Effects of hydrostatic strain on eigenstates of Möbius strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the allowed energies and associate wave-functions for Möbius strips with varying thicknesses. We show that the induced strain in fabricating these Möbius strips will have an pronounced impact on the energies and wave-functions for thick strips, while f...... for thin strips the impact of strain is negligible. We furthermore, show that a simpler strain free approximate theory base on differential geometry is in excellent agreement with detailed finite element calculations. © 2011 IEEE....

  2. Extraction Method of Fine Granular Performance from Scintillator Strip Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Kotera, Katsushige; Miyamoto, Akiya; Takeshita, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    We describe an algorithm which has been developed to extract fine granularity information from an electromagnetic calorimeter with strip-based readout. Such a calorimeter, based on scintillator strips, is being developed to apply particle flow reconstruction to future experiments in high energy physics. Tests of this algorithm in full detector simulations, using strips of size 45 x 5 mm^2 show that the performance is close to that of a calorimeter with true 5 x 5 mm^2 readout granularity. The performance can be further improved by the use of 10 x 10 mm^2 tile- shaped layers interspersed between strip layers.

  3. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Makarov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  4. Complete Mill Simulation of the Rolling Process of 1660 mm Hot Strip Continuous Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingrui WANG; Zhenshan CUI; Yingjie WANG; Hongmin LIU

    2004-01-01

    The three-dimensional plastic deformations of strip are analyzed using the stream surface strip element method, the elastic deformations of rolls are analyzed using the influence coefficient method, the analyzing and computing model of shape and crown of 4-high mill was established by combining them, and the rolling process of 1660 mm hot strip continuous mills was simulated. The simulated results tally well with the experimental results. The model and the method for simulation of shape analysis and control of hot strip mills were provided.

  5. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  6. Determination of Lead in Ice by Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat PHAISANSUTHICHOL

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the amounts of lead in ice by stripping potentiometry, the 400 ml matrix modifying solution was added to an ice sample of total volume 30 ml in an electrochemical cell. The modified solution was 800.00 mg/l Hg(II in 1.30 M hydrochloric acid. The working electrode was a glassy carbon disc, with Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode, and a platinum rod as a counter electrode. Stripping potentiometry was used on sample solutions and standard solutions which were electrolyzed for 3 min at −1.00 V. The peak potentials were set around −0.38 to −0.42 V. The concentrations of lead (II standards were 0.10, 0.40, 0.70 and 1.00 mg/l. The calibration plot between peak areas and concentration of lead (II standards was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969. A detection limit of 0.023 mg/l or 23.00 ng/l (3SD was shown with a precision of 5.50 % RSD for a 2.0 mg/l standard (n = 5. The percentage recovery was found to be 95.50 %. The concentration range of lead (II in ice samples was determined to be 0.09 to 0.53 mg/l.

  7. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity up to 5 x 1034 cm-2 s-1. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for HL operation, which would cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity. A new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of different designs. The irradiated sensors were subsequently tested in order to study the radiation-induced degradation, and determine their performance after irradiation of up to ...

  8. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Miñano, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. The left part of figure 1 shows the simulated layout for the ATLAS tracker upgrade to be installed in the volume taken up by the current ATLAS pixel, strip and transition radiation detectors. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The...

  9. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&amp;D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a...

  10. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of d...

  11. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  12. Gas stripping in galaxy clusters: a new SPH simulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Jachym, P; Köppen, J; Combes, F

    2007-01-01

    The influence of a time-varying ram pressure on spiral galaxies in clusters is explored with a new simulation method based on the N-body SPH/tree code GADGET. We have adapted the code to describe the interaction of two different gas phases, the diffuse hot intracluster medium (ICM) and the denser and colder interstellar medium (ISM). Both the ICM and ISM components are introduced as SPH particles. As a galaxy arrives on a highly radial orbit from outskirts to cluster center, it crosses the ICM density peak and experiences a time-varying wind. Depending on the duration and intensity of the ISM-ICM interaction, early and late type galaxies in galaxy clusters with either a large or small ICM distribution are found to show different stripping efficiencies, amounts of reaccretion of the extra-planar ISM, and final masses. We compare the numerical results with analytical approximations of different complexity and indicate the limits of the Gunn & Gott simple stripping formula. Our investigations emphasize the r...

  13. Diffraction by a strip at almost grazing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, Ivan V.; Bouche, Daniel P.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of high-frequency diffraction by a soft strip at almost grazing incidence is considered. By using the parabolic equation method, and variable separation in elliptical coordinates, we derive the two terms asymptotic approximation of the solution. First we consider the boundary layer near the surface of the strip and derive an asymptotic representation for the velocities on the surface. Then we apply Green's formula to derive the asymptotic representation for the far field. Both asymptotic representations in the boundary layer and for the far field are expressed in the form of rapidly converging integrals containing Whittaker or Coulomb wave functions. The approximation for the total scattering cross-section is checked to match to known asymptotic results: the physical optics approximation for the not too small angles of incidence on one side and the asymptotic expression for the limiting case of grazing incidence on the other side. Simple approximations for the total scattering cross-section in powers of the scaled angle are derived.

  14. The effect of cinnamon extract on isolated rat uterine strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamon is a spice used by some populations as a traditional remedy to control blood pressure and thus hypertension. Cinnamon extract decreases contractility in some smooth muscles, but its effect on uterine smooth muscle is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and pharmacological effects of cinnamon extract (CE) on the contractions of isolated rat uterine strips and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. Isolated longitudinal uterine strips were dissected from non-pregnant rats, mounted vertically in an organ bath chamber, and exposed to different concentrations of CE (10-20mg/mL). The effect of CE was investigated in the presence of each of the following solutions: 60mM KCl, 5nM oxytocin, and 1μM Bay K8644. CE significantly decreased the force of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly attenuated the uterine contractions elicited by KCl and oxytocin. In addition, CE significantly decreased the contractile force elicited when L-type Ca(2+) channels were activated by Bay K8644. CE's major mechanism may be inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels, which limits calcium influx. These data demonstrate that CE can be a potent tocolytic that can decrease uterine activity regardless of how the force was produced, even when the uterus was stimulated by agonists. As a result, cinnamon may be used to alleviate menstrual pain associated with dysmenorrhoea or prevent unwanted uterine activity in early pregnancy.

  15. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  16. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  17. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  18. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Back...

  19. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  20. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  1. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...

  2. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  3. Herniated Disk in the Lower Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two components: Healthy intervertebral disk (cross- section view). • Annulus fibrosus. This is the tough, flexible outer ring ... the Lower Back cont. Surgical Treatment Only a small percentage of patients with lumbar disk herniations require ...

  4. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  5. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  6. Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 164250.html Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice Elderly rodents treated with cellular therapy regained lost fur, became ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Aging mice became more youthful following a new cellular therapy ...

  7. Approach to low back pain - acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    This article forms part of our allied health series for 2014, which aims to provide information about the management approach of different allied health professionals, using the case example of uncomplicated, mechanical low back pain.

  8. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  9. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadok Benmebarek; Samir Attallaoui; Naïma Benmebarek

    2016-01-01

    Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs) are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline un-derestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  10. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  11. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE NONSPECIFIC LOWER BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Lvovich Kukushkin

    2010-01-01

    The causes, manifestations, and principles of diagnosis of acute nonspecific lower back pain (nLBP) are considered. Symptoms and complaints, the emergence of which is associated with the presence of dangerous disease, are singled out in patients with back pain. Emphasis is placed on the treatment of nLBP with currently available unselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and myorelaxants. It is also noted that multimodality therapy in such patients should include therapeutic exercises, ...

  12. Low Back Pain≠下腰痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秉文

    2005-01-01

    近来在医学杂志上频频出现“下腰痛(low back pain)”的字样,给读者的印象是:low back pain即等于下腰痛,仔细推敲起来,其中有不同语言文字的误解。为此笔者进行了一些考察。

  13. Mechanical therapy for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Donald Grant

    2012-09-01

    Physical therapy and manual medicine for low back pain encompass many different treatment modalities. There is a vast variety of techniques that physical therapists commonly use in the treatment of low back pain. Some of the therapies include, but are certainly not limited to, education, exercise, lumbar traction, manual manipulation, application of heat, cryotherapy, and ultrasonography. Many of these approaches are discussed specifically in this article.

  14. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  15. Anodic stripping voltammetry of gold nanoparticles at boron-doped diamond electrodes and its application in immunochromatographic strip tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivandini, Tribidasari A; Wicaksono, Wiyogo P; Saepudin, Endang; Rismetov, Bakhadir; Einaga, Yasuaki

    2015-03-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of colloidal gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) was investigated at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes in 50 mM HClO4. A deposition time of 300 s at-0.2 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was fixed as the condition for the ASV. The voltammograms showed oxidation peaks that could be attributed to the oxidation of gold. These oxidation peaks were then investigated for potential application in immunochromatographic strip tests for the selective and quantitative detection of melamine, in which AuNPs were used as the label for the antibody of melamine. Linear regression of the oxidation peak currents appeared in the concentration range from 0.05-0.6 μg/mL melamine standard, with an estimated LOD of 0.069 μg/mL and an average relative standard deviation of 8.0%. This indicated that the method could be considered as an alternative method for selective and quantitative immunochromatographic applications. The validity was examined by the measurements of melamine injected into milk samples, which showed good recovery percentages during the measurements.

  16. 75 FR 81574 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary... strip (PET film) from India in response to a request from SRF Limited (SRF). The period of review (POR... benefitted from countervailable subsidies provided on the production and export of PET film from India....

  17. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ...] Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty...) from India for the period of review (POR) January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011. We preliminarily... Strip from India (Preliminary Decision Memorandum), dated concurrently with these results and...

  18. 76 FR 76943 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results... terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1\\ This review covers one producer/exporter of subject merchandise... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

  19. 76 FR 58248 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In Part, of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In... (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January... companies: Ester Industries Limited, Garware Polyester Ltd., Jindal Poly Films Limited of India,...

  20. Improving Quality of Refrigerated Potato Strips by Near-Aseptic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of hot water blanching and near-aseptic packaging on the shelf-life of refrigerated potato strips was investigated based on quality; microbial, textural and color. Potato strips were first blanched at low temperature (60 °C) for 10- or 20-min, and then second blanched at high temperature ...

  1. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representation. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation. ...

  2. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation. B...

  3. Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis by reagent strip test for detection of circulating cathodic antigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van G.J.; Wichers, J.H.; Falcao Ferreira, T.M.; Ghati, D.; Amerongen, van A.; Deelder, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed reagent strip assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis based on parasite antigen detection in urine of infected individuals was evaluated. The test uses the principle of lateral flow through a nitrocellulose strip of the sample mixed with a colloidal carbon conjugate of a monoclo

  4. Bioavailability Enhancement of Rizatriptan Benzoate by Oral Disintegrating Strip: In vitro and In vivo Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagawati, S T; Chonkar, Ankita D; Dengale, Swapnil J; Reddy, Sreenivasa M; Bhat, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Oral disintegrating strips containing rizatriptan benzoate, a selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine receptor agonist with anti migraine property, was developed using polyvinyl alcohol, sodium alginate and hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose as the base materials. The analytical and bioanalytical methods were developed and validated using HPLC (PDA and flouroscence detectors). The dissolution study performed on the strips revealed that all the five formulations, release the drug within eight minutes. Under ICH accelerated stability conditions, strips were stable at 40°C and 75% humidity for eight weeks. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic properties of oral strip were compared with rizatriptan benzoate marketed tablet. Oral disintegrating strip and tablet showed significantly higher bioavailability. Oral strip exhibited better pharmacokinetic parameters than rizatriptan marketed tablet. The Tmax, Cmax, AUC and t1/2 for oral strip were found to be 1.00 h, 64.13±19.46 ng/mL, 352.00±71.57 ng/mL/h and 3.09±1.03 h respectively, whereas, tablet showed 1.5 h, 38.00±13.43 ng/mL, 210.38± 40.37ng/mL/h and 1.66±0.31 h respectively. These findings confirm that the rizatriptan benzoate oral disintegrating strip is potentially a useful tool for an effective treatment of migraine with improved bioavailability, rapid onset of action and with increased patient compliance.

  5. Designing strip footing foundations using expanded polystyrene (EPS) as fill material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psarropoulos, Prodromos; Zania, Varvara; Spyrakos, Konstantinos;

    2010-01-01

    One of the modern uses of expanded polystyrene (EPS) is in strip footings as fill material. The current study investigates the effect of the geofoam filling in the static and seismic design of the base slab founded on strip footings. For this purpose the finite element method is employed, and three...

  6. 76 FR 49726 - Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders: Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... less, and includes between 0.20 and 0.30 percent copper and between 0.20 and 0.50 percent cobalt. This..., (9) permanent magnet iron-chromium-cobalt alloy stainless strip, (10) certain electrical resistance... percent, with the balance iron. Permanent magnet iron-chromium-cobalt alloy stainless strip is...

  7. 78 FR 79667 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in Coils From Japan: Initiation of Expedited Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ....30 percent copper and between 0.20 and 0.50 percent cobalt. This steel is sold under proprietary...-cobalt alloy stainless strip is also excluded from the scope of this order. This ductile stainless steel strip contains, by weight, 26 to 30 percent chromium, and 7 to 10 percent cobalt, with the remainder...

  8. “In situ” removal of isopropanol, butanol and ethanol from fermentation broth by gas stripping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Wal, van der H.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the removal of IBE from aqueous solutions by gas stripping has been characterized. The effect of one or more components in the solution on the kinetics of the separation has been studied, both at 37 °C and at 70 °C. Gas stripping has been applied to batch, repeated batch and continuou

  9. 360-degrees profilometry using strip-light projection coupled to Fourier phase-demodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises; Garnica, Guillermo

    2016-01-11

    360 degrees (360°) digitalization of three dimensional (3D) solids using a projected light-strip is a well-established technique in academic and commercial profilometers. These profilometers project a light-strip over the digitizing solid while the solid is rotated a full revolution or 360-degrees. Then, a computer program typically extracts the centroid of this light-strip, and by triangulation one obtains the shape of the solid. Here instead of using intensity-based light-strip centroid estimation, we propose to use Fourier phase-demodulation for 360° solid digitalization. The advantage of Fourier demodulation over strip-centroid estimation is that the accuracy of phase-demodulation linearly-increases with the fringe density, while in strip-light the centroid-estimation errors are independent. Here we proposed first to construct a carrier-frequency fringe-pattern by closely adding the individual light-strip images recorded while the solid is being rotated. Next, this high-density fringe-pattern is phase-demodulated using the standard Fourier technique. To test the feasibility of this Fourier demodulation approach, we have digitized two solids with increasing topographic complexity: a Rubik's cube and a plastic model of a human-skull. According to our results, phase demodulation based on the Fourier technique is less noisy than triangulation based on centroid light-strip estimation. Moreover, Fourier demodulation also provides the amplitude of the analytic signal which is a valuable information for the visualization of surface details.

  10. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... from Germany, Italy, and Mexico \\2\\ would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... with respect to stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy, and Mexico, and Commissioner...

  11. 78 FR 60311 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab Emirates... order on polyethylene terephthalate (``PET'') film, sheet, and strip from Brazil, China, and the United..., China, and the United Arab Emirates (73 FR 66595). The Commission is conducting reviews to...

  12. 76 FR 9745 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... Film from the People's Republic of China (PRC), for which the scope is essentially identical to the... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results... terephthalate film (PET Film) from Taiwan. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From...

  13. 77 FR 73428 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Film, Sheet, and Strip from the People's Republic of China: Final Determination of Sales at Less Than... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review; 2010-2011 AGENCY: Import...

  14. Hot Rolled Strip Re-reddening Temperature Changing Law during Ultra-fast Cooling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-yun JIANG; Chun-jiang ZHAO; Jian-hui SHI; Guo YUAN; Xue-qiang WANG; Qing-xue HUANG

    2015-01-01

    Temperature deviation between surface and the center of hot rolled strip is formed during ultra-fast cooling (UFC). Surface temperature would rise when temperature deviation goes up to an extent, and strip re-reddening phenomenon will appear. Strip re-reddening affects the stability of strip microstructure, property and temperature control precision. Thus, it is necessary to conduct research on re-reddening temperature changing law to improve strip property and temperature control precision. Strip temperature trends for various strip thicknesses and ultra-fast cooling rates were obtained by numerical calculation method. Re-reddening temperature, temperature deviation between surface and center, and boundary layer position changing law were obtained. By comparison, some conclusions were obtained: UFC re-reddening temperature and laminar cooling (LC) re-reddening temperature were linear to ultra-fast cooling rate respectively. Ultra-fast cooling rate affected UFC re-reddening temperature greatly, but it had little effect on LC re-reddening temperature. Equations which were used to calculate UFC re-reddening temperature, LC re-reddening temperature and maximum temperature deviation were obtained. The position of boundary layer stayed in 1/4 strip thickness.

  15. Comic Strips: A Study on the Teaching of Writing Narrative Texts to Indonesian EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, Fika; Anugerahwati, Mirjam

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are proposed in the teaching of writing not only because of their appealing forms, but also due to their salient features as media to present content, organization and grammatical aspects of narrative texts. This study investigates the implementation of comic strips in teaching writing through a collaborative classroom action research…

  16. Calculation of S11 Parameter of Coplanar Strip and Influence of Technology Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Heindl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a calculation of the S11 parameter of the coplanar strips. The primary parameterscalculations of the coplanar strips are described in the first part. The scattering parameters are defined. The calculation of the S11 parameter and the comparison with the measured values are showed in the last part of the work.

  17. Research on Ground Movement Laws for Strip Mining Under Thick Alluvium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志祥; 邓喀中; 杨军

    2002-01-01

    With the discrete element method, the simulation and analysis of a series of numerical models were made. This research revealed ground movement laws for strip mining under thick alluvium and gave calculation formulae for the maximum ground subsidence and horizontal movement as a function of basement rock thickness and mining width, thus providing sound evidence for future strip mining under thick alluvium.

  18. Curvature morphology of the mandibular dentition and the development of concave-convex vertical stripping instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlow, Dankmar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Hunze, Justus; Dathe, Henning; Planert, Jens; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Nägerl, Hans

    2002-07-01

    Radii for concave-convex vertical stripping instruments can be derived from measurements of the natural curvature morphology in the horizontal contact area of the mandibular dentition. The concave-convex adjustment of contacts in the anterior dental arch with a newly developed set of concave-convex stripping instruments should enable orthodontic crowding problems to be alleviated biomechanically.

  19. 75 FR 49900 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Sales at Less than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910..., and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 55035, 55036 (September 24, 2008) (Final Determination). The Department... Than Fair Value: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from Brazil, 73 FR 24560 (May...

  20. Stripping chronopotentiometry at scanned deposition potential (SSCP). Part 5. Features of multi-metal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper considers the mutual effects of metals on each other in scanned deposition potential stripping chronopotentiometry measurements (SSCP) on multi-metal systems. As compared to stripping voltammetry, depletive SSCP displays a certain resistance to the impact of intermetallic compounds, while