WorldWideScience

Sample records for backing strips

  1. Detonation wave detection probe including parallel electrodes on a flexible backing strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Kenneth J.

    1995-01-01

    A device for sensing the occurrence of destructive events and events involving mechanical shock in a non-intrusive manner. A pair of electrodes is disposed in a parallel configuration on a backing strip of flexible film. Electrical circuitry is used to sense the time at which an event causes electrical continuity between the electrodes or, with a sensor configuration where the electrodes are shorted together, to sense the time at which electrical continuity is lost.

  2. 膨胀加强带代替后浇带在超长混凝土结构施工中的应用%The Application of Expansion Reinforcing Ship Instead of Back Strip Used in the Overlong Concrete Structure Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国祥

    2012-01-01

    Based on the project from north square, Nanjing south railway station, Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail line, and according to a series of problems of traditional back strip in the construction, discuss the basic principle and construction technology used by expansion reinforcing strip instead of back strip, illustrate that it is technical measures to speed up the construction progress and reduce the construction cost used by expansion reinforcing strip.%文章以京沪高铁南京南站北广场工程为例,针对传统后浇带施工中存在的一系列问题,对膨胀加强带代替后浇带的基本原理及施工工艺作了论述,阐明超长混凝土结构采用膨胀加强带是一项有效加快工程进度和降低施工成本的技术措施。

  3. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...

  4. Lateral flow strip assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  5. Three-Dimensional Model for Strip Hot Rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-min; XIAO Hong; WANG Chun-hua

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional model for strip hot rolling was developed, in which the plastic deformation of strip, the thermal crown of rolls, roll deflection and flattening were calculated by rigid-plastic finite element method, finite difference method, influential function method and elastic finite element method respectively. The roll wear was taken into consideration. The model can provide detailed information such as rolling pressure distribution, contact pressure distribution between backup rolls and work rolls, deflection and flattening of work rolls, lateral distribution of strip thickness, and lateral distribution of front and back tensions. The finish rolling on a 1 450 mm hot strip mill was simulated.

  6. Anatomy comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective imagination. The comics were drawn on paper and then recreated with digital graphics software. More than 500 comic strips have been drawn and labeled in Korean language, and some of them have been translated into English. All comic strips can be viewed on the Department of Anatomy homepage at the Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea. The comic strips were written and drawn by experienced anatomists, and responses from viewers have generally been favorable. These anatomy comic strips, designed to help students learn the complexities of anatomy in a straightforward and humorous way, are expected to be improved further by the authors and other interested anatomists. PMID:21634024

  7. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  8. Strip profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved radiation gauge is described for measuring the thickness profile of strip. The system is such that the measurement is made more nearly across the width of the strip substantially at right angles to the direction of motion of the strip than is usual in such gauges. The system consists of an X-ray source on the side of the strip which produces a fan shaped beam, a number of detectors placed on the other side and data transmission and display devices. (UK)

  9. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I-ship c...

  10. ALICE silicon strip module

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    This small silicon detector strip will be inserted into the inner tracking system (ITS) on the ALICE detector at CERN. This detector relies on state-of-the-art particle tracking techniques. These double-sided silicon strip modules have been designed to be as lightweight and delicate as possible as the ITS will eventually contain five square metres of these devices.

  11. Beam stripping extraction from the VINCY cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Đurović Jasna L.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction system of a cyclotron guides an ion beam from a spiral acceleration orbit, through an extraction trajectory, into a high energy transport line. The two methods commonly used to direct an ion into the extraction path are deflection, by the electric field of an electrostatic deflector, and ion stripping, by a thin carbon foil. Compared to the electrostatic deflector system, the stripping extraction provides a fast and easy change of the extracted ion energy and is easier to manufacture operate, and maintain. However, the extraction trajectory and dynamics of an ion beam after stripping are highly dependant on the ion energy and specific charge. Thus, when a multipurpose machine such as the VINCY Cyclotron is concerned, it is far from easy to deliver a variety of ion beams into the same high energy transport line and at the same time preserve a reasonable compactness of the extraction system. The front side stripping extraction system of the VINCY Cyclotron provides high (~70 MeV and mid (~30 MeV energy protons, as well as a number of heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The back side stripping extraction system extracts low energy protons (~18 MeV and enables their simultaneous use with high energy protons at the front side of the machine.

  12. Excimer laser photoresist stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genut, Menachem; Tehar-Zahav, Ofer; Iskevitch, Eli; Livshits, Boris

    1996-06-01

    A new method for stripping the most challenging photoresists on deep sub-micron technology semiconductor wafers has been developed. The method uses a combination of UV excimer laser ablation and reactive chemistry to strip the photoresist in a single dry process, eliminating the wet acids or solvents often used following ashing of high dose implantation (HDI) and reactive ion etching (RIE). The stripping process combines new removal mechanisms: chemical assisted UV excimer laser ablation/etching, laser induced chemical etching of side walls and residues, and enhanced combustion. During the laser pulses photolysis of the process gas occurs, UV laser radiation breaks the photoresist polymer chain bonds, and the photoresist (including foreign materials imbedded in it) is ablated. The combustion is ignited by the ablative impact of laser radiation and enhanced by the radicals formed during photo-thermal decomposition of the process gases. Following this process, the volatilized products and gases are evacuated. The optimum laser stripping conditions were developed to provide a wide process window for the most challenging stripping conditions, such as after HDI and RIE (metal, polysilicon), without causing damage to the wafer devices. A photoresist stripping system based on the described technology was designed and built. The system has been designated as the L-StripperTM and provides stripping time of 0.15 s/(micrometer cm2).

  13. Effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Yu; Yonglin Kang

    2008-01-01

    The effect of boron on hot strips of low carbon steel produced by compact strip production (CSP) to reduce the strength to a certain degree was investigated, which is quite different from that of high-strength low alloy steel. The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of the hot strip were studied using optical microscopy and tensile tests. By means of an electrolytic disso- lution technique and Thermo-Cal calculation, the precipitates containing boron were analyzed and detected. From the electron back- scattered diffraction analysis, it can be deciphered whether the microstructure has recrystallized or not. Furthermore, the effect of boron segregation on the recrystallization or non-recrystallization conditions can be distinguished. The segregation behavior of boron was investigated in boron-containing steel. The nonequilibrium segregation of boron during processing was discussed on the basis of the forming complexes with vacancies that migrate to the boundaries prior to annihilation, which was confirmed by the subsequent cold rolling with annealing experiments.

  14. Stripping voltammetry of flavonoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of the flavonoids hesperidin, quercetin, naringin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin and caffeic acid at the mercury electrode (HMDE, DME) and at a glassy carbon electrode has been studied by differential pulse polarography. Determination of flavonoids can be achieved either by direct reduction of the carbonyl group in the gamma-pyron ring, indirectly by cathodic stripping voltammetry via the formation of different flavonoid-mercury complexes at the mercury electrode surface and by adsorptive stripping voltammetry via the direct oxidation of aromatic o-dihydroxy groups. The advantage of stripping voltammetry is higher sensitivity and due to the possibility of higher sample dilution less influence of matrix effects. The application by cathodic stripping voltammetry to the determination of hesperidin in orange juice, hesperidin and rutin in helopyrin(R) tablets, a phytopharmaceutical preparation, naringin in grapefruit juice is demonstrated. Also the application by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a glassy carbon electrode to the determination of quercetin in blood and sinupret, a phytopharmaceutical preparation and catechin in beer is demonstrated. Both methods are suitable for the determination of low flavonoid concentrations down to the ppb concentration range. (author)

  15. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  16. Ordered graphene strips onto polymer backing prepared by laser scanning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyutakov, O.; Huttel, I.; Tůma, J.; Kalbáč, Martin; Janoušek, M.; Šimek, P.; Svorcik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 17 (2012), s. 173102. ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : cutting * graphene * laser materials processing Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.794, year: 2012

  17. A video strip chart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strip chart recorder has been utilized for trend analysis of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory EN tandem since 1987. At the EN, the author could not afford the nice eight channel thermal pen recorder that was used at the 25 URC. He had to suffice with two channel fiber tip or capillary pen type recorders retrieved from salvage and maintained with parts from other salvaged recorders. After cycling through several machines that eventually became completely unserviceable, a search for a new thermal recorder was begun. As much as he hates to write computer code, he decided to try his hand at getting an old data acquisition unit, that had been retrieved several years ago from salvage, to meet his needs. A BASIC language compiler was used because time was not available to learn a more advanced language. While attempting to increase acquisition and scroll speed on the 6 MHz 80286 that the code was first developed on, it became apparent that scrolling only the first small portion of the screen at high speed and then averaging that region and histogramming the average provided both the speed necessary for capturing fairly short duration events, and a trend record without use of back scrolling and disk storage routines. This turned out to be quite sufficient

  18. Alcohol Saliva Strip Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has bee...

  19. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  20. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable

  1. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  2. Paresev on Taxi Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Test pilot Milton Thompson sitting in NASA Flight Research Center-built Paresev 1 (Paraglider Research Vehicle) on the taxi strip in front of the NASA Flight Research Center in 1962. In this photo the control stick can be seen coming from overhead and hanging in front of the pilot. The control system was a direct link with the wing membrane made of doped Irish linen. By maintaining simplicity during construction, it was possible to make control and configuration changes overnight and, in many instances, in minutes.

  3. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  4. Complex zero strip decreasing operators

    OpenAIRE

    Cardon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the effect of linear differential operators coming from the Laguerre-Polya class that act on functions in the extended Laguerre-Polya class with zeros in a horizontal strip in the complex plane. These operator decrease the size of the strip containing the zeros.

  5. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  6. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Bhargava; A. Setia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening t...

  7. Flattening of narrow and thin stainless steel strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Przondziono

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the influence of technological parameters of flattening in theball rolling mill on spread and geometrical properties of strips made of stainless steel of 1.4310 type and to obtainmathematical models of flattening process.Design/methodology/approach: Flattening was performed in ball rolling mill in which cylindrical rollershave been replaced with balls of ~ 15mm diameter. Due to small dimensions to be measured we suggested themethod of vector measurement of digital image. In order to evaluate the influence of technological parameters offlattening process, experimental planning method was used. The adoption of fractional experiment plan of 35-1 typeenabled to reduce the number of experiments to 81, despite 5 variables.Findings: The results of performed tests have shown that strip spread is dependent on ball roughness, used draft,relation of wire diameter to ball diameter, back tension stress. The influence of tension stress has not been proved.Strip flatness depends on used draft. Observations have proved good quality of strip edges. No fractures have beendetected, even in the case of flattening by means of big draft. Strip surface was of good quality.Research limitations/implications: Test results we have obtained indicate usefulness of research methodthat has been used as far as determination of influence of flattening process technological parameters on spreadand strip geometrical properties are concerned. It has also been proved that it is purposeful to replace cylindricalrollers with balls in rolling mills.Practical implications: Flattening process mathematical models enable to assess rational procedure of flatteningprocess parameters selection in a ball rolling mill, that determines obtaining of the required geometrical characteristicsof strips. The results can be used directly when manufacturing strips for springs made of stainless steel 1.4310.Originality/value: Uniform thickness throughout

  8. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  9. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  10. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  11. ATLAS Strip Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    A phased upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is planned. The last upgrade phase (HL-LHC) is currently foreseen in 2022-2023. It aims to increase the integrated luminosity to about ten times the original LHC design luminosity. To cope with the harsh conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation dose expected during HL-LHC operation, the ATLAS collaboration is developing technologies for a complete tracker replacement. This new detector will need to provide extreme radiation hardness and a high granularity, within the tight constraints imposed by the existing detectors and their services. An all-silicon high-granularity tracking detector is proposed. An international R&D collaboration is working on the strip layers for this new tracker. A number of large area prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers have been designed and fabricated for use at HL-LHC. These prototype detectors and miniature test detectors have been irradiated to a set of fluences matched to HL-LHC expectatio...

  12. Nano-strip Metal Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider a design of a Nano-strip Metal Detector (NMD) for applications based on micro-beams of charged particles or synchrotron radiation (microbiology, radiation therapy, new construction materials etc

  13. Strip casting of stainless steels

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, D.

    1997-01-01

    FLAT PRODUCTS OF STAINLESS STEELS ARE CONVENTIONALLY MANUFACTURED BY CONTINUOUS CASTING, HOT ROLLING, HOT BAND ANNEALING, PICKLING, COLD ROLLING AND RECRYSTALLISATION. IN THE LAST YEARS STRIP CASTING HAS INCREASINGLY ATTRACTED ATTENTION. IT OFFERS THREE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMPARISON TO THE CONVENTIONAL METHOD.1.) IT ALLOWS TO CAST STEEL SHEETS WITH THE SAME THICKNESS AND WIDTH AS THOSE PRODUCED BY HOT ROLLING. THIS MEANS THAT THE HOT ROLLING PROCESSIS BYPASSED. 2.) THE STRIP CAST STEEL REVEALS A...

  14. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water). PMID:25902942

  15. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  16. Intrabeam stripping in H- Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, V; Ostigy, J -F; Alexandrov, A; Shishlo, A

    2012-01-01

    A beam loss in the superconducting part of the SNS linac has been observed during its commissioning and operation. Although the loss does not prevent the SNS high power operation, it results in an almost uniform irradiation of linac components and increased radiation levels in the tunnel. Multi-particle tracking could neither account for the magnitude of the observed loss nor its dependence on machine parameters. It was recently found that the loss is consistent with the intrabeam particle collisions resulting in stripping of H- ions. The paper describes experimental observations and corresponding analytical estimates of the intrabeam stripping.

  17. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mersi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker is the largest detector of its kind ever operated, with a silicon surface area of about 200 m$^2$ of silicon surface. The Silicon Strip Tracker it is the sub-detector with the highest number of detector modules within the CMS experiment. Given the complexity of the device, a variety of tools were developed and are used to determine the status of the detector in real time and allow for data qualification and corrective actions when needed. In this paper we describe the monitoring techniques that are used to safely operate the detector and assess the state of its calibration.

  18. Modified strip saturation model for a cracked piezoelectric strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Bhargava

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The investigations aim to propose a model for arresting an electrical opening of a crack which weakensa narrow, poled and infinite piezoelectric strip. The edges of the strip are subjected to uniform, constant anti-planestresses and in-plane electrical displacements.Design/methodology/approach: The loads applied at the edges of the strip open the crack in a self-similar fashion.Consequently at each tip of the crack a saturation zone protrudes. To stop the crack from further opening the rims ofdeveloped saturation zones are subjected to normal, cohesive linearly varying saturation limit electric displacement. Theedges of the strip are subjected to anti-plane deformation and in-plane electrical displacement. Fourier integral transformmethod employed reduces the problem to the solution of a Fredholm integral equation of second kind.Findings: The electrical displacement, stress intensity factor, the saturation zone length, crack opening displacementand crack growth rate have been calculated. The results obtained presented graphically, analysed and concluded.Research limitations/implications: The ceramic used for strip is being assumed to be electrically morebrittle. The investigations are carried at this level in the present paper. Also the small scale electrical yielding isconsidered. Consequently the developed saturation zone is proposed to lie in a line segment ahead of crack.Practical implications: Piezoelectric ceramics being widely used as transducers. Their wide utility hasprompted to study many attires of such ceramic and one such attire is fracture mechanics of these ceramics.Originality/value: The paper gives an assessment of the electrical load necessary to arrest the electrical crack opening.The investigations are useful to smart material design technology where sensors and actuators are manufactured.

  19. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  20. Electrodynamics on the Moebius Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Pauschenwein, Gernot,

    2004-01-01

    In this diploma work electrostatics and -dynamics of two dimensional structures are examined. Mathematica is used for visualisation and packages for Mathematica have been programmed which use subroutines written in C to improve numerical calculations. The well known Moebius Strip is used as an example structure throughout the work.

  1. An efficient plasmonic photovoltaic structure using silicon strip-loaded geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awal, M. A.; Ahmed, Zabir [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman, E-mail: anis@eee.buet.ac.bd [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1205 (Bangladesh); Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 (United States)

    2015-02-14

    We show that a silicon thin-film photovoltaic structure with silicon strips on the top and grooves on the silver back contact layer can absorb incident solar energy over a broad spectral range. The silicon strips on the top scatter the incident light and significantly help couple to the photonic modes in the smaller wavelength range. The grooves on the silver back contact layer both scatter the incident light and help couple to the photonic modes and resonant surface plasmon polaritons. We find an increase of ∼46% in total integrated solar absorption in the proposed strip-loaded structure compared to that in a planar thin film structure of same dimensions. The proposed structure offers simpler fabrication compared to similar plasmonic-inspired designs.

  2. Uranous generation and its application to strip plutonium from lean organic in CORAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lean organic containing plutonium (200 mg/L -1.2 g/L) after the first cycle extraction, is stripped back by introducing single and multiple point in the strip section from the externally added uranous stabilized with hydrazine which is generated electrolytically from uranyl nitrate solution made of dissolving U3O8. This paper deals with preparation of uranyl by fumeless dissolution of U3O8, experimental runs of generation of uranous from uranyl by electrolytic method and dilution of uranous to the stoichiometric amount to strip the plutonium from lean organic. Pu4+ in the lean organic is reduced to Pu3+ by U4+ and stripped to aqueous phase. (author)

  3. A technological system for fully automated extraction of quite thin flat strata with partial back filling of the worked space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapitskiy, K.F.; Bondarenko, Yu.V.; Gomal, I.I.; Ivashchenko, V.D.; Nosach, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A new system is proposed for fully automated extraction of very thin flat strata with control of the roof by rock rubble strips. The results are cited of testbench based analytical investigations of a back filling scraper grader. The additional tractive force required for forming the rubble strips is determined.

  4. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sleeping. Prevention What's the best way to sit? Sit in chairs with straight backs or low-back ... than by twisting at your waist. When driving, sit straight and move the seat forward. This helps ...

  5. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...

  6. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  7. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Stripping, sex, and popular culture

    OpenAIRE

    Roach, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    At the heart of Stripping, Sex, and Popular Culture lies a very personal story, of author Catherine Roach's response to the decision of her life-long best friend to become an exotic dancer. Catherine and Marie grew up together in Canada and moved to the USA to enroll in PhD programs at prestigious universities. For various reasons, Marie left her program and instead chose to work as a stripper. The author, at first troubled and yet fascinated by her friend's decision, follows Marie's journey ...

  10. Pengontrolan Mesin Laser CNC Untuk Paint Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Desi Permata

    2016-01-01

    Paint stripping has been performed on specimen Aluminium (Al) and Ferro (Fe) using a machine laser CNC (Computer Numerical Control). Laser Nd:YAG pulse is used as an energy source for the paint stripping, which Fundamental Harmonic (1064 nm) and Second Harmonic (532 nm). Paint stripping process begins with the manufacture of laser line pattern design according to size of the specimen with Notepad++ software, then the design is up and running with USB CNC software. CNC USB software will giv...

  11. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  12. Pseudoneglect in Back Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Watling, Rosamond; Della Sala, Sergio; Jansari, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends upon our ability to retain and update visuo-spatial information of both front and back egocentric space. Several studies have observed that healthy people tend to show a displacement of the egocentric frame of reference towards the left. However representation of space behind us (back space) has…

  13. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  14. 33 CFR 157.128 - Stripping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stripping system. 157.128 Section... Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.128 Stripping system. (a) Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2), or §...

  15. Water problems in Gaza Strip,Palestine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail ALGHALBAN

    2001-01-01

    The only source for water in Gaza strip, southern Palestine, is the groundwater aquifer. The Pliocene - Pleistocene aquifer has two serious problems: quantity and quality. This study is an attempt to identify the problems and to suggest solutions for water problems in Gaza strip. In addition, some rules for rehabilitation of the aquifers were suggested.

  16. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with pT≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  17. Smooth muscle strips for intestinal tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Walthers

    Full Text Available Functionally contracting smooth muscle is an essential part of the engineered intestine that has not been replicated in vitro. The purpose of this study is to produce contracting smooth muscle in culture by maintaining the native smooth muscle organization. We employed intact smooth muscle strips and compared them to dissociated smooth muscle cells in culture for 14 days. Cells isolated by enzymatic digestion quickly lost maturity markers for smooth muscle cells and contained few enteric neural and glial cells. Cultured smooth muscle strips exhibited periodic contraction and maintained neural and glial markers. Smooth muscle strips cultured for 14 days also exhibited regular fluctuation of intracellular calcium, whereas cultured smooth muscle cells did not. After implantation in omentum for 14 days on polycaprolactone scaffolds, smooth muscle strip constructs expressed high levels of smooth muscle maturity markers as well as enteric neural and glial cells. Intact smooth muscle strips may be a useful component for engineered intestinal smooth muscle.

  18. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  19. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...... and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...

  20. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review...... of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The...... of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a...

  1. What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... component. Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain. Your job. If you ... pain. Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become ... or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed ...

  2. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body in numerous ways, including causing muscle tension. Backpack overload in children : Low back pain unrelated to ... is unusual in pre-teen children. However, a backpack overloaded with schoolbooks and supplies can strain the ...

  3. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fracture of the spinal cord Muscle spasm (very tense muscles) Ruptured or herniated disk Sciatica Spinal stenosis ( ... as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. Most of the time, back pain will get ...

  4. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called core strengthening. Ask your doctor or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...

  5. Come Back to Me

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted project, Come Back to Me, critiques the current state of image commodification to pose questions about subjectivity constituted through an ever-expanding ecosystem of fashion. As fashion theorist Anne Hollander claims, clothes “share in the perpetually idealizing vision of art,” and therefore merit the same meticulous analysis as painting. The work in Come Back to Me examines the relationship of fashion to the canon of female portraiture. I claim that the bodies of women dep...

  6. Back pain and parenthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...

  7. Recovery of uranium and thorium from uranium-thorium mixture by extraction-stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment has been conducted for the recovery of uranium and thorium from uranium-thorium mixture by extraction-stripping method. Thorium is one of the fission products of irradiated uranium fuel. This experiment aims to recover both uranium and thorium to be fed back as fuel. The samples for the extraction-stripping of uranium-thorium was made by varying mixtures of uranium-thorium for simulation, i.e. 5% U, 10% U, 15% U, 20% U, and 25% U, with a variation of extractant TBP of 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 48%, 60%, and 70%, while the amount/percentage of kerosene used as a diluent was in adjustment with the TBP percentage used. The stripping of the extracted product was done by using hot water at a temperature of 70°C with variation of nitric acid. The experimental results shows that uranium content of 93.6924% was obtained by TBP/kerosene composition of 30%/70% and 92.0754% thorium was obtained for TBP/kerosene composition of 48%/52%. The stripping results show that 98.6392% of thorium was obtained for stripping using hot water at 60-70°C with 0.6 N acidity, while 88.9873% of uranium was recovered for acidity of 0.5 N. (author)

  8. Crystalline Silicon Interconnected Strips (XIS). Introduction to a New, Integrated Device and Module Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Roosmalen, J.; Bronsveld, P.; Mewe, A.; Janssen, G.; Stodolny, M.; Cobussen-Pool, E.; Bennett, I.; Weeber, A.; Geerligs, B. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    A new device concept for high efficiency, low cost, wafer based silicon solar cells is introduced. To significantly lower the costs of Si photovoltaics, high efficiencies and large reductions of metals and silicon costs are required. To enable this, the device architecture was adapted into low current devices by applying thin silicon strips, to which a special high efficiency back-contact heterojunction cell design was applied. Standard industrial production processes can be used for our fully integrated cell and module design, with a cost reduction potential below 0.5 euro/Wp. First devices have been realized demonstrating the principle of a series connected back contact hybrid silicon heterojunction module concept.

  9. Thermo-electromagnetic properties of a magnetically shielded superconductor strip: theoretical foundations and numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a thin type-II superconductor strip surrounded by open cavity soft-magnetic shields and exposed to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with the classical description of conduction of heat. The underlying definition of the superconducting constituent makes use of an extended ‘smoothed’ Bean model of the critical state, which includes the field and temperature dependence of the induced supercurrent as well. The delineation of the magnetic shields exploits the reversible-paramagnet approximation in the Langevin form, as appropriate for magnetizations with narrow Z-type loops, and considers induced eddy currents too. The coolant is envisaged as acting like a bath that instantly takes away surplus heat. Based on the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov approach and the backward Euler scheme, the numerical analysis at hand is tailored to the problem of a high width/thickness aspect ratio of the superconductor strip. Assigning representative materials characteristics and conditions of the applied magnetic field, the main findings for a practically relevant magnet configuration include: (i) an overall rise of the maximum temperature of the superconductor strip tending to saturation in a superconducting thermo-electromagnetic steady state above the operating temperature, magnetic shielding lending increased stability and smoothing the temperature profile along the width of the superconductor strip; (ii) a washing out of the profile of the magnetic induction and a lowering of its strength, a relaxation of the profile of the supercurrent density and an increase of its strength, a tightening of the power loss density and a reduction of its strength, all inside the superconductor strip. The hysteretic ac loss suffered by the superconductor strip is seen to be cut back or, at most, to converge on that of an

  10. Thermo-electromagnetic properties of a magnetically shielded superconductor strip: theoretical foundations and numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G. T.; Rauh, H.

    2013-10-01

    Numerical simulations of thermo-electromagnetic properties of a thin type-II superconductor strip surrounded by open cavity soft-magnetic shields and exposed to an oscillating transverse magnetic field are performed by resorting to the quasistatic approximation of a vector potential approach in conjunction with the classical description of conduction of heat. The underlying definition of the superconducting constituent makes use of an extended ‘smoothed’ Bean model of the critical state, which includes the field and temperature dependence of the induced supercurrent as well. The delineation of the magnetic shields exploits the reversible-paramagnet approximation in the Langevin form, as appropriate for magnetizations with narrow Z-type loops, and considers induced eddy currents too. The coolant is envisaged as acting like a bath that instantly takes away surplus heat. Based on the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov approach and the backward Euler scheme, the numerical analysis at hand is tailored to the problem of a high width/thickness aspect ratio of the superconductor strip. Assigning representative materials characteristics and conditions of the applied magnetic field, the main findings for a practically relevant magnet configuration include: (i) an overall rise of the maximum temperature of the superconductor strip tending to saturation in a superconducting thermo-electromagnetic steady state above the operating temperature, magnetic shielding lending increased stability and smoothing the temperature profile along the width of the superconductor strip; (ii) a washing out of the profile of the magnetic induction and a lowering of its strength, a relaxation of the profile of the supercurrent density and an increase of its strength, a tightening of the power loss density and a reduction of its strength, all inside the superconductor strip. The hysteretic ac loss suffered by the superconductor strip is seen to be cut back or, at most, to converge on that of an

  11. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siao, An-Shen; Chao, Ching-Kong; Hsiao, Chun-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively. PMID:26999134

  12. A Strip Cell in Pyroelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An-Shen Siao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyroelectric effect affords the opportunity to convert temporal temperature fluctuations into usable electrical energy in order to develop abundantly available waste heat. A strip pyroelectric cell, used to enhance temperature variation rates by lateral temperature gradients and to reduce cell capacitance to further promote the induced voltage, is described as a means of improving pyroelectric energy transformation. A precision dicing saw was successfully applied in fabricating the pyroelectric cell with a strip form. The strip pyroelectric cell with a high-narrow cross section is able to greatly absorb thermal energy via the side walls of the strips, thereby inducing lateral temperature gradients and increasing temperature variation rates in a thicker pyroelectric cell. Both simulation and experimentation show that the strip pyroelectric cell improves the electrical outputs of pyroelectric cells and enhances the efficiency of pyroelectric harvesters. The strip-type pyroelectric cell has a larger temperature variation when compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by about 1.9 and 2.4 times, respectively. The measured electrical output of the strip type demonstrates a conspicuous increase in stored energy as compared to the trenched electrode and the original type, by of about 15.6 and 19.8 times, respectively.

  13. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  14. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back ... How Effective are X-rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the ...

  15. Instabilities and Solitons in Minimal Strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machon, Thomas; Alexander, Gareth P; Goldstein, Raymond E; Pesci, Adriana I

    2016-07-01

    We show that highly twisted minimal strips can undergo a nonsingular transition, unlike the singular transitions seen in the Möbius strip and the catenoid. If the strip is nonorientable, this transition is topologically frustrated, and the resulting surface contains a helicoidal defect. Through a controlled analytic approximation, the system can be mapped onto a scalar ϕ^{4} theory on a nonorientable line bundle over the circle, where the defect becomes a topologically protected kink soliton or domain wall, thus establishing their existence in minimal surfaces. Demonstrations with soap films confirm these results and show how the position of the defect can be controlled through boundary deformation. PMID:27419593

  16. Saving Energy Through Advanced Power Strips (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.

    2013-10-01

    Advanced Power Strips (APS) look just like ordinary power strips, except that they have built-in features that are designed to reduce the amount of energy used by many consumer electronics. There are several different types of APSs on the market, but they all operate on the same basic principle of shutting off the supply power to devices that are not in use. By replacing your standard power strip with an APS, you can signifcantly cut the amount of electricity used by your home office and entertainment center devices, and save money on your electric bill. This illustration summarizes the different options.

  17. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  18. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  19. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Gotra, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module...

  20. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. I have modeled the charge collection in silicon detectors which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, I performed extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular. I contributed to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition I evaluated a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  1. Wideband Cavity Backed Spiral Antenna for Stepped Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne; Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph

    2005-01-01

    A 1.7 turn cavity backed coplanar waveguide to coplanar strip-fed logarithmic uniplanar spiral antenna is presented and compared to a 1.5 turn spiral antenna. The 1.7 turn spiral antenna has a wide beamwidth, are circular polarised and has a bandwidth with a return loss better than 6 dB in the...

  2. Ram Pressure Stripping: The Long Goodbye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnesen, Stephanie; Lu, Yu; Benson, Andrew; Peter, Annika; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Weisz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    What turns off star formation in satellite galaxies? Ram pressure stripping, the removal of a galaxy's gas through direct interaction with the gas halo in which it orbits, is an attractive quenching mechanism, particularly in the Milky Way halo where the radial distribution of quenching is dramatic. However, many implementations of this process in semi-analytic models result in overly-rapid gas removal when compared with observations. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations run with Enzo to parameterize the stripping of disk and halo gas from an orbiting satellite galaxy for use in the semi-analytic modeling code Galacticus. We find that using the instantaneous ram pressure overestimates the amount of gas that is stripped, and present a physically-motivated module for including ram pressure stripping in semi-analytic models that uses the integral of the ram pressure experienced by a satellite galaxy. We will compare our results to observations of the Milky Way satellites.

  3. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos;

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set......-up is simplicity and that the maximum force generated in the polymer can be transferred directly to the load. There is, however, an inherent problem in this design that will be examined in this paper. If the potential of the reduced state is below that for oxygen reduction, only a finite length of the...

  4. Stripping of volatile organic compounds; Stripping a la vapeur de composes organiques volatils (COV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A. [APV Anhydro, Copenhagen (Denmark); Plante, J.L. [APV Anhydro, 27 - Evreux (France)

    1997-12-31

    The pollution of aqueous effluents by volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a real problem for the chemical industry. Steam stripping of such compounds can, when the procedure is well designed, result in extremely low residual levels. This article describes the stripping technique, taking as an example an APV Anhydro installation which carries out the stripping of the methyl-chloride contained in an effluent containing other volatile compounds. This installation was built in 1990 for the Upjohn company in Kalamazoo, Michigan. (authors)

  5. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...... and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to...... acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process...

  6. Si strip detector with integrated coupling capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caccia, M.; Evensen, L.; Hansen, T.E.; Horisberger, R.; Hubbeling, L.; Peisert, A.; Tuuva, T.; Weilhammer, P.; Zalewska, A.

    1987-10-01

    A silicon microstrip detector with capacitive coupling of the diode strips to the metallization and with individual polysilicon resistors to each diode has been developed. The detector was tested in a minimum ionizing particle beam showing a performance similar to conventional strip detectors and a spatial resolution of 3.5 ..mu..m. Capacitive coupling allows the decoupling of the leakage current from the input to the charge sensitive preamplifier especially in the case of LSI electronics.

  7. Process development of thin strip steel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, R.C.; Williams, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    An important new frontier is being opened in steel processing with the emergence of thin strip casting. Casting steel directly to thin strip has enormous benefits in energy savings by potentially eliminating the need for hot reduction in a hot strip mill. This has been the driving force for numerous current research efforts into the direct strip casting of steel. The US Department of Energy initiated a program to evaluate the development of thin strip casting in the steel industry. In earlier phases of this program, planar flow casting on an experimental caster was studied by a team of engineers from Westinghouse Electric corporation and Armco Inc. A subsequent research program was designed as a fundamental and developmental study of both planar and melt overflow casting processes. This study was arranged as several separate and distinct tasks which were often completed by different teams of researchers. An early task was to design and build a water model to study fluid flow through different designs of planar flow casting nozzles. Another important task was mathematically modeling of melt overflow casting process. A mathematical solidification model for the formation of the strip in the melt overflow process was written. A study of the material and conditioning of casting substrates was made on the small wheel caster using the melt overflow casting process. This report discusses work on the development of thin steel casting.

  8. 25 CFR 170.445 - What is a strip map?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a strip map? 170.445 Section 170.445 Indians... What is a strip map? A strip map is a graphic representation of a section of road or other transportation facility being added to or modified in the IRR Inventory. Each strip map submitted with an...

  9. Excess Production Capacity Squeezes Profits of Brass Strip Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Between 2003 and 2006,under the backdrop of rapid growth of domestic demand for brass strip and soaring copper price,brass strip manufacturers made a fortune.And brass strip manufacturers mushroomed in Zhejiang,Anhui and Jiangsu.Large brass strip manufacturers

  10. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...

  11. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  12. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    pattern of traversing a data structure at return time "There And Back Again" (TABA).The TABA pattern directly applies to computing a symbolic convolution. It also synergizes well with other programming patterns, e.g., dynamic programming and traversing a list at double speed. We illustrate TABA and...

  13. Radiology of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give an overview of causes of back pain which may be detected by radiological examinations. They insist on practical points of view such as: main cause, accessory cause, problems arising by multiple causes, congenital malformation of the vertebral arch such as anisocoria, canalar stenosis, cheirolumbar dysostosis. They describe two new signs: the pedicular scalloping and the framed articular process. (orig.)

  14. Validation of Edible Taste Strips for Assessing PROP Taste Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Smutzer, Gregory; Desai, Hetvi; Coldwell, Susan E.; Griffith, James W.

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described that incorporates taste stimuli into edible strips for determining n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status. Edible strips that contained 400 or 600nanomoles of PROP were prepared for psychophysical studies. Using these strips, we measured taste intensity, taste hedonics, and taste quality responses in a sample of healthy volunteers (n = 118). Participants were also asked to assess a single NaCl strip, a quinine strip, 3 NaCl solutions, and 3 PROP solutions...

  15. Novel photoresist stripping technology using steam-water mixture*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Hui Yu; Gao Chaoqun; Jing Yupeng

    2011-01-01

    A novel wet vapor photoresist stripping technology is developed as an alternative to dry plasma ashing and wet stripping. Experiments using this technology to strip hard baked SU-8 photoresist, aurum and chromium film are carried out. Then the images of stripping results are shown and the mechanism is analyzed and discussed.The most striking result of this experiment is that the spraying mixture of steam and water droplets can strip photoresist and even metal film with ease.

  16. Helical currents in metallic Rashba strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Ignacio J.; Gazza, Claudio J.; Riera, José A.

    2016-05-01

    We study the texture of helical currents in metallic planar strips in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) on the lattice at zero temperature. In the noninteracting case and in the absence of external electromagnetic sources, we determine, by exact numerical diagonalization of the single-particle Hamiltonian, the distribution across the strip section of these Rashba helical currents (RHC) as well as their sign oscillation, as a function of the RSOC strength, strip width, electron filling, and strip boundary conditions. Then, we study the effects of charge currents introduced into the system by an Aharonov-Bohm flux for the case of rings or by a voltage bias in the case of open strips. The former setup is studied by variational Monte Carlo, and the latter by the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group technique. Particularly for strips formed by two, three, and four coupled chains, we show how these RHC vary in the presence of such induced charge current, and how their differences between spin-up and spin-down electron currents on each chain help to explain the distribution across the strip of charge currents, both of the spin-conserving and the spin-flipping types. We also predict the appearance of polarized charge currents on each chain. Finally, we show that these Rashba helical currents and their derived features remain in the presence of an on-site Hubbard repulsion as long as the system remains metallic, at quarter filling, and even at half filling where a Mott-Hubbard metal-insulator transition occurs for large Hubbard repulsion.

  17. Avalanche-ion back-flow reduction in gaseous electron multipliers based on GEM/MHSP

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, J. M.; Mörmann, D.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Santos, J. M. F. dos

    2004-01-01

    We report on avalanche-ion back-flow measurements in the novel Micro-Hole and Strip-Plate (MHSP) multiplier and in gaseous photomultipliers comprising Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) followed by an MHSP. In a 3-GEMs/MHSP photomultiplier with reflective photocathode, avalanche-ion back-flow fraction of ~7% and ~2% were recorded for respective effective gains of 107 and 106, in Ar/CH4 (95/5) at 760 Torr. This is about one order of magnitude reduction in ion back-flow compared to the best values...

  18. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  19. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Casaburi, A.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2015-12-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2-5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications.

  20. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  1. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  2. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 630) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude mB = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  3. Advances in ion back-flow reduction in cascaded gaseous electron multipliers incorporating R-MHSP elements

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashenko, A. V.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Amaro, F. D.

    2006-01-01

    A new concept is presented for the reduction of ion back-flow in GEM-based cascaded gaseous electron multipliers, by incorporating Micro-Hole & Strip Plate (MHSP) elements operating in reversed-bias mode (R-MHSP). About an order of magnitude reduction in ion back-flow is achieved by diverting back-drifting ions from their original path. A R-MHSP/2GEM/MHSP cascaded multiplier operated at total gain of ~1.5*10^5 yielded ion back-flow fractions of 0.0015 and 0.0004, at drift fields of 0.5 and 0....

  4. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  5. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip for Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin M. McHugh; Y. Lin; Y. Zhou; E. J. Lavernia; J.-P. Delplanque; S. B. Johnson

    2005-02-01

    Spray rolling is a novel strip casting technology in which molten aluminum alloy is atomized and deposited into the roll gap of mill rolls to produce aluminum strip. A combined experimental/modeling approach has been followed in developing this technology with active participation from industry. The feasibility of this technology has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale and it is currently being scaled-up. This paper provides an overview of the process and compares the microstructure and properties of spray-rolled 2124 aluminum alloy with commercial ingot-processed material

  6. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  7. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  9. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  10. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  11. Zombies Strike Back

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Alpha; Charrier, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

              ABSTRACT: Zombies Strike Back Alpha Yee Jean-Claude Charrier       This world has been controlled for far too long by the tyranny of the humans. As long as men are in control of the world, Zombies will never be free to enjoy this world they mindlessly walk in. You are the only hope for your kind. You have advanced beyond the capabilities of your zombie brethren and are able to think, use guns that projects syringes to fight, and lead your...

  12. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  13. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...

  14. Cavity Backed Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Masani, Ila Parmar, Hitendra Jadeja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the current driving forces in wireless communications, there is a need for compact, efficient, inexpensive and reproducible antennas. In some instances, particularly long-distance applications, radiators with directive, high-gain characteristics are necessary. This paper proposes a cavity-backed slot antenna to that end. This antenna will enhance the gain, directivity and can also be easily flush mounted to the flying object. The shape and size of the slot can be effectively utilized to get the desired result. The proposed antenna is feed by waveguide which facilitate it to be applicable at high power operation where coaxial cable fails due to skin effect. Present antenna is verified using Numerical Technique called Finite Element Method FEM. The conception of this antenna is realized by the software HFSS “Ansoft-High Frequency Structure Simulator”. By properly selecting shapes, dimensions of the slots and number of slot affects the parameters like return loss, gain along Θ, Ø directions, Cartesian plot and radiation pattern .The Backing of cavity to the slot antenna provide the basics of the gain enhancement and the slot loading effect and the cavity volume plays an important role in achieving the desired return loss at the specific frequency.The simulated antenna shows the 7.0944 db of gain and return loss of -28.60. The proposed antenna works at 6 GHz.

  15. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  16. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment designed to acquaint students with the theory and applications of anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as well as such ASV problems as contamination associated with trace analysis. The experimental procedure, instrumentation, and materials discussed are designed to minimize cost and keep procedures as simple as possible. (JM)

  17. Basic Principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this interactive exercise, the basic principles of Anodic Stripping Voltammetry are shown. Each step of the voltammetric process is described using simulated animations. This activity illustrates what takes place in the voltammetric cell when this technique is applied to the determination of cadmium as well as to the simultaneous determination of copper and cadmium.

  18. The CMS silicon strip tracker modules production

    CERN Document Server

    Giorgi, M

    2006-01-01

    To complete the construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker, about 16,000 silicon microstrip detector modules will be required. In order to guarantee the uniform quality of the produced modules and to be able to match the deadlines requested by the CMS collaboration, a semi-industrialized organization has been developed, and the different components are being presented here.

  19. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  20. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation: CII. Automated Anodic Stripping Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, John T.; Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Presents details of anodic stripping analysis (ASV) in college chemistry laboratory experiments. Provides block diagrams of the analyzer system, circuitry and power supplies of the automated stripping analyzer, and instructions for implementing microcomputer control of the ASV. (CS)

  1. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-01-01

    Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In...

  2. Premature failure analysis of forged cold back-up roll in a continuous tandem mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Metal wrapping and strip welding in work/back-up rolls contact zone caused spalling. → MnS inclusion and pore initiated crack which propagated in milling led to spalling. → Retained austenite conversion to α'-martensite accelerated spalling failure. → Needle shaped carbide (Fe,Mo,Cr)7C3, may cause poor service life of back-up roll. -- Abstract: In this paper, premature failure of a forged back-up roll from a continuous tandem mill was investigated. Microstructural evolutions of the spalled specimen and surface of the roll were characterized by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and ferritscopy, while hardness value of the specimen was measured by Vickers hardness testing. The results revealed that the presence of pore and MnS inclusion with spherical and oval morphologies were the main contributing factors responsible for the poor life of the back-up roll. In addition, metal pick up and subsequently strip welding on the surface of the work roll were found as the major causes of failure in work roll which led to spalling occurrence in the back-up roll. Furthermore, relatively high percentage of retained austenite, say 9%, in outer surface of the back-up roll contributed spalling due to conversion of this meta-stable phase to martensite and creation of volume expansion on the outer surface through work hardening during mill campaign.

  3. Conveyorized Photoresist Stripping Replacement for Flex Circuit Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megan Donahue

    2009-02-24

    A replacement conveyorized photoresist stripping system was characterized to replace the ASI photoresist stripping system. This system uses the qualified ADF-25c chemistry for the fabrication of flex circuits, while the ASI uses the qualified potassium hydroxide chemistry. The stripping process removes photoresist, which is used to protect the copper traces being formed during the etch process.

  4. Resolution Studies on Silicon Strip Sensors with fine Pitch

    CERN Document Server

    Haensel, S; Dolezal, Z; Dragicevic, M; Drasal, Z; Friedl, M; Hrubec, Josef; Irmler, C; Kiesenhofer, W; Krammer, M; Kvasnicka, P

    2009-01-01

    In June 2008 single-sided silicon strip sensors with 50~$\\mu$m readout pitch were tested in a pion beam at the SPS at CERN. The purpose of the test was to evaluate characteristic detector properties by varying the strip width and the number of intermediate strips. The experimental setup and first results for the spatial resolution are described.

  5. 21 CFR 880.2200 - Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. 880... Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2200 Liquid crystal forehead temperature strip. (a) Identification. A liquid crystal forehead temperature strip is a device applied to the forehead that is used to...

  6. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  7. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  8. Microflora cultivable from minocycline strips placed in persisting periodontal pockets

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, WK; Jin, L; Yau, JYY; Q. Sun; Corbet, EF

    2005-01-01

    The microflora that develops on minocycline strips, used as an adjunct in non-surgical periodontal therapy was studied. Minocycline (1.4 mg in polycaprolactone vehicle) and control strips were applied into all residual pockets (PD ≥ 5 mm, ≥2 pockets/subject) of patients with chronic periodontitis 1 month after a course of non-surgical periodontal therapy. Strips were inserted and retained for 3 days, changed to new strips for 3 more days and then removed. Strips were recovered from 14 (eight ...

  9. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted to...

  10. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  11. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  12. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  13. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  14. The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD)

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, L; Bonnet, D; Boucham, A; Bouvier, S; Castillo, J; Coffin, J P; Drancourt, C; Erazmus, B; Gaudichet, L; Germain, M; Gojak, C; Grabski, J; Guilloux, G; Guedon, M; Hippolyte, B; Janik, M; Kisiel, A; Kuhn, C; Lakehal-Ayat, L; Lefèvre, F; Le Moal, C; Leszczynski, P; Lutz, Jean Robert; Maliszewski, A; Martin, L; Milletto, T; Pawlak, T; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Przewlocki, M; Radomski, S; Ravel, O; Renard, C; Renault, G; Rigalleau, L M; Roy, C; Roy, D; Suire, C; Szarwas, P; Tarchini, A

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) completes the three layers of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) to make an inner tracking system located inside the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). This additional fourth layer provides two dimensional hit position and energy loss measurements for charged particles, improving the extrapolation of TPC tracks through SVT hits. To match the high multiplicity of central Au+Au collisions at RHIC the double sided silicon strip technology was chosen which makes the SSD a half million channels detector. Dedicated electronics have been designed for both readout and control. Also a novel technique of bonding, the Tape Automated Bonding (TAB), was used to fullfill the large number of bounds to be done. All aspects of the SSD are shortly described here and test performances of produced detection modules as well as simulated results on hit reconstruction are given.

  15. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage...... metaphor lets the user adjust volume and panning by positioning tracks relative to a virtual listening position. In this study test participants are given the task to adjust volume and panning of one channel (in mixes consisting of three channels) in order to replicate a series of simple pre-rendered mixes....... They do this using (1) a small physical mixing controller and (2) using an iPad app, which implements a simple stage metaphor interface. We measure how accurately they are able to replicate mixes in terms of volume and panning and how fast they are at doing so. Results reveal that performance is...

  16. Back-propagation of accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Senashova, M. Yu.; Gorban, A. N.; Wunsch II, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we solve the problem: how to determine maximal allowable errors, possible for signals and parameters of each element of a network proceeding from the condition that the vector of output signals of the network should be calculated with given accuracy? "Back-propagation of accuracy" is developed to solve this problem. The calculation of allowable errors for each element of network by back-propagation of accuracy is surprisingly similar to a back-propagation of error, because it is...

  17. Approach to lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosajee, F; Kalla, A A

    2015-12-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most common symptoms–and the most common musculoskeletal problem–seen by general practitioners. Iti s also a common cause of disability and an expensive condition in terms of economic impact because of absenteeism. This article discusses an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered, inflammatory back pain. PMID:26933725

  18. Patient education on back care

    OpenAIRE

    C. Van Eck

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background:  Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient han...

  19. CMS silicon strip tracker calibration workflow and tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silicon strip tracker of CMS is by far the biggest detector of its kind ever operated. Its 15 000 detector modules and 9 million readout channels are individually calibrated in order to achieve the optimal data quality for the experiment. Software tools were designed to automate the operations and reduce the need for maintenance as much as possible, taking care to use pre-existing software frameworks, when possible. The calibration software implements a dedicated scheme of event building, on-line distributed analysis, storage management, data analysis and configuration archival. Dedicated user interfaces and web-applications were developed to ease the operations, speed-up the calibration process, monitor its quality, and track the problems. A complete set of monitoring analyses are also performed online during data taking to validate the data acquired. The calibration parameters are measured continuously, and the values are fed back to the calibration database in order to refine the on-line event reconstruction. A review of the software tools and calibration processes is given here and the obtained results are discussed.

  20. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Payne, Jason A.; Ottesen, Cory W.

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  1. Development of Silicon Multi-strip Detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanJilian; JinGenming; WangHongwei; YuanXiaohua; DuanLiming; LiSonglin; LuZiwei; XuHushan; NingBaojun; TianDayu; WangWei; ZhangLu

    2003-01-01

    Position sensitive detector is very important for nuclear physics experiment. There several techniques can be used to fabricate position sensitive detector, for example, Si-surface barrier method, diffusion method, ion implantation and planar process etc. Among all the techniques mentioned above planar process is the best one. We have developed batch of position sensitive detector -- silicon multi-strip detector by using planar process.

  2. Deuteron Stripping on Nuclei at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, V I

    2016-01-01

    A general analytical expression for the double differential cross section of inclusive deuteron stripping reaction on nuclei at intermediate energies of incident particles was obtained in the diffraction approximation. Nucleon-nucleus phases were calculated in the framework of Glauber formalism and making use of the double-folding potential. The exact wave function of deuteron with correct asymptotics at short and long distances between nucleons was used. The calculated angular dependencies of cross sections are in good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

  3. Hot Strip Laminar Cooling Control Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2004-01-01

    The control model of laminar cooling system for hot strip, including air-cooling model, water-cooling model, temperature distribution model along thickness direction, feedforward control model, feedback control model and self-learning model, was introduced. PID arithmetic and Smith predictor controller were applied to feedback control. The sample of model parameter classification was given. The calculation process was shown by flow chart. The model has been proved to be simple, effective and of high precision.

  4. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Piro, Anthony L.; Morozova, Viktoriya S.

    2014-01-01

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main S...

  5. Mastering Interproximal Stripping: With Innovations in Slenderization

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Narendra Shriram; Shrivastav, Sunita S; Hazarey, Pushpa V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Crowding and irregularity remain a consistent problem for children. Management of space problems continues to play an important role in a dental practice. It also represents an area of major interaction between the primary provider and the specialists. Proximal stripping is routinely carried out to avoid extraction in borderline cases where space discrepancy is less and in cases where there is a discrepancy between the mesio- distal width of maxillary and mandibular teeth to satisfy ...

  6. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    OpenAIRE

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2013-01-01

       HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq). Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee),...

  7. BACK PAIN AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Podchufarova

    2009-06-01

    source of pain and there is a great deal of treatments for this condition. Unlike chronic pain, acute musculoskeletal pain in the back is a benign and generally self-limited condition. To set off nonspecific back pain, i.e. pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders without signs of involvement of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral roots and specific spinal lesions (spondylolisthesis, osteoporosis, tumors, inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, etc. is convenient and warranted in most cases when a patient with acute back pain is examined by a general practitioner. The paper gives the data of the current guidelines for the management of patients with nonspecific back pain

  8. TLC Fall-back procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fall-back procedures planned for cases where the trilateral power market coupling cannot be run correctly or cannot produce correct results. The reasons for fall-back can occur in three situations: market coupling is subject to normal business risks but risks have been minimized, winter clock change handled differently in the different local systems, and excessive proportion of block orders leading to bids infeasibilities. The possible fall-back situations are listed and the main principles for fall-back are explained: critical deadline for results publication/participants information, explicit auctions, south border, north border. (J.S.)

  9. Tracking and back-tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pigueiras, Eduardo; Narvarte Fernandez, Luis; Muñoz Cano, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of back-tracking geometry not only for single axis but also for two-axis tracking and analyses the corresponding energy gains. It compares the different back-tracking strategies with the ideal tracking in terms of energy yield concluding, on the one hand, that back-tracking is more useful for single horizontal axis than for the single vertical one, and on the other hand, that back-tracking is more efficient when applied in the primary axis of a two-axis tracker

  10. Physics Back in TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  11. Self-recovering superconducting strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a 1.8 μm wide superconducting strip made of granular tungsten, we have observed self-recovering pulses when the detector is irradiated with a 55Fe 6 keV X-rays source. For low values of the bias current (i.e. Ibb=1.5K) the superconducting state is recovered in 10--50 ns giving voltage pulses across the strip of few hundred μv in amplitude. At high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant counting efficiency has measured at different operating temperatures. There are good indications that this high counting rate can be extended to all the reduced bias currents where the detector is able to reset itself after every switch. The current threshold between collapsing and propagating switches and the time evolution of the voltage pulses can be described using a thermal propagation model developed in previous works. The ability of detectors to automatically recover the superconducting state in a short period of time after sensing a particle is encouraging in the feasibility study of fast superconducting microvertex detectors and also confirm the potential application of superconducting strips as high fast resolution X-rays detectors

  12. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  13. Self-recovering superconducting strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabutti, A.; Gray, K.E.

    1991-09-01

    Using a 1.8 {mu}m wide superconducting strip made of granular tungsten, we have observed self-recovering pulses when the detector is irradiated with a {sup 55}Fe 6 keV X-rays source. For low values of the bias current (i.e. I{sub b}<30{mu}A at T{sub b}=1.5K) the superconducting state is recovered in 10--50 ns giving voltage pulses across the strip of few hundred {mu}v in amplitude. At high bias currents the detector did not self-recover and a constant counting efficiency has measured at different operating temperatures. There are good indications that this high counting rate can be extended to all the reduced bias currents where the detector is able to reset itself after every switch. The current threshold between collapsing and propagating switches and the time evolution of the voltage pulses can be described using a thermal propagation model developed in previous works. The ability of detectors to automatically recover the superconducting state in a short period of time after sensing a particle is encouraging in the feasibility study of fast superconducting microvertex detectors and also confirm the potential application of superconducting strips as high fast resolution X-rays detectors.

  14. High-Rate Capable Floating Strip Micromegas

    CERN Document Server

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Biebel, Otmar; Danger, Helge; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Lösel, Philipp; Moll, Samuel; Parodi, Katia; Rinaldi, Ilaria; Ruschke, Alexander; Zibell, André

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optimization of discharge insensitive floating strip Micromegas (MICRO-MEsh GASeous) detectors, fit for use in high-energy muon spectrometers. The suitability of these detectors for particle tracking is shown in high-background environments and at very high particle fluxes up to 60MHz/cm$^2$. Measurement and simulation of the microscopic discharge behavior have demonstrated the excellent discharge tolerance. A floating strip Micromegas with an active area of 48cm$\\times$50cm with 1920 copper anode strips exhibits in 120GeV pion beams a spatial resolution of 50$\\mu$m at detection efficiencies above 95%. Pulse height, spatial resolution and detection efficiency are homogeneous over the detector. Reconstruction of particle track inclination in a single detector plane is discussed, optimum angular resolutions below $5^\\circ$ are observed. Systematic deviations of this $\\mu$TPC-method are fully understood. The reconstruction capabilities for minimum ionizing muons are investigated in a 6.4cm$\\time...

  15. Back Pain and Neuraxial Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, Honorio T; Asher, Yogen G; Hartrick, Craig T

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia in the adult population is not different from that after general anesthesia. The pain is usually mild, localized in the low back, rarely radiates to the lower extremities, and has a duration of only a few days. The risk factors for development of back pain include the lithotomy position, multiple attempts at block placement, duration of surgery longer than 2.5 hours, body mass index ≥32 kg/m, and a history of back pain. However, there is no permanent worsening of preexisting back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. The back pain has been attributed to tears in the ligaments, fascia, or bone with localized bleeding; immobility of the spine; relaxation of the paraspinal muscles under anesthesia; flattening of the normal lumbar convexity; and stretching and straining of the lumbosacral ligaments and joint capsules. The addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic used for skin infiltration may decrease the incidence and severity of back pain. The use of spinal or epidural anesthesia in the adult, non-obstetric and obstetric populations should depend on the advantages offered by the technique and not on the occurrence of back pain after the procedure. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of epidural dexamethasone, or other steroids, or the addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic infiltration for the prevention of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. Future studies should involve a physician with expertise in the evaluation of chronic low back pain to help identify the cause of the back pain and institute appropriate treatment(s). PMID:27195644

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE FIRST COLD ROLLING PASS OF A C-MN STRIP STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willian Costa do Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the modeling by the finite element method of the first cold rolling pass of a four-high mill at the CSN steel plant. For this purpose, a two dimensional model is proposed considering the work-roll as a rigid surface together with the assumptions of plane-strain state for the strip and material isotropy with nonlinear isotropic workhardening. A C-Mn steel strip with initial thickness of 3.5 mm was first characterized by means of uniaxial tensile tests in specimens cut along the rolling direction to evaluate the work-hardening parameters. In the finite element model, the contact is defined by means of the Coulomb’s law to describe the friction between the work-roll and the strip surfaces. Moreover, the industrial back and forward tensions are also taken into account as prescribed conditions in the finite element model. The numerical predictions of the rolling load show a good agreement with the measured data and the forecasted value is determined with the slab-method.

  17. Prediction of Rolling Load in Hot Strip Mill by Innovations Feedback Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-yong; WANG Jun; MA Fu-ting

    2007-01-01

    Because the structure of the classical mathematical model of rolling load is simple, even with the self-adapting technology, it is difficult to accommodate the increasing dimensional accuracy. Motivated by this fact, an Innovations Feedback Neural Networks (IFNN) was presented based on the idea of Kalman prediction. The neural networks used the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm and applied it to the prediction of rolling load in hot strip mill. The theoretical results and the off-line simulation show that the prediction capability of IFNN is better than that of normal BP networks, namely, for the prediction of the rolling load in hot strip mill, the prediction precision of IFNN is higher than that of normal BP networks. Finally, a relative complete rolling load prediction system was developed on Windows 2003/XP platform using the OOP programming method and the SQL server2000 database. With this system, the rolling load of a 1700 strip mill was calculated, and the prediction results obtained correspond well with the field data. It shows that IFNN is valid for rolling load prediction.

  18. Nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuxiang Huang; Jiongming Zhang; Xinhua Wang; Yuan Fang; Yan Yu

    2008-01-01

    The shape, type, content, and dimension of nonmetallic inclusions in SUS304 strip produced by twin-roll strip casting were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the inclusions are mainly spherical Al2O3 and com- plex oxides composed of MnO, Al2O3., and SiO2. The percentage of fine oxides smaller than 3 μm reaches up to 51.8%. The theoreti- cal calculations show that fine oxides have precipitated during solidification. Therefore, it is concluded that during twin-roll strip casting, because of high cooling rate, the size of inclusions precipitated during solidification decreases, and the amount increases.

  19. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  20. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  1. Back school program for back pain: education or physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Maria José Clemente da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back school consists in an educational program aimed at pre-venting back pain and rehabilitating individuals with degenerative disorders.Objective: To evaluate the effects of back school components (education and/or exercise therapy in relieving pain and improving quality of life in patientswith chronic back pain.Method: Forty-one patients were randomized and al-located into four groups: (i a back school group (educational lessons and physicalexercise; (ii an educational lessons group; (iii a physical exercise group and (iva waiting list control group.Patients were evaluated before and after treatmentwith a visual analogue scale, a short form quality-of-life questionnaire, a RolandMorris disability questionnaire and a finger-floor distance test.Results: The backschool group showed significant reduction in scores in the visual analogue scaleand the Roland Morris disability questionnaire and an increase in the short-form quality of life questionnaire. Conclusion: The effectiveness of back schoolprograms in chronic back pain patients seems to be due to the physical exercisecomponent and not on account of the educational lessons.

  2. Novel dual single sided silicon strip detector chip for radiotherapy verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel dual single sided silicon strip detector (SSSSD) chip was designed to attend clinical requirements in radiotherapy verification. Within this aim, the available double sided (D S) BB7 design, from Micron Semiconductor Ltd. was adapted. A 64 x 64 m m2 dual SSSSD chip was packed by kapton printed circuit board (PCB), instead of using the conventional FR4 material. The 32 x 32.2 mm width, 500 μm thick, silicon strips were connected to an in-house developed electronics by cap ton based cables. The two independent SSSSD were separated buy a 500 μm cap ton dielectric film, with the same silicon wafers dimensions, avoiding air gaps in between them. Thus, we optimize the homogeneity of detector surroundings, by using kapton material , which densities are close to the water (main component of human tissue) one. The dual SSSSD chip was mounted in a back to back perpendicular configuration in order to allow 2D dose measurements, improve spatial resolution and make radiotherapy treatment verification faster. Parameters and performance of the novel detector are presented and compared to the commercial W1-SS 500 design, which was previously used to carry out the feasibility study of applying these detectors for radiotherapy verification

  3. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change. PMID:12314276

  4. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  5. Employment of concentrated-hardsphere- suspension pad for V-bending of thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ohashi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Authors have suggested employment of dilatant fluid for metal forming tools, and report an applicationon v-bending of thin stainless steel strips in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: An alumina concentrated hard-sphere suspension is employed as dilatant fluid forforming. The authors evaluate the suspension with backward extrusion test. Then, the authors try to bend SUS304stainless strip with 0.25 mm thickness and 30 mm width on the pad of the suspension with a v-bend punch.Findings: Behaviour of the suspension is revealed in backward extrusion test. Migration of water takesimportant role in it. In v-bending test, including acute angle bending, the authors bend the strip with only thev-bend punch and the alumina concentrated hard-sphere suspension pad successfully. It is thought that formingload is less than with general polyurethane tools.Research limitations/implications: Spring-back in partial bending, which is similar to the suggested process,is larger than in bottoming and coining with dies and bending with polyurethane tools. Therefore, the authorsare going to evaluate the spring-back in the suggested process in further study.Practical implications: Polyurethane pad is used in bending process generally because of advantageous pointsin easy-design, and safe from scratch. However it has disadvantageous points in its limited life and necessity oflarge forming load. The alumina concentrated hard-sphere suspension can be employed for such the pad withunlimited life. In addition, such the dilatant fluid can be applied on other metal forming process as easy tool.Originality/value: Employing dilatant fluid for forming tools is new idea. Authors try v-bending with analumina concentrated hard-sphere suspension.

  6. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...

  7. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  8. Development of a cathode strip chamber for minimum ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cathode strip chamber (CSC) capable of measuring position information for minimum ionizing particles (MIPS) has been developed. The chamber operates in the proportional or limited proportional region, where the avalanche on the anode wire is localised to a small region around the anode wire. The position of the avalanche can be obtained by the pulse heights induced on the cathode strips which run perpendicular to direction of the anode wire. The pulse height induced on the cathode strips is proportional directly to the strip width and inversely to the distance between the strip centre to the avalanche location. Thus by measuring the pulse heights on at least three cathode strips for every event, one can reconstruct the centroid that would give the location of the avalanche on the anode

  9. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  10. Power and control in gay strip clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Joseph R G

    2007-01-01

    The gay strip club is a place in which more than displays of male beauty take place. The mix of customers, performers, liquor, and nudity results in fascinating dynamics. Of interest in this article are the power relationships and issues of control played out both among and between strippers and customers. Based on extensive participant observation conducted in eight cities and numerous bars/clubs and including more than 150 in-depth interviews, this article concerns just one aspect of the world of male strippers who perform for men. PMID:18019071

  11. Fluorocarbon stripping of low beta heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium charge state distributions were measured for Kr, Xe, Ho and Pb ions at energies from 25 to 160 keV/amu passing through a high molecular weight fluorocarbon vapor, as well as air and carbon foil strippers. Measured charge state distributions are given which show that the fluorocarbon distributions are intermediate between those of air and foil strippers, becoming closer to foil values as velocity is decreased. At all energies substantial asymmetry in the fluorocarbon distributions towards higher charge states were observed. These favorable distributions, coupled with very high beam handling capability, low maintenance and indefinite lifetime clearly indicate the value of fluorocarbon stripping for many accelerator applications. 5 refs

  12. Collision physics with highly stripped slow ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review about recent studies with highly stripped heavy ions is given. Its scope is limited to mainly inner shell processes and slow collisions compared to the Bohr velocity of electrons in these shells. The processes discussed are: population of excited states by electron capture in asymmetric collision systems; electron capture and excitation in symmetric collisions with an emphasis on the impact parameter dependence of K- to L-shell and K- to K-shell vacancy transfer; the interference structure in the quasimolecular X-rays from slow hydrogen-like ion-atom collisions which is used for direct spectroscopy of quasimolecular energies. (Auth.)

  13. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector are described. A high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  14. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  15. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  16. Stripped elliptical galaxies as probes of ICM physics: I. Tails, wakes, and flow patterns in and around stripped ellipticals

    CERN Document Server

    Roediger, E; Nulsen, P E J; Forman, W R; Machacek, M; Randall, S; Jones, C; Churazov, E; Kokotanekova, R

    2014-01-01

    (abridged) Elliptical cluster galaxies are successively stripped of their gaseous atmospheres due to their motion through the ICM. The stripped galactic gas forms a 'tail' in the galaxy's wake. Deep X-ray observations reveal the fine-structure of the gas tail and of the interface between galactic gas and ICM. This fine-structure depends on dynamic conditions (galaxy potential, initial gas contents, orbit in the host cluster), stripping stage (early infall, pre-/post-pericenter passage), and on the still ill-constrained ICM plasma properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field structure). In a series of papers, we aim at disentangling dynamic and plasma effects in order to use observed stripped ellipticals as probes of the ICM plasma properties. This first paper determines flow phases and flow patterns of successive gas stripping by means of hydrodynamical simulations. During quasi-steady stripping, the flow of ICM around the remnant atmosphere is similar to the flow around solid bodies, including...

  17. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been successfully used in the management of pain and anxiety. These include stress management, relaxation training, biofeed- back, hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (a method to reduce ...

  18. Patient education on back care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Van Eck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background:  Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient handout, educating them in how to incorporate back care knowledge into their dailyactivities.Conclusion: Physiotherapists can play a significant role in empowering patients through education to take responsi-bility for their disability.

  19. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  20. Liquid crystal elastomer strips as soft crawlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio; Gidoni, Paolo; Noselli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we speculate on a possible application of Liquid Crystal Elastomers to the field of soft robotics. In particular, we study a concept for limbless locomotion that is amenable to miniaturisation. For this purpose, we formulate and solve the evolution equations for a strip of nematic elastomer, subject to directional frictional interactions with a flat solid substrate, and cyclically actuated by a spatially uniform, time-periodic stimulus (e.g., temperature change). The presence of frictional forces that are sensitive to the direction of sliding transforms reciprocal, 'breathing-like' deformations into directed forward motion. We derive formulas quantifying this motion in the case of distributed friction, by solving a differential inclusion for the displacement field. The simpler case of concentrated frictional interactions at the two ends of the strip is also solved, in order to provide a benchmark to compare the continuously distributed case with a finite-dimensional benchmark. We also provide explicit formulas for the axial force along the crawler body.

  1. TRANSPARENT HELIUM IN STRIPPED ENVELOPE SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves and velocity evolution, we propose that some stripped envelope supernovae (SNe) show signs that a significant fraction of their helium is effectively transparent. The main pieces of evidence are the relatively low velocities with little velocity evolution, as are expected deep inside an exploding star, along with temperatures that are too low to ionize helium. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve, and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to measure from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. Other stripped envelope SNe show higher velocities and larger velocity gradients, which require an additional opacity source (perhaps the mixing of heavier elements or radioactive nickel) to prevent the helium from being transparent. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will lead to a better understanding of their respective formation mechanisms

  2. Transparent Helium in Stripped Envelope Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Piro, Anthony L

    2014-01-01

    The light curves and velocity evolution of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) provide important clues to help constrain their progenitors. This may be especially important for stripped envelope SNe (Type Ib, Ic, and IIb), which have been elusive in providing direct connections with the massive stars that give rise to these explosions. Using simple arguments based on photometric light curves, we propose that many of these stripped envelope SNe show evidence that a significant fraction their helium is effectively transparent during the majority of their light curve evolution. This means that the helium should not contribute to the shaping of the main SN light curve and thus the total helium mass may be difficult to constrain from simple light curve modeling. Conversely, such modeling may be more useful for constraining the mass of the carbon/oxygen core of the SN progenitor. We discuss ways in which similar analysis can provide insights into the differences and similarities between SNe Ib and Ic, which will help le...

  3. Therapeutic surfactant-stripped frozen micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Song, Wentao; Geng, Jumin; Chitgupi, Upendra; Unsal, Hande; Federizon, Jasmin; Rzayev, Javid; Sukumaran, Dinesh K.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2016-05-01

    Injectable hydrophobic drugs are typically dissolved in surfactants and non-aqueous solvents which can induce negative side-effects. Alternatives like `top-down' fine milling of excipient-free injectable drug suspensions are not yet clinically viable and `bottom-up' self-assembled delivery systems usually substitute one solubilizing excipient for another, bringing new issues to consider. Here, we show that Pluronic (Poloxamer) block copolymers are amenable to low-temperature processing to strip away all free and loosely bound surfactant, leaving behind concentrated, kinetically frozen drug micelles containing minimal solubilizing excipient. This approach was validated for phylloquinone, cyclosporine, testosterone undecanoate, cabazitaxel and seven other bioactive molecules, achieving sizes between 45 and 160 nm and drug to solubilizer molar ratios 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than current formulations. Hypertonic saline or co-loaded cargo was found to prevent aggregation in some cases. Use of surfactant-stripped micelles avoided potential risks associated with other injectable formulations. Mechanistic insights are elucidated and therapeutic dose responses are demonstrated.

  4. Multi-strip MRPCs for FOPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years FOPI has developed a new ToF system as an upgrade of the existing detector based on Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MMRPCs). The intention is to increase the charged Kaon identification up to a laboratory momentum of 1GeV/c and to enhance the azimuthal detector granularity. The new ToF barrel has an active area of 5m2 with 2400 individual strips (900x1.6mm2) [A. Schuettauf, et al., Nucl. Phys. B 158 (2006) 52] which are read out on both sides by a custom designed electronics [M. Ciobanu, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-54 (4) (2007) 1201; K. Koch, et al., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-52(3) (2005) 745]. To reach the envisaged goal a time resolution of 100 ps is needed, at a flight path of 1-1.3 m. Due to the rare production of the K- at SIS energies the efficiency of the MMRPCs has to be above 95%. We report on measurements with the detectors and electronics from the mass production line. For this purpose we used a proton beam at 2.0 and 1.25 GeV, at rates between 0.1 and 5 kHz/cm2 to determine the timing, efficiency and rate capability of the MMRPCs.

  5. Rare wildcat drilling in remote Arizona strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on a recent application by United Gas Search Inc., Tulsa, for a permit to drill in extreme northwestern Arizona that has sparked interest in that area, largely unknown in the oil business. The area is known locally as the Arizona strip. It lies north and northwest of the Grand Canyon. There is not even a road to the strip from the rest of Arizona. Access is by road from Utah or Nevada. Just what is there to cause a company to go to the trouble of drilling an 11,000 ft well so far from production and from sources of equipment and supply? With oil and gas prices as low as they are, do potential reserves economically justify stepping out so far? At a recent U.S. Bureau of Land Management lease sale, one that saw the first competitive bidding on federal land in Arizona United Gas Search bid successfully on three tracts totaling 5,122.32 acres. The company paid $7/acre for the largest tract of 2,082 acres and an average of $3.26/acre for the remaining 3,040 acres

  6. Pregnancy and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino, Jennifer; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is ubiquitous in today’s society and is particularly common during pregnancy. There are multiple factors contributing to these symptoms during pregnancy including pelvic changes as well as alterations to loading. Potential imaging modalities are limited during pregnancy due to the desire to limit ionizing radiation exposure to the fetus. Treatments are generally conservative, exercise-based interventions and alternative modalities may also be considered. Low back pain associated wit...

  7. Stream Surface Strip Element Method and Simulation of Three-Dimensional Deformation of Continuous Hot Rolled Strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-min; WANG Ying-rui

    2004-01-01

    A new method, the stream surface strip element method, for simulating the three-dimensional deformation of plate and strip rolling process was proposed. The rolling deformation zone was divided into a number of stream surface (curved surface) strip elements along metal flow traces, and the stream surface strip elements were mapped into the corresponding plane strip elements for analysis and computation. The longitudinal distributions of the lateral displacement and the altitudinal displacement of metal were respectively constructed to be a quartic curve and a quadratic curve, of which the lateral distributions were expressed as the third-power spline function, and the altitudinal distributions were fitted in the quadratic curve. From the flow theory of plastic mechanics, the mathematical models of the three-dimensional deformations and stresses of the deformation zone were constructed. Compared with the streamline strip element method proposed by the first author of this paper, the stream surface strip element method takes into account the uneven distributions of stresses and deformations along altitudinal direction, and realizes the precise three-dimensional analysis and computation. The simulation example of continuous hot rolled strip indicates that the method and the model accord with facts and provide a new reliable engineering-computation method for the three-dimensional mechanics simulation of plate and strip rolling process.

  8. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  9. Effect of current frequency on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during electroplastic rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electroplastic rolling (ER) on the mechanical properties, microstructure and texture in the AZ31 magnesium alloy strips has been investigated by tensile testing and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) methods. It is shown that the mechanical properties, microstructure, and texture are highly current frequency-dependent. Best mechanical properties are obtained from the 500 Hz ER specimen by carrying out tensile tests for all the rolled strips. Besides, the frequencies of twin boundaries, which are reduced to the minimum at 500 Hz, vary with the current frequency. Moreover, it can be seen from the calculated (0001) and (101¯0) pole figures that texture evolved into an obvious off-basal texture, and non-basal slip systems are activated under 500 Hz. The mechanisms of twinning growth and texture evolution in AZ31 magnesium alloy strips during ER are considered to be responsible for the experimental results

  10. Chemically modified flexible strips as electrochemical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Raju; Ganesh, V

    2014-09-21

    A flexible and disposable strip sensor for non-enzymatic glucose detection is demonstrated in this work. The strips are prepared by using chemical modification processes followed by a simple electroless deposition of copper. Essentially, polyester overhead projector (OHP) transparent films are modified with a monolayer of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyaniline (PANI) conducting polymer. Later, nanostructured copper is deposited onto this modified film. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies are used for the structural, morphological and crystallinity characterization of the modified films. Electrochemical techniques, namely cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA), are employed for the non-enzymatic detection of glucose. These studies clearly reveal the formation of homogeneous, close-packed spherical Cu particles converged into uniform film that exhibits a good catalytic activity towards the oxidation of glucose. The Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP sensor displays a remarkable enhancement in the oxidation current density, a very high sensitivity value of 2.8456 mA cm(-2) per mM, and a linear concentration range from 100 μM to 6.5 mM associated with glucose detection. Detection limit is estimated to be 5 μM and the response time of the sensor is determined to be less than 5 s. For comparison, similar studies are performed without PANI, namely Cu/APTMS/OHP films for glucose detection. In this case, a sensitivity value of 2.4457 mA cm(-2) per mM and a linear concentration range of 100 μM-3 mM are estimated. The higher performance characteristics observed in the case of Cu/PANI/APTMS/OHP are attributed to the synergistic effects of the conducting polymer acting as an electron facilitator and the nanostructured Cu films. These disposable, flexible and low-cost strip sensors have also been applied to the detection of glucose in clinical blood serum samples and the results obtained agree very well with the actual glucose

  11. Opioids for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A; Von Korff, Michael; Duhrkoop, David

    2015-01-01

    Back pain affects most adults, causes disability for some, and is a common reason for seeking healthcare. In the United States, opioid prescription for low back pain has increased, and opioids are now the most commonly prescribed drug class. More than half of regular opioid users report back pain. Rates of opioid prescribing in the US and Canada are two to three times higher than in most European countries. The analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions. Opioids do not seem to expedite return to work in injured workers or improve functional outcomes of acute back pain in primary care. For chronic back pain, systematic reviews find scant evidence of efficacy. Randomized controlled trials have high dropout rates, brief duration (four months or less), and highly selected patients. Opioids seem to have short term analgesic efficacy for chronic back pain, but benefits for function are less clear. The magnitude of pain relief across chronic non-cancer pain conditions is about 30%. Given the brevity of randomized controlled trials, the long term effectiveness and safety of opioids are unknown. Loss of long term efficacy could result from drug tolerance and emergence of hyperalgesia. Complications of opioid use include addiction and overdose related mortality, which have risen in parallel with prescription rates. Common short term side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, and increased risk of falls and fractures. Longer term side effects may include depression and sexual dysfunction. Screening for high risk patients, treatment agreements, and urine testing have not reduced overall rates of opioid prescribing, misuse, or overdose. Newer strategies for reducing risks include more selective prescription of opioids and lower doses; use of prescription monitoring programs; avoidance of co-prescription with sedative hypnotics; and reformulations that make drugs more difficult to snort, smoke, or inject. PMID

  12. Spatial resolution of plastic streamer tubes with wide strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievable spatial resolution of a plastic streamer tube with pickup strips perpendicular to the anode wire have been studied. This value is comparable with the best results (350-450 μm) obtained with usual -1 cm wide strips. 17 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tabs

  13. Status Quo of China’s Aluminum Sheet & Strip Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Aluminum sheet & strip products are one of the major product varieties in the aluminum processing industry, they also provide indis-pensable basic materials for the development of national economy. In recent years, driven by rapid economic growth, China’s investment in aluminum sheet & strip industry continued to

  14. Magnetic domain-wall dynamics in wide permalloy strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Virginia; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in soft permalloy strips may exhibit various equilibrium micromagnetic structures depending on the width and thickness of the strip, ranging from the well-known transverse and vortex walls in narrow and thin strips to double and triple vortex walls recently reported in wider strips [V. Estévez and L. Laurson, Phys. Rev. B 91, 054407 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.054407]. Here, we analyze the field driven dynamics of such domain walls in permalloy strips of widths from 240 nm up to 6 μ m , using the known equilibrium domain wall structures as initial configurations. Our micromagnetic simulations show that the domain wall dynamics in wide strips is very complex, and depends strongly on the geometry of the system, as well as on the magnitude of the driving field. We discuss in detail the rich variety of the dynamical behaviors found, including dynamic transitions between different domain wall structures, periodic dynamics of a vortex core close to the strip edge, transitions towards simpler domain wall structures of the multi-vortex domain walls controlled by vortex polarity, and the fact that for some combinations of the strip geometry and the driving field the system cannot support a compact domain wall.

  15. Fabrication of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip for chromium removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Vaishnavi; Kiruba Daniel, S. C. G.; Ruckmani, K.; Sivakumar, M.

    2016-02-01

    Environmental pollution caused by heavy metals is a serious threat. In the present work, removal of chromium was carried out using chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip. Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) were synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method at 80 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometer, atomic force microscope, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometer, which confirm the size, shape, crystalline nature and magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles. Atomic force microscope revealed that the particle size was 15-30 nm and spherical in shape. The magnetite nanoparticles were mixed with chitosan solution to form hybrid nanocomposite. Chitosan strip was casted with and without nanoparticle. The affinity of hybrid nanocomposite for chromium was studied using K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate) solution as the heavy metal solution containing Cr(VI) ions. Adsorption tests were carried out using chitosan strip and hybrid nanocomposite strip at different time intervals. Amount of chromium adsorbed by chitosan strip and chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip from aqueous solution was evaluated using UV-visible spectroscopy. The results confirm that the heavy metal removal efficiency of chitosan-magnetite nanocomposite strip is 92.33 %, which is higher when compared to chitosan strip, which is 29.39 %.

  16. Photomask technique for fabricating high purity germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology for germanium strip detectors has been developed. This technique uses a photomask process which needs no growing and etching and allows all kinds of segmented electrodes. Typically we have obtained 1.2 keV FWHM on the 122 keV line of 57Co and a X-Y detector having 20 strips in each side. (orig.)

  17. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  18. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  19. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  20. Emission reduction by multipurpose buffer strips on arable fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloots, K; van der Vlies, A W

    2007-01-01

    In the area managed by Hollandse Delta, agriculture is under great pressure and the social awareness of the agricultural sector is increasing steadily. In recent years, a stand-still has been observed in water quality, in terms of agrochemicals, and concentrations even exceed the standard. To improve the waterquality a multi-purpose Field Margin Regulation was drafted for the Hoeksche Waard island in 2005. The regulation prescribes a crop-free strip, 3.5 m wide, alongside wet drainage ditches. The strip must be sown with mixtures of grasses, flowers or herbs. No crop protection chemicals or fertilizer may be used on the strips. A total length of approximately 200 km of buffer strip has now been laid. Besides reducing emissions, the buffer strips also stimulate natural pest control methods and encourage local tourism. Finally, the strips should lead to an improvement in the farmers' image. The regulation has proved to be successful. The buffer strips boosted both local tourism and the image of the agricultural sector. Above all, the strips provided a natural shield for emission to surface water, which will lead to an improvement of the water quality and raise the farmers' awareness of water quality and the environment. PMID:17711002

  1. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  2. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted

  3. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  4. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  5. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  6. Nonattacking Queens in a Rectangular Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Chaiken, Seth; Zaslavsky, Thomas; 10.1007/s00026-011-0068-7

    2011-01-01

    The function that counts the number of ways to place nonattacking identical chess or fairy chess pieces in a rectangular strip of fixed height and variable width, as a function of the width, is a piecewise polynomial which is eventually a polynomial and whose behavior can be described in some detail. We deduce this by converting the problem to one of counting lattice points outside an affinographic hyperplane arrangement, which Forge and Zaslavsky solved by means of weighted integral gain graphs. We extend their work by developing both generating functions and a detailed analysis of deletion and contraction for weighted integral gain graphs. For chess pieces we find the asymptotic probability that a random configuration is nonattacking, and we obtain exact counts of nonattacking configurations of small numbers of queens, bishops, knights, and nightriders.

  7. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes

  8. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.

    1998-05-01

    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  9. Bismuth electrodes, an alternative in stripping voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón-Jaimez, J.; Joya, M. R.; Barba-Ortega, J.

    2013-11-01

    The heavy metals are known as highly toxic contaminants, the processes carried out in industry contribute that finally they remain dispersed in effluents and sewage, doing part of the food chain. The importance of controlling the levels of these heavy metals has become an international policy, so it has generated interest in developing new analytical methodologies for its determination [1, 2, 3, 4]. The stripping voltammetry has been considered as a family of electro-sensitive analytical techniques useful for the determination of trace levels of many metals in environmental, clinical and industrial samples [3, 4]. This work presents an overview of these bismuth-based electrodes which were introduced around 2000, which have interesting characteristics for detection of heavy metals and which represent an alternative to mercury electrodes.

  10. Construction of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last year the CMS experiment has constructed and integrated the largest ever build full Silicon Strip Tracker. The CMS Tracker collaboration set up a unique scheme of quality control to ensure the necessary high quality of all of the 15,148 modules and their super structures. The applied scheme of quality control revealed several problems, which escaped the initial R and D phase, ranging from corrosion effects on the silicon, capton and via problems on the front end hybrids up to aging conductive glue connections. An overview of the construction and qualification experience is given, discussing the major steps which result in the unique experimental device, which the CMS Tracker is currently commissioning

  11. Cataract surgery after Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita Chaurasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of endothelial dysfunction in phakic patients is sometimes a dilemma for corneal surgeons. Phakic patients with visually significant cataract and endothelial dysfunction are preferably managed by performing combined cataract surgery with endothelial keratoplasty. However, combined surgery may be deferred in eyes with early incipient cataract, younger age and where anterior chamber is poorly visualized. As cataract formation may be accelerated after endothelial keratoplasty, these eyes may need cataract surgery subsequently. Surgical intervention in eyes with endothelial keratoplasty is of concern as this may affect the graft adversely and threaten graft survival. In this report, we describe the intraoperative surgical details and postoperative clinical course of a patient who underwent phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK.

  12. Microdischarges of AC-coupled silicon strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microdischarge at the edges of strips in AC-coupled silicon strip sensors has been investigated. A steep increase in the leakage current (breakdown) and a sudden onset of burst noise were observed at a low reverse-bias voltage when the bias potential was across the AC-coupling capacitor. This can be explained by the occurrence of microdischarges along the edges of strips. These discharges have been confirmed by observing IR light emission. A calculation of the field strength at the strip edge suggests that a fringe field of the external electrode generates the microdischarge at the strip edge when the bias voltage is 50-80 V. This is consistent with our observations. We discuss a design for AC-coupled sensors that eliminates this discharge problem. (orig.)

  13. Superconducting strip detectors as position sensitive particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using of current-biased superconducting strips for radiation detection is investigated. Narrow Ta strips are exposed to 5.5 MeV α-particle radiation and the rise-time of the induced voltage pulses is measured as function of temperature and bias current. The rise-time of the voltage signal strongly depends on the site on the strip which is hit by the α-particle. In order to determine the spatial resolution of a superconducting strip detector, position-sensitive measurements were performed. The maximum lateral resolution estimated so far is 25μm in a 7μm wide, 340 nm thick and 0.6 mm long Ta-strip. (orig.)

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in the Gaza strip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal infections cause major morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We report the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae carriage in a developing region, the Gaza strip, and evaluate the theoretical coverage of carriage strains by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs. METHODOLOGY: In 2009 we conducted a cross-sectional survey of S. pneumoniae carriage in healthy children and their parents, living throughout the Gaza strip. Data were collected and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by Vitek-2 and serotypes by the Quellung reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: S. pneumoniae carriage was detected in 189/379 (50% of children and 30/376 (8% of parents. Carriage prevalence was highest in children <6 months of age (63%. Significant predictors for child carriage were number of household members and DCC attendance. The proportion of pediatric and adults isolates with serotypes included in PCV7 were 32% and 20% respectively, and 46% and 33% in PCV13 respectively. The most prominent non-vaccine serotypes (NVT were 35B, 15B/C and 23B. Penicillin-nonsusceptible strains were carried by 70% of carriers, penicillin-resistant strains (PRSP by 13% and Multi-drug-resistant (MDR by 30%. Of all PRSP isolates 54% belonged to serotypes included in PCV7 and 71% in the PCV13. Similarly, 59% and 73% of MDR-SP isolates, would theoretically be covered by PCV7 and PCV13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that, PCV13-included strains were carried by 46% and 33% of pediatric and adult subjects respectively. In the absence of definitive data regarding the virulence of the NVT strains, it is difficult to predict the effect of PCVs on IPD in this region.

  15. High speed twin roll casting of 6016 strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin aluminum alloy strip. 6016aluminum alloy is used for sheet metal of the automobile. Therefore, casting of 6016 was tried in this study.Castability and characteristics of roll cast 6016 strip were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: was a high speed twin roll caster. The high speed twin roll caster was designedto overcome the low castability of the twin roll caster.Findings: are as below. The 6016 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. The thickness of the 6016 was 3 mm.The microstructure at as-cast and after T6 heat treatment was shown. The microstructure was very fine by theeffect of the rapid solidification. The mechanical properties were investigated by the tension test and 180 degreesbending test. The as-cast strip could be cold rolled down to 1 mm without homogenization. The result of tensiontest (gage length 50mm of T4 strip was as below, tensile stress was 242 MPa, proof stress was 123 MPa andelongation was 26%. There was no crack at the outer surface of 180-degree-bent strip until contact. This showsthe strip endure the hem forming.Research limitations/implications: is the width of the strip was 100 mm. The test using a large scale twin rollcaster must be operated.Practical implications: are as below. The mechanical properties of the roll-cast 6016 were enough for the sheetmetal for the automobile. The low productivity of the twin roll caster could be improved, and economy 6016strip was able to produce.Originality/value: is that 6016 strip could be cast at speed 60 m/min and this strip had good mechanicalproperties.

  16. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  17. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  18. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back strain treatment; Back pain - home care; Low back pain - home care; Lumbar pain - home care ... A common myth about back pain is that you need to rest and avoid activity for a long time. In fact, doctors do not recommend bed ...

  19. Thickness dependence of fracture behaviour in a superconducting strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When subjected to a magnetic field, a superconducting strip will undergo an electromagnetic body force induced by flux pinning. The magnitude of the body force is dependent on the critical current density. It is well known that the critical current density in the strip will decrease with increasing thickness. In addition, the mechanical behaviour of the strip will also be affected by the thickness of the strip. Thus, the strip thickness has an influence on both the electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In this paper, we analyse the fracture behaviour by considering the competition of electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In order to study the central crack problem of a superconducting strip with different thicknesses, we replace the electromagnetic body force with the total surface force. Using a Fourier transform method, the boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. By solving the singular integral equation, we obtain the stress intensity factors for two different crack lengths during field descent. The results show that the stress intensity factor is not a monotonic function of the thickness and that two competing factors dominate in different field regions. It is necessary to obtain the optimized thickness by considering both the superconductivity and mechanical behaviour in the superconducting strip. (paper)

  20. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Christopher N; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective sleepiness as well as simulated driving performance. In total, 36 regular shift workers drove a high-fidelity moving base simulator on a simulated road with rumble strips installed at the shoulder and centre line after a working a full night shift. The results show that, on average, the first rumble strip occurred after 20 min of driving, with subsequent hits occurring 10 min later, with the last three occurring approximately every 5 min thereafter. Specifically, it was found that the first rumble strip hit reduced physiological sleepiness; however, subsequent hits did not increase alertness. Moreover, the results also demonstrate that increased subjective sleepiness levels, via the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, were associated with a greater probability of hitting a rumble strip. The present results suggest that sleepiness is very resilient to even strongly arousing stimuli, with physiological and subjective sleepiness increasing over the duration of the drive, despite the interference caused by rumble strips. PMID:26486849

  1. Gravitational Laser Back-Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, S. F.; Spehler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A possible way of producing gravitons in the laboratory is investigated. We evaluate the cross section electron + photon $\\rightarrow$ electron + graviton in the framework of linearized gravitation, and analyse this reaction considering the photon coming either from a laser beam or from a Compton back-scattering process.

  2. Quantum Tunneling and Back Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We give a correction to the tunneling probability by taking into account the back reaction effect to the metric of the black hole spacetime. We then show how this gives rise to the modifications in the semiclassical black hole entropy and Hawking temperature. Finally, we reproduce the familiar logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law.

  3. Back-to-School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teaching moments. Speak up when you see unhealthy eating habits. Direct children to healthier options or say, "You can have a little ... a family to form healthy habits. Read More "Planning For A Healthy School Year" Articles Back to School ... Activity Fall 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number ...

  4. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  5. A wooded riparian strip set up for nitrogen removal can affect the water flux microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizanur Md. Rahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is part of a project aimed at verifying the potential of a specifically assessed wooded riparian zone in removing excess of combined nitrogen from the Zero river flow for the reduction of nutrient input into Venice Lagoon. Specific objectives were pursued to determine seasonal fluctuations of the microbial populations from the input water to a drainage ditch, conveying back the flux into the river after passing through the soil of the wooded riparian strip. The bacterial communities were determined by combined approaches involving cultivation, microscopic methods and DNA based techniques to determine both culturable and total microbial community in water. The results indicate that the size of the bacterial population, including the culturable fraction, increases from the river to the drainage ditch especially on the warm season. The multiple approach here adopted enabled also to demonstrate that the special condition created in the buffer strip supports the development and the metabolism of the microbial community. The nature of the bacterial population, in terms of phylotypes distribution, was investigated by 16S rDNA analysis indicating that the most represented genera belong to Gamma-proteobacteria, which is known to include an exceeding number of important pathogens. In spring, the effect of the buffer strip seems to significantly reduce such a sub-population. The changes observed for the total bacterial community composition become much evident in summer, as revealed by both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis cluster analysis and by the diversity index calculation. The hydraulic management coupled to the suspension of farming practices and the development of the woody and herbaceous vegetation resulted in a condition suitable for the containment of undesired microbiota (mainly during the spring season while continuing to support denitrification activity (especially throughout the summer as verified by the total nitrogen

  6. Water Modeling of Twin-Roll Strip Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; ZHANG Jie-yu; FAN Jun-fei; ZHAO Shun-li; FANG Yuan; AN Sheng-li

    2006-01-01

    Twin-roll strip casting is regarded as a prospective technology of near net shape continuous casting. The fluid flow field and level fluctuation in the pool have a strong influence not only on composition and temperature homogeneity of pool, but also on the strip quality. A 1∶1 water model of a twin-roll strip caster was set up based on the criteria of Froude number and Reynold number similarity. The level fluctuation was measured. The influence of pool depth, casting speed and feeding system configuration on level fluctuation in the pool was studied. The experimental results provided a basis for the optimization of feeding system and process parameters.

  7. Young tourists visiting strip clubs and paying for sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about young adults’ use of strip clubs and prostitution during their holidays abroad. This study examined this issue with a sample of 1125 Danish tourists between the ages of 16 and 34, and sought data about the frequency with which they paid for sex and attended strip clubs while...... they were on holiday. The tourists were surveyed at a Bulgarian airport before their return trip home. The incidence of strip-club patronage during holiday was 48% for men and 8% for women. Of the men, 12.5% reported paying for sex during their holiday. Among the men paying for sex, 47% reported having...

  8. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  9. Modelling of americium stripping in the EXAm process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EXAm process aims at recovering americium alone contained in the PUREX raffinate. The americium stripping model has been revised to take into account a change of stripping aqueous phase and up-to-date experimental results conducted within DRCP to improve knowledge about complexes. This work represents a first approximation at modelling americium stripping. The modelling work has led to synthesize the knowledge on chemical phenomenology and adopt assumptions that best reflect experimental results. The modelling has been implemented in PAREX code in order to simulate this step to prepare and understand tests to be carried out in mixer settlers. (authors)

  10. Ultra-flat bismuth films for diamagnetic levitation by template-stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorian, J. [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); TU Delft — 3mE-PME, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Engelen, J.B.C. [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); IBM Research — Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Vries, J. de; Nazeer, H.; Woldering, L.A. [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Abelmann, L., E-mail: l.abelmann@utwente.nl [University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a method to deposit thin films of bismuth with sub-nanometer surface roughness for application to diamagnetic levitation. Evaporated films of bismuth have a high surface roughness with peak to peak values in excess of 100 nm and average values on the order of 20 nm. We expose the smooth backside of the films using a template stripping method, resulting in a great reduction of the average surface roughness, to 0.8 nm. Atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the films have a polycrystalline texture with preferential c-axis orientation. On the back side of the film, fine grains are grouped into larger clusters. Cantilever resonance shift measurements indicate that the Young's modulus of the films is on the order of 20 GPa. - Highlights: • We deposited continuous but rough bismuth films of 200–500 nm in thickness by thermal evaporation. • We analyzed the material properties of bismuth films using a variety of measurement techniques. • We reduced the roughness of bismuth films from 20 nm to 0.8 nm by a template stripping method. • The Young's modulus of bismuth thin films is comparable to bulk bismuth.

  11. FPHX: A New Silicon Strip Readout Chip for the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, James R.; Zimmerman, Tom N.; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab; Kapustinsky, Jon S.; Brookes, Melynda L.; /LOS ALAMOS

    2009-01-01

    The FPHX chip is a silicon strip readout chip developed at Fermilab for use in the FVTX Detector of the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. Each front end consists of an integrator which is AC coupled to a shaper, followed by a discriminator and a 3-bit analog-to-digital converter. The backend is a novel architecture in two stages that permits dead-timeless operation and high-speed readout with very low latency. A slow controller provides an interface for all on-chip programmable functions. This chip has been fabricated in the 0.25um TSMC process. All functionality including the analog front-end, the digital back-end, and the slow controller has been verified experimentally.

  12. The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Fuqian; Prasad, Vish; Kao, Imin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    1999-04-21

    The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a layer of material is analysed for the heat-flux specified boundary condition on the contact zone. Using Green's function, the solution of heat-conduction problems is reduced to a new type of hypersingular integral equations with a hyperbolic function kernel. The hypersingular integral equations are solved analytically, which provides closed-form solutions for the thermal constriction resistance. For a thin film and isoflux conditions over the contact zone, the thermal constriction resistance is proportional to the ratio of the film thickness to the contact width when the other side of the film is considered isothermal, whereas it is inversely proportional to this ratio for an adiabatic back. Such a large variation and reversal in trend reveals the possibility of using this method for the measurement of film thicknesses by measuring the thermal constriction resistance. (author)

  13. The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuqian; Prasad, Vish; Kao, Imin

    1999-04-01

    The thermal constriction resistance of a strip contact spot on a layer of material is analysed for the heat-flux specified boundary condition on the contact zone. Using Green's function, the solution of heat-conduction problems is reduced to a new type of hypersingular integral equations with a hyperbolic function kernel. The hypersingular integral equations are solved analytically, which provides closed-form solutions for the thermal constriction resistance. For a thin film and isoflux conditions over the contact zone, the thermal constriction resistance is proportional to the ratio of the film thickness to the contact width when the other side of the film is considered isothermal, whereas it is inversely proportional to this ratio for an adiabatic back. Such a large variation and reversal in trend reveals the possibility of using this method for the measurement of film thicknesses by measuring the thermal constriction resistance.

  14. Anodic stripping voltammetry of technetium alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of direct determination of technetium in 0.1 M NaOH by anodic stripping voltametry at glassy carbon electrode has been elaborated. The peak height of anodic TcO2(OH)2 dissolution was found to be linearly dependent on preconcentration time, and the concentration of technetium in the range 5.0 * 10-8 -6 M. The detection limit for the Tc determination by ASV technique under study was found to be 5.0 * 10-8 M with standard deviation 5-7% (p2(OH)2 anodic dissolution peak current. Addition of 1.0* 10-6 M U(UI) to the sample solution was found to shift the peak of the TcO2(OH)2 100 mV towards negative direction and disturb the linearity of the calibration curve. Therefore; for a successful application of the developed ASV technique for Tc determination in the alkaline media, uranium should be removed from the analyte before determination

  15. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  16. The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Rosa, N.

    2013-05-01

    The type Ib/c SNe are those explosions which come from massive star populations, but lack hydrogen and helium. These have been proposed to originate in the explosions of massive Wolf-Rayet stars, and we should easily be able to detect the very luminous, young progenitors if they exist. However, there has not been any detection of progenitors so far. I present the study of two extinguished Type Ic SNe 2003jg and 2004cc. In both cases there is no clear evidence of a direct detection of their progenitors in deep pre-explosion images. Upper limits derived by inserting artificial stars of known brightness at random positions around the progenitor positions (M_v>-8.8 and M_v>-9 magnitudes for the progenitors of SN 2003jg and SN 2004cc, respectively) are brighter than those expected for a massive WC (Wolf-Rayet, carbon-rich) or WO (Wolf-Rayet, oxygen-rich) (e.g., approximately between -3 and -6 in the LMC). Therefore, this is perhaps further evidence that the most massive stars may give rise to black-holes forming SNe, or it is an undetected, compact massive star hidden by a thick dust lane. However the extinction toward these SNe is currently one of the largest known. Even if these results do not directly reveal the nature of the type Ic SN progenitors, they can help to characterize the dusty environment which surrounded the progenitor of the stripped-envelope CC-SNe.

  17. Profile of a science comic strip author

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    After studying visual arts, Lison Bernet worked as a lock keeper, waitress, grape picker, farm labourer and chef before finally returning to her first love: drawing. Today a scientific illustrator, Lison is the author of the cartoon strip "La BD du LHC", which she draws every month for LHC France (by CNRS/IN2P3 and CEA/Irfu, see here).   © Lison Bernet. Lison’s career path might seem somewhat chaotic, but it is a reflection of the artist herself: original and passionate. “I never do anything by half measures. When I got into cooking for example [Lison took a chef training course for adults], I became completely wrapped up in it. I even went as far as cooking roasts during my lunch hour, just for practice…” says Lison. On completing the course, Lison got a job as a chef on a canal boat. And it was then that she got the drawing bug again. “I started keeping an illustrated travel diary,” she says. &ldquo...

  18. Study of highly stripped ionic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soft X-ray emission spectra from very highly stripped ions of the medium-Z elements of 22T, 26Fe, 28Ni, 29Cu, 30Zn and 32Ge, and the high-Z elements of 72Hf, 73Ta, 74W and 75Re have been observed in laser-produced plasmas generated by focusing a Nd-glass laser beam onto the surface of the plane solid targets at the 'Xing Guang' laser facility. The spectra in the range of 3.6∼300 angstrom were recorded by using four flat crystal spectrographs with different 2d spacing and a 1-m grazing incidence grating spectrometer, respectively. Several hundred lines from Na-like through H-like ions of six medium-Z elements and from Co-like and Ni-like ions of four high-Z elements were identified and classified on the basis of a comparison between the measured wavelengths and intensities with the predicted values which were calculated by Hartree-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock-Relativistic method with configuration interaction and the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. The quasi-continuum bands in Cu-like through Ge-like ions of Hf, Ta, W and Re were analyzed by unresolved spin-orbit-split array model

  19. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  20. The ALICE silicon strip detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kuijer, P

    2000-01-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 5.5 TeV per nucleon. The detector consists essentially of two main components: the central part, composed of detectors mainly devoted to the study of hadronic signals and dielectrons, and the forward muon spectrometer devoted to the study of quarkonia behaviour in dense matter. The central part, which covers +-45 deg. (|eta|<0.9) over the full azimuth, is embedded in a large magnet with a weak solenoidal field. Outside of the Inner Tracking System (ITS), there are a cylindrical TPC and a large area PID array of time-of-flight (TOF) counters. In addition, there are two small-area single-arm detectors: an electromagnetic calorimeter (Photon Spectrometer, PHOS) and an array of RICH counters optimized for high-momentum inclusive particle identification (HMPID). This article describes the silicon strip detector system used in the outer layers o...

  1. Continuous back extraction operation by a single liquid-liquid centrifugal extractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a small, high-performance liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor for the nuclear fuel cycle. The single extractor allows extraction with many multiple theoretical stages due to the formation of Taylor vortices. We have previously demonstrated multistage extraction for a forward extraction system. In this study, we have applied the centrifugal extractor to a continuous back extraction system with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. We examined the performance of our concept of the centrifugal extractor by varying the rotational speeds of the inner rotor and the nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution. The dispersion behavior, flow characteristics were determined and the back extraction performance was examined for a single chemical species and for multiple species. Complete back extraction by continuous process was achieved and it showed the possibility to minimize the volume and nitric acid concentration of the stripping solution. Our centrifugal extractors may provide a more effective separation system than the conventional separation process that uses many continuously connected extractors. (authors)

  2. Continuous back extraction operation by a single liquid-liquid centrifugal extractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakase, M.; Takeshita, K. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology: 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a small, high-performance liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor for the nuclear fuel cycle. The single extractor allows extraction with many multiple theoretical stages due to the formation of Taylor vortices. We have previously demonstrated multistage extraction for a forward extraction system. In this study, we have applied the centrifugal extractor to a continuous back extraction system with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. We examined the performance of our concept of the centrifugal extractor by varying the rotational speeds of the inner rotor and the nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution. The dispersion behavior, flow characteristics were determined and the back extraction performance was examined for a single chemical species and for multiple species. Complete back extraction by continuous process was achieved and it showed the possibility to minimize the volume and nitric acid concentration of the stripping solution. Our centrifugal extractors may provide a more effective separation system than the conventional separation process that uses many continuously connected extractors. (authors)

  3. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L.; Sparn, B.

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a laboratory investigation to evaluate the technical performance of advanced power strip (APS) devices when subjected to a range of home entertainment center and home office usage scenarios.

  4. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of our nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, is to provide rapid, low-cost, powerful multiplexed analyses in a diminutive form so that whole body health...

  5. Slow-plasmon resonant nano-strip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Beermann, Jonas; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    Resonant scattering by gold nanostrip antennas due to constructive interference of counterpropagating slow surface plasmon polaritons SPPs is analyzed, including the quasistatic limit of ultrasmall antennas, and experimentally demonstrated. The phase of slow SPP reflection by strip ends is found ...

  6. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.)

  7. The role of sealing strips in tubular heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubular-type heat exchangers contain both baffle plates and sealing strips. The baffles force the flow to pass normal to the axes of the tubes and they serve to support the tubes. In order to facilitate assembly of the heat exchanger, a space exists between the tube bundle and the retaining shell. This space offers a hydraulic short circuit to the fluid, thus reducing the effectiveness of the device to exchange heat. Sealing strips, which are metal strips mounted on the shell and running parallel to the tubes, are introduced to partially block this leakage flow, thereby increasing the effectiveness of the device. The objectives of the research reported here are to experimentally determine the effectiveness of sealing strips, and to investigate the effects of their shape and location. Such results not only supply design information, but they serve to establish the accuracy of computer codes which have been developed for such heat exchangers. (author)

  8. Data acquisition software for the CMS strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bainbridge, R; Bel, S; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delaere, C; Jesus, A C A; Drouhin, F; Fulcher, J; Giassi, A; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Mersi, S; Mirabito, L; Nikolic, M; Radicci, V; Tkaczyk, S; Wingham, M

    2008-01-01

    The CMS silicon strip tracker, providing a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and comprising 10 million readout channels, has recently been completed at the tracker integration facility at CERN. The strip tracker community is currently working to develop and integrate the online and offline software frameworks, known as XDAQ and CMSSW respectively, for the purposes of data acquisition and detector commissioning and monitoring. Recent developments have seen the integration of many new services and tools within the online data acquisition system, such as event building, online distributed analysis, an online monitoring framework, and data storage management. We review the various software components that comprise the strip tracker data acquisition system, the software architectures used for stand-alone and global data-taking modes. Our experiences in commissioning and operating one of the largest ever silicon micro-strip tracking systems are also reviewed.

  9. Method for measuring the heavy stripped ion abundances of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a system which uses a velocity filter and an energy filter in tandem to analyze the abundances and energy spreads of highly stripped ions. The system can also serve as a plasma diagnostic. (Auth.)

  10. Electroplating and stripping copper on molybdenum and niobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Molybdenum and niobium are often electroplated and subsequently stripped of copper. Since general standard plating techniques produce poor quality coatings, general procedures have been optimized and specified to give good results.

  11. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  12. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    same time; an interest which historically both evokes ideas of pop music and pop culture, the role of the artist in a national, social-democratic context, and the role of the avant-garde artist after the completion of such projects as situationism and the American neo-avant-garde. In this manner, the...... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed the...... official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...

  13. Low Back Pain And Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    KURU, Ö.; BEWYER, D.; KUTLU, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction in the patient with chronic low back pain is a frequently misunders¬tood and neglected aspect of this disease classification. Clinical experience and a review of the literature defines three causative factors: primary organic pathology interrupting nor¬mal nervous system function; side effects of medication prescribed for the condition, and psychological factors relating to anxiety over performance and fear of pain during sexual activity. The purpose of this article is to d...

  14. The Strip: Las Vegas and the Symbolic Destruction of Spectacle

    OpenAIRE

    Al, Stefan Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 70 years, various actors have dramatically reconfigured the Las Vegas Strip in many forms. I claim that behind the Strip's "reinventions" lies a process of symbolic destruction. Since resorts distinguish themselves symbolically, each new round of capital accumulation relies on the destruction of symbolic capital of existing resorts. A new resort either ups the language within a paradigm, or causes a paradigm shift, which devalues the previous resorts even further. This is why, i...

  15. Ram Pressure Stripping in Groups: Comparing Theory and Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Hester, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping may be the dominant mechanisms driving the evolution of galaxy colors in groups and clusters. In this paper, an analytic model of ram pressure stripping is confronted with observations of galaxy colors and star formation rates in groups using a group catalog drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An observed increase in the fraction of galaxies residing on the red sequence, the red fraction, with both increasing group mass, $M_{gr}$, and decreasing satellite luminosit...

  16. Salvaging the Pullout Strength of Stripped Screws in Osteoporotic Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Pechon, Pierre H. M.; Mears, Simon C.; Langdale, Evan R.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to determine whether the pullout strength of stripped screw holes in osteoporotic bone could be increased with readily available materials from the operating room. We inserted 3.5-mm stainless steel nonlocking self-tapping cortical screws bicortically into 5 osteoporotic humeri. Each screw was first stripped by rotating it 1 full turn past maximum torque. In the control group, the screw was pulled out using an MTS machine (858; MTS Inc, Eden Prairie, Minnesota). In the treatment ...

  17. Tape Stripping Technique for Stratum Corneum Protein Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maja-Lisa Clausen; H.-C. Slotved; Krogfelt, Karen A.; Tove Agner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of protein in stratum corneum in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients and healthy controls, using tape stripping technique. Furthermore, to compare two different methods for protein assessment. Tape stripping was performed in AD patients and healthy controls to collect stratum corneum samples and subsequently analysed with two different methods: Squame Scan, which gives an estimate of total protein (soluble and insoluble) and Micro BCA protein de...

  18. Performance studies of the CMS strip tracker before installation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, W.; Anttila, E.; Czellar, S.; Engström, P.; HÀrkönen, J.; KarimÀki, V.; Kortesmaa, J; Kuronen, A.; Lampén, T.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P. -R.; MÀenpÀÀ, T.; Michal, S.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million tr...

  19. Continuous extrusion and rolling forming technology of copper strip manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Xinbing; Zhou Mo; Tian Tian; Zhao Ying

    2015-01-01

    Continuous extrusion and rolling technology was proposed as a new strip production technology. It finished hot rolling process using the waste heat of the continuous extrusion forming. The continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was simulated by DEFORM-3DT software. The influence of extrusion wheel velocity and strip size on the continuous extrusion and rolling forming process was analyzed. The experiment was carried out according to optimized results of numerical simulation, the mic...

  20. Rigorous LiDAR Strip Adjustment with Triangulated Aerial Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, X. D.; X. Y. Hu

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a POS aided LiDAR strip adjustment method. Firstly, aero-triangulation of the simultaneously obtained aerial images is conducted with a few photogrammetry-specific ground control points. Secondly, LiDAR intensity images are generated from the reflectance signals of laser foot points, and conjugate points are automatically matched between the LiDAR intensity image and the aero-triangulated aerial image. Control points used in LiDAR strip adjustment are derived from...

  1. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    OpenAIRE

    T. Haga; H. Sakaguchi; Watari, H; S. Kumai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and rec...

  2. Structural strengthening with prestressed CFRP strips with gradient anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Michels, Julien; Sena-Cruz, José; Czaderski, Christoph; Motavalli, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the principle and the application of an innovative anchorage technique for prestressed carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in structural strengthening. Additionally, large-scale static loading tests of retrofitted concrete beams are shown. The gradient anchorage, based on the adhesive’s ability to undergo accelerated curing at high temperatures, consists of a purely concrete-adhesive strip connection without any mechanical devices, such as bolts or plates. In a f...

  3. Structural investigations of HSS rolls for hot strip mill

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack; Ernst, R.; Breyer, J.-P.

    2004-01-01

    High Speed Steel (HSS) cast rolls are used in front finishing stands of hot strip mills (HSM). Good wear resistance and hardness at high temperatures, are defining features of HSS. Previous experience has shown that HSS rolls containing mainly hard MC carbides have a high friction coefficient, which is detrimental for the rolling power consumption and for the strip surface quality. On the other hand, HSS rolls containing eutectic rod shaped carbides are brittle and more susc...

  4. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  5. Induction heating in in-line strip production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ISP (In-line Strip Production), a continuous process for steel strip production, has recently been set in an italian innovative plant, where ecological impact and power requirements are lighter than usual. This report describes the studies performed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), while a prototype reheating facility was arranged by Acciaieria ISP in Cremona (Italy). The authors, after a study of the prototype electromagnetic field, calculate the heating rate, with the thermal network method. Then they detect, with a 1-D-FEM, the heat diffusion through the strip cross section. Afterward, since the heat distribution depends on the eddy current density one, which is given by the magnetic field distribution, the authors, with a 3-D-FEM, carry out a coupled, electromagnetic and thermal, analysis in time domain. The strip temperature map is established by the balance between skin depth heating and surface cooling: a thermal analysis, performed with a moving 2-D-FEM, take into account the effects of the different heating and cooling situations, originated by the strip moving at a speed of 6m/min through four consecutive reheating facilities. The temperatures of a strip sample heated by the prototype have been monitored, acquired by a computer and related with the simulation results. The little difference between experiment and simulation assessed the qualitative and quantitative validity of this analysis, that has come out to be a tool, useful to evaluate the effects of possible improvements to the ISP process

  6. Automatic Extraction of High-Resolution Rainfall Series from Rainfall Strip Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Valencia, Jose Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is a complex phenomenon involving the detachment and transport of soil particles, storage and runoff of rainwater, and infiltration. The relative magnitude and importance of these processes depends on a host of factors, including climate, soil, topography, cropping and land management practices among others. Most models for soil erosion or hydrological processes need an accurate storm characterization. However, this data are not always available and in some cases indirect models are generated to fill this gap. In Spain, the rain intensity data known for time periods less than 24 hours back to 1924 and many studies are limited by it. In many cases this data is stored in rainfall strip charts in the meteorological stations but haven't been transfer in a numerical form. To overcome this deficiency in the raw data a process of information extraction from large amounts of rainfall strip charts is implemented by means of computer software. The method has been developed that largely automates the intensive-labour extraction work based on van Piggelen et al. (2011). The method consists of the following five basic steps: 1) scanning the charts to high-resolution digital images, 2) manually and visually registering relevant meta information from charts and pre-processing, 3) applying automatic curve extraction software in a batch process to determine the coordinates of cumulative rainfall lines on the images (main step), 4) post processing the curves that were not correctly determined in step 3, and 5) aggregating the cumulative rainfall in pixel coordinates to the desired time resolution. A colour detection procedure is introduced that automatically separates the background of the charts and rolls from the grid and subsequently the rainfall curve. The rainfall curve is detected by minimization of a cost function. Some utilities have been added to improve the previous work and automates some auxiliary processes: readjust the bands properly, merge bands when

  7. Microstructure evolution of eutectic Al-Cu strips by high-speed twin-roll strip casting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Seshadev; Ghosh, Sudipto

    2015-10-01

    In the present investigation, microstructural evolutions of functionally graded eutectic Al-Cu strips prepared by high-speed twin-roll strip caster at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats were studied. The as-cast sample was subjected to scanning electron microscope to study the evolution of microstructure of the strip at different casting speeds and liquid melt superheats. At different casting speeds, non-equilibrium eutectic structure observed on the Al-Cu eutectic strip consists of lamellar as well as wavy structure with a distinct boundary. The lamellar microstructure consists of alternating layers of well-bonded α-Al phase and θ-Al2Cu phase. The globular flowery structure within the eutectic matrix was observed on the strip at different liquid melt superheats. The microhardness of the as-cast strip was studied by Vickers hardness tester, and it was found that hardness value increases with increasing casting speed and decreases with increasing liquid melt superheat.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests (Strip and Device and PCR Methods for Detection of Human Hepatitis B Surface Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 350 million people worldwide have chronic HBV infection. In this study, immunochromatographic assays (ICAs detection methods including rapid tests were compared with serum HBV-DNA detecting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR system. Methods: 240 patients including 120 samples that were positive with quantitative PCR method and 120 that were negative by either PCR or EIA methods were selected. Samples were examined by strip and device from Intec, Blue Cross, Acon, Atlas, DIMA and Cortez companies compare to the quantitative PCR method as gold standard for detecting HBsAg.Results: Strip from Intec and Blue Cross, compare to the Acon, Atlas, DIMA and Cortez devices had higher sensitivity in detecting HBsAg in serum. Also positive and negative predictive values of these two strips were higher compare to the rest. In addition true negative value, specificity and positive predictive value of Acon and DIMA strips were higher for detecting HBsAg compare to the rest of the strips.Conclusions: Rapid diagnostic tests are inexpensive, easy to complete, and impose the minimum discomfort to patients, as well as suitable for case-finding and epidemiological surveillance. But it should be considered that negative results with strips or device dose not exclude the presence of HBV DNA and therefore one can be use rapid tests as a back up to standard testing methods. Immunochromatographic results should be interpreted with caution, when the sample has relatively low reactivity by PCR method.

  9. High speed twin roll casting of 6061 alloy strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper is to clear the possibility of high speed roll casting of thin strips of two aluminum alloys:6061 and recycled 6061. Mechanical properties of the roll cast 6061 and recycled 6061 strips were investigated inthe frame of this purpose.Design/methodology/approach: Methods used in the present study were high speed twin roll caster and lowtemperature casting. These methods were used to realize rapid solidification and increase the casting speed.Findings: are that 6061 and recycled 6061 could be cast at speed of 60 m/min. Casted strips were about 3 mmthick. As cast strip could be cold-rolled down to sheet of 1 mm thick. 180 degrees bending test was operated on thesheet after T4 heat treatment and crack was not worse than 6022 which is typical aluminum alloy for sheet of theautomobile. This result means the roll cast 6061 can be used as a sheet for body of the automobile instead of 6022.Research limitations/implications: Research limitation is that the width of the strip was 100 mm andinvestigation of the properties were enough for practical use. Wider strip must be cast using the twin roll caster ofthe size for production.Originality/value: The economy sheet of the 6061 for the auto mobile can be produced by the high speed twinroll caster. 6061 is typical wrought aluminum alloy of 6000 series. Therefore, the sheet of 6061 will becomeeconomy. 6061 can be recycled at two times when the 6061 is cast into strip by the high speed roll casting.

  10. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  11. Calculation and Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Hot Rolling Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaixiang Peng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern steel grades require constant and reproducible production conditions both in the hot strip mill and in the cooling section to achieve constant material properties along the entire strip length and from strip to strip. Calculation of the temperature in final rolling process always utilizes factors such as the work piece's inner organizational structure, plastic deformation, and it's variations of properties and so on, also as well as the physical parameters such as gauge, shape, etc. In this paper, a finite element model is constructed for the temperature field in a rolling process. The temperature field of strip steel is modeled with a 3-D finite element analysis (FEA structure, simultaneously considering the distribution of the work roll temperature. Then the distribution of field is simulated numerically. From the model, the temperature contours can be obtained by analysis of the temperature distribution of contact area. At the same time, the distribution of temperature in any position at any time can be acquired. These efforts provide the reliable parameters for the later finishing temperature and shape control.  

  12. Acrylamide content and color development in fried potato strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, F.; Kaack, K.; Granby, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Acrylamide formation and changes in color of fried potato strips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato strips (0.8 x 0.8 x 5 cm) of Bintje variety were fried at 150, 170 and 190 degrees C until reaching moisture contents of similar to 40 g...... water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato strips were treated in one of the following ways: (i) immersed in distilled water for 0 min (control), 60 min and 120 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time-temperature combinations (50 degrees C for 40 and 80 min; 70 degrees C for 10 and...... 45 min; 90 degrees C for 3 and 10 min); (iii) immersed in a citric acid solution of 10 g/L for an hour; (iv) immersed in a sodium pyrophosphate solution of 10 g/L for an hour. Acrylamide content and color was determined in the potato strips after frying. Immersed strips in water for 120 min showed a...

  13. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  14. Effects of a resistively coated dielectric strip on the TM-polarized resonant backscatter behavior of a slotted conducting rectangular shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin-Kun; Lu, Cheng-Hung

    1993-06-01

    The performance of a resistively coated dielectric strip used to suppress the first TM-type resonant backscatter associated with a 2D slotted conducting rectangular shell is analyzed in this paper using the moment method technique. Results obtained indicate that almost perfect resonance damping performances are attained when a finite-dimensioned resistively coated dielectric strip with dielectric constant epsilon(r) = 4 - j(0.4) and film resistance R(s) = 188.5 ohms is placed: (1) at the slot (which directly faces the normally incident TM-polarized plane wave), (2) on the interior perimeter of the shell adjacent to the slot, or (3) at the center of the back wall of the shell. Poorer damping performances are observed, however, when the resistively coated dielectric strip is placed at other positions and/or with the same or higher film resistance. Finally, it is also shown that in general the knowledge of the waveguide theory can be used advantageously in the placement of the resistively coated dielectric strip for achieving best resonance damping performance.

  15. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the P-bar ANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The P-bar ANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA ( P-bar ANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels

  16. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; et al.

    2009-06-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  17. Josephson effect in mesoscopic graphene strips with finite width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Ali G.; Zareyan, Malek

    2006-12-01

    We study Josephson effect in a ballistic graphene strip of length L smaller than the superconducting coherence length and arbitrary width W . We find that the dependence of the critical supercurrent Ic on W is drastically different for different types of the edges. For smooth and armchair edges at low concentration of the carriers Ic decreases monotonically with decreasing W/L and tends to a constant minimum for a narrow strip W/L≲1 . The minimum supercurrent is zero for smooth edges but has a finite value eΔ0/ℏ for the armchair edges. At higher concentration of the carriers, in addition to this overall monotonic variation, the critical current undergoes a series of peaks with varying W . On the other hand in a strip with zigzag edges the supercurrent is half-integer quantized to (n+1/2)4eΔ0/ℏ , showing a stepwise variation with W .

  18. Performance studies of the CMS Strip Tracker before installation

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Wolfgang; Dragicevic, Marko; Friedl, Markus; Fruhwirth, R; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Oberegger, Margit; Pernicka, Manfred; Schmid, Siegfried; Stark, Roland; Steininger, Helmut; Uhl, Dieter; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Widl, Edmund; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Cardaci, Marco; Beaumont, Willem; de Langhe, Eric; de Wolf, Eddi A; Delmeire, Evelyne; Hashemi, Majid; Bouhali, Othmane; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; Elgammal, Sherif; Hammad, Gregory Habib; de Lentdecker, Gilles; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; Adler, Volker; Devroede, Olivier; De Weirdt, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Maes, Joris; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Mulders, Petra; Villella, Ilaria; Wastiels, C; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bruno, Giacomo; De Callatay, Bernard; Florins, Benoit; Giammanco, Andrea; Gregoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Kcira, Dorian; Lemaitre, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertermont, L; Roberfroid, Vincent; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Daubie, Evelyne; Anttila, Erkki; Czellar, Sandor; Engstrom, Pauli; Harkonen, J; Karimaki, V; Kostesmaa, J; Kuronen, Auli; Lampen, Tapio; Linden, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Maenpaa, T; Michal, Sebastien; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dupasquier, Thierry; Gelin, Georges; Giraud, Noël; Guillot, Gérard; Estre, Nicolas; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Perries, Stephane; Schirra, Florent; Trocme, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Blaes, Reiner; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Hosselet, J; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Olivetto, Christian; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Anagnostou, Georgios; Brauer, Richard; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Kukulies, Christoph; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schwering, Georg; Sprenger, Daniel; Thomas, Maarten; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flugge, G; Gillissen, C; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Perchalla, Lars; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Buhmann, Peter; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Hamdorf, Richard Helmut; Hauk, Johannes; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Blum, P; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Muller, S; Muller, Th; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Zhukov, Valery; Cariola, P; De Robertis, Giuseppe; Ferorelli, Raffaele; Fiore, Luigi; Preda, M; Sala, Giuliano; Silvestris, Lucia; Tempesta, Paolo; Zito, Giuseppe; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Giordano, Domenico; Maggi, Giorgio; Manna, Norman; My, Salvatore; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Albergo, Sebastiano; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Galanti, Mario; Giudice, Nunzio; Guardone, Nunzio; Noto, Francesco; Potenza, Renato; Saizu, Mirela Angela; Sparti, V; Sutera, Concetta; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Brianzi, Mirko; Civinini, Carlo; Maletta, Fernando; Manolescu, Florentina; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Broccolo, B; Ciulli, Vitaliano; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Genta, Chiara; Landi, Gregorio; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Macchiolo, Anna; Magini, Nicolo; Parrini, Giuliano; Scarlini, Enrico; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Candelori, Andrea; Dorigo, Tommaso; Kaminsky, A; Karaevski, S; Khomenkov, Volodymyr; Reznikov, Sergey; Tessaro, Mario; Bisello, Dario; De Mattia, Marco; Giubilato, Piero; Loreti, Maurizio; Mattiazzo, Serena; Nigro, Massimo; Paccagnella, Alessandro; Pantano, Devis; Pozzobon, Nicola; Tosi, Mia; Bilei, Gian Mario; Checcucci, Bruno; Fano, Livio; Servoli, Leonello; Ambroglini, Filippo; Babucci, Ezio; Benedetti, Daniele; Biasini, Maurizio; Caponeri, Benedetta; Covarelli, Roberto; Giorgi, Marco; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Marcantonini, Marta; Postolache, Vasile; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiga, Daniele; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Balestri, Gabriele; Berretta, Luca; Bianucci, S; Boccali, Tommaso; Bosi, Filippo; Bracci, Fabrizio; Castaldi, Rino; Ceccanti, Marco; Cecchi, Roberto; Cerri, Claudio; Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Dobur, Didar; Dutta, Suchandra; Giassi, Alessandro; Giusti, Simone; Kartashov, Dmitry; Kraan, Aafke; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Lungu, George-Adrian; Magazzu, Guido; Mammini, Paolo; Mariani, Filippo; Martinelli, Giovanni; Moggi, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Petragnani, Giulio; Profeti, Alessandro; Raffaelli, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Domenico; Sanguinetti, Giulio; Sarkar, Subir; Sentenac, Daniel; Serban, Alin Titus; Slav, Adrian; Soldani, A; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tolaini, Sergio; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vos, Marcel; Zaccarelli, Luciano; Avanzini, Carlo; Basti, Andrea; Benucci, Leonardo; Bocci, Andrea; Cazzola, Ugo; Fiori, Francesco; Linari, Stefano; Massa, Maurizio; Messineo, Alberto; Segneri, Gabriele; Tonelli, Guido; Azzurri, Paolo; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Calzolari, Federico; Foa, Lorenzo; Gennai, Simone; Ligabue, Franco; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Rizzi, Andrea; Yang, Zong-Chang; Benotto, Franco; Demaria, Natale; Dumitrache, Floarea; Farano, R; Borgia, Maria Assunta; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Migliore, Ernesto; Romero, Alessandra; Abbaneo, Duccio; Abbas, M; Ahmed, Ijaz; Akhtar, I; Albert, Eric; Bloch, Christoph; Breuker, Horst; Butt, Shahid Aleem; Buchmuller, Oliver; Cattai, Ariella; Delaere, Christophe; Delattre, Michel; Edera, Laura Maria; Engstrom, Pauli; Eppard, Michael; Gateau, Maryline; Gill, Karl; Giolo-Nicollerat, Anne-Sylvie; Grabit, Robert; Honma, Alan; Huhtinen, Mika; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kortesmaa, Jarmo; Kottelat, Luc-Joseph; Kuronen, Auli; Leonardo, Nuno; Ljuslin, Christer; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Marchioro, Alessandro; Mersi, Stefano; Michal, Sebastien; Mirabito, Laurent; Muffat-Joly, Jeannine; Onnela, Antti; Paillard, Christian; Pal, Imre; Pernot, Jean-Francois; Petagna, Paolo; Petit, Patrick; Piccut, C; Pioppi, Michele; Postema, Hans; Ranieri, Riccardo; Ricci, Daniel; Rolandi, Gigi; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Sigaud, Christophe; Syed, A; Siegrist, Patrice; Tropea, Paola; Troska, Jan; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Vasey, François; Alagoz, Enver; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Rochet, Jacky; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmidt, Alexander; Steiner, Stefan; Wilke, Lotte; Church, Ivan; Cole, Joanne; Coughlan, John A; Gay, Arnaud; Taghavi, S; Tomalin, Ian R; Bainbridge, Robert; Cripps, Nicholas; Fulcher, Jonathan; Hall, Geoffrey; Noy, Matthew; Pesaresi, Mark; Radicci, Valeria; Raymond, David Mark; Sharp, Peter; Stoye, Markus; Wingham, Matthew; Zorba, Osman; Goitom, Israel; Hobson, Peter R; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Liu, Haidong; Pasztor, Gabriella; Satpathy, Asish; Stringer, Robert; Mangano, Boris; Affolder, K; Affolder, T; Allen, Andrea; Barge, Derek; Burke, Samuel; Callahan, D; Campagnari, Claudio; Crook, A; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Dietch, J; Garberson, Jeffrey; Hale, David; Incandela, H; Incandela, Joe; Jaditz, Stephen; Kalavase, Puneeth; Kreyer, Steven Lawrence; Kyre, Susanne; Lamb, James; Mc Guinness, C; Mills, C; Nguyen, Harold; Nikolic, Milan; Lowette, Steven; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rubinstein, Noah; Sanhueza, S; Shah, Yousaf Syed; Simms, L; Staszak, D; Stoner, J; Stuart, David; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; White, Dean; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Bagby, Linda; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Cihangir, Selcuk; Gutsche, Oliver; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Mark; Luzhetskiy, Nikolay; Mason, David; Miao, Ting; Moccia, Stefano; Noeding, Carsten; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Skup, Ewa; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Yumiceva, Francisco; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Zerev, E; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Khalatian, S; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Chen, Jie; Hinchey, Carl Louis; Martin, Christophe; Moulik, Tania; Robinson, Richard; Gritsan, Andrei; Lae, Chung Khim; Tran, Nhan Viet; Everaerts, Pieter; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Nahn, Steve; Rudolph, Matthew; Sung, Kevin; Betchart, Burton; Demina, Regina; Gotra, Yury; Korjenevski, Sergey; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Christofek, Leonard; Hooper, Ryan; Landsberg, Greg; Nguyen, Duong; Narain, Meenakshi; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the assembly of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed at the Tracker Integration Facility at CERN. Nearly 15% of the detector was instrumented using cables, fiber optics, power supplies, and electronics intended for the operation at the LHC. A local chiller was used to circulate the coolant for low temperature operation. In order to understand the efficiency and alignment of the strip tracker modules, a cosmic ray trigger was implemented. From March through July 4.5 million triggers were recorded. This period, referred to as the Sector Test, provided practical experience with the operation of the Tracker, especially safety, data acquisition, power, and cooling systems. This paper describes the performance of the strip system during the Sector Test, which consisted of five distinct periods defined by the coolant temperature. Significant emphasis is placed on comparisons between the data and results from Monte Carlo studies.

  19. Native prairie regeneration after pipeline construction - A comparison between topsoil stripping versus no topsoil stripping during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a trade-off in the degree and nature of negative impacts from pipeline construction where topsoil salvage is employed and a wider area of native sod is destroyed, versus construction where a narrow strip of topsoil is sacrificed in order to preserve more of the native sod. To compare the effects of these two construction methods on regeneration of native vegetation, a long-term monitoring study was initiated during the construction of a pipeline project in southern Alberta. Soil samples were analyzed for salinity, sodicity, reaction, macro nutrients and organic matter content. Results indicate significant differences in soil chemical parameters among no-strip, strip and control treatments along a trench line and in soil storage areas. Results also showed that salvaging the topsoil horizon successfully reduced salinization of the seed bed along the trench line after construction. Vegetative cover results suggest the possibility of an advantage in sod regeneration in no-strip soil handling in comparison to topsoil stripping during pipeline construction. 5 refs

  20. Therapy for back pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Solovyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used in combination with B group vitamins. A number of independent trials demonstrates that B group vitamins potentiate the analgesic effect of NSAIDs and contribute to a rapider regression of pain syndrome than their monotherapy. To reduce the risk of adverse reactions of NSAID therapy, to enhance its adherence, and to reduce its cost, it is reasonable to administer combination drugs that contain these components and allow the dose of active substances to be decreased due to their synergism. The new combination drug neurodiclovit contains slow-release enteric-coated granules and individual immediate-release granules of vitamins B 1, B 6, and B 12. Incorporation of neurodiclovit into treatment regimens for back pain syndromes will promote optimization of their therapy.

  1. Taking it all back home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing contracts stipulate that Cogema's and BNFL's foreign customers will take back their vitrified residues to ensure subsequent storage themselves. National policies have been defined by those customers for the interim storage on return. Belgium and Japan have chosen to store them in glass canisters in air-cooled pits - at Mol and at Rokkasho-mura, respectively (similar to their current stores at the reprocessing plants) -while Germany and Switzerland have opted to use storage flasks. Aware of the need for vitrified residue return, almost 10 years ago Transnucleaire began developing a new model of flask to suit the various needs of the utilities concerned. Named TN 28 V in view of its basic payload of 28 vitrified waste canisters, this flask is currently being manufactured in two versions: one for the routine transport of glass-containing canisters and another for their transport followed by a long period of interim storage. (author)

  2. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  3. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  4. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  5. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaussen, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The performance of the participating two shells of the TIB, four rods of the TOB and two petals of the TEC (representing about 1% of the final strip tracker) could be studied in different magnetic fields over a period of approximately two month using cosmic muon signals. The last test before inserting the tracker in the CMS experiment was the Tracker Slice Test performed in spring/summer 2007 at the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN after installing all subdetectors in the tracker support tube. Approximately 25% of the strip tracker +z side was powered and read out using a cosmic ray trigger built up of scintillation counters. In total, about 5 million muon events were recorded under various operating conditions. These events together with results from commissioning runs were used to study the detector response like cluster charges, signal-to-noise ratios and single strip noise behaviour as well as to identify faulty channels which turned out to be in the order of a few per mille. The performance of the silicon strip tracker during these different construction stages is discussed in this thesis with a special emphasis on the tracker end caps. (orig.)

  6. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanjukta A., E-mail: sanjuktaak301@gmail.com [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Thakur, Neha; Parab, Harshala J.; Pandey, Shailaja P. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shinde, Rakesh N.; Pandey, Ashok K. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R. [Analytical Chemistry Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-12-03

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL{sup −1}. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL{sup −1} of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL{sup −1} Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL{sup −1}. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices.

  7. High speed twin roll caste for aluminum alloy thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed twin roll caster for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The effects of the high-speed twin roll caster on alleviating the deterioration of mechanical properties by impurities were investigated. Properties of the cast strip were investigated by metalography, a tension test, and a bending test.Findings: A vertical type twin roll caster for strip casting of aluminum alloys was devised. The strip, which was thinner than 3 mm, could be cast at speeds higher than 60 m/min. Features of the twin roll casters are as below. Copper rolls were used and lubricant was not used in order to increase the casting speed. A casting nozzle was used to set the solidification length precisely. Heat transfer between melt and the roll was improved by hydrostatic pressure of the melt. Separating force was very small in order to prevent sticking of the strip to the roll. Low superheat casting was carried out in order to improve microstructure of the strip. In the present study, effectiveness of a high-speed and high-cooling rate twin roll caster of the present study for recycling aluminum alloy was investigated. Fe was added as impurity to 6063 and A356. The roll caster of the present study was useful to decrease the influence of impurity of Fe.Research limitations/implications: A high-speed twin roll caster of vertical type was designed and assembled to cast aluminum alloy thin strip.Originality/value: The results demonstrate that the high-speed twin roll caster can improve the deterioration by impurities.

  8. Experimental evidence that wildflower strips increase pollinator visits to crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltham, Hannah; Park, Kirsty; Minderman, Jeroen; Goulson, Dave

    2015-08-01

    Wild bees provide a free and potentially diverse ecosystem service to farmers growing pollination-dependent crops. While many crops benefit from insect pollination, soft fruit crops, including strawberries are highly dependent on this ecosystem service to produce viable fruit. However, as a result of intensive farming practices and declining pollinator populations, farmers are increasingly turning to commercially reared bees to ensure that crops are adequately pollinated throughout the season. Wildflower strips are a commonly used measure aimed at the conservation of wild pollinators. It has been suggested that commercial crops may also benefit from the presence of noncrop flowers; however, the efficacy and economic benefits of sowing flower strips for crops remain relatively unstudied. In a study system that utilizes both wild and commercial pollinators, we test whether wildflower strips increase the number of visits to adjacent commercial strawberry crops by pollinating insects. We quantified this by experimentally sowing wildflower strips approximately 20 meters away from the crop and recording the number of pollinator visits to crops with, and without, flower strips. Between June and August 2013, we walked 292 crop transects at six farms in Scotland, recording a total of 2826 pollinators. On average, the frequency of pollinator visits was 25% higher for crops with adjacent flower strips compared to those without, with a combination of wild and commercial bumblebees (Bombus spp.) accounting for 67% of all pollinators observed. This effect was independent of other confounding effects, such as the number of flowers on the crop, date, and temperature. Synthesis and applications. This study provides evidence that soft fruit farmers can increase the number of pollinators that visit their crops by sowing inexpensive flower seed mixes nearby. By investing in this management option, farmers have the potential to increase and sustain pollinator populations over time

  9. A visual strip sensor for determination of iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A visual strip sensor for on-site detection of iron has been developed and made. • The sensor is easy to synthesize, portable and recyclable with shelf life >1 year. • Visual detection limit for iron using the present sensor is 50 ng mL−1. • Visual strip sensor was applied to ground water and fruit juices. - Abstract: A visual strip has been developed for sensing iron in different aqueous samples like natural water and fruit juices. The sensor has been synthesized by UV-radiation induced graft polymerization of acrylamide monomer in microporous poly(propylene) base. For physical immobilization of iron selective reagent, the in situ polymerization of acrylamide has been carried out in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline. The loaded strip on interaction with Fe(II) in aqueous solution turned into orange red color and the intensity of the color was found to be directly proportional to the amount of Fe(II) in the aqueous sample. The minimal sensor response with naked eye was found for 50 ng mL−1 of Fe in 15 min of interaction. However, as low as 20 ng mL−1 Fe could be quantified using a spectrophotometer. The detection limit calculated using the 3s/S criteria, where ‘s’ is the standard deviation of the absorbance of blank reagent loaded strip and ‘S’ is the slope of the linear calibration plot, was 1.0 ng mL−1. The strip was applied to measure Fe in a variety of samples such as ground water and fruit juices

  10. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  11. Study on increasing calculation precision and convergence speed of streamline strip element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳; 刘宏民

    2004-01-01

    The calculation precision and convergence speed of streamline strip element method are increased by using the method whose initial value of the exit lateral displacement is determined with strip element variation method, and the accurate tension lateral distribution model is adopted based on the original third power spline function streamline strip element method. The basic theory of the strip element method is developed. The calculated results by the improved streamline strip element method and the original streamline strip element method are compared with the measured results, showing that the calculated results of the improved method are in good agreement with the measured results.

  12. Development of thermochromic strips as a water pasteurization indicator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishtiaq A. Qazi; M. Ali Awan; M. Anwar Baig

    2003-01-01

    Boiling of water, for purification, commonly practiced in the world, has many problems associated with it like danger of scalding,scaling in the vessels, removal of useful minerals and blandness of taste etc. Water can be made safe for drinking simply by heating at 65℃ for 6 minutes. A colour indicating strip was developed which changes colour from red to purple at 67℃. Use of this strip can help in pasteurizing water without the above problems and with considerable energy saving.

  13. Josephson effect in mesoscopic graphene strips with finite width

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Ali G.; Zareyan, Malek

    2006-01-01

    We study Josephson effect in a ballistic graphene strip of length $L$ smaller than the superconducting coherence length and arbitrary width $W$. We find that the dependence of the critical supercurrent $I_{c}$ on $W$ is drastically different for different types of the edges. For \\textit{smooth} and \\textit{armchair} edges at low concentration of the carriers $I_{c}$ decreases monotonically with decreasing $W/L$ and tends to a constant minimum for a narrow strip $W/L\\lesssim1$. The minimum sup...

  14. 59Fe distribution in continuously cast aluminium strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems are discussed of the homogeneity of continuously cast aluminium strips by horizontal casting. Theoretically discussed are phenomena present during primary solidification, namely the nonhomogeneous distribution of admixtures and impurities in primary solidified dendritic cells. A survey is given of the distribution of coefficients of basic admixtures and impurities in aluminium. Experimental investigation was carried out within the verification of theoretical research results, of the distribution of iron in continuously cast aluminium strips using radioactive iron 59Fe in form of radioactive foundry alloy containing 1.8% 59Fe. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab

  15. Ultra-stripped supernovae and double neutron star systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tauris, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of close-orbit progenitor binaries of double neutron star (DNS) systems leads to supernova (SN) explosions of ultra-stripped stars. The amount of SN ejecta mass is very limited from such, more or less, naked metal cores with envelope masses of only 0.01-0.2 Msun. The combination of little SN ejecta mass and the associated possibility of small NS kicks is quite important for the characteristics of the resulting DNS systems left behind. Here, we discuss theoretical predictions for DNS systems, based on Case BB Roche-lobe overflow prior to ultra-stripped SNe, and briefly compare with observations.

  16. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da-Li; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, heng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD). It provides the tracking information of incident particles. The low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used for signal readout of DSSD. A beam test of the DSSD module was performed in the Beijing test beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using proton beam of 400~800MeV/c. Results on pedestal analysis, RMSE noise, gain correction and reconstruction of incident position of DSSD module are presented.

  17. A novel strip energy splitting algorithm for the fine granular readout of a scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an algorithm which has been developed to extract fine granularity information from an electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) with strip-based readout. Such a calorimeter, based on scintillator strips, is being developed to apply particle flow reconstruction to future experiments in high energy physics. The application of this algorithm to 100 GeV hadronic jets in an ECAL with 45×5 mm2 transverse segmentation improves the energy resolution from 3.6% to 3.0%, to be compared to the resolution of 2.9% achieved by an ECAL with 5×5 mm2 segmentation. The performance can be further improved by the use of 10×10 mm2 tile-shaped layers interspersed between strip layers

  18. Thick backed carbon targets via mechanical rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For targets requiring thick backing foils, the straight-forward and usual method is to deposit the target material directly on the backing by thermal evaporation. In some instances the reverse is more desirable, adding a backing to an already existing target foil, for example. A recent study involving measurement of the lifetime of the first 2+ excited state in 36Ar by the Doppler shift attenuation method required 0.5 mg/cm2 natural carbon targets on thick (18 mg/cm2) gold and lead backings. Problems of delamination had arisen after beam irradiation using thick gold backings for these experiments. Carbon target foils were then prepared by mechanical rolling in direct contact with a thick lead backing using an intermediate layer of indium to assure good adhesion of the layers. Details of the method will be discussed. (author)

  19. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back inj...

  20. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimize...

  1. Josephson junctions in thin and narrow rectangular superconducting strips

    OpenAIRE

    Clem, John R.

    2010-01-01

    I consider a Josephson junction crossing the middle of a thin rectangular superconducting strip of length L and width W subjected to a perpendicular magnetic induction B. I calculate the spatial dependence of the gauge-invariant phase difference across the junction and the resulting B dependence of the critical current Ic(B).

  2. Results of Laboratory Testing of Advanced Power Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Presented at the ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings on August 12-17, 2012, this presentation reports on laboratory tests of 20 currently available advanced power strip products, which reduce wasteful electricity use of miscellaneous electric loads in buildings.

  3. Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall, Robin A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF is either spectrophotometric detection of pigment, which is time consuming and labor intensive, or visual assesment of samples for color change (xanthochromia, which is inaccurate. Bayer Multistix® urine test strips are designed to test urine for RBC by detecting the presence of hemoglobin. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the perfomance of urine reagent test strips for ruling out the presence of RBC in CSF.Methods: We compared color changes on Multistix® urine test strips to the standard of spectrophotometric absorbtion at 415nm and initial RBC counts in 138 visually clear CSF samples.Results: We performed Pearson Chi-Square and likelihood ratios on the results and found a correlation between a negative result on the urine test strip and less than 5 RBC per high power field and a spectrophotometric absorbance of less than 0.02% at 415nm in a CSF sample.Conclusion: These results warrant further investigation in the form of a prospective clinical validation as it may alter the emergency department evaluation for SAH. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:63-66.

  4. Reactive strip method for mixing and reaction in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Méheust, Yves

    2016-01-01

    A numerical method to efficiently solve for mixing and reaction of scalars in a two-dimensional flow field at large P\\'eclet numbers but otherwise arbitrary Damk\\"ohler numbers is reported. We consider a strip of one reactant in a pool of another reactant, both of which are advected with the known velocity field. We first establish that the system evolution for such a system under certain conditions is described by a locally one-dimensional reaction-diffusion problem. The approximation of a locally one-dimensional dynamics is true for cases where the strip thickness is smaller than the local radius of curvature and also when the strip thickness is smaller than the distance between adjacent strips. We first demonstrate the method for the transport of a conservative scalar under a linear shear flow, point vortex and a chaotic sine flow. We then proceed to consider the situation with a simple bimolecular reaction between two reactants to yield a single product. The methodology presented herewith essentially gene...

  5. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water. PMID:24350487

  6. Development of a Calibration Strip for Immunochromatographic Assay Detection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yue-Ming; Wei, Jian-Chong; Mak, Peng-Un; Vai, Mang-I; Du, Min; Pun, Sio-Hang

    2016-01-01

    With many benefits and applications, immunochromatographic (ICG) assay detection systems have been reported on a great deal. However, the existing research mainly focuses on increasing the dynamic detection range or application fields. Calibration of the detection system, which has a great influence on the detection accuracy, has not been addressed properly. In this context, this work develops a calibration strip for ICG assay photoelectric detection systems. An image of the test strip is captured by an image acquisition device, followed by performing a fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm and maximin-distance algorithm for image segmentation. Additionally, experiments are conducted to find the best characteristic quantity. By analyzing the linear coefficient, an average value of hue (H) at 14 min is chosen as the characteristic quantity and the empirical formula between H and optical density (OD) value is established. Therefore, H, saturation (S), and value (V) are calculated by a number of selected OD values. Then, H, S, and V values are transferred to the RGB color space and a high-resolution printer is used to print the strip images on cellulose nitrate membranes. Finally, verification of the printed calibration strips is conducted by analyzing the linear correlation between OD and the spectral reflectance, which shows a good linear correlation (R² = 98.78%). PMID:27367694

  7. Metallurgical analysis of spalled work roll of hot strip mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study failure analysis of four work roll of the Hot Strip Mill is carried out. The microstructure is correlated with the chemical composition of shell and roll-life. It was concluded that for the longer service of the roll, cementite, graphite and martensite should be balanced (as per working requirement of the mill). (author)

  8. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  9. Evaluating uncertainty in E. coli retention in vegetated buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetated buffer strips (VFS) separate fields and pastures from streams and other water bodies and can serve as barriers that prevent sediment and agricultural chemicals from entering waterways and spoiling them. Growing concern about the manure-borne pathogens as water pollutants defines the need t...

  10. Deceleration of highly stripped ions by the Heidelberg postaccelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heidelberg MP-tandem has been used to produce highly stripped ions of Ssup(14,15,16+), Ni20+ and Br23+ which subsequently were decelerated to 0.15 MeV/amu for atomic physics experiments by the rf-postaccelerator. (orig.)

  11. VTT's micron-scale silicon rib+strip waveguide platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Timo; Harjanne, Mikko; Cherchi, Matteo

    2016-05-01

    Silicon rib waveguides enable single-mode (SM) operation even with the combination of multi-micron core dimensions and high refractive index contrast. In such large waveguides the optical mode field is almost completely confined inside the Si core, which leads to small propagation losses and small polarization dependency. The unique SM condition of the rib waveguide also enables the use of an ultra-wide wavelength range, for example from 1.2 to polarizations. Another alternative is a total-internal reflection mirror that can have loss as low as 0.1 dB for both polarizations in either strip or rib waveguides. The excitation of higher order modes in large strip waveguides is avoided by using adiabatic rib-strip converters and low-loss components. With rib and strip waveguides it is possible to reach a unique combination of low loss, extremely small footprint, small polarization dependency, ultra-wide bandwidth and tolerance to high optical powers.

  12. State selective electron capture by highly stripped ions from atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study on final-state distribution in one-electron capture from slow fully-stripped and hydrogen-like projectile ions from H and He atoms is discussed. After a short review of the available results, state-selectiveness of the process is interpreted using the Landau-Zener model

  13. Evolution of short laser pulse in partially stripped plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense laser pulses while propagating through neutral gases ionize them. If the intensity of the laser is not sufficiently high, the gases may not be completely ionized, hence giving rise to partially stripped plasma. The propagation medium for a laser beam in partially stripped plasma consists of a linear and a nonlinear plasma current due to free electrons as well as linear and nonlinear polarization field due to bound atomic electrons. Polarization fields can arise from a number of processes, the dominant process being electronic polarization arising due to modification of the atomic electron distribution by the optical field. The polarization field due to atoms in partially striped plasma can be expressed as a power series of the electric field of the laser. The present paper deals with the effect of nonlinear polarization field and plasma current density on the evolution characteristics of a laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasma. The wave equation describing the laser field amplitude driven by plasma current density as well as polarization field of the bound atomic electrons is set up. Using a variational technique the equations governing the simultaneous evolution of the spot-size and length of a laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasma are obtained and solved numerically. (author)

  14. Josephson junctions in thin and narrow rectangular superconducting strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I consider a Josephson junction crossing the middle of a thin rectangular superconducting strip of length L and width W subjected to a perpendicular magnetic induction B. I calculate the spatial dependence of the gauge-invariant phase difference across the junction and the resulting B dependence of the critical current Ic(B).

  15. The self-avoiding walk in a strip

    CERN Document Server

    Dyhr, Ben; Kennedy, Tom; Lawler, Gregory F; Passon, Shane

    2010-01-01

    We review the existence of the infinite length self-avoiding walk in the half plane and its relationship to bridges. We prove that this probability measure is also given by the limit as $\\beta \\rightarrow \\beta_c-$ of the probability measure on all finite length walks $\\omega$ with the probability of $\\omega$ proportional to $\\beta_c^{|\\omega|}$ where $|\\omega|$ is the number of steps in $\\omega$. The self-avoiding walk in a strip $\\{z : 0<\\Im(z)strip which start at the origin and end somewhere on the top boundary with probability proportional to $\\beta_c^{|\\omega|}$ We prove that this probability measure may be obtained by conditioning the SAW in the half plane to have a bridge at height $y$. This observation is the basis for simulations to test conjectures on the distribution of the endpoint of the SAW in a strip and the relationship between the distribution of this strip SAW and SLE$_{8/3}$.

  16. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  17. Microstructure changes of IF steels during hot strip rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot deformation behavior of three interstitial free (IF) steels containing Ti and/or Nb under strip or plate rolling was investigated by means of multi-pass torsion tests. All the tests were carried out at a strain rate of 2 s-1. Three types of strip rolling schedules (they differed only with respect to the number and total strain of finishing passes) and one type of plate rolling were employed. Under strip rolling conditions the effects of total finishing pass strain and first finishing pass temperature was investigated. The plate rolling schedule was used in order to determine the three critical hot deformation temperature, i.e. Tnr, Ar3 and Arl. The results indicate that , under strip rolling conditions, static recrystallization is responsible for the high degree of inter pass softening in the early passes of rolling. During the final passes, dynamic recrystallization occurs to a degree that depends on the composition of the steel, the total finishing strain and the temperature. (author)

  18. Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Arsenic Determination on Composite Gold Electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Kopanica, M.; Krista, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2003), s. 265-272. ISSN 0009-2223 Grant ostatní: GIT(AR) 101/02/U111/CZ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : arsenic determination * stripping voltammetry * composite gold electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 0.415, year: 2003

  19. Microbial community diversity in agroforestry and grass vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetative filter strips (VFS) have long been promoted as a soil conservation practice that yields many additional environmental benefits. Most previous studies have focused primarily on the role of vegetation and/or soil physical properties in these ecosystem services. Few studies have investigated...

  20. Performance of a Folded-Strip Toroidally Wound Induction Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Jack, Alan G.; Atkinson, Glynn J.; Mecrow, Barrie C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the measured experimental results from a four-pole toroidally wound induction machine, where the stator is constructed as a pre-wound foldable strip. It shows that if the machine is axially restricted in length, the toroidally wound induction machine can have substantially sho...

  1. Parallel strip waveguide for ultrasonic flow measurement in harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Michael; Ramadas, Sivaram N; Lynnworth, Lawrence C; Dixon, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Wetted ultrasonic transit time flow meters typically consist of one or more pairs of transducers, containing piezoelectric elements, which alternate between transmitting and detecting an ultrasonic pulse. Typical piezoelectric materials and the adhesives used to attach the piezoelectric element in such devices can be damaged by hostile environments, such as extreme temperature, potentially limiting possible applications of ultrasonic flow measurement techniques. We have investigated a design for a flow meter with an integrated thermal buffer waveguide consisting of five parallel stainless steel strips. These, in addition to thermal protection, may function as a transducer array, with the possibility of steering the emitted field. Because the buffer strips used in the transducer assembly are thin, one might expect Lamb-like guided waves to propagate along it. However, the finite width of the strips has a significant effect on the propagation characteristics of the guided waves. In this work, the effect of the waveguide's small rectangular cross-section has been studied. Additionally, we have examined the effect of thermal gradients on the average sound speed and dispersion characteristics of such strip waveguides. We also suggest modifications to the plate geometry, which can alter both the frequency content and the shape of the transmitted pulse, potentially giving a better signal to use in flow measurement. PMID:25881347

  2. Restoration of decayed primary incisors using strip crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, M A; Curzon, J A; Fenlon, W L

    1991-05-01

    Caries of the primary incisors is a common problem that can be arrested if recognized early enough. However, the arrested decay is unsightly. Celluloid 'strip' crown forms, used with composite resin, now allow the restoration of even the most badly decayed primary incisors. The authors describe this quick and efficient technique. PMID:1884866

  3. Engineering analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers for GEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, J.A.; Belser, F.C.; Pratuch, S.M.; Wuest, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Mitselmakher, G. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Gordeev, A. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Johnson, C.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Polychronakos, V.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Golutvin, I.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1993-10-21

    Structural analyses of large precision cathode strip chambers performed up to the date of this publication are documented. Mechanical property data for typical chamber materials are included. This information, originally intended to be an appendix to the {open_quotes}CSC Structural Design Bible,{close_quotes} is presented as a guide for future designers of large chambers.

  4. Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus detection using an immunochromatographic strip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangman, Pradit; Longyant, Siwaporn; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2012-08-01

    An immunochromatographic strip test is described for detection of the polyhedrin protein of Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV). The test employs one monoclonal antibody (MAb MBV5) conjugated to colloidal gold to bind to polyhedrin protein and a 1:1:1 mixture of 3 other MAbs (MBV8, 14 and 21) to capture colloidal-gold MAb-protein complexes at a test (T) line on the nitrocellulose strip. A downstream control (C) line of goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin G (GAM) antibody is used to capture excess free colloidal-gold conjugated MBV5 to validate test performance. Heating of homogenates of PemoNPV-infected P. monodon postlarvae prepared in PBS for 30min was necessary to maximize T line color intensity, and homogenates of infected postlarvae could still be scored as PemoNPV-positive when diluted 1:64. A strip test result was obtained within 15min of sample application, and although about 200-fold lower than a one-step PCR test for PemoNPV, its detection sensitivity was comparable to a dot blot. Due to its simplicity not reliant on sophisticated equipment or specialized skills, the strip test could be adopted to screen easily for PemoNPV infections at shrimp hatcheries and farms. PMID:22580094

  5. Qualification of submerged-arc narrow strip cladding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock and Wilcox has developed an unique narrow strip cladding process for use on both plate and forging material for nuclear components. The qualification testing of this low-heat input process for cladding nuclear components is described, including those of SA508 Class 2 material. The theory that explains the acceptable results of these tests is also given

  6. Stellar Variability in the Lower Part of the Instability Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Poretti, Ennio; Musazzi, Federica

    1997-01-01

    The photometric properties of the variable stars located in the lower part of the classical instability strip are discussed. The importance of the determination of some light curve parameters and their connection with the stellar models are stressed, with a particular emphasis on large amplitude Delta Sct (DSCT) stars.

  7. Consideration of Factors Affecting Strip Effluent PH and Sodium Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-07-29

    A number of factors were investigated to determine possible reasons for why the Strip Effluent (SE) can sometimes have higher than expected pH values and/or sodium content, both of which have prescribed limits. All of the factors likely have some impact on the pH values and Na content.

  8. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  9. From There and Back Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    This article describes my journey from being a radical, person-centered therapist in the 1960s to the present. In the 1960s, my colleagues and I saw therapy as a person-to-person encounter. Over the years I lost that notion and became corrupted by the idea that therapy is a process of intervening to make things happen in clients. In the 1990s, I found my way back to the idea of therapy as a meeting of persons because of a research review that showed that it was clients' investment and creativity that were primarily responsible for making therapy work and because of my experiences with clients. In the meantime, the field had aged and political developments within it, such as the empirically supported treatments movement, also influenced how I came to view myself. I conclude by giving my current view of therapy as a process in which I am not intervening but engaging in a person-to-person meeting, within which I am free to offer techniques and ideas from many different approaches if appropriate. PMID:26360971

  10. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  11. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  12. Gas Loss by Ram Pressure Stripping and Internal Feedback From Low Mass Milky Way Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Emerick, Andrew; Grcevich, Jana; Gatto, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of dwarf satellites of the Milky Way is affected by the combination of ram pressure and tidal stripping, and internal feedback from massive stars. We investigate gas loss processes in the smallest satellites of the Milky Way using three-dimensional, high resolution, idealized wind tunnel simulations, accounting for gas loss through both ram pressure stripping and expulsion by supernova feedback. Using initial conditions appropriate for a dwarf galaxy like Leo T, we investigate whether or not environmental gas stripping and internal feedback can quench these low mass galaxies on the expected timescales, shorter than 2 Gyr. We find that supernova feedback contributes negligibly to the stripping rate for these low star formation rate galaxies. However, we also find that ram pressure stripping is less efficient than expected in the stripping scenarios we consider. Our work suggests that, although ram pressure stripping can eventually completely strip these galaxies, other physics is likely at play t...

  13. Pros and cons of flowers strips for farmers. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyttenbroeck, R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. To counteract environmental problems due to agricultural intensification, European farmers can apply agri-environmental schemes in their fields. Flower strips are one example of these schemes, with the aim of supporting biodiversity, leading to an increase in "useful" species groups such as pollinators for crop pollination and natural enemies for pest control. However, to our knowledge, a complete appraisal of the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, does not yet exist. It is proposed that better and more complete information could increase the adoption and implementation of such agri-environmental schemes. Objectives. This study aims 1 to assess the pros and cons of flower strips, from a farmer's point of view, and 2 to highlight the knowledge gaps that exist in the scientific literature, for the different types of pros and cons. Method. We listed the different components of the appraisal of pros and cons and conducted a systematic screening of the scientific literature on flower strips and these components. Results. The largest part of the 31 selected studies was concerning agronomical and ecological processes, such as pollination and animal pest control. Most of them indicated positive effects of flower strips. For many components of the appraisal, mostly economic and social ones, few or no studies were found. Conclusions. While a positive balance of pros and cons, from a farmer's point of view, came from our literature screening, large research gaps still remain and more research is required, especially in the economic and social components of the evaluation.

  14. 76 FR 47546 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Strip from India, 67 FR 44175 (July 1, 2002) (PET Film India Order). On July 1, 2010, the Department... Duty Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From India, 67 FR... Determination: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India, 66 FR 65893 (December 21, 2001),...

  15. 76 FR 46323 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan... U.S.C.1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip... revocation of the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and revocation...

  16. 75 FR 30437 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... stainless steel sheet and strip in coils from France, Italy, and Korea (64 FR 42923-42925). Following five... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders...

  17. 75 FR 81308 - Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet And Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, And Taiwan AGENCY... countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and antidumping duty orders on stainless... on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and/or the antidumping duty orders on stainless...

  18. 75 FR 59744 - Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip From Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan AGENCY... five-year reviews concerning the countervailing duty order on stainless steel sheet and strip from Korea and the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel sheet and strip from Germany, Italy,...

  19. Kinetics of stripping of gold loaded in DBC organic phase by sodium sulfite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The kinetics of stripping of gold loaded in dibutyl carbito (DBC) organic phase by sodium sulfite was investipseudo-first-order reaction. The stripping rate of gold was in direct proportion to interfacial area, concentration of sodium sulfite and reaction temperature. The experimental results showed that the process of stripping gold was controlled by interping by sodium sulfite.

  20. Flexible Faraday Cage with a Twist: Surface Charge on a Mobius Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Once an intriguing topological novelty known only to mathematicians, the Mobius strip has become a source of fascination and inspiration to the layperson and artist alike. Principal among its features are the two strange properties that the Mobius strip is a surface with only one side and one edge. A Mobius strip is readily formed by taking a long…

  1. Significance of wave form parameters in stripping chronopotentiometric metal speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the significance of stripping chronopotentiometric (SCP) stripping peak parameters (peak potential, Ep, and peak half-width, w1/2) for determination of metal ion speciation. This study focuses on depletive SCP (low stripping current, I¿ constant), and considers the change

  2. How to prevent low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, A.K.; Balague, F.; Cardon, G.; Eriksen, H.R.; Henrotin, Y.; Lahad, A.; Leclerc, A.; Muller, G.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the European Guidelines for Prevention in Low Back Pain, which consider the evidence in respect of the general population, workers and children. There is limited scope for preventing the incidence (first-time onset) of back pain and, overall, there is limited robust evidence

  3. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back injury, low back injury, golf and low back pain, golf injury prevention, golf modern swing, muscles in golf swing, low back rehabilitation, diaphragm, and core stability. All studies addressed in some manner the rehabilitation, prevention, or return to sport from low back injury, preferably in direct relation to golf, as well as muscle firing patterns used during the golf swing. Results: Best practice for rehabilitation and prevention of low back injury in golf appears to be through a multidisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Movement patterns, muscle imbalances, and type of swing utilized all have a direct effect on the forces applied to the spine during the golf swing and need to be assessed to prevent or rehabilitate injury. Understanding the golf swing and how the body works during the swing is necessary. PMID:24459546

  4. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on your stomach Sit-ups TAKING MEASURES TO PREVENT FUTURE BACK PAIN To prevent back pain, learn to lift and bend properly. Follow these tips: ...

  5. Can Back-Reaction Prevent Eternal Inflation?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, Robert; Franzmann, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects which the back-reaction of long wavelength fluctuations exert on stochastic inflation. In the cases of power-law and Starobinsky inflation these effects are too weak to terminate the stochastic growth of the inflaton field. However, in the case of the cyclic Ekpyrotic scenario, the back-reaction effects prevent the unlimited growth of the scalar field.

  6. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua;

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  7. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department...

  8. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF BACK-CORONA DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize back-corona generation and behavior in a range of environments and geometries common to electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device was used to monitor the intensity and distribution of back...

  9. Backing up the stories: The psychological and social costs of chronic low-back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Justin; Singh, Samantha B.; Garis, Sally; Diwan, Ashish D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low-back pain is a widespread condition whose significance is overlooked. Previous studies have analyzed and evaluated the medical costs and physical symptoms of chronic low-back pain; however, few have looked beyond these factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the personal and psychosocial costs of chronic low-back pain. Methods To measure the various costs of chronic low-back pain, a questionnaire was generated using a visual analog scale, the Depr...

  10. Cost Reduction, Competitive Balance, and the Scheduling of Back-to-Back Games in the NBA

    OpenAIRE

    Yvan J. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    The NBA league office states that the playing schedule is devised to ensure competitive balance while keeping an eye towards minimizing costs. This paper examines those claims. Three years of travel data were analyzed and the results imply that the use of back-to-back road games in the NBA schedule may assist with competitive balance and that back-to-back games indeed reduce team travel costs.

  11. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experience...... is maintained over long periods: for example, people with pain continue to have it on and off for years, and people without pain do not suddenly develop long-term pain. A number of factors predict back pain presence in epidemiological studies, and these are often present, and predictive, at different...... life stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the...

  12. Carbon Diffusion in Hot Strips of Low Carbon Steel Produced by CSP Line under Different Thermal Histories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao YU; Hao REN; Yonglin KANG; Kelu WANG

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out on the same compact strip production (CSP) line, which differs in that one of them experienced γ→α→γ* thermal history. The differences in microstructure, precipitation, misorientation etc between two experiments were investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and positron annihilation technique (PAT). The carbon concentration in matrix is more inhomogeneous in the experiment than that with γ→α→γ* thermal history. The specific precipitation characteristic in the experiment without γ→α→γ* thermal history is discussed on the basis of different carbon diffusion behavior and interaction between dislocation and excess carbon.

  13. MENDED GENETIC BP NETWORK AND APPLICATION TO ROLLING FORCE PREDICTION OF 4-STAND TANDEM COLD STRIP MILL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dazhi; Sun Yikang; Wang Yanping; Cai Hengjun

    2004-01-01

    In order to make good use of the ability to approach any function of BP (back propagation) network and overcome its local astringency,and also make good use of the overall search ability of GA (genetic algorithms),a proposal to regulate the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms is suggested.An integrated network system of MGA (mended genetic algorithms) and BP algorithms has been established.The MGA-BP network's functions consist of optimizing GA performance parameters,the network's structural parameters,performance parameters,and regulating the network's weights using both GA and BP algorithms.Rolling forces of 4-stand tandem cold strip mill are predicted by the MGA-BP network,and good results are obtained.

  14. Independent Cooling Controller for Temperature Control of High Strength and Atmosphere Corrosion Resisting Steel in Hot Strip Mills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Jae [Daegu University, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we propose an independent cooling control (ICC) scheme for high strength and atmosphere corrosion resisting steel to obtain the desired temperature and properties along the longitudinal direction of the steel in the run-out table (ROT) process. A temperature model of the independent process is developed to divide the ROT into front and back sections. The control concept uses field data, problem analysis, and a time-temperature transformation diagram. The effectiveness of the proposed control is verified using simulation results under a temperature disturbance by the transformation in the middle of the ROT. The results of a hot strip mill field test show that the temperature control performance is significantly improved by the proposed control scheme.

  15. Advantages of UV210 polymer for integrated optics applications: comparison of ridge and photoinscripted strip waveguide performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouldieff, C.; Huby, N.; Bêche, B.

    2015-12-01

    We report on the propagation performance comparison of two waveguide structures obtained from the same UV210 photoresist. Ridge waveguide structures were fabricated by deep ultraviolet photolithography, and photoinscripted strip waveguides were realized by the same process, excluding the last development step. Structural and optical studies were carried out for both waveguide families, highlighting a well-controlled photolithography process. Predictions of the propagating modes were also led using the beam propagation method, showing a good agreement with experiments in single-mode propagation. Propagation losses were evaluated at 635 nm by cut-back measurement, showing mean loss values that are slightly lower for photoinscripted waveguides than for ridge waveguides. UV210 photoinscripted waveguides thus combine a fast and low-cost process, reduced optical losses, and a planar surface with as many advantages for more complex integrated components.

  16. Si-STEEL Thin-Strip Prepared by Twin-Roll Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yu; Zhou, Zehua; Wang, Zehua; Jiang, Shaoqun; Huang, Weidong

    The fabrication process of Si-steel thin-strip by twin-roll continuous casting was described and the quality of the obtained Si-steel thin-strip was measured. Si-steel strips with 0.5-6.5 wt.% Si content were successfully prepared, and proper parameters including pouring temperature, height of molten pool, casting speed and pouring head mode were optimized, and their mechanisms were discussed. The relationship between quality factors of Si-steel including cracks, strip thickness, impurity and process parameters such as Si content and so on were discussed. The morphologies of the strips with different Si content were studied.

  17. CBR Behaviour of Waste Plastic Strip-Reinforced Stone Dust/Fly Ash Overlying Saturated Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, R. K.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to investigate the CBR behaviour of waste plastic strip reinforced-stone dust/fly ash overlying saturated clay. Three different sizes of waste plastic strips were used in this study. The effect of waste plastic strip content (0.25% to 4%) and length on the CBR and secant modulus of strip reinforced-stone dust/fly ash overlying saturated clay was investigated. The study reveals that addition of waste plastic strip in stone dust/fly ash overlying ...

  18. Resonant stripping as the origin of dwarf spheroidal galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onghia, Elena; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most dark matter dominated systems in the nearby Universe and their origin is one of the outstanding puzzles of how galaxies form. Dwarf spheroidals are poor in gas and stars, making them unusually faint, and those known as ultra-faint dwarfs have by far the lowest measured stellar content of any galaxy. Previous theories require that dwarf spheroidals orbit near giant galaxies like the Milky Way, but some dwarfs have been observed in the outskirts of the Local Group. Here we report simulations of encounters between dwarf disk galaxies and somewhat larger objects. We find that the encounters excite a process, which we term ``resonant stripping'', that can transform them into dwarf spheroidals. This effect is distinct from other mechanisms proposed to form dwarf spheroidals, including mergers, galaxy-galaxy harassment, or tidal and ram pressure stripping, because it is driven by gravitational resonances. It may account for the observed properties of dwarf spheroidals in the Lo...

  19. Comparison of methods of producing very highly stripped uranium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made between the production of high intensity beams of helium-like uranium ions, U90+, by conventional and exotic ion sources, and by the foil stripping of highly accelerated ions output from the Bevalac. The parameter requirements are specified and compared to the parameters achievable by present day ion source technology. The EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source) comes closest to satisfying the necessary parameters, and this possibility is considered in some detail. We conclude that existing and near-future ion source technology does not provide a means of production of high intensity U90+ beams. Foil stripping of lower charge state species that have been accelerated through the Bevalac provides a convenient approach

  20. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  1. The silicon strip vertex detector of the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yoshiyuki

    2014-11-01

    The Belle II upgrade of the Belle experiment will extend the search for physics beyond the standard model. The upgrade is currently under construction, and foreseen to complete in time for the physics run scheduled for 2016. The vertex detector of the Belle II comprises two types of silicon detectors: the pixel detector (PXD) and the strip detector (SVD) using double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD). One of the most characteristic features of the SVD is a unique chip-on-sensor scheme which enabling good signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio while reducing the material budget. This paper describes the implementation of the scheme, status and future prospects of the Belle II SVD.

  2. A MOVING CRACK IN A NONHOMOGENEOUS MATERIAL STRIP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Baolin; Han Jiecai

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers an anti-plane moving crack in a nonhomogencous material strip of finite thickness. The shear modulus and the mass density of the strip are considered for a class of functional forms for which the equilibrium equation has analytical solutions. The problem is solved by means of the singular integral equation technique. The stress field near the crack tip is obtained. The results are plotted to show the effect of the material non-homogeneity and crack moving velocity on the crack tip field. Crack bifurcation behaviour is also discussed. The paper points out that use of an appropriate fracture criterion is essential for studying the stability of a moving crack in nonhomogeneous materials. The prediction whether the unstable crack growth will be enhanced or retarded is strongly dependent on the type of the fracture criterion used. is a suitable failure criterion for moving cracks in nonhomogeneous materials.

  3. Application of Geometric Midline Yield Criterion for Strip Drawing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gen-ji; DU Hai-jun; ZHAO De-wen; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    A new linear yield criterion expressed by the geometric midline of error triangle between Tresca and Twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane in Haigh-Westergaard space was introduced. The criterion was written in terms of the values of principal stress deviator and called GM yield criterion for short. Together with a Cartesian coordinate velocity field instead of the Avitzur's, the GM criterion was used to obtain an analytical solution for strip drawing. With a working example of the strip drawing through wedge-shaped die, the results of relative drawing stress calcu-lated by the GM criterion were compared with those calculated by Mises' criterion from Avitzur formula. It indicated that the calculated results according to analytical solution were in good agreement with the numerical solution ob-tained from Avitzur formula.

  4. Emission of nearly stripped carbon and oxygen from the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciambi, R. K.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1975-01-01

    Energy spectra of nearly stripped carbon and oxygen nuclei were observed during several solar particle events indicating a systematic deviation of these spectra from a simple power law. The spectra bend below 100 keV per nucleon and the degree of turn-over are highly correlated with the size of the flare, as measured by the event averaged flux of 130 to 220 keV protons. The energy spectra of helium computed for the same time periods do not show a similar feature. A large variability of the alpha/CNO ratio from event to event (from 2 to about 20 at 40 keV per nucleon) is found, and, in all cases examined, the carbon and oxygen nuclei are nearly fully stripped. These results are interpreted as evidence for storage of energetic ions in hot (T sub e is approximatey 1.5 million K) coronal regions, followed by strong adiabatic deceleration.

  5. Determination of zinc (II) in lubricant oils by stripping chronopotentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, Filippo; Rizzotti, Silvia; Locatelli, Clinio; Novelli, Veronica; Ceccon, Luciano

    2003-03-01

    A method for the determination of zinc (II) in lubricant oils by stripping chronopotentiometry is described. The only necessary sample pretreatment was the extraction of zinc (II) from the corresponding alkyl derivatives by hot concentrated hydrochloric acid in a suitable extractor. The metal ions were concentrated as the corresponding metals on a glassy carbon working electrode and then stripped by a suitable oxidant. Quantitative analysis was carried out by the method of standard additions; a good linearity was obtained in the range of concentrations examined. Recoveries of 94% were obtained from a lubricant oil spiked at different levels. The detection limit was 0.02 mg g(-1) and the coefficient of variation (mean of nine determinations) was 5.2%. Results obtained on commercial lubricant oils were not significantly different from those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry. PMID:12737491

  6. H- Beam Stripping Loss at Background Partial Pressure of Ar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chundong; Wang Shaohu; Hu Liqun

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that H- current could be improved by adding Ar to H2 plasma.But due to a slower pumping speed for Ar with the existing pumping scheme, the tank pressure will increase quickly during the length of a beam pulse. Since H- stripping loss depends on the tank pressure and gas species, part of the H- beam can be converted to H0 and then H0 can be converted into H+ with background H2 and Ar gas thickness. Therefore, the H- beam current,measured by a Faraday cup, situated at a distance L from GG (ground grid), will decrease because it will be converted into a H+ current. This gives a ratio of the Faraday cup net current to the H- beam current before stripping at background partial pressure of Ar.

  7. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Sevilla, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The LHC upgrade is foreseen to increase the ATLAS design luminosity by a factor ten, implying the need to build a new tracker suited to the harsh HL-LHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. We give an overview of the ATLAS tracker upgrade project, in particular focusing on the crucial innermost silicon strip layers. Results from a wide range of irradiated silicon detectors for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker are presented. Layout concepts for lightweight yet mechanically very rigid detector modules with high service integration are shown.

  8. Skull-stripping for Tumor-bearing Brain Images

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Stefan; Reyes, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Skull-stripping separates the skull region of the head from the soft brain tissues. In many cases of brain image analysis, this is an essential preprocessing step in order to improve the final result. This is true for both registration and segmentation tasks. In fact, skull-stripping of magnetic resonance images (MRI) is a well-studied problem with numerous publications in recent years. Many different algorithms have been proposed, a summary and comparison of which can be found in [Fennema-Notestine, 2006]. Despite the abundance of approaches, we discovered that the algorithms which had been suggested so far, perform poorly when dealing with tumor-bearing brain images. This is mostly due to additional difficulties in separating the brain from the skull in this case, especially when the lesion is located very close to the skull border. Additionally, images acquired according to standard clinical protocols, often exhibit anisotropic resolution and only partial coverage, which further complicates the task. There...

  9. Twin-roll strip casting of magnesium alloys in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The development status of twin-roll strip casting for magnesium alloys in China was summarized as well as the new progress when several kinds of twin-roll strip casting technologies were developed and used.Horizontal twin-roll casting (HTRC) of magnesium alloys has attracted much attention and has been industrialized in China.Vertical twin roll casting(VTRC) of the magnesium alloys can reach a speed of higher than 30 m/min and its research and development are just beginning and exhibit exciting potential.By comparing the process characteristics of the two technologies,the process stability of HTRC for the magnesium alloys is better,and the casting speed and the cooling rate of VTRC for the magnesium alloys are higher.The quality of the products by the two technologies needs to be improved and further investigated.

  10. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wah Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line segments into different feature sequences as well as sequential groups of data points. A developable surface approximation procedure is employed to refine incident approximation planes of data points into developable strips. Some experimental results are included to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  11. Cooling hot rolling steel strip using combined tactics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Qing Li; Zhou Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The coiling temperature control of a typical steel strip mill was investigated. Due to the high speed of a strip and complex circumstance, it is very hard to set up a cooling model with high accuracy. A simplified dynamic model was proposed, based on which a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback and adaptive algorithms was developed. Meanwhile, the genetic algorithms were used for the optimization of model parameters. Simulations with a model validated using actual plant data were conducted, and the results have confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed control methods. At last, a simulation system for coiling temperature control was developed. It can be used for new product trials and newcomer training.

  12. The Data Quality Monitoring for the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, V; Bainbridge, R; Benucci, L; Borgia, M A; Borrello, L; Cole, J; Cripps, N; Delmeire, E; Dero, V; Dutta, S; Giordano, D; Hammad, G H; Hashemi, H; Le Bihan, A C; Le Bourgeois, M; Palmonari, F; Pierro, A; Zito, G

    2009-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of more than 10 million channels, is organized in about 15,000 detector modules and it is the largest silicon strip tracker ever built for high energy physics experiments. The Data Quality Monitoring system for the Tracker has been developed within the CMS Software framework. More than 100,000 monitorable quantities need to be managed by the DQM system that organizes them in a hierarchical structure reflecting the detector arrangement in subcomponents and the various levels of data processing. Monitorable quantities computed at the level of individual detectors are processed to extract automatic quality checks and summary results that can be visualized with specialized graphical user interfaces. In view of the great complexity of the CMS Tracker detector the standard visualization tools based on histograms have been complemented with 2 and 3 dimensional graphical images of the subdetector that can show the whole detector down to single channel resolution. The fu...

  13. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  14. Lanthanide-labeled immunochromatographic strips for the rapid detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zou, Mingqiang; Chen, Yan; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Yanfei; Qi, Xiaohua; Xue, Qiang

    2014-01-15

    The lateral flow immunoassay is used in commercial pregnancy detection, and is an accepted point-of-care testing technique. The most widely used format for lateral flow immunochromatographic strips uses gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection. However, this method often suffers from poor quantitative discrimination and low analytical sensitivity. To address these limitations, lanthanide chelate-loaded silica nanoparticles have been used as fluorescent labels. The fluorescent nanoparticles can easily bind to antibodies, with dextran as a linker. The strip reader described here was based on a sandwich immunoreaction performed on a strip, using lanthanide-labeled antibodies that served as signal vehicles for the fluorescent readout. The strip reader was used as a quantitative test system. In this work, Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) was used as a model analyte to demonstrate the use of the strip reader. Under optimal conditions, the detection limit was determined as 10(3)cfu/mL. The quantification limit was calculated to be 10(4)cfu/mL. The detection limit for Pss was 100 times lower than those displayed by colloidal gold-labeled strips or ELISAs. No cross-reactions were observed with the other nine strains, indicating the good specificity of the Pss strip. This strip showed good stability in repeated tests. The tests using the fluorescence immunochromatographic strip were easy to perform, rapid, and sensitive. Methods using fluorescence strips and a strip reader have the potential to be a powerful tool for the quantification of bacteria. PMID:23928093

  15. Laboratory-scale analysis of aquifer remediation by in-well vapor stripping 1. Laboratory results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Ori; Gvirtzman, Haim

    1997-12-01

    This study is a laboratory test of the aquifer remediation concept proposed by Gvirtzman and Gorelick (1992, Transp. Porous Media, 8: 71-92), which involves the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) dissolved in groundwater. The principle is to inject air into a well, creating air-lift pumping, which is used as a means of in-well vapor stripping. The partially treated water is separated from the VOC vapor and infiltrates back to the water table. A laboratory-scale aquifer model containing a remediation-well prototype was used to trace VOC removal over time. The removal rates of trichloroethylene (TCE), toluene and chloroform were monitored using eight triple-level observation wells. The continuous decrease of VOC concentrations in space and time was interpreted based on three processes: (1) the diffusional mass transfer between the contaminated water and the air bubbles during their rise within the well: (2) the desorption of VOCs from the solid matrix to the water phase; (3) the flow field in the saturated zone driven by the continuous water circulation between the pumping well and the recharging area. In a companion paper (Pinto et al., 1997), three-dimensional flow and transport modeling with inter-phase mass transfer is carried out to simulate these processes.

  16. Artificial neural network prediction of mechanical properties of hot rolled low carbon steel strip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Jianqing; Li Hualong

    2013-01-01

    Conventionally,direct tensile tests are employed to measure mechanical properties of industrially pro-duced products. In mass production,the cost of sampling and labor is high,which leads to an increase of total pro-duction cost and a decrease of production efficiency. The main purpose of this paper is to develop an intelligent pro-gram based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the mechanical properties of a commercial grade hot rolled low carbon steel strip,SPHC. A neural network model was developed by using 7 × 5 × 1 back-propagation (BP)neural network structure to determine the multiple relationships among chemical composition,product pro-cess and mechanical properties. Industrial on-line application of the model indicated that prediction results were in good agreement with measured values. It showed that 99.2%of the products’tensile strength was accurately pre-dicted within an error margin of ±10%,compared to measured values. Based on the model,the effects of chemical composition and hot rolling process on mechanical properties were derived and the relative importance of each in-put parameter was evaluated by sensitivity analysis. All the results demonstrate that the developed ANN models are capable of accurate predictions under real-time industrial conditions. The developed model can be used to sub-stitute mechanical property measurement and therefore reduce cost of production. It can also be used to control and optimize mechanical properties of the investigated steel.

  17. The search for shock-excited H2 in Virgo spirals experiencing ram pressure stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the presence of shock-excited H2 in four Virgo cluster galaxies that show clear evidence of ongoing ram pressure stripping. Mid-infrared spectral mapping of the rotational H2 emission lines were performed using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. We target four regions along the leading side of galaxies where the intracluster medium appears to be pushing back the individual galaxy's interstellar medium. For comparison purposes, we also study two regions on the trailing side of these galaxies: a region within an edge-on disk and an extraplanar star-forming region. We find a factor of 2.6 excess of warm H2/PAH in our sample relative to the observed fractions in other nearby galaxies. We attribute the H2/PAH excess to contributions of shock-excited H2 which is likely to have been triggered by ongoing ram pressure interaction in our sample galaxies. Ram pressure driven shocks may also be responsible for the elevated ratios of [Fe II]/[Ne II] found in our sample.

  18. The search for shock-excited H2 in Virgo spirals experiencing ram pressure stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, O Ivy; Murphy, Eric J; Helou, George

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the presence of shock-excited H2 in four Virgo cluster galaxies that show clear evidence of ongoing ram pressure stripping. Mid-infrared (MIR) spectral mapping of the rotational H2 emission lines were performed using the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on board the Spitzer space telescope. We target four regions along the leading side of galaxies where the intracluster medium (ICM) appears to be pushing back the individual galaxy's interstellar medium (ISM). For comparison purposes, we also study two regions on the trailing side of these galaxies, a region within an edge-on disk and an extraplanar star-forming region. We find a factor of 2.6 excess of warm H2/PAH in our sample relative to the observed fractions in other nearby galaxies. We attribute the H2/PAH excess to contributions of shock-excited H2 which is likely to have been triggered by ongoing ram pressure interaction in our sample galaxies. Ram pressure driven shocks may also be responsible for the elevated fractions of FeII/NeII found in...

  19. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  20. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the...

  1. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution

  2. Confinement and Tritium Stripping Systems for APT Tritium Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report identifies functions and requirements for the tritium process confinement and clean-up system (PCCS) and provides supporting technical information for the selection and design of tritium confinement, clean-up (stripping) and recovery technologies for new tritium processing facilities in the Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT). The results of a survey of tritium confinement and clean-up systems for large-scale tritium handling facilities and recommendations for the APT are also presented

  3. Extreme ultraviolet spectra of highly stripped silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of foil-excited spectra in the wavelength range 107-374 Angstroms from highly stripped Si ions is reported. Many of the lines that have been identified are associated with Δn = O transitions in Si VI-Si XI of the type 2s22p/sup k/-2s2p/sup k + 1/ or 2s2p/sup k/-2p/sup k + 1/. 2 figures, 1 table

  4. Micro-discharge at strip edge of silicon microstrip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the micro-discharge (micro-breakdown) phenomenon which is potentially a serious problem in operating in a high radiation environment. Numerical calculation of field strength for the model structure of the microstrip sensor gives us a quantitative understanding of each different cause of micro-discharge. The structure of the microstrip sensor can be optimized through this field calculation for suppressing the micro-discharge. We propose a new strip structure to suppress the micro-discharge. (orig.)

  5. Behaviour of oxide scales in hot steel strip rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, Claire; Bouchard, Pierre-Olivier; Montmitonnet, Pierre; Picard, Martine

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of oxide scales in the finishing Hot Strip Mill is simulated by the hot Plane Strain Compression Test (PSCT). Compared with the ideal case of homogeneous plastic co-deformation of the oxide layer and the underlying metal, different types of defects are described: delamination at the interface or within the oxide layer; interfacial plastic instability due to the jump of the mechanical properties; perpendicular, through-thickness cracks where the axial strain parallel to the inter...

  6. Microstructure of NdFeB Strip Casting Flake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; GUO Bing-lin; WANG Dong-ling; LIU Tao; LIU Wen-chang; YU Xiao-jun

    2005-01-01

    The microstructures of NdFeB conventional ingot and strip casting (SC) flake were studied by BSE and energy spectra. The non-equilibrium state of the microstructure of SC flakes was discussed. By observing the change of microstructure of SC flakes after annealing at 700 ℃, 800 ℃ and 900 ℃, the characteristics of SC flakes were investigated further. The influence of the characteristic on magnetic property was analyzed.

  7. IPG strip-based peptide fractionation for shotgun proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Eravci, M.; Sommer, C; Selbach, M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient fractionation of peptides is an essential prerequisite for comprehensive analysis of complex protein mixtures by shotgun mass spectrometry. The separation of peptides by isoelectric focusing is particularly attractive due to its orthogonality to reverse-phase HPLC. Here, we present a protocol for in-gel peptide isoelectric focusing using immobilized pH gradient strips. The method shows high resolving power for up to 1 mg of sample and is highly reproducible.

  8. Titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification covers annealed titanium and titanium alloy strip, sheet, and plate as follows: Grade 1 to 4 unalloyed titanium Grade 5, 6, 10, and 12 titanium alloy; and Grade 7 and 11 unalloyed titanium plus palladium. The specification includes basis of purchase, chemical requirements, mechanical properties, permissible variations in dimensions, finish, sampling for chemical analysis, methods of chemical analysis, rejection, reports, marking, and packaging

  9. Measuring Productive Efficiency: An Application to Illinois Strip Mines

    OpenAIRE

    P. Byrnes; R. Färe; S Grosskopf

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a generalized version of the Farrell measure of technical efficiency to a sample of Illinois strip mines. We disaggregate the original Farrell measure (which was designed to measure lost output or wasted inputs due to underutilization of inputs) into three mutually exclusive and exhaustive components: (1) a measure of purely technical efficiency, (2) a measure of input congestion (overutilization of some input(s)) and (3) a measure of scale efficiency. Th...

  10. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K+ → π+νν experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of 12 layers of axial wire cells and 6 layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150 to 250 MeV is found to be about 0.9%. (authors)

  11. A Preference Test for Sweet Taste That Uses Edible Strips

    OpenAIRE

    Smutzer, Gregory; Patel, Janki Y.; Stull, Judith C.; Abarintos, Ray A.; Khan, Neiladri K.; Park, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    A novel delivery method is described for the rapid determination of taste preferences for sweet taste in humans. This forced-choice paired comparison approach incorporates the non-caloric sweetener sucralose into a set of one-inch square edible strips for the rapid determination of sweet taste preferences. When compared to aqueous sucrose solutions, significantly lower amounts of sucralose were required to identify the preference for sweet taste. The validity of this approach was determined b...

  12. Highly stripped ions on hydrogen atoms: the adiabatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simple Lorentzian form for the adiabatic radial matrix elements which dominate low-energy charge transfer in highly stripped systems is exploited to derive the S matrix for the Asub(Z)sup(Z+) + H(1s) → Asub(Z)sup(Z-1)+ + H+ scattering process. The approximations used are discussed and the results of the theory are compared with measured He2+ + H(1s) → He+ + H+ cross sections. Agreement is satisfactory for low velocities. (author)

  13. Light particle stripping in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility to describe the reaction of high energy light particle stripping in heavy ion collisions as a direct process is investigated. The analysis of major trends in the reaction is conducted by the eikonal approximation in the input channel and by the plane wave approximation in the output channel. A maximum in the light particle angular distribution is shown to be at THETA=0, the final nucleus being produced mainly with a maximum possible spin

  14. Development of the new pre-stripping section for lumzi

    CERN Document Server

    Bomko, V A; Kobets, A F; Rudyak, B I

    2001-01-01

    The investigations have been performed on the development of a multipurpose complex based on the linear heavy ion accelerator for high-intense light ion beam production. The investigations were carried out with theoretical and experimental methods. As a result physical prerequisites were developed for creation of the pre-stripping section (POS-4) which enables acceleration of high-current light ion beams with the average current of 1-0.5mA.

  15. A Multiple U Slotted Rectangular Micro-strip Patch Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Shrivastava1 Abhinav Bhargava2 Samrat Ghosh3

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a proposed design for Rectangular micro-strip patch antenna by cutting five U shaped slots in the Rectangular patch. Using proposed antenna design and probe feeding at proper position we find the resultant return loss, VSWR and bandwidth. We are using IE3D simulation software for designing and analysis. We have observed that using slotted patch antenna and using probe feed at proper location we can get better return loss, VSWR and bandwidth.

  16. Social adversities and anxiety disorders in the Gaza Strip

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, A; Vostanis, P

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms and disorders in children, and their relation to social adversities in a cultural sample not previously researched.
METHODS—237 children aged 9 to 13 years living in the Gaza Strip were selected randomly from 112 schools. Children completed the revised manifest anxiety scale (a questionnaire with yes/no answers for 28 anxiety items and nine lie items), and teachers completed the Rutter scale (a questionnaire of 26 it...

  17. Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Wiig, Øystein; Bakken, Vidar

    1990-01-01

    Aerial strip surveys of polar bears in the Barents Sea were performed by helicopter in winter 1987. The number of bears within 100 m on each side of the helicopter was counted. A total of 263.6 km2 was surveyed and 21 bears were counted. Most of the bears were found in the southern part of the area, which indicates that the southwestern ice edge area in the Barents Sea is a very important winter habitat for polar bears.

  18. Stripped-envelope supernova rates and host-galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Graur, Or; Modjaz, Maryam; Maoz, Dan; Shivvers, Isaac; Filippenko, Alexei V; Li, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The progenitors of stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe Ibc) remain to be conclsuively identified, but correlations between SN rates and host-galaxy properties can constrain progenitor models. Here, we present one result from a re-analysis of the rates from the Lick Observatory Supernova Search. Galaxies with stellar masses less than $\\sim 10^{10}~{\\rm M_\\odot}$ are less efficient at producing SNe Ibc than more massive galaxies. Any progenitor scenario must seek to explain this new observation.

  19. Feature curve extraction from point clouds via developable strip intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Wah Lee; Pengbo Bo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of computing smooth feature curves from CAD type point clouds models. The proposed method reconstructs feature curves from the intersections of developable strip pairs which approximate the regions along both sides of the features. The generation of developable surfaces is based on a linear approximation of the given point cloud through a variational shape approximation approach. A line segment sequencing algorithm is proposed for collecting feature line se...

  20. Teflon strip pneumostasis for excision of giant emphysematous bullae.

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, J M; Hubbard, W G; Matthews, H. R.

    1987-01-01

    Excision of giant emphysematous bullae commonly results in a persistent air leak that requires prolonged intercostal drainage and delays recovery. To minimise this we have used Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene) strips to buttress the suture line and secure pneumostasis. During 1976-84 eight bullae were excised in seven patients. One patient had bilateral staged thoracotomies. All chest drains were removed within eight days (mean 4.5 days) and no patient developed pulmonary complications. At lo...

  1. OBTAINING STRIPS WITH VARIABLE THICKNESS AND CONTROLLED WIDENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Isayevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes flow chart of strip rolling with variable thickness in the rolls with changeable clearance between them and non-driven rollers that ensure spread widening control. The paper presents necessary formulae for calculation of backward tension in the rolls which is considered as drawing tension in the rollers. Accomplishment of the given process is theoretically substantiated in the paper.

  2. Do wildflower strips favor insect pest populations at field margins ?

    OpenAIRE

    Hatt, Séverin; Uyttenbroeck, Roel; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas; Paul, Aman; Danthine, Sabine; Bodson, Bernard; Piqueray, Julien; Monty, Arnaud; Francis, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Reducing pesticide use is one the major issues of today’s agriculture. Among other possibilities, attracting and conserving pest natural enemies in agricultural landscapes by providing them habitats is promising. Wildflower strips (WFS) sown at field margins are one of these potential habitats. They are known to attract and conserve a large diversity of insects, as they provide them food resources such as pollen and nectar, as well as shelter and overwintering sites. However, the risk of attr...

  3. Plastic tension of thin strip with symmetrical cut-outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepershin, Rostislav I.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical solution of thin strip plane-stress tension with symmetrical cut-outs for Mises rigid-plastic solid is given. Limit plastic state of neck forming along the rigid-plastic boundaries induced by velocity discontinuity is considered. The problem solution can be useful for the material limit plastic formability estimation in the case of biaxial stress tension in complex thin sheet plastic forming technology.

  4. Process optimization for reverse micellar extraction of stem bromelain with a focus on back extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaneshwar, Amrut D; Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, reverse micellar extraction (RME) for the purification of stem bromelain was successfully achieved using the sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane system. A maximum forward extraction efficiency of 58.0% was obtained at 100 mM AOT concentration, aqueous phase pH of 8.0 and 0.2 M NaCl. Back extraction studies on altering stripping phase pH and KCl concentration, addition of counter-ion and iso-propyl alcohol (IPA) and mechanical agitation with glass beads indicated that IPA addition and agitation with glass beads have significant effects on extraction efficiency. The protein extraction was higher (51.9%) in case of the IPA (10% v/v) added system during back extraction as compared to a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (100 mM) added system (9.42%). The central composite design technique was used to optimize the back extraction conditions further. Concentration of IPA, amount of glass beads, mixing time, and agitation speed (in rpm) were the variables selected. IPA concentration of 8.5% (v/v), glass bead concentration of 0.6 (w/v), and mixing time of 45 min at 400 rpm resulted in higher back extraction efficiency of 45.6% and activity recovery of 88.8% with purification of 3.04-fold. The study indicated that mechanical agitation using glass beads could be used for destabilizing the reverse micelles and release of bromelain back into the fresh aqueous phase. PMID:24616421

  5. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;

    2006-01-01

    Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical...... activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism...

  6. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  7. Charge collection efficiency simulations of irradiated silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face a more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to the required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulation studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects on the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (MIPs). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on the Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed before and after irradiation for fluences up to 1.5 × 1015 neqcm−2 for n-on-p sensors. A two level defect model and non-uniform three level defect model were applied for the proton irradiation simulations, and a two level model for neutrons. The results are presented together with the measurements of strip detectors irradiated by different particles and fluences and show considerable agreement for both CCE and its position dependency

  8. Producing Foils From Direct Cast Titanium Alloy Strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, T. A.; Gaspar, T. A.; Sukonnik, I. M.; Semiatan, S. L.; Batawi, E.; Peters, J. A.; Fraser, H. L.

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of producing high-quality, thin-gage, titanium foil from direct cast titanium strip. Melt Overflow Rapid Solidification Technology (MORST) was used to cast several different titanium alloys into 500 microns thick strip, 10 cm wide and up to 3 m long. The strip was then either ground, hot pack rolled or cold rolled, as appropriate, into foil. Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) was cast and ground to approximately 100 microns thick foil and alpha-2 titanium aluminide (Ti3AI) was cast and hot pack rolled to approximately 70 microns thick foil. CP Ti, Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo, and Ti22AI23Nb (Orthorhombic), were successfully cast and cold-rolled into good quality foil (less than 125 microns thick). The foils were generally fully dense with smooth surfaces, had fine, uniform microstructures, and demonstrated mechanical properties equivalent to conventionally produced titanium. By eliminating many manufacturing steps, this technology has the potential to produce thin gage, titanium foil with good engineering properties at significantly reduced cost relative to conventional ingot metallurgy processing.

  9. Silicon strip detector qualification for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kaußen, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the four experiments being installed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) which is located at the european organization for nuclear research CERN in Geneva. This proton-proton collider will explore a new energy regime of up to 14TeV center-of-mass energy. To provide the best spatial resolution for the particle trajectory reconstruction and a very fast readout, the inner tracking system of CMS is build up of silicon detectors with a pixel tracker in the center surrounded by a strip tracker. The silicon strip tracker consists of so-called modules representing the smallest detection unit of the tracking device. These modules are mounted on higher-level structures called shells in the tracker inner barrel (TIB), rods in the tracker outer barrel (TOB), disks in the tracker inner disks (TID) and petals in the tracker end caps (TEC). The entire strip tracker spans an active area of about 198m2 and consists of approximately 16000 modules. Before the silicon sensors were assembl...

  10. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe+11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar+6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar+8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1+ in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N+6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  11. In-situ conditioning of a strip casting roll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert S.; Campbell, Steven L.

    1997-01-01

    A strip caster (10) for producing a continuous strip (24) has a tundish (12) for containing a melt (14) and a pair of horizontally disposed water cooled casting rolls (22). The casting rolls are juxtaposed relative to one another for forming a pouring basin (18) for receiving the melt through a teeming tube (16) thereby establishing a meniscus (20) between the rolls for forming a strip (24). The melt is protected from the outside air by a non-oxidizing gas passed through a supply line (28) to a sealing chamber (26). Devices (29) for conditioning the outer peripheral chill surfaces of the casting rolls includes grit blasting nozzles (30A, 30B, 30C, 30D), a collection trough (32) for gathering the grit, a line (34) for recycling the grit to a bag house (36), a feeder (38) and a pressurized distributor (40) for delivering the grit to the nozzles. The conditioning nozzles remove dirt, metal oxides and surface imperfections providing a clean surface readily wetted by the melt.

  12. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  13. Freeform surfaces adaptation using developable strips and planar quadrilateral facets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gonzalez-Quintial

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all industrialized materials commonly employed at engineering and building construction are approximately unstretchable, metal sheets, plywood or glass. So there is no doubt about the advantages offered, mainly from the economic point of view, by the processes that use flat or developable surfaces in the resolution of doubly curved ones. Using two prototypical kinds of developable surfaces, an adaptation method of double curvature surfaces is formulated using either developable strips or planar quadrilateral surfaces. Through the geometric concept of apparent contours and by the systematization of a process inspired by traditional projective geometry an algorithm is built, using the newest and outstanding CAD processes. They systematize and allow obtaining single-curvature strips or flat facets, in order to be able to address its construction, using materials that can be bent in one direction or rigid material with no possibility of being bent at all by simple and economical procedures. These strips obtained are from the geometrical viewpoint absolutely developable. They are patches extracted from cones or cylinders. The main subject to be developed in this paper is on one hand showing of the system and its geometric basis and on the other the exhibition of the results that are being obtained over physical models and prototypes built in diverse materials.  

  14. The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Concept, Production, and Commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Pooth, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    With the start of the Large Hadron Collider LHC at CERN near Geneva, Switzerland, and the huge detectors along this particle accelerator, the largest high energy physics experiments ever are underway. One of the experiments is the CMS detector (Compact Muon Solenoid). With this experiment over 3,000 scientists and engineers worldwide will search for answers to fundamental questions in high energy physics. Oliver Pooth describes the silicon strip tracker of the CMS detector. With a sensitive silicon area of 200 m² it is a central part of the experiment and able to precisely measure charged particles originating from high energy proton collisions at the LHC. In total, more than 15,000 individual silicon strip detector modules were built and tested before they were integrated on larger substructures of the silicon strip tracker. The author discusses methods of quality control that are new to the field of particle detector physics. These methods were established to guarantee a uniform behaviour of all detector m...

  15. Colloidal gold probe based rapid immunochromatographic strip assay for cortisol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and semi-quantitative immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test for cortisol analysis in serum was developed. The test strip was based on a competitive assay format. Colloidal gold nanoparticles were synthesized and coupled with cortisol-3-carboxymethyloxime-adipic acid dihydrazide-bovine serum albumin (F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA) antigen to directly compete with cortisol in human serum samples. F-3-CMO-ADH-BSA-gold label and uncoupled colloidal gold nanoparticles were appropriately characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Anticortisol antibody raised against F-3-CMO-BSA immunogen in New Zealand white rabbits was coated on the NC membrane as test line. Anti-BSA antibody was used as control line. The lower detection limit of the ICS test was 30 ng mL-1 with visual detection and was completed in 10 min. About 30 human serum samples were also analyzed by the developed strip test and their range of cortisol concentration was established. The developed ICS test is rapid, economic and user friendly.

  16. Science comic-strips on display at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Alix Marcastel

    2011-01-01

    To mark the publication of his new comic-strip "Les Vies de Marie Curie", the Genevan artist Fiami will be placing some of his previous creations on the theme "women and science" on display at CERN. The new comic-strip pays tribute to the illustrious Nobel prize-winner by taking a light-hearted look at the history of chemistry and how the role of women scientists in society has evolved through the ages.   It's no easy task,  presenting the history of science to the general public in a light-hearted way. As part of the various events organised in the Fête de la Science and the Europeans Researchers Night, CERN will be hosting an exhibition entirely devoted to the comic-strips created by Fiami. The artist describes his comics as "a relaxed way of looking at serious and apparently highly complex subjects."  Fiami's very latest creation, Les Vies de Marie Curie, published in June 2011, celebrates th...

  17. Back pain: A puzzle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahle, Imad S; Hamam, Mohamed S; Masrouha, Karim Z; Afeiche, Nadim E; Abdelnoor, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Back pain in children is underdiagnosed and increases incidence in adolescence. A systematic approach can diagnose the most common causes: trauma, structural deformities, inflammatory diseases, infection and malignancy. PMID:27535879

  18. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Back to ...

  19. College backs domestic abuse awareness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    All nurses should be trained to recognise signs of domestic abuse and provide support to victims, according to a resolution overwhelmingly backed by RCN members at congress in Glasgow last month. PMID:27384787

  20. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  1. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  2. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Back Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/backinjuries.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  4. Nanopore Back Titration Analysis of Dipicolinic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yujing; Zhou, Shuo; Wang, Liang; Guan, Xiyun

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a novel label-free nanopore back titration method for the detection of dipicolinic acid, a marker molecule for bacterial spores. By competitive binding of the target analyte and a large ligand probe to metal ions, dipicolinic acid could be sensitively and selectively detected. This nanopore back titration approach should find useful applications in the detection of other species of medical, biological, or environmental importance if their direct detection is difficult to achieve.

  5. Back End Programming in .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to develop a web application which provides the services for both web and mobile client. The complete application development process was carried out by the team of four members and a supervisor. According to the interest of group members the whole project was divided into four parts; that is user interface design, mobile application development, back end development for mobile services and server side back end development of application. I got the task of ser...

  6. Mechanical therapy for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Donald Grant

    2012-09-01

    Physical therapy and manual medicine for low back pain encompass many different treatment modalities. There is a vast variety of techniques that physical therapists commonly use in the treatment of low back pain. Some of the therapies include, but are certainly not limited to, education, exercise, lumbar traction, manual manipulation, application of heat, cryotherapy, and ultrasonography. Many of these approaches are discussed specifically in this article. PMID:22958560

  7. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park,

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720...

  8. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  9. Costs of Producing Biomass from Riparian Buffer Strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow, A.

    2000-09-01

    Nutrient runoff from poultry litter applied to agricultural fields in the Delmarva Peninsula contributes to high nutrient loadings in Chesapeake Bay. One potential means of ameliorating this problem is the use of riparian buffer strips. Riparian buffer strips intercept overland flows of water, sediments, nutrients, and pollutants; and ground water flows of nutrients and pollutants. Costs are estimated for three biomass systems grown on buffer strips: willow planted at a density of 15,300 trees/ha (6200 trees/acre); poplar planted at a density of 1345 trees/ha (545 trees/acre); and switchgrass. These costs are estimated for five different scenarios: (1) total economic costs, where everything is costed [cash costs, noncash costs (e.g., depreciation), land rent, labor]; (2) costs with Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) payments (which pays 50% of establishment costs and an annual land rent); (3) costs with enhanced CRP payments (which pays 95% of establishment costs and an annual payment of approximately 170% of land rent for trees and 150% of land rent for grasses); (4) costs when buffer strips are required, but harvest of biomass is not required [costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities (e.g., fertilization), harvest, and transport]; and (5) costs when buffer strips are required. and harvest of biomass is required to remove nutrients (costs borne by biomass are for yield enhancing activities and transport). CRP regulations would have to change to allow harvest. Delivered costs of willow, poplar, and switchgrass [including transportation costs of $0.38/GJ ($0.40/million Btu) for switchgrass and $0.57/GJ ($0.60/million Btu) for willow and poplar] at 11.2 dry Mg/ha-year (5 dry tons/acre-year) for the five cost scenarios listed above are [$/GJ ($million BIN)]: (1) 3.30-5.45 (3.45-5.75); (2) 2.30-3.80 (2.45-4.00); (3) 1.70-2.45 (1.80-2.60); (4) l-85-3.80 (1.95-4.05); and (5) 0.80-1.50 (0.85-1.60). At yields of 15.7 to 17.9 GJ/ha-year (7 to 8 dry tons

  10. Microstructural characteristics and texture of hot strip low carbon steel produced by flexible thin slab rolling with warm rolling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical properties and development of microstructure and texture of a low carbon steel produced by Flexible Thin Slab Rolling (FTSR) with warm rolling technology were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction and X-ray diffraction etc. The microstructural features in the hot strip are mainly large polygonal ferrite grains with very few or hardly any pearlite colonies. The values of yield strength and tensile strength are in the range of 215-240 MPa and 305-335 MPa, respectively, and the elongation is in the range of 33-41%. The ferrite softening can be attributed to ferrite recrystallization. Even though the dominant bulk texture is the typical recrystallization texture, which can be grouped into the ND fibre ({111}) having a axis parallel to the normal direction, a weak {110} transformation texture was also observed in the final microstructure by electron back-scattered diffraction. By analysis, the large grain size is explained in terms of ferrite recrystallization and relevant growth mechanisms, and the ferrite recrystallization can be considered to play a major role in determining the grain size in the microstructure of the low carbon steel produced by FTSR with warm rolling technology

  11. Procalcitonin Strip Test as an Independent Predictor in Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Brendan Hermenigildo; Rozario, Anthony Prakash; Olakkengil, Santosh Antony; V, Anirudh

    2015-12-01

    Plasma procalcitonin (PCT) is a highly specific marker for the diagnosis of bacterial infection and sepsis. Studies have demonstrated its role in the setting of sepsis and acute pancreatitis. This study aims to analyze and compare the prognostic efficacy of plasma procalcitonin strip test in acute pancreatitis. A prospective study was conducted in the department of general surgery from June 2012 to June 2013. Plasma procalcitonin was estimated by the semiquantitative strip test. The study included a total of 50 patients diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. Data was collected and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 17. Thirty-nine out of the 50 patients (78 %) were males with a mean age of 46.8 years (range, 25-78 years) and 25 patients (50 %) had ethanol-induced pancreatitis, while 13 patients (26 %) had gall stone pancreatitis. Plasma PCT values were found to correlate better than CRP levels and total leukocyte count with the total duration of hospitalization, ITU, and ICU stay, as well as with the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. A cut off for plasma PCT of >2 ng/mL was found to be 100 % sensitive and 100 % specific and a cut off for CRP of >19 mg/dL was 70 % sensitive and 65 % specific for predicting the progression to severe acute pancreatitis. Plasma PCT also correlated well with antibiotic requirement. A cut off value of >0.5 ng/mL for plasma PCT was 100 % sensitive and 80 % specific and a cut off value of >18 mg/dL for CRP was 86 % sensitive and 63 % specific for predicting antibiotic requirement. Plasma procalcitonin is an early and reliable prognostic indicator in acute pancreatitis. The procalcitonin strip test is a rapid test which is useful in analyzing prognosis in patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:27011501

  12. Thickness and marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda de Souza Mauá Serapião TOLEDO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Evaluate the thickness and the marking quality of different occlusal contact registration strips (OCRS and a possible correlation between them. Material and Methods The following OCRS were selected: Accufilm II, BK20, BK21, BK22, BK23, BK28, and BK31. The thickness was measured in three points of the OCRS with an electronic measuring device (TESA, and the mean was calculated. To produce the marks on the strips, composite resin specimens were adapted to a universal testing machine (Versat 2000 with 40 kgf load cell at a speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mark images were photographed with a stereoscopic microscope (Stemi SV11 and processed and analyzed by the 550-Leica Qwin® analyzer. Results Values (μm found in the 1st and 2nd thickness measurements were: Accufilm II - 16.4 and 14.2; BK20 - 10.0 and 8.1; BK21 - 9.5 and 8.0; BK22 - 9.7 and 8.7; BK23 - 9.8 and 7.9; BK28 - 12.8 and 10.0; and BK31 - 8.4 and 8.0, respectively. The mean (mm2 values found in the mark areas were: Accufilm II - 0.078; BK20 - 0.035; BK21 - 0.045; BK22 - 0.012; BK23 - 0.022; BK28 - 0.024; and BK31 - 0.024. The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis (p<0.05 and Pearson’s correlation tests. Conclusions Only in the 2nd measurement, the OCRS thickness observed was similar to the value indicated by the manufacturers; the Accufilm II and the BK28 strips showed the better marks; and no correlation was found between the thickness and the marking area.

  13. Processing of data from innovative parabolic strip telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosejk, Vladislav; Novy, J.; Chadzitaskos, Goce

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an innovative telescope design based on the usage of a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Isaac Newton was the first to solve the problem of chromatic aberration, which is caused by a difference in the refractive index of lenses. This problem was solved by a new kind of telescope with a mirror used as an objective. There are many different kinds of telescopes. The most basic one is the lens telescope. This type of a telescope uses a set of lenses. Another type is the mirror telescope, which employs the concave mirror, spherical parabolic mirror or hyperbolically shaped mirror as its objective. The lens speed depends directly on the surface of a mirror. Both types can be combined to form a telescope composed of at least two mirrors and a set of lenses. The light is reflected from the primary mirror to the secondary one and then to the lens system. This type is smaller-sized, with a respectively reduced lens speed. The telescope design presented in this paper uses a parabolic strip fulfilling the function of an objective. Observed objects are projected as lines in a picture plane. Each of the lines of a size equal to the size of the strip corresponds to the sum of intensities of the light coming perpendicular to the objective from an observed object. A series of pictures taken with a different rotation and processed by a special reconstruction algorithm is needed to get 2D pictures. The telescope can also be used for fast detection of objects. In this mode, the rotation and multiple pictures are not needed, just one picture in the focus of a mirror is required to be taken.

  14. Evaluation of Nobuto filter paper strips for the detection of avian influenza virus antibody in waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Nashold, Sean W.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    The utility of using Nobuto paper strips for the detection of avian influenza antibodies was examined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) experimentally infected with low pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Blood was collected 2 wk after infection and was preserved either as serum or whole blood absorbed onto Nobuto strips. Analysis of samples using a commercially available blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed comparable results (≥96% sensitivity for all methods) between sera stored at -30 C and the Nobuto strip preservation method even when the Nobuto strips were stored up to 3 mo at room temperature (RT). Significant differences were detected in the ratio of sample absorbance to negative control absorbance for Nobuto strips stored at RT compared with sera stored at -30 C, although these differences did not affect the ability of the test to reliably detect positive and negative samples. Nobuto strips are a convenient and sensitive alternative to the collection of serum samples when maintaining appropriate storage temperatures is difficult.

  15. Numerical analysis of edge effects in side illuminated strip detectors for digital radiology

    CERN Document Server

    Krizaj, D

    2000-01-01

    The influence of edge defects on side illuminated X-ray strip detectors for digital radiology is investigated by numerical device modeling. By assuming positive fixed oxide charges on side and top surfaces simulations have shown strong curvature of the equipotential lines in the edge region. A fraction of the edge generated current surpasses the edge guard-ring junction and is collected by the readout strips. As a consequence, strips cannot be placed close to the edge of the structure and collection efficiency is reduced. An n-on-n instead of a p-on-n strip detector is proposed enabling collection of edge generated carriers by a very narrow guard-ring junction and placement of the readout strip close to the edge without increase of the strip leakage current.

  16. Accelerator-mass spectroscopy with fully stripped 36Cl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Garching MP tandem-post accelerator-achromator accelerator facility was extended in such way that by it a very backgroundless accelerator mass spectroscopy with fully stripped medium heavy ions was possible. As first applications microscopical amounts of 36Cl (Tsub(1/2)= 301 000 years) were detected. The detection limit lies at 36Cl/CL=4x10-15. In first measurements the method was applied to the age determination of palaeontological samples and to the study of cosmic-radiation induced reactions in the earth crust. (orig.)

  17. Large CMS cathode strip chambers: design and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are the main design features of the large Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) for the CMS Endcap Muon System as well as the performance results obtained with the two full-scale 3.4x1.5 m2 six-plane prototypes. The prototype performance was within the baseline requirements: (a) higher than 99% efficiency of muon track finding at the trigger level with more than 92% probability for bunch crossing identification and better than 2 mm spatial resolution, and (b) better than 150 μm spatial resolution in off-line

  18. Development of SPD continuous processes for strip and rod production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dobatkin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain refinement upon the severe plastic deformation (SPD at low temperatures (below the recrystallization temperature and an unusual improvement the properties of such materials are shown reliably. However, the industrial application is limited due to the absence of effective continuous SPD processes. The potential of development of continuous SPD processes based on the equal channel angular pressing (ECAP process from one side and continuous extrusion or drawing processes from another side is considered. Existing various continuous SPD processes for strip, rod and wire production are analyzed.

  19. Alteraciones dentales y periodontales causadas por el stripping en ortodoncia.

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Merchán, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace más de setenta años el desgaste interproximal o stripping forma parte de las opciones de las que disponemos en los tratamientos de ortodoncia. Inicialmente fue un procedimiento indicado solo para pacientes adultos principalmente para el tratamiento de las discrepancias dentarias y la prevención de las recidivas mediante la estabilización de los puntos de contacto. Además comenzó a emplearse como alternativa en los casos dudosos de extracción, la eliminación de triángulos n...

  20. Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; Nishu, N; Saini, L K; Sharma, A; Singh, A; Singh, J B; Singh, S P; Ahuja, S; Arora, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Gupta, P; Jain, S; Jain, S; Jha, M; Kumar, A; Ranjan, K; Shivpuri, R K; Srivastava, A K; Choudhury, R K; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kataria, S K; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Maity, M; Majumder, D; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Nayak, A; Saha, A; Sudhakar, K; Banerjee, S; Dugad, S; Mondal, N K; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Moshaii, A; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rouhani, S; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Chiumarulo, F; Clemente, A; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cuscela, G; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; De Robertis, G; Donvito, G; Fedele, F; Fiore, L; Franco, M; Iaselli, G; Lacalamita, N; Loddo, F; Lusito, L; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Manna, N; Marangelli, B; My, S; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Papagni, G; Piccolomo, S; Pierro, G A; Pinto, C; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Rajan, R; Ranieri, A; Romano, F; Roselli, G; Selvaggi, G; Shinde, Y; Silvestris, L; Tupputi, S; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Bacchi, W; Benvenuti, A C; Boldini, M; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Cafaro, V D; Caiazza, S S; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; D'Antone, I; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Giordano, V; Giunta, M; Grandi, C; Guerzoni, M; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Pellegrini, G; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G; Torromeo, G; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Broccolo, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Genta, C; Landi, G; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Colafranceschi, S; Colonna, D; Fabbri, F; Giardoni, M; Passamonti, L; Piccolo, D; Pierluigi, D; Ponzio, B; Russo, A; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Benaglia, A; Calloni, M; Cerati, G B; D'Angelo, P; De Guio, F; Farina, F M; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Miccio, V; Moroni, L; Negri, P; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Pullia, A; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; Sala, S; Salerno, R; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tancini, V; Taroni, S; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Cimmino, A; De Gruttola, M; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Lomidze, D; Noli, P; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Barcellan, L; Bellan, P; Bellato, M; Benettoni, M; Biasotto, M; Bisello, D; Borsato, E; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Castellani, L; Checchia, P; Conti, E; Dal Corso, F; De Mattia, M; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Fanzago, F; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gonella, F; Gresele, A; Gulmini, M; Kaminskiy, A; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Maron, G; Mattiazzo, S; Mazzucato, M; Meneghelli, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Michelotto, M; Montecassiano, F; Nespolo, M; Passaseo, M; Pegoraro, M; Perrozzi, L; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Simonetto, F; Toniolo, N; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Vanini, S; Ventura, S; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Baesso, P; Berzano, U; Bricola, S; Necchi, M M; Pagano, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Torre, P; Vicini, A; Vitulo, P; Viviani, C; Aisa, D; Aisa, S; Babucci, E; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Caponeri, B; Checcucci, B; Dinu, N; Fanò, L; Farnesini, L; Lariccia, P; Lucaroni, A; Mantovani, G; Nappi, A; Piluso, A; Postolache, V; Santocchia, A; Servoli, L; Tonoiu, D; Vedaee, A; Volpe, R; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Berretta, L; Boccali, T; Bocci, A; Borrello, L; Bosi, F; Calzolari, F; Castaldi, R; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Gennai, S; Giassi, A; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Mariani, F; Martini, L; Massa, M; Messineo, A; Moggi, A; Palla, F; Palmonari, F; Petragnani, G; Petrucciani, G; Raffaelli, F; Sarkar, S; Segneri, G; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tolaini, S; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Baccaro, S; Barone, L; Bartoloni, A; Cavallari, F; Dafinei, I; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Franci, D; Longo, E; Organtini, G; Palma, A; Pandolfi, F; Paramatti, R; Pellegrino, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Alampi, G; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Biino, C; Borgia, M A; Botta, C; Cartiglia, N; Castello, R; Cerminara, G; Costa, M; Dattola, D; Dellacasa, G; Demaria, N; Dughera, G; Dumitrache, F; Graziano, A; Mariotti, C; Marone, M; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Mila, G; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Nervo, M; Obertino, M M; Oggero, S; Panero, R; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Trapani, P P; Trocino, D; Vilela Pereira, A; Visca, L; Zampieri, A; Ambroglini, F; Belforte, S; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Gobbo, B; Penzo, A; Chang, S; Chung, J; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kong, D J; Park, H; Son, D C; Bahk, S Y; Song, S; Jung, S Y; Hong, B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, K S; Moon, D H; Park, S K; Rhee, H B; Sim, K S; Kim, J; Choi, M; Hahn, G; Park, I C; Choi, S; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Jeong, H; Kim, T J; Lee, J; Lee, S; Janulis, M; Martisiute, D; Petrov, P; Sabonis, T; Castilla Valdez, H; Sánchez Hernández, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Morelos Pineda, A; Allfrey, P; Gray, R N C; Krofcheck, D; Bernardino Rodrigues, N; Butler, P H; Signal, T; Williams, J C; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, I; Ahmed, W; Asghar, M I; Awan, M I M; Hoorani, H R; Hussain, I; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Muhammad, S; Qazi, S; Shahzad, H; Cwiok, M; Dabrowski, R; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Pozniak, K; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Zabolotny, W; Zych, P; Frueboes, T; Gokieli, R; Goscilo, L; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Almeida, N; Antunes Pedro, L; Bargassa, P; David, A; Faccioli, P; Ferreira Parracho, P G; Freitas Ferreira, M; Gallinaro, M; Guerra Jordao, M; Martins, P; Mini, G; Musella, P; Pela, J; Raposo, L; Ribeiro, P Q; Sampaio, S; Seixas, J; Silva, J; Silva, P; Soares, D; Sousa, M; Varela, J; Wöhri, H K; Altsybeev, I; Belotelov, I; Bunin, P; Ershov, Y; Filozova, I; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Golunov, A; Golutvin, I; Gorbounov, N; Kalagin, V; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Korenkov, V; Kozlov, G; Kurenkov, A; Lanev, A; Makankin, A; Mitsyn, V V; Moisenz, P; Nikonov, E; Oleynik, D; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Petrosyan, A; Semenov, R; Shmatov, S; Smirnov, V; Smolin, D; Tikhonenko, E; Vasil'ev, S; Vishnevskiy, A; Volodko, A; Zarubin, A; Zhiltsov, V; Bondar, N; Chtchipounov, L; Denisov, A; Gavrikov, Y; Gavrilov, G; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kozlov, V; Levchenko, P; Obrant, G; Orishchin, E; Petrunin, A; Shcheglov, Y; Shchetkovskiy, A; Sknar, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Tarakanov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Velichko, G; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A; Antipov, P; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Matveev, V; Pashenkov, A; Postoev, V E; Solovey, A; Solovey, A; Toropin, A; Troitsky, S; Baud, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Ilina, N; Kaftanov, V; Kolosov, V; Kossov, M; Krokhotin, A; Kuleshov, S; Oulianov, A; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Shreyber, I; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Petrushanko, S; Sarycheva, L; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Konovalova, N; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Akimenko, S; Artamonov, A; Azhgirey, I; Bitioukov, S; Burtovoy, V; Grishin, V; Kachanov, V; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Levine, A; Lobov, I; Lukanin, V; Mel'nik, Y; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Slabospitsky, S; Sobol, A; Sytine, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Jovanovic, D; Krpic, D; Maletic, D; Puzovic, J; Smiljkovic, N; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Alberdi, J; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Arce, P; Barcala, J M; Battilana, C; Burgos Lazaro, C; Caballero Bejar, J; Calvo, E; Cardenas Montes, M; Cepeda, M; Cerrada, M; Chamizo Llatas, M; Clemente, F; Colino, N; Daniel, M; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Diez Pardos, C; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Garcia-Bonilla, A C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Marin, J; Merino, G; Molina, J; Molinero, A; Navarrete, J J; Oller, J C; Puerta Pelayo, J; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Villanueva Munoz, C; Willmott, C; Yuste, C; Albajar, C; Blanco Otano, M; de Trocóniz, J F; Garcia Raboso, A; Lopez Berengueres, J O; Cuevas, J; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Lloret Iglesias, L; Naves Sordo, H; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Diaz Merino, I; Diez Gonzalez, C; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Gonzalez Sanchez, J; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Jorda, C; Lobelle Pardo, P; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Marco, R; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Sobron Sanudo, M; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Albert, E; Alidra, M; Ashby, S; Auffray, E; Baechler, J; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Bally, S L; Barney, D; Beaudette, F; Bellan, R; Benedetti, D; Benelli, G; Bernet, C; Bloch, P; Bolognesi, S; Bona, M; Bos, J; Bourgeois, N; Bourrel, T; Breuker, H; Bunkowski, K; Campi, D; Camporesi, T; Cano, E; Cattai, A; Chatelain, J P; Chauvey, M; Christiansen, T; Coarasa Perez, J A; Conde Garcia, A; Covarelli, R; Curé, B; De Roeck, A; Delachenal, V; Deyrail, D; Di Vincenzo, S; Dos Santos, S; Dupont, T; Edera, L M; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eppard, M; Favre, M; Frank, N; Funk, W; Gaddi, A; Gastal, M; Gateau, M; Gerwig, H; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girod, J P; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R; Goudard, R; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Guiducci, L; Gutleber, J; Hansen, M; Hartl, C; Harvey, J; Hegner, B; Hoffmann, H F; Holzner, A; Honma, A; Huhtinen, M; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Le Godec, G; Lecoq, P; Leonidopoulos, C; Loos, R; Lourenço, C; Lyonnet, A; Macpherson, A; Magini, N; Maillefaud, J D; Maire, G; Mäki, T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Meridiani, P; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Meynet Cordonnier, A; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Mulon, J; Noy, M; Oh, A; 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Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Mumford, J; Plager, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Tucker, J; Valuev, V; Wallny, R; Yang, X; Babb, J; Bose, M; Chandra, A; Clare, R; Ellison, J A; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Jeng, G Y; Kao, S C; Liu, F; Liu, H; Luthra, A; Nguyen, H; Pasztor, G; Satpathy, A; Shen, B C; Stringer, R; Sturdy, J; Sytnik, V; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Branson, J G; Dusinberre, E; Evans, D; Golf, F; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Lipeles, E; Mangano, B; Muelmenstaedt, J; Norman, M; Padhi, S; Petrucci, A; Pi, H; Pieri, M; Ranieri, R; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Simon, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Campagnari, C; D'Alfonso, M; Danielson, T; Garberson, J; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kalavase, P; Koay, S A; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Lamb, J; Lowette, S; Pavlunin, V; Rebassoo, F; Ribnik, J; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; Vlimant, J R; Witherell, M; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chiorboli, M; Gataullin, M; Kcira, D; Litvine, V; Ma, Y; Newman, H B; Rogan, C; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Yang, Y; Zhang, L; Zhu, K; Zhu, R Y; Akgun, B; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Jang, D W; Jun, S Y; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Terentyev, N; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Dinardo, M E; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Heyburn, B; Luiggi Lopez, E; Nauenberg, U; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K; Wagner, S R; Zang, S L; Agostino, L; Alexander, J; Blekman, F; Cassel, D; Chatterjee, A; Das, S; Gibbons, L K; Heltsley, B; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Kuznetsov, V; Patterson, J R; Puigh, D; Ryd, A; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Vaughan, J; Weng, Y; Wittich, P; Beetz, C P; Cirino, G; Sanzeni, C; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Afaq, M A; Albrow, M; Ananthan, B; Apollinari, G; Atac, M; Badgett, W; Bagby, L; Bakken, J A; Baldin, B; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Biery, K; Binkley, M; Bloch, I; Borcherding, F; Brett, A M; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Churin, I; Cihangir, S; Crawford, M; Dagenhart, W; Demarteau, M; Derylo, G; Dykstra, D; Eartly, D P; Elias, J E; Elvira, V D; Evans, D; Feng, L; Fischler, M; Fisk, I; Foulkes, S; Freeman, J; Gartung, P; Gottschalk, E; Grassi, T; Green, D; Guo, Y; Gutsche, O; Hahn, A; Hanlon, J; Harris, R M; Holzman, B; Howell, J; Hufnagel, D; James, E; Jensen, H; Johnson, M; Jones, C D; Joshi, U; Juska, E; Kaiser, J; Klima, B; Kossiakov, S; Kousouris, K; Kwan, S; Lei, C M; Limon, P; Lopez Perez, J A; Los, S; Lueking, L; Lukhanin, G; Lusin, S; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Miao, T; Mishra, K; Moccia, S; Mommsen, R; Mrenna, S; Muhammad, A S; Newman-Holmes, C; Noeding, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Rivera, R; Rivetta, C H; Ronzhin, A; Rossman, P; Ryu, S; Sekhri, V; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sfiligoi, I; Sharma, S; Shaw, T M; Shpakov, D; Skup, E; Smith, R P; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Suzuki, I; Tan, P; Tanenbaum, W; Tkaczyk, S; Trentadue, R; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wicklund, E; Wu, W; Yarba, J; Yumiceva, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Barashko, V; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A

    2010-01-01

    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns.

  1. Vibration control of an elastic strip by a singular force

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erol Uzal; Banu Korbahti

    2010-04-01

    Vibration characteristics of an elastic plate in the shape of an infinite strip are changed by applying a lateral concentrated force to the plate. The homogeneous, isotropic, elastic plate is infinite in the -direction and the sides are simply supported. The size of the force is changed in proportion to the displacement measured at a certain point of the plate. The proportionality constant serves as the control parameter. The mathematical formulation of this distributed control problem and its analytical solution in terms of the vibration frequencies of the plate are given. The vibration frequencies are plotted as a function of the control parameter.

  2. Analysis of Nickel-iron Electrodeposition: Plating and Stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project involves the electrodeposition of Nickel-Iron (NiFe)nano alloy onto a platinum (Pt) electrode. The objective is to observe the effect of properties such as the mole fraction of Iron (Fe) and the current density has on the plating and stripping of nanoalloyNiFe. The experimental setup measures the rate of deposition, while the relations between the properties were determined via plots of current versus time and mole fraction versus k. It was concluded that plating efficiency was directly proportional to current density and an oscillating mass transfer coefficient will produce NiFe with different layers of compositions. (author)

  3. A silicon strip detector dose magnifying glass for IMRT dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, J. H. D.; Carolan, M.; Lerch, M. L. F.; Petasecca, M.; Khanna, S.; Perevertaylo, V. L.; Metcalfe, P.; Rosenfeld, A. B. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia) and Illawarra Cancer Care Centre, Wollongong Hospital, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); St. George Cancer Care Centre, Kogarah, Sydney, New South Wales 2217 (Australia); SPA BIT, 01034 Kiev (Ukraine); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows the delivery of escalated radiation dose to tumor while sparing adjacent critical organs. In doing so, IMRT plans tend to incorporate steep dose gradients at interfaces between the target and the organs at risk. Current quality assurance (QA) verification tools such as 2D diode arrays, are limited by their spatial resolution and conventional films are nonreal time. In this article, the authors describe a novel silicon strip detector (CMRP DMG) of high spatial resolution (200 {mu}m) suitable for measuring the high dose gradients in an IMRT delivery. Methods: A full characterization of the detector was performed, including dose per pulse effect, percent depth dose comparison with Farmer ion chamber measurements, stem effect, dose linearity, uniformity, energy response, angular response, and penumbra measurements. They also present the application of the CMRP DMG in the dosimetric verification of a clinical IMRT plan. Results: The detector response changed by 23% for a 390-fold change in the dose per pulse. A correction function is derived to correct for this effect. The strip detector depth dose curve agrees with the Farmer ion chamber within 0.8%. The stem effect was negligible (0.2%). The dose linearity was excellent for the dose range of 3-300 cGy. A uniformity correction method is described to correct for variations in the individual detector pixel responses. The detector showed an over-response relative to tissue dose at lower photon energies with the maximum dose response at 75 kVp nominal photon energy. Penumbra studies using a Varian Clinac 21EX at 1.5 and 10.0 cm depths were measured to be 2.77 and 3.94 mm for the secondary collimators, 3.52 and 5.60 mm for the multileaf collimator rounded leaf ends, respectively. Point doses measured with the strip detector were compared to doses measured with EBT film and doses predicted by the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system. The differences were 1

  4. Laser stripping of hydrogen atoms by direct ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct ionization of hydrogen atoms by laser irradiation is investigated as a potential new scheme to generate proton beams without stripping foils. The time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing the atom-radiation interaction is numerically solved obtaining accurate ionization cross-sections for a broad range of laser wavelengths, durations and energies. Parameters are identified where the Doppler frequency up-shift of radiation colliding with relativistic particles can lead to efficient ionization over large volumes and broad bandwidths using currently available lasers

  5. HRVATSKI STRIP 1990-IH: ETNOLOŠKI ASPEKTI

    OpenAIRE

    Matošević, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Članak analizira osam publiciranih stripova u Hrvatskoj 1990-ih godina, koji su sva pronađena građa koju je autor uspio skupiti. Tematski se mogu podijeliti u tri skupine: superheroji, antijunaci te stripovi s porukom. Cilj je bio pokazati da strip na sebi svojstven način apsorbira teme kojima se bave ostali mediji. Dakle, u ovom slučaju, ratište, imidž ratnika i neprijatelja ali i svojevrsna idealizacija povijesti Hrvata, gdje su oni mahom prikazani kao mudriji, dovitljiviji i učeniji ili...

  6. Polarized-Deuteron Stripping Reaction at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kovalchuk, Valery I

    2016-01-01

    A general analytical expressions for the cross-section and the polarization of nucleons arising in the inclusive deuteron stripping reaction have been derived in the diffraction approximation. The nucleon-nucleus phases were calculated in the framework of Glauber formalism and making use of the double-folding potential. The tabulated distributions of the target nucleus density and the realistic deuteron wave function with correct asymptotic at large nucleon-nucleon distances were used. The calculated angular dependences for the cross-sections and the analyzing powers of the $(\\vec{d},p)$ reaction are in good agreement with corresponding experimental data.

  7. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  8. Recrystallization behaviour of cold rolled aluminium from cast strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper revises the literature on the problems in recrystallization of cold rolled cast strips. The phenomenon of the precipitation previous or simultaneous to recrystallization, that may affect the nucleation of the recrystallization, is explained. The use of TTT (Time, Temperature, Transformation) curves to obtain the critical time and temperature without cutting the nose of the precipitation zone are examined For Al-Mn alloys it is also explained the obtainment of CTT (Concentration, Time, Temperature) curves and grain size diagrams on the basis of heating rate and Mn in solid solution obtainment. (Author) 47 refs

  9. Radiation damage measurements on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Korsbech, Uffe C C;

    2003-01-01

    At DSRI, in collaboration with the cyclotron facility at Copenhagen University Hospital, we have performed a study of radiation effects exposing a 2.7 mm thick CZT drift strip detector to 30 MeV protons. The detector characteristics were evaluated after exposure to a number of fluences in the range....... A numerical model that emulates the physical processes of the charge transport in the CZT detector was used to derive the charge trapping parameter, mutau(e), (the product of charge mobility and trapping time) as a function of fluence. The analysis showed that the electron trapping increased proportionately...

  10. Ultraviolet spectroscopy with highly-stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excited-state structures of highly-stripped heavy ions are important testing grounds for the effects of relativistic contributions in atomic structure calculations of high-Z systems. Spectroscopic studies of both few-electron and many-electron highly-ionized atoms have recently enhanced our experimental knowledge of such effects as fine structure, Lamb shifts, polarizabilities, and intercombination decay rates. Several examples of these studies are presented from areas of current experimental interest involving the atomic spectroscopy of fast heavy ions. The need for extending these measurements to higher-Z ions using the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators is discussed. 21 references

  11. Acceleration region influence on beam parameters on stripping foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some formulas describing the beam parameters on the stripping foil (SF) as a function of the radial amplitude of betatron oscillations and energy gain are derived. The results computed by these formulas are in good agreement with the results of the numerical calculations. Obtained results show that between the radial emittance and the energy spread exists parametric dependence via amplitude of radial betatron oscillations. This conclusion allows one to create a working diagram of expected beam parameters on SF. This diagram may be particularly useful for the extraction system designers since it gives relationship between parameters considered as the extraction system input parameters. (author)

  12. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3x1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme

  13. AEGIS20: a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Faber, S M; Smail, I; Biggs, A D; Conselice, C J; Wilson, G; Salim, S; Huang, J S; Wilner, S P; Smail, Ian

    2006-01-01

    We describe AEGIS20 - a radio survey of the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) conducted with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 1.4GHz. The resulting catalog contains 1,123 emitters and is sensitive to ultraluminous starbursts to z1 where correcting for contamination by radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) comes at the price of rejecting luminous starbursts. Whilst stacking radio images is a useful technique, accurate radio-based SFRs for z>>1 galaxies require precise redshifts and extraordinarily high-fidelity radio data to identify and remove accretion-related emission.

  14. Initial Beam Test of the Prototype Strip Line BPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Ryu, Jin Yeong; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A beam position monitor (BPM) was developed which would be used for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) beam line. It is a strip line BPM which is commonly used one for the proton beam. The BPM cross section was designed with the SUPERFISH code and the matching section to the feed through was designed by the MWS code. The design parameters of the BPM are shown in Table 1. The designed BPM was fabricated to verify the manufacturing process and check its electrical performance. After the low power test at the test stand, the BPM was installed at the 20-MeV proton accelerator beam line as shown in Fig. 1

  15. Central tracking chamber with inflated cathode-strip foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackmore, E.W.; Bryman, D.A.; Kuno, Y.; Lim, C.; Numao, T.; Padley, P.; Redlinger, G.; Soluk, R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); McPherson, R.A. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    1998-02-21

    A new cylindrical low-mass central drift chamber has been constructed for the K{sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{nu} anti {nu} experiment at BNL (E787). The chamber consists of twelve layers of axial wire cells and six layers of thin cathode-strip foils, four of which are supported by differential gas pressure. The momentum resolution (RMS) for muons and pions in the range 150-250 MeV/c is found to be about 0.9%. (orig.). 16 refs.

  16. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Alfimov, V.; Christl, M.; Lachner, J.; Schulze-König, T.; Suter, M.; Synal, H.-A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40-50% are now possible.

  17. Charge exchange between hydrogen atoms and fully stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charge exchange between multicharged ions and background atomic and molecular gases represents one of the limitations to the attainment of high charge states in heavy ion sources, particularly containment sources. An attempt is made to study systematically a particularly simple but in many respects representative class of such reactions, namely charge transfer between atomic hydrogen and fully stripped heavy ions. Approximate cross sections for these processes in the low keV range of collision energies were obtained using a multistate Landau--Zener method. The energy and Z dependences of the cross sections are discussed

  18. The potential of He stripping in heavy ion AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of helium as a stripper gas for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of heavy ions is presented. At ion stripping energies of about 500 keV and below we observe a significant increase of the mean charge state when using helium instead of other gases. Moreover, scattering losses are reduced with helium because of its lower mass compared to other commonly used stripper gases. Thus, highly efficient AMS measurements for 41Ca, 129I and 236U with transmissions through the accelerator in the range of 40–50% are now possible.

  19. Negative and nonlinear magnetoresistance effect in silicon strip

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fangcong; Guo, Hui; Fan, Xiaolong; Li, Zhankui

    2016-01-01

    Both negative magnetoresistance and nonlinear magnetoresisitance were observed in silicon strip nuclear radiation detector in room temperature if we applied high magnetic field intensity in different direction. This result is different with former report. We believe this is the result of coaction of high electric field (Gunn effect) and high magnetic field, or because of the variation of number of carriers and the carriers mobility. The weak localization and Landau energy levels also affect the magnetoresistance. Different crystal orientations have different energy band structures. Complex band structures lead complex carriers mobility plus Landau energy levels. So the magnetoresisitance effect is anisotropy.

  20. Web-Based Cathode Strip Chamber Data Display

    CERN Multimedia

    Firmansyah, M

    2013-01-01

    Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) is a detector that uses gas and high electric field to detect particles. When a particle goes through CSC, it will ionize gas particles and generate electric signal in the anode and cathode of the detector. Analysis of the electric signal data can help physicists to reconstruct path of the particles and determine what happen inside the detector. Using data display, analysis of CSC data becomes easier. One can determine which data is interesting, unusual, or maybe only contain noise.\

  1. BackSPAD - developments: Latest results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durini, Daniel; Weyers, Sascha; Stuehlmeyer, Martin; Goehlich, Andreas; Brockherde, Werner; Paschen, Uwe; Vogt, Holger [Fraunhofer IMS, Duisburg (Germany); Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    In the recent years, a large amount of effort has been put into the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as a viable technology to replace the conventional photo multiplier tubes (PMT)in many low-light level applications. In parallel, a concept has been pursued where the Geiger avalanche diodes are integrated in the same substrate with the pixel-electronics, forming arrays of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) smart pixels exploiting in this way the advantages of the CMOS technology combined with single-photon counting possibilities. One of the huge problems accompanying the increase of the in-pixel circuit complexity is the unavoidable diminishing of the SPAD pixel fill-factors, which tend to descend to below 4%. Aiming at improving the SPAD front-end performance, we pursue the development of Back-Side Illuminated SPAD (BackSPAD) smart-pixel structures in the frame of the EU-FP7-ICT-5 project *MiSPiA* (grant agreement No. 257646). BackSPAD array and the smart-pixel electronics are placed one over the other in close mechanical and electrical contact. The BackSPAD detectors are isolated from each other by deep trenches. The recent measurement results of the BackSPAD structures are reported.

  2. Manganese Detection with a Metal Catalyst Free Carbon Nanotube Electrode: Anodic versus Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Riehl, Bill L.; Riehl, Bonnie D.; Johnson, Jay M.; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and cathodic stripping voltammetry (CSV) were used to determine Mn concentration using metal catalyst free carbon nanotube (MCFCNT) electrodes and square wave stripping voltammetry (SWSV). The MCFCNTs are synthesized using a Carbo Thermal Carbide Conversion method which results in a material that does not contain residual transition metals. Detection limits of 120 nM and 93 nM were achieved for ASV and CSV, respectively, with a deposition time of 60 s. CSV w...

  3. The use of the Rapignost strip for estimating urinary amylase levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Touquet, V. L.; Wilcox, A H

    1985-01-01

    The Rapignost-Amylase urinary test strip (Behringwerke Laboratories) provides an estimation of urine amylase which takes a few minutes and is easy to perform. During a period of 9 months, 84 patients had their urine tested with this strip by casualty officers in the Accident and Emergency Department of St George's Hospital, London. In addition, urine amylase, and plasma amylase and creatinine were measured in the chemical pathology laboratory. In all but one instance, the result of the strip ...

  4. Development of an Immunochromatographic Strip for Rapid Detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii

    OpenAIRE

    Min Feng; Dezhao Kong; Wenbing Wang; Liqiang Liu; Shanshan Song; Chuanlai Xu

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, sensitive, and specific immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the detection of Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pss) in corn seed which was soaked overnight and then centrifuged for precipitate re-dissolved as samples. A pair of sensitive monoclonal antibodies for the immunochromatographic test strip was generated by mice immunization and cell fusion. Under optimized conditions, the lower detection limit of the strips for Pss was 1 × 105 cfu/mL both in 0.01 M ...

  5. Stripping a debris disk by close stellar encounters in an open stellar cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Lestrade, Jean-Francois; Morey, Etienne; Lassus, Antoine; Phou, Naron

    2011-01-01

    A debris disk is a constituent of any planetary system surrounding a main sequence star. We study whether close stellar encounters can disrupt and strip a debris disk of its planetesimals in the expanding open cluster of its birth with a decreasing star number density over 100 Myrs. Such stripping would affect the dust production and hence detectability of the disk. We tabulated the fractions of planetesimals stripped off during stellar flybys of miss distances between 100 and 1000 AU and for...

  6. Living on the edge : effectiveness of buffer strips in protecting biodiversity on boreal riparian forests

    OpenAIRE

    Hylander, Kristoffer

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the ecological consequences of buffer strip retention on riparian and terrestrial biodiversity. Earlier studies on forest buffer strips have evaluated their effectiveness in relation to water quality and aquatic biota. However, forests along streams are species rich habitats for many organism groups. Buffer strip management is assumed to be important also for protecting such species. Current approaches to biodiversity-oriented forest management prac...

  7. A solution for stripping antibodies from PVDF immunoblots for multiple reprobing

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Yee-Guide; Stanley, E. Richard

    2009-01-01

    Available protocols for stripping antibodies from immunoblots involve the use of SDS or low pH buffers. SDS was shown to remove transferred proteins from membranes and low pH buffer shown to inefficiently strip off antibodies. A solution containing 6M guanidine hydrochloride, 0.2% non-denaturing detergent and a reducing agent can rapidly strip off tightly bound antibodies from aged PVDF immunoblots at room temperature, without removing significant amounts of transferred protein.

  8. Chemical Stripping of ceramic films of titanium aluminum nitride from hard metal substrates

    OpenAIRE

    U. Bardi; D. Bonacchi; Rizzi, G.; Scrivani, A.

    2003-01-01

    We report here the result of a study of different chemical stripping methodologies for ceramic coatings deposited by PVD on hard metal substrates. We show that an approach based on the study of the system by surface science techniques leads to the possibility of developing effective stripping methods as well as guidelines for improving the process. We will report about two methods tested for the stripping of layers of titanium aluminum nitride (TINALOX) deposited by Physical Vapor De...

  9. Effect of histamine and histamine analogues on human isolated myometrial strips.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Mir, M. I.; Estañ, L.; Morales-Olivas, F. J.; Rubio, E.

    1992-01-01

    1. The effect of histamine and histamine H1- and H2-receptor agonists on isolated myometrium strips of premenopausal women has been examined. The effect of acetylcholine was also determined. 2. Histamine, 2-pyridylethylamine, 4-methylhistamine and acetylcholine, but not dimaprit, produced a concentration-related contractile response in human isolated myometrial strips. Histamine also produced a further contraction in human isolated myometrial strips precontracted with KCl (55 mM). 3. The cont...

  10. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  11. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  12. Council Approves Scanning All Back Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    At its last meeting, the 2002-2004 Council, which oversaw the first 2 years of electronic publishing by the Union, authorized funds to scan all back issues of journals, books, and the archival material from Eos and Transactions. In accepting the proposal of the Publications Committee, Council noted that providing the means to deliver all back issues is a fitting conclusion to the transition to electronic publishing. Expenditures of up to $1.1 million were authorized for the scanning project, and for creating searchable abstracts of all back material, and for several other smaller projects. The money comes from the Electronic Publishing Development Fund, which had been built in the 1990s specifically to assure the financial underpinning for the electronic publishing transition. Members should start seeing the fruits of this work in 2006.

  13. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2012-07-19

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation. PMID:23564969

  14. Optimization of the process of steel strip perforation and nickel platting for the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Aleksandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the production of pocket type electrodes for Ni-Cd batteries perforation of proper steel strips and then nickel platting of perforated steel strips were made. In the nickel platting process, the organic solvent, trichloroethylene, has previously been used for cleaning. Due to the carcinogenic nature of trichloroethylene and the many operations previously required during cleaning, it was considered to do cleaning of perforated steel strips without use of the mentioned organic solvent. In the purpose of elimination of trichloroethylene from the cleaning process of perforated steel strips, the tests of perforation of steel strips with use of oils of different viscosity were made. It was shown that there was no dysfunction during the work of the perforation plants, meaning there was no additional heating of the strips, deterring of the steel filings, nor excessive wearing of the perforation apparatus. The perforation percent was the same irrelevant of the viscosity of the used oil. Before being perforated using the oils with different viscosity, the nickel platting steel strips were cleaned in different degreasers (based on NaOH as well as on KOH. It was shown that efficient cleaning without the use of trichloroethylene is possible with the use of oil with smaller viscosity in the perforated steel strips process and the degreaser based on KOH in the cleaning process, before nickel platting. It also appeared that the alkali degreaser based on KOH was more efficient, bath corrections were made less often and the working period of the baths was longer, which all in summary means less quantity of chemicals needed for degreasing of perforated steel strips.

  15. Spatially distinct responses within willow to bark stripping by deer: effects on insect herbivory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motonobu; Nakamura, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Within individual plants, cervid herbivory may cause positive or negative plant-mediated effects on insect herbivores, depending on where it occurs. Using a combination of field observations and artificial bark-stripping experiments in Hokkaido, Japan, we examined the plant-mediated effects of bark stripping by sika deer ( Cervus nippon yesoensis) on insect herbivory in two spatially distinct parts of willow ( Salix udensis) trees: resprouting leaves below bark-stripping wounds and canopy leaves above. Natural and artificial bark stripping stimulated resprouting from trunks below wounds. Resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees had lower total phenolics, condensed tannin, and C/N ratios than did canopy leaves on control trees. Herbivory rates were higher in resprouting leaves on bark-stripped trees than in canopy leaves on controls. Conversely, above-wound canopy leaves on bark-stripped trees had higher total phenolics than did those on controls, while herbivory rates were lower in the canopy leaves of bark-stripped trees than in those on controls. These results demonstrate that plant-mediated effects of bark stripping diverge between plant tissues below and above wounds in individual willow trees. We submit that focusing on multiple plant parts can elucidate plant-mediated effects at the whole-plant scale.

  16. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1, and fully stripped, N0, ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N1/N0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence for two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  17. The use of EMAT generated lamb waves for in-process inspection of strip steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strip steel industry has described a manufacturing problem of internal inclusions in their strip steel product for use in the automotive/appliance industry which is manifested after the rolling operation. The 'pencil pipe', a non-metallic inclusion introduced during the continuous casting process, is not detected prior to the roll, and after rolling it is too late to recover. The objective of this paper is to describe the selection and implementation of ElectroMagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) generated Lamb wave modes that could be used for on-line detection of pencil pipe defects in strip steel before the strip is rolled to its final thickness. (author)

  18. Strip Crown Prediction: Developing a Refined Dynamic Roll-Stack Model for the Hot Rolling Process

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Derek Emerson

    2009-01-01

    The steel industry has been producing flat plates through the process of hot rolling since the late 1600s. Hot rolling uses a series of rolls to progressively thin a strip of steel to a desired thickness. In deforming the strip, the rolling process causes variations in thickness across the width of the strip. These variations are commonly referred to as crown, which is specifically the difference in thickness between the center and edge of a strip. For most applications steel mill clients req...

  19. High-resolution tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions has been investigated using a 12C beam of 1.5 GeV/u at GSI. The ionization charge spectrum and the charge sharing between strips are presented. The strip cluster of carbon ion can be selected based on the cluster charge with high efficiency and little contamination. The spatial resolution of the silicon strip detectors is evaluated. The angular distribution of multiple Coulomb scattering was investigated with lead absorbers. The results are compared to the Moliere theory and the Gaussian approximation of GEANT calculations. (author)

  20. Effects of hydrostatic strain on eigenstates of Möbius strips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Benny; Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we theoretically investigate the allowed energies and associate wave-functions for Möbius strips with varying thicknesses. We show that the induced strain in fabricating these Möbius strips will have an pronounced impact on the energies and wave-functions for thick strips, while f...... thin strips the impact of strain is negligible. We furthermore, show that a simpler strain free approximate theory base on differential geometry is in excellent agreement with detailed finite element calculations. © 2011 IEEE....

  1. High-resolution tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, S.R.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Balboni, C.; Battiston, R.; Burger, W.J.; Chang, Y.H.; Geissel, H.; Ionica, M.; Lustermann, W.; Maehlum, G.; Menichelli, M.; Pauluzzi, M.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rapin, D.; Ren, D.; Ribordy, M.; Sann, H.; Schardt, D.; Suemmerer, K.; Viertel, G

    1999-10-01

    Tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions has been investigated using a {sup 12}C beam of 1.5 GeV/u at GSI. The ionization charge spectrum and the charge sharing between strips are presented. The strip cluster of carbon ion can be selected based on the cluster charge with high efficiency and little contamination. The spatial resolution of the silicon strip detectors is evaluated. The angular distribution of multiple Coulomb scattering was investigated with lead absorbers. The results are compared to the Moliere theory and the Gaussian approximation of GEANT calculations. (author)

  2. High-resolution tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, S R; Ambrosi, G; Balboni, C; Battiston, R; Burger, W J; Chang, Y H; Geissel, H; Ionica, M; Lustermann, W; Maehlum, G; Menichelli, M; Pauluzzi, M; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rapin, D; Ren, D; Ribordy, M; Sann, H; Schardt, D; Sümmerer, K; Viertel, Gert M

    1999-01-01

    Tracking with silicon strip detectors for relativistic ions has been investigated using a sup 1 sup 2 C beam of 1.5 GeV/u at GSI. The ionization charge spectrum and the charge sharing between strips are presented. The strip cluster of carbon ion can be selected based on the cluster charge with high efficiency and little contamination. The spatial resolution of the silicon strip detectors is evaluated. The angular distribution of multiple Coulomb scattering was investigated with lead absorbers. The results are compared to the Moliere theory and the Gaussian approximation of GEANT calculations. (author)

  3. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated Silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal to noise ratio of 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the inter-strip and the guard ring region and crosstalk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance.

  4. Generalized thick strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Y.; Palacios, R.; Graham, M.; Sherwin, S.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip-theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into "thick" strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this approach is able to cover the full spectrum for fully resolved 3D modelling to 2D strip theory. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single "thick" strip would fill the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip-structure interactions. Numerical tests on both laminar and turbulent flows as well as the comparison against the fully resolved DNS are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.

  5. Riparian strip efficiency assessment in agricultural landscapes using stereoscopic very high spatial resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokmani, Karem; Novoa, Julio

    2015-04-01

    Riparian strips are used worldwide to protect riverbanks and water quality in agricultural zones because of their several environmental benefits. A metric called the Riparian Strip Quality Index, which is based on the percentage area of riverine vegetation found on the riparian strip, is used to evaluate their ecological condition. This index could be considered an indicator of the potential capacity of riparian strips to filter sediments, retain pollutants, and provide shelter to terrestrial and aquatic species. Thus, in order to know if a riparian strip is truly efficient in agricultural lands, which means that it is fulfilling those ecological functions, it is necessary to understand their ability to intercept surface runoff. The latter is the major cause of water pollution and erosion in these productive areas. Besides vegetation coverage, topographic and hydrologic parameters must be included to model the intensity and spatial distribution of runoff streamflow at local scales. The geospatial information used to assess the ecological efficiency of riparian strips was extracted from very-high-spatial-resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery. This information was then processed using current geospatial techniques such as object-based image analysis and was used to develop a Riparian Strip Efficiency Index. The results show that this index might be used to assess the efficiency of riparian strips, which will enable land managers to monitor changes occurring over time, identify priority areas for restoration activities. This, in turn, might ensure optimal allocation of private or public funds towards the most inefficient and threatened riparian strips.

  6. Simulation of accelerated strip cooling on the hot rolling mill run-out roller table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Makarov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of the thermal state of the metal in the run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. The mathematical model takes into account heat generation due to the polymorphic γ → α transformation of supercooled austenite phase state and the influence of the chemical composition of the steel on the physical properties of the metal. The model allows calculation of modes of accelerated cooling strips on run-out roller table continuous wide hot strip mill. Winding temperature calculation error does not exceed 20°C for 98.5 % of strips of low-carbon and low-alloy steels

  7. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  8. Quantum Back Reaction on a Classical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Brout, R; Popescu, S; Parentani, R; Spindel, P; Spindel, Ph.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to apply post selection in the context of weak measurement of Aharonov and collaborators to construct the quantum back reaction on a classical field. The particular case which we study in this paper is pair creation in an external electric field and the back reaction is the counter field produced by the pair \\underline {as} it is made. The construction leads to a complex electric field obtained from non diagonal matrix elements of the current operator, the interpretation of which is clear in terms of weak measurement. The analogous construction applied to black hole physics (thereby leading to a complex metric) is relegated to a future paper.

  9. Evaluating grass strips trapping efficiency of sediments and herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burguet, Maria; Guzmán, Gema; de Luna, Elena; Taguas, Encarnación V.; Gómez, José Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion and associated offsite contamination are major environmental risks in many Mediterranean crops such as olives or vineyards (Beaufoy, 2001; Gómez et al., 2011). The use of cover crops has been prescribed as a mitigation measure for both problems because permanent cover crops have demonstrated to reduce sediment and agrochemical loads (e.g. Gómez, 2009a, b). However, large uncertainty remains about its effectiveness degree to reduce sediment and agrochemical contribution to streams due to the limited number of available studies, and the large variability observed under field conditions (Taguas et al., 2012). Furthermore, the determination of sediment and herbicide sources using suitable sediment tracing/fingerprinting properties has been noted as one tool to evaluate the effectiveness and functioning of vegetated filters at the catchment scale (Koiter et al., 2013). The objectives of the present study were twofold: [1] to explore the combined use of natural and simulated rainfall and magnetic iron oxide in understanding the performance of vegetation strips on runoff and soil and herbicide losses at plot scale and, [2] to evaluate the effectiveness degree of vegetation strips in buffering sediment and herbicide from bare soil areas under different conditions compared to a control situation with no strips. This study encompasses six rainfall simulations under four different soil managements combining the use of a magnetic iron oxide as a sediment tracer to obtain a better understanding of the vegetation strips trapping efficiency. Three runoff plots of 6 m × 14 m were established in a 20% hillslope under a Fluvisol alluvial terrace. Each of the plots contained three bare strips tagged with magnetic iron oxide and three strips with Lolium multiflorum L. The soil management simulated scenarios were: immediately after sowing the vegetation cover (June 2011cover crop), with settled vegetation cover (June 2012cover crop), after 5 cm of deep ploughing

  10. The effect of cinnamon extract on isolated rat uterine strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed

    2016-03-01

    Cinnamon is a spice used by some populations as a traditional remedy to control blood pressure and thus hypertension. Cinnamon extract decreases contractility in some smooth muscles, but its effect on uterine smooth muscle is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and pharmacological effects of cinnamon extract (CE) on the contractions of isolated rat uterine strips and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. Isolated longitudinal uterine strips were dissected from non-pregnant rats, mounted vertically in an organ bath chamber, and exposed to different concentrations of CE (10-20mg/mL). The effect of CE was investigated in the presence of each of the following solutions: 60mM KCl, 5nM oxytocin, and 1μM Bay K8644. CE significantly decreased the force of uterine contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and significantly attenuated the uterine contractions elicited by KCl and oxytocin. In addition, CE significantly decreased the contractile force elicited when L-type Ca(2+) channels were activated by Bay K8644. CE's major mechanism may be inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels, which limits calcium influx. These data demonstrate that CE can be a potent tocolytic that can decrease uterine activity regardless of how the force was produced, even when the uterus was stimulated by agonists. As a result, cinnamon may be used to alleviate menstrual pain associated with dysmenorrhoea or prevent unwanted uterine activity in early pregnancy. PMID:26952750

  11. Stripping voltammetric behavior of technetium at various chemically modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring of nuclear processing plants and storage facilities the necessity arises of assaying traces of the artificial radioactive element technetium. The oxidation states IV and VII are of particular interest. Stripping voltammetry is among the methods of assay which are suited for this purpose. It allows an enhanced selectivity to be achieved by preconcentration of the analyte and of an oxidation state of the analyte, respectively, at the electrode used. This specific enrichment is successful after appropriate chemical modification of the electrode through immobilization of a Tc-specific reagent. When various approaches of chemical modification of a glassy carbon electrode were examined, the tetraphenylarsonium chloride extractant, which is highly selective with respect to technetium, proved to be the best suited reagent, capable of fixation both by ionic and by covalent bonding on an electrodeposited polymer film. For ionic immobilization the reagent was reacted to m-sulfophenyltriphenyl arsonium and then bound to a copolymer of vinylferrocene and vinylpyridine, which had been provided with cations. It was possible to enrich Tc(VII) at such an electrode and to determine it by stripping voltammetry down to a concentration of 1x10-8 M after 5 minutes enrichment time. (orig./EF)

  12. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  13. Diffraction by a strip at almost grazing angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, Ivan V.; Bouche, Daniel P.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of high-frequency diffraction by a soft strip at almost grazing incidence is considered. By using the parabolic equation method, and variable separation in elliptical coordinates, we derive the two terms asymptotic approximation of the solution. First we consider the boundary layer near the surface of the strip and derive an asymptotic representation for the velocities on the surface. Then we apply Green's formula to derive the asymptotic representation for the far field. Both asymptotic representations in the boundary layer and for the far field are expressed in the form of rapidly converging integrals containing Whittaker or Coulomb wave functions. The approximation for the total scattering cross-section is checked to match to known asymptotic results: the physical optics approximation for the not too small angles of incidence on one side and the asymptotic expression for the limiting case of grazing incidence on the other side. Simple approximations for the total scattering cross-section in powers of the scaled angle are derived.

  14. Childrens mental health and civil society in the Gaza strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, Lucy

    2012-09-01

    The Gaza Strip, with a population of 1.7 million, over half of whom are under 18 years old, has existed in a state of ongoing conflict and containment for years, most notably since its closure in 2007. There is much concern for the mental health of the vast young generation who have little memory of other circumstances of existence, and even less exposure to the outside world. Their society forms the site of direct conflict and social destruction pertaining to untreated stress among the adults. However, leaving the social realm for the institutional for mental health treatment carries strong taboo, especially for adults. Civil society expert organisations offering a range of mental health work primarily pertaining to childrens social development can bypass some of this taboo and can also intervene at their schools and in their families, and may be most strategically located as social rather than institutional actors. Empowering the youth and seeking to strengthen Gazan society through them and for them causes some friction with the local government. However, despite the cultural and political challenges of mental health treatment for children within the Gaza Strip, the wider fact remains that however treated and psychosocially rehabilitated, society is predictably the site of renewed trauma in the short term and foreseeable future, enmeshing the mental health of its future generation inseparably with the international politics it inhabits. PMID:22945199

  15. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Soldevila, U; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&amp;D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a...

  16. Silicon Strip Detectors for ATLAS sLHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Affolder, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of d...

  17. Silicon strip detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a number of d...

  18. Silicon Strip Detectors for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, Paul; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is continuing to deliver an ever-increasing luminosity to the experiments, plans for an upgraded machine called Super-LHC (sLHC) are progressing. The upgrade is foreseen to increase the LHC design luminosity by a factor ten. The ATLAS experiment will need to build a new tracker for sLHC operation, which needs to be suited to the harsh sLHC conditions in terms of particle rates and radiation doses. In order to cope with the increase in pile-up backgrounds at the higher luminosity, an all silicon detector is being designed. To successfully face the increased radiation dose, a new generation of extremely radiation hard silicon detectors is being designed. Silicon sensors with sufficient radiation hardness are the subject of an international R&D programme, working on pixel and strip sensors. The efforts presented here concentrate on the innermost strip layers. We have developed a large number of prototype planar detectors produced on p-type wafers in a num...

  19. Material Analysis and Production Process verification of Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At large particle accelerators, for example the LHC at CERN, the collision of high energetic particles gives fundamental insights of the structure of matter. To understand such events it's essential to build sophisticated detector experiments, like the CMS experiment. The high number of short lived particles close to the interaction point makes very fast, radiation hard detectors with a good spatial resolution necessary. Silicon strip sensors are the natural choice to address all these issues. Semiconductor technology is a very high developed field of research, due to commercial interests of the chip industry. Thus lot of existing know-how can be used to fabricate and design sensors. Therefore the production of silicon strip sensors usually consists of two steps. First the design and definition of specification is carried out by the scientific community, while in a second step the production is performed by commercial vendors. As one design concept allows a variety of process related parameters - like the choice of material or the thickness of layer - it is evident to investigate the comparison of the different solutions. A detailed material analysis of samples coming from different producers was made for quality assurance and to reach a better understanding of the microscopic effects inside the sensors. To gain some insight in the different process steps we used electrical measurements, electron microscopy and x-ray methods. The talk will conclude with a comparison of different production techniques, including their advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  20. Determination of Lead in Ice by Stripping Potentiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat PHAISANSUTHICHOL

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the amounts of lead in ice by stripping potentiometry, the 400 ml matrix modifying solution was added to an ice sample of total volume 30 ml in an electrochemical cell. The modified solution was 800.00 mg/l Hg(II in 1.30 M hydrochloric acid. The working electrode was a glassy carbon disc, with Ag/AgCl as a reference electrode, and a platinum rod as a counter electrode. Stripping potentiometry was used on sample solutions and standard solutions which were electrolyzed for 3 min at −1.00 V. The peak potentials were set around −0.38 to −0.42 V. The concentrations of lead (II standards were 0.10, 0.40, 0.70 and 1.00 mg/l. The calibration plot between peak areas and concentration of lead (II standards was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9969. A detection limit of 0.023 mg/l or 23.00 ng/l (3SD was shown with a precision of 5.50 % RSD for a 2.0 mg/l standard (n = 5. The percentage recovery was found to be 95.50 %. The concentration range of lead (II in ice samples was determined to be 0.09 to 0.53 mg/l.