WorldWideScience

Sample records for backing driving

  1. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  2. Sensorless Operation of Brushless DC Motor Drive using Back EMF Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saranya, S. Saravana kumar,R. Baskaran, A. Vinidha Roc, K. Sathiyasekar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brushless Direct Current (BLDC motors are one of the motor types that is gaining rapid popularity. Its major appliances include refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, freezers, etc. As the name implies, BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation; instead, they are electronically commutated. This paper proposes a new optimized technique for the Sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC motor, which is based on back Electro Motive Force (back EMF, Zero Crossing Detection (ZCD. This proposed commutation technique of BLDC motor significantly reduces sensing circuits and cost of motor drive.

  3. New conceptual antenna with spiral structure and back Faraday shield for FWCD (fast wave current drive)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new conceptual antenna, which we call as a spiral antenna, is proposed as a traveling wave antenna for fast wave current drive in tokamaks. The features of the spiral antenna are a sharp Nz spectrum, easy impedance matching, Nz controllable and good coupling. A back Faraday shield is proposed for improving the cooling design of Faraday shield and better antenna-plasma coupling. A helical support which is a compact and wide band support is proposed as a kind of quarter wave length stub supports. The RF properties of the spiral antenna and the back Faraday shield have been investigated by using mock-up antennas. The VSWR of spiral antenna is low at the wide frequency band from 15 MHz to 201 MHz. The back Faraday shield is effective for suppressing the RF toroidal electric field between adjacent currents straps. (author)

  4. Direct Back EMF Detection Method for Sensorless Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Jianwen

    2003-01-01

    Brushlesss dc (BLDC) motors and their drives are penetrating the market of home appliances, HVAC industry, and automotive applications in recent years because of their high efficiency, silent operation, compact form, reliability, and low maintenance. Traditionally, BLDC motors are commutated in six-step pattern with commutation controlled by position sensors. To reduce cost and complexity of the drive system, sensorless drive is preferred. The existing sensorless control scheme with the c...

  5. Low-cost sensorless control of four-switch, brushless DC motor drive with direct back-EMF detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abolfazl HALVAEI NIASAR; Abolfazl VAHEDI; Hassan MOGHBELLI

    2009-01-01

    We propose a position sensorless control scheme for a four-switch, three-phase brushless DC motor drive, based on the zero crossing point detection of phase back-EMF voltages using newly defined error functions (EFs). The commutation instants are 30° after detected zero crossing points of the EFs. Developed EFs have greater magnitude rather than phase or line voltages so that the sensorless control can work at a lower speed range. Moreover, EFs have smooth transitions around zero voltage level that reduces the commutation errors. EFs are derived from the filtered terminal voltages Vao and vbo of two low-pass filters, which are used to eliminate high frequency noises for calculation of the average terminal voltages. The feasibility of the proposed sensorless control is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results.

  6. The impact of mobile data terminal use on posture and low-back discomfort when combined with simulated prolonged driving in police cruisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruevski, Kristina M; McKinnon, Colin D; Dickerson, Clark R; Callaghan, Jack P

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of mobile computing within a constrained vehicle environment has led to changes in the task demands of occupational groups such as professional drivers and law enforcement officers. The purpose of this study was to examine how mobile data terminal (MDT) use interacts with prolonged driving to induce postural changes or low-back discomfort. Eighteen participants (9 male, 9 female) completed two 120-min simulated driving sessions. Time-varying lumbar spine and pelvis postures, seat pan interface pressures and ratings of perceived discomfort were recorded at 15-min intervals. The introduction of a computer interface decreased pelvic posterior rotation by an average of 15° with respect to upright standing and increased peak average discomfort in the neck (5.9 mm), left shoulder (6.8 mm), midback (10.9 mm), low back (10.6 mm) and pelvis (11.5 mm) compared to driving alone. The incorporation of mobile computing warrants consideration in the design of vehicle work environments. PMID:24034884

  7. Improved rotor position estimation in extended back-EMF based sensorless PM brushless AC drives with magnetic saliency

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y; Zhu, Z.Q.; Howe, D.; Bingham, Chris

    2007-01-01

    An improved extended back-EMF based sensorless control method is proposed for a brushless AC motor equipped with an interior permanent magnet rotor. It accounts for dq-axis cross-coupling magnetic saturation by introducing an apparent mutual winding inductance. The error which results in the estimated rotor position when the influence of cross-coupling magnetic saturation is neglected is analyzed analytically, predicted by finite element analysis, and confirmed experimentally, for various d- ...

  8. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and sleeping. Prevention What's the best way to sit? Sit in chairs with straight backs or low-back ... than by twisting at your waist. When driving, sit straight and move the seat forward. This helps ...

  9. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...

  10. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...

  11. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  12. Driving Ability in Patients with Severe Chronic Low Back or Osteoarthritis Knee Pain on Stable Treatment with Tapentadol Prolonged Release: A Multicenter, Open-label, Phase 3b Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatowski, Rainer; Scharnagel, Rüdiger; Gyllensvärd, Anne; Steigerwald, Ilona

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Strong centrally acting analgesics, including tapentadol prolonged release (PR), have demonstrated efficacy for the management of non-malignant, chronic pain. Maintaining patient independence, including the ability to drive safely, is a key goal of long-term analgesic therapy. This multicenter, open-label, phase 3b trial evaluated the effects of tapentadol PR on driving ability. Methods This study included patients who had completed previous tapentadol PR trials for severe low ba...

  13. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...

  14. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  15. Cavity Backed Slot Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Masani, Ila Parmar, Hitendra Jadeja

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the current driving forces in wireless communications, there is a need for compact, efficient, inexpensive and reproducible antennas. In some instances, particularly long-distance applications, radiators with directive, high-gain characteristics are necessary. This paper proposes a cavity-backed slot antenna to that end. This antenna will enhance the gain, directivity and can also be easily flush mounted to the flying object. The shape and size of the slot can be effectively utilized to get the desired result. The proposed antenna is feed by waveguide which facilitate it to be applicable at high power operation where coaxial cable fails due to skin effect. Present antenna is verified using Numerical Technique called Finite Element Method FEM. The conception of this antenna is realized by the software HFSS “Ansoft-High Frequency Structure Simulator”. By properly selecting shapes, dimensions of the slots and number of slot affects the parameters like return loss, gain along Θ, Ø directions, Cartesian plot and radiation pattern .The Backing of cavity to the slot antenna provide the basics of the gain enhancement and the slot loading effect and the cavity volume plays an important role in achieving the desired return loss at the specific frequency.The simulated antenna shows the 7.0944 db of gain and return loss of -28.60. The proposed antenna works at 6 GHz.

  16. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent injuries and deaths from alcohol-impaired driving. The Problem Risk Factors BAC Effects Prevention Additional Resources How big is the problem? In 2014, 9,967 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of ...

  17. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 18%) in which someone was injured involved distracted driving. 1 What are the risk factors? Activities Some activities—such as texting—take the driver’s attention away from driving more frequently and for longer periods than other ...

  18. Semiclassical instability of warp drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warp drives, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to construct them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. In this contribution we will report on the behaviour of the Renormalized Stress-Energy Tensor (RSET) in the spacetimes associated with superluminal warp drives. We find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, hence strongly supporting the conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction.

  19. Driving offences

    OpenAIRE

    Corbett, C

    2010-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010, Taylor & Francis Group. This material is posted on this site with the permission of the publishers. This chapter on driving offences will largely follow the template of earlier chapters except that owing to their vast number, a limited selection only will be examined based on their high volume, seriousness and public concern. The first section will define what driving offences are, how they developed alongside the emerging car culture, and it will consider the contempora...

  20. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  1. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...

  2. Medications for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... narcotics, do not drink alcohol, drive, or operate heavy machinery. MUSCLE RELAXANTS Your provider may prescribe a medicine ... medical conditions worse. Do not drive or operate heavy machinery while taking muscle relaxants. Do not drink alcohol ...

  3. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals....... pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008). In the...

  4. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  5. Polar drive on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser-plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated back-lit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity. (authors)

  6. Pseudoneglect in Back Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocchini, Gianna; Watling, Rosamond; Della Sala, Sergio; Jansari, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends upon our ability to retain and update visuo-spatial information of both front and back egocentric space. Several studies have observed that healthy people tend to show a displacement of the egocentric frame of reference towards the left. However representation of space behind us (back space) has…

  7. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...... and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...

  8. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review...... of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The...... of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a...

  9. What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... component. Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain. Your job. If you ... pain. Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become ... or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed ...

  10. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body in numerous ways, including causing muscle tension. Backpack overload in children : Low back pain unrelated to ... is unusual in pre-teen children. However, a backpack overloaded with schoolbooks and supplies can strain the ...

  11. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fracture of the spinal cord Muscle spasm (very tense muscles) Ruptured or herniated disk Sciatica Spinal stenosis ( ... as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. Most of the time, back pain will get ...

  12. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is called core strengthening. Ask your doctor or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...

  13. Come Back to Me

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    The multifaceted project, Come Back to Me, critiques the current state of image commodification to pose questions about subjectivity constituted through an ever-expanding ecosystem of fashion. As fashion theorist Anne Hollander claims, clothes “share in the perpetually idealizing vision of art,” and therefore merit the same meticulous analysis as painting. The work in Come Back to Me examines the relationship of fashion to the canon of female portraiture. I claim that the bodies of women dep...

  14. Back pain and parenthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...

  15. A back to back multilevel converter for driving low inductance brushless AC machines

    OpenAIRE

    Minshull, S.; Bingham, Chris; Foster, M.P.; Stone, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, multilevel converters are utilised in medium voltage applications, allowing the DC-link voltage to exceed the switch maximum blocking voltage. Here, their application to control high- efficiency brushless permanent magnet synchronous machines exhibiting low phase inductance is explored, the relative advantages being shown to include reduced current ripple and improved harmonic spectrum. A cost benefit analysis is included along with experimental results from a prototype 5-level...

  16. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  17. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back ... How Effective are X-rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the ...

  18. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  19. Who carries passengers in the back of pickup trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agran, P F; Winn, D G; Anderson, C L

    1995-02-01

    This study was designed to compare pickup truck drivers who carried passengers in the back with those who did not, with respect to driving behaviors, sociodemographic features, and issues related to use of the pickup truck. A computerized assisted telephone survey was conducted in Riverside County, California. One thousand ten motor vehicle drivers were interviewed with respect to demographics, restraint use, driving behaviors, and variables related to vehicle use. Thirty-six percent (364) of the households had a pickup truck driver. Pickup drivers were grouped into those who stated that they had carried occupants in the back (n = 119) and those who had not (n = 245). A higher proportion of 16- to 24-year-old and 35- to 44-year-old pickup truck drivers carried passengers in the back of pickup trucks. Those who carried occupants in the back were significantly more likely to be Hispanic, to be students, and to live in a household that included teenagers. They also had a larger mean household size. They were less likely to own the pickup and less likely to be the principal wage earners. They were more likely to report four high-risk driving behaviors. They also used the pickup truck for multiple purposes, i.e. recreation, work, school transportation, and daily transportation. In the multivariate analysis, the presence of teenagers in the household, three high-risk driving behaviors, and three indicators of pickup truck use were independently related to carrying passengers in the back of a pickup. Those who allowed passengers in the back were significantly less likely to agree with statements suggesting restriction of travel in the back. Finally, only 9% of the respondents who carried passengers in the back of a pickup reported that the pickup truck was the only vehicle available in the household. PMID:7718073

  20. Distractions in Everyday Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while driving, which is one of the reasons distracted driving is such a big problem. Driver inattention is ... you’re doing any of these things while driving, you become distracted in ways that increase your risk of crashing. ...

  1. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner

    and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...... and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to...... acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process...

  2. Low Back Pain in Port Machinery Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOVENZI, M.; PINTO, I.; STACCHINI, N.

    2002-05-01

    The occurrence of several types of low back pain (LBP) was investigated by a standardized questionnaire in a group of 219 port machinery operators exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) and postural load and in a control group of 85 maintenance workers employed at the same transport company. The group of port machinery operators included 85 straddle carrier drivers, 88 fork-lift truck drivers, and 46 crane operators. The vector sum of the frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration of vibration measured on the seatpan of port vehicles and machines averaged 0·90 m/s2 for fork-lift trucks, 0·48 m/s2 for straddle carriers, 0·53 m/s2 for mobile cranes, and 0·22 m/s2 for overhead cranes. The 12-month prevalence of low back symptoms (LBP, sciatic pain, treated LBP, sick leave due to LBP) was significantly greater in the fork-lift truck drivers than in the controls and the other two groups of port machinery operators. After adjusting for potential confounders, the prevalence of low back symptoms was found to increase with the increase of WBV exposure expressed as duration of exposure (driving years), equivalent vibration magnitude (m/s2), or cumulative vibration exposure (yr m2/s4). An excess risk for lumbar disc herniation was observed in the port machinery operators with prolonged driving experience. In both the controls and the port machinery operators, low back complaints were strongly associated with perceived postural load assessed in terms of frequency and/or duration of awkward postures at work. Multivariate analysis showed that vibration exposure and postural load were independent predictors of LBP. Even though the cross-sectional design of the present study does not permit firm conclusions on the relationship between WBV exposure and low back disorders, the findings of this investigation provide additional epidemiological evidence that seated WBV exposure combined with non-neutral trunk postures, as while driving, is associated with an increased risk of long

  3. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...

  4. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  5. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    pattern of traversing a data structure at return time "There And Back Again" (TABA).The TABA pattern directly applies to computing a symbolic convolution. It also synergizes well with other programming patterns, e.g., dynamic programming and traversing a list at double speed. We illustrate TABA and...

  6. Radiology of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give an overview of causes of back pain which may be detected by radiological examinations. They insist on practical points of view such as: main cause, accessory cause, problems arising by multiple causes, congenital malformation of the vertebral arch such as anisocoria, canalar stenosis, cheirolumbar dysostosis. They describe two new signs: the pedicular scalloping and the framed articular process. (orig.)

  7. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Sagaspe; Jacques Taillard; Torbjorn Akerstedt; Virginie Bayon; Stéphane Espié; Guillaume Chaumet; Bernard Bioulac; Pierre Philip

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years)...

  8. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    OpenAIRE

    SAGASPE, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; BAYON, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3–5am, 1–5am and 9pm–5am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [±SD] = 23.4 [±1.7] years) partici...

  9. Reading Text While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yulan; Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone)...

  10. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  11. Impediment to Spirit Drive on Sol 1806

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The hazard avoidance camera on the front of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this image after a drive by Spirit on the 1,806th Martian day, or sol, (January 31, 2009) of Spirit's mission on the surface of Mars. The wheel at the bottom right of the image is Spirit's right-front wheel. Because that wheel no longer turns, Spirit drives backwards dragging that wheel. The drive on Sol 1806 covered about 30 centimeters (1 foot). The rover team had planned a longer drive, but Spirit stopped short, apparently from the right front wheel encountering the partially buried rock visible next to that wheel. The hazard avoidance cameras on the front and back of the rover provide wide-angle views. The hill on the horizon in the right half of this image is Husband Hill. Spirit reached the summit of Husband Hill in 2005.

  12. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  13. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  14. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  15. Zombies Strike Back

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Alpha; Charrier, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

              ABSTRACT: Zombies Strike Back Alpha Yee Jean-Claude Charrier       This world has been controlled for far too long by the tyranny of the humans. As long as men are in control of the world, Zombies will never be free to enjoy this world they mindlessly walk in. You are the only hope for your kind. You have advanced beyond the capabilities of your zombie brethren and are able to think, use guns that projects syringes to fight, and lead your...

  16. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  17. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...

  18. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia, deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  19. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  20. Universal drive unit

    OpenAIRE

    Sehnálek, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    This document deal with design of universal driving unit. For the final solution is required driving unit which will be controled with help of sensory unit placed on the chassis of driving unit. In theoretical part of this labour are examined possibilities of a power, electric motor operation by PWM, kind of chassis and odometry which could be taken into account. From this section is finally chosen concrete configuration which is then described in chapter concerned oneself with driving unit d...

  1. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  2. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data......Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp...

  3. Low back pain in car drivers: A review of studies published 1975 to 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallais, Lenka; Griffin, Michael J.

    2006-12-01

    This review investigates whether there is evidence of an association between car driving and low back pain, and evidence that whole-body vibration contributes to low back pain in car drivers. The evidence of an association between various physical, psychosocial and individual factors and low back pain in car drivers was also investigated. From 23 epidemiological studies of low back problems in groups that reported car driving, nine studies fulfilled simple criteria for detailed review: four cross-sectional studies, three case-control studies and two longitudinal studies. The definition of low back pain was often unclear and, mostly, the physiological mechanisms causing low back pain were not considered. Eight of the nine studies concluded that there was an increase in low back pain among car drivers but there was little consideration of the influence of the many physical factors, individual factors and psychosocial factors that might be associated with an increase in low back pain. Consequently, there is insufficient evidence to form a conclusion on whether whole-body vibration, postural stressors or other factors, specific or not specific to driving, are common causes of low back problems in car drivers.

  4. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  5. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  6. Driving the Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haff, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Technological modification of the earth's surface (e.g., agriculture, urbanization) is an old story in human history, but what about the future? The future of landscape in an accelerating technological world, beyond a relatively short time horizon, lies hidden behind an impenetrable veil of complexity. Sufficiently complex dynamics generates not only the trajectory of a variable of interest (e.g., vegetation cover) but also the environment in which that variable evolves (e.g., background climate). There is no way to anticipate what variables will define that environment—the dynamics creates its own variables. We are always open to surprise by a change of conditions we thought or assumed were fixed or by the appearance of new phenomena of whose possible existence we had been unaware or thought unlikely. This is especially true under the influence of technology, where novelty is the rule. Lack of direct long-term predictability of landscape change does not, however, mean we cannot say anything about its future. The presence of persistence (finite time scales) in a system means that prediction by a calibrated numerical model should be good for a limited period of time barring bad luck or faulty implementation. Short-term prediction, despite its limitations, provides an option for dealing with the longer-term future. If a computer-controlled car tries to drive itself from New York to Los Angeles, no conceivable (or possible) stand-alone software can be constructed to predict a priori the space-time trajectory of the vehicle. Yet the drive is normally completed easily by most drivers. The trip is successfully completed because each in a series of very short (linear) steps can be "corrected" on the fly by the driver, who takes her cues from the environment to keep the car on the road and headed toward its destination. This metaphor differs in a fundamental way from the usual notion of predicting geomorphic change, because it involves a goal—to reach a desired

  7. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted to...

  8. Back-propagation of accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Senashova, M. Yu.; Gorban, A. N.; Wunsch II, D. C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we solve the problem: how to determine maximal allowable errors, possible for signals and parameters of each element of a network proceeding from the condition that the vector of output signals of the network should be calculated with given accuracy? "Back-propagation of accuracy" is developed to solve this problem. The calculation of allowable errors for each element of network by back-propagation of accuracy is surprisingly similar to a back-propagation of error, because it is...

  9. Approach to lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosajee, F; Kalla, A A

    2015-12-01

    Lower back pain is one of the most common symptoms–and the most common musculoskeletal problem–seen by general practitioners. Iti s also a common cause of disability and an expensive condition in terms of economic impact because of absenteeism. This article discusses an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered, inflammatory back pain. PMID:26933725

  10. Patient education on back care

    OpenAIRE

    C. Van Eck

    2009-01-01

    Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background:  Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient han...

  11. Superluminal warp drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form

  12. BACK PAIN AND ITS TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Vladimirovna Podchufarova

    2009-06-01

    source of pain and there is a great deal of treatments for this condition. Unlike chronic pain, acute musculoskeletal pain in the back is a benign and generally self-limited condition. To set off nonspecific back pain, i.e. pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders without signs of involvement of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral roots and specific spinal lesions (spondylolisthesis, osteoporosis, tumors, inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, etc. is convenient and warranted in most cases when a patient with acute back pain is examined by a general practitioner. The paper gives the data of the current guidelines for the management of patients with nonspecific back pain

  13. TLC Fall-back procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the fall-back procedures planned for cases where the trilateral power market coupling cannot be run correctly or cannot produce correct results. The reasons for fall-back can occur in three situations: market coupling is subject to normal business risks but risks have been minimized, winter clock change handled differently in the different local systems, and excessive proportion of block orders leading to bids infeasibilities. The possible fall-back situations are listed and the main principles for fall-back are explained: critical deadline for results publication/participants information, explicit auctions, south border, north border. (J.S.)

  14. Tracking and back-tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Pigueiras, Eduardo; Narvarte Fernandez, Luis; Muñoz Cano, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of back-tracking geometry not only for single axis but also for two-axis tracking and analyses the corresponding energy gains. It compares the different back-tracking strategies with the ideal tracking in terms of energy yield concluding, on the one hand, that back-tracking is more useful for single horizontal axis than for the single vertical one, and on the other hand, that back-tracking is more efficient when applied in the primary axis of a two-axis tracker

  15. Physics Back in TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  16. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  17. Back Pain and Neuraxial Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzon, Honorio T; Asher, Yogen G; Hartrick, Craig T

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia in the adult population is not different from that after general anesthesia. The pain is usually mild, localized in the low back, rarely radiates to the lower extremities, and has a duration of only a few days. The risk factors for development of back pain include the lithotomy position, multiple attempts at block placement, duration of surgery longer than 2.5 hours, body mass index ≥32 kg/m, and a history of back pain. However, there is no permanent worsening of preexisting back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. The back pain has been attributed to tears in the ligaments, fascia, or bone with localized bleeding; immobility of the spine; relaxation of the paraspinal muscles under anesthesia; flattening of the normal lumbar convexity; and stretching and straining of the lumbosacral ligaments and joint capsules. The addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic used for skin infiltration may decrease the incidence and severity of back pain. The use of spinal or epidural anesthesia in the adult, non-obstetric and obstetric populations should depend on the advantages offered by the technique and not on the occurrence of back pain after the procedure. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of epidural dexamethasone, or other steroids, or the addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic infiltration for the prevention of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. Future studies should involve a physician with expertise in the evaluation of chronic low back pain to help identify the cause of the back pain and institute appropriate treatment(s). PMID:27195644

  18. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, Jr., Charles A.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  19. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  20. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  2. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  3. Back school program for back pain: education or physical exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Maria José Clemente da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Back school consists in an educational program aimed at pre-venting back pain and rehabilitating individuals with degenerative disorders.Objective: To evaluate the effects of back school components (education and/or exercise therapy in relieving pain and improving quality of life in patientswith chronic back pain.Method: Forty-one patients were randomized and al-located into four groups: (i a back school group (educational lessons and physicalexercise; (ii an educational lessons group; (iii a physical exercise group and (iva waiting list control group.Patients were evaluated before and after treatmentwith a visual analogue scale, a short form quality-of-life questionnaire, a RolandMorris disability questionnaire and a finger-floor distance test.Results: The backschool group showed significant reduction in scores in the visual analogue scaleand the Roland Morris disability questionnaire and an increase in the short-form quality of life questionnaire. Conclusion: The effectiveness of back schoolprograms in chronic back pain patients seems to be due to the physical exercisecomponent and not on account of the educational lessons.

  4. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change. PMID:12314276

  5. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  6. Lumbar Disc Screening Using Back Pain Questionnaires: Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screening Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...

  7. No-Pass, No-Drive Laws Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades or so, a majority of states have implemented policies that link teenagers' driver's licenses to school attendance, academic performance, or behavior, but those requirements are not backed by solid research evidence. Experts trace the start of the trend to 1988, when West Virginia enacted a law linking driving privileges…

  8. Fast wave current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities.

  9. Driving When You Have Cataracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when they want. I Driving is a complex skill. Our ability to drive safely can be challenged by changes in our ... drive with you to see how well you drive with your cataract. I The ... to improve your driving skills. Improving your skills could help keep you and ...

  10. Dual drive; Doppelt angetrieben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms, Jan

    2011-09-15

    The Opel Ampera was designed as an everyday car with an alternative drive system. A hybrid concept comprising both an electric motor and a gasoline engine ensures long mileage, but there is still the problem of high purchase cost.

  11. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for crashes. Drivers and passengers should use automobile safety features at all times. These include: seat belts, shoulder straps, and headrests. Only drive cars that have air bags, padded dashes, safety glass, ...

  12. Back Pain and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have been successfully used in the management of pain and anxiety. These include stress management, relaxation training, biofeed- back, hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (a method to reduce ...

  13. Patient education on back care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Van Eck

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background:  Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient handout, educating them in how to incorporate back care knowledge into their dailyactivities.Conclusion: Physiotherapists can play a significant role in empowering patients through education to take responsi-bility for their disability.

  14. Sensorless optimal sinusoidal brushless direct current for hard disk drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, C. S.; Bi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Initiated by the availability of digital signal processors and emergence of new applications, market demands for permanent magnet synchronous motors have been surging. As its back-emf is sinusoidal, the drive current should also be sinusoidal for reducing the torque ripple. However, in applications like hard disk drives, brushless direct current (BLDC) drive is adopted instead of sinusoidal drive for simplification. The adoption, however, comes at the expense of increased harmonics, losses, torque pulsations, and acoustics. In this paper, we propose a sensorless optimal sinusoidal BLDC drive. First and foremost, the derivation for an optimal sinusoidal drive is presented, and a power angle control scheme is proposed to achieve an optimal sinusoidal BLDC. The scheme maintains linear relationship between the motor speed and drive voltage. In an attempt to execute the sensorless drive, an innovative power angle measurement scheme is devised, which takes advantage of the freewheeling diodes and measures the power angle through the detection of diode voltage drops. The objectives as laid out will be presented and discussed in this paper, supported by derivations, simulations, and experimental results. The proposed scheme is straightforward, brings about the benefits of sensorless sinusoidal drive, negates the need for current sensors by utilizing the freewheeling diodes, and does not incur additional cost.

  15. Drunk Driving Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mette Buhl; Vogel, Klara Elisa Pingel

    2014-01-01

    This project evaluates a communication product, consisting of three flush-ad posters against drunk driving. The target group of this campaign is young men in the ages 18-22 in the outskirts of Denmark. The project's scientific theoretical approach is phenomenology which will give insight in the target groups life situation, furthermore the social constructivist perspective is used to understand the target group's opinions in relation to product and subject drunk driving because of the interac...

  16. Drinking and driving

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol misuse generates many health and social problems at a cost that society is increasingly unwilling to sustain. One of the most tragic consequences of alcohol misuse is the result of drinking and driving. Each week, impaired drivers kill 40 Canadian men, women and children and injure 1250 others. The Canadian Medical Association (CMA), in its campaign against drinking and driving, has recommended that a condition of obtaining or renewing a driver's licence include the individual's writt...

  17. Engineering Autonomous Driving Software

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Christian; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    A larger number of people with heterogeneous knowledge and skills running a project together needs an adaptable, target, and skill-specific engineering process. This especially holds for a project to develop a highly innovative, autonomously driving vehicle to participate in the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge. In this contribution, we present essential elements of a software and systems engineering process to develop a so-called artificial intelligence capable of driving autonomously in complex u...

  18. Direct drive wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Garrett; Danforth, William; Bevington, Christopher; Stowell, Jesse; Costin, Daniel

    2006-07-11

    A wind turbine is provided that minimizes the size of the drive train and nacelle while maintaining the power electronics and transformer at the top of the tower. The turbine includes a direct drive generator having an integrated disk brake positioned radially inside the stator while minimizing the potential for contamination. The turbine further includes a means for mounting a transformer below the nacelle within the tower.

  19. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  20. Pregnancy and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino, Jennifer; Grauer, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is ubiquitous in today’s society and is particularly common during pregnancy. There are multiple factors contributing to these symptoms during pregnancy including pelvic changes as well as alterations to loading. Potential imaging modalities are limited during pregnancy due to the desire to limit ionizing radiation exposure to the fetus. Treatments are generally conservative, exercise-based interventions and alternative modalities may also be considered. Low back pain associated wit...

  1. High reliability linear drive device for artificial hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jinghua; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liu, Guohai; Shen, Yue; Wang, Fangqun

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a new high reliability linear drive device, termed as stator-permanent-magnet tubular oscillating actuator (SPM-TOA), is proposed for artificial hearts (AHs). The key is to incorporate the concept of two independent phases into this linear AH device, hence achieving high reliability operation. The fault-tolerant teeth are employed to provide the desired decoupling phases in magnetic circuit. Also, as the magnets and the coils are located in the stator, the proposed SPM-TOA takes the definite advantages of robust mover and direct-drive capability. By using the time-stepping finite element method, the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed SPM-TOA are analyzed, including magnetic field distributions, flux linkages, back- electromotive forces (back-EMFs) self- and mutual inductances, as well as cogging and thrust forces. The results confirm that the proposed SPM-TOA meets the dimension, weight, and force requirements of the AH drive device.

  2. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. PMID:26446454

  3. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  4. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and share information, we created a dedicated website . Distracted Driving Information Clearinghouse In addition, to collect and share ... technology that could potentially reduce the problem of distracted driving, the Commission’s staff created the FCC Distracted Driving ...

  5. Opioids for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A; Von Korff, Michael; Duhrkoop, David

    2015-01-01

    Back pain affects most adults, causes disability for some, and is a common reason for seeking healthcare. In the United States, opioid prescription for low back pain has increased, and opioids are now the most commonly prescribed drug class. More than half of regular opioid users report back pain. Rates of opioid prescribing in the US and Canada are two to three times higher than in most European countries. The analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions. Opioids do not seem to expedite return to work in injured workers or improve functional outcomes of acute back pain in primary care. For chronic back pain, systematic reviews find scant evidence of efficacy. Randomized controlled trials have high dropout rates, brief duration (four months or less), and highly selected patients. Opioids seem to have short term analgesic efficacy for chronic back pain, but benefits for function are less clear. The magnitude of pain relief across chronic non-cancer pain conditions is about 30%. Given the brevity of randomized controlled trials, the long term effectiveness and safety of opioids are unknown. Loss of long term efficacy could result from drug tolerance and emergence of hyperalgesia. Complications of opioid use include addiction and overdose related mortality, which have risen in parallel with prescription rates. Common short term side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, and increased risk of falls and fractures. Longer term side effects may include depression and sexual dysfunction. Screening for high risk patients, treatment agreements, and urine testing have not reduced overall rates of opioid prescribing, misuse, or overdose. Newer strategies for reducing risks include more selective prescription of opioids and lower doses; use of prescription monitoring programs; avoidance of co-prescription with sedative hypnotics; and reformulations that make drugs more difficult to snort, smoke, or inject. PMID

  6. [Drug use and driving].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire-Hurtel, Anne-Sophie; Goullé, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Mura, Patrick; Verstraete, Alain G

    2015-10-01

    Some drugs are known to impair driving because they can change the vision or hearing, and/or disrupt the intellectual or motor abilities: impaired vigilance, sedation, disinhibition effect, the coordination of movement disorders and the balance. The doctor during prescribing and the pharmacist during deliverance of drug treatment should inform their patients of the potential risks of drugs on driving or operating machinery. The driver has direct responsibility, who hired him and him alone, to follow the medical advice received. The pictograms on the outer packaging of medicinal products intended to classify substances according to their risk driving: The driver can whether to observe simple precautions (level one "be prudent"), or follow the advice of a health professional (level two "be very careful"), or if it is totally not drive (level three "danger caution: do not drive"). This classification only evaluates the intrinsic danger of drugs but not the individual variability. Medicines should be taken into account also the conditions for which the medication is prescribed. It is important to inform the patient on several points. PMID:25956300

  7. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To fix a magnetic rotor to a drive shaft and at the time of non-driving, to restrain the rotor by permanent magnets thereby to hold the position of the control rod safely and accurately. Constitution: A control rod position holding device is provided in a motor or a drive shaft of a control rod drive. This device consists of a rotor and a stator, the rotor being provided on its circumference with salient-poles arranged equidistantly, and the position of the rotor being determined depending upon the transfer distance of the control rod and the conversion ratio of the converter. On the other hand, the stator has salient-poles (any of them is a permanent magnet) having the number of poles and the positional relationship equivalent to those of the rotor, and provided in the inner periphery of a cylinder using the drive shaft as a central shaft and wound with a winding. When the control rod is not driven, the poles of the rotor are attracted by the magnetic force of the confronting poles of the stator, thereby to prevent the inverse rotation of the motor shaft due to the dead weight of the control rod. When a current is caused to flow through the winding, the magnetic force of the permanent magnet, and the stator release the rotor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  8. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted

  9. Electromechanical resistive switching via back-to-back Schottky junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lijie, E-mail: L.Li@swansea.ac.uk [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The physics of the electromechanical resistive switching is uncovered using the theory of back-to-back Schottky junctions combined with the quantum domain space charge transport. A theoretical model of the basic element of resistive switching devices realized by the metal-ZnO nanowires-metal structure has been created and analyzed. Simulation results show that the reverse biased Schottky junction and the air gap impedance dominate the current-voltage relation at higher external voltages; thereby electromechanically varying the air gap thickness causes the device exhibit resistive tuning characteristics. As the device dimension is in nanometre scale, investigation of the model based on quantum mechanics has also been conducted.

  10. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  11. Ceramic vane drive joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smale, Charles H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A variable geometry gas turbine has an array of ceramic composition vanes positioned by an actuating ring coupled through a plurality of circumferentially spaced turbine vane levers to the outer end of a metallic vane drive shaft at each of the ceramic vanes. Each of the ceramic vanes has an end slot of bow tie configuration including flared end segments and a center slot therebetween. Each of the vane drive shafts has a cross head with ends thereof spaced with respect to the sides of the end slot to define clearance for free expansion of the cross head with respect to the vane and the cross head being configured to uniformly distribute drive loads across bearing surfaces of the vane slot.

  12. Driver Training Simulator for Backing Up Commercial Vehicles with Trailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter

    Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.

  13. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  14. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  15. Permanent magnet brushless drives

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CC; Xia, W.; Jiang, JZ; Chau, KT; Zhu, ML

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an optimal efficiency control scheme for constant power operation of phase decoupling (PD) PM brushless DC motor drives. The key is to adaptively adjust the advanced conduction angle to minimize the system losses for a given operation point in the constant power region. The strategy for constant power operation of PD PM brushless DC motor drives is exemplified using a 5-phase 22-pole PD PM brushless DC motor. In the sections that follow, the newly-devel...

  16. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  17. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  18. Magnetized drive fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  19. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier;

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent damages in control rod drives upon connection and disconnection with control rods by providing, to an extension rod, a closure and opening guide mechanism which is adapted to open and close depending upon connection and disconnection with the control rod. Constitution: In control rod drives having a driving section and a lower mechanism, the lower mechanism has a guide tube engaged into the upper cover of a reactor container and suspended therefrom into the reactor container. An opening and closure mechanism with guide blades capable of contacting the inner wall of the guide tube is secured to an extension rod for fastening the gripper which supports the control rod. Such a mechanism cap prevent damages in the control rod drives and the control rods due to the connection after disconnection of them by the buffering action between the extension rod and the control rod, as well as damages in both of them caused by rolling such as in earthquakes by the buffering action between the extension rod and the guide tube. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Efficient driving; Effizientes Fahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillmann, Gerhard; Prys, Gerhard; Klinkert, Carsten; Sauer, Juergen; Otasevic, Aleksandar; Steinbock, Robert [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    With the BMW Efficient Dynamics development strategy, the new BMW 7 Series is proving that a superior, dynamic driving experience with simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions can be combined with the premium standards of the luxury automobile class. (orig.)

  2. Co-diffused back-contact back-junction silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driving force in photovoltaics is the reduction of the ratio between device costs and conversion efficiency. The present research study introduces a highly innovative diffusion process, called co-diffusion, which allows for a drastic decrease in process costs, on the one hand, and the assembly of a highly efficient solar cell device, the back-contact back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cell, on the other. The co-diffusion approach is based on pre-patterned layers, which contain dopants, deposited by means of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and diffusion in a tube furnace, which contains dopant gases in the process atmosphere. The solar cells are built on n-type silicon which features a high potential in achieving a high silicon life time, which is a necessary requirement of highly efficient BC-BJ solar cells. Fundamental knowledge in terms of co-diffusion processes can be gained from this research study. The processes allow for the fabrication of BC-BJ solar cell devices with a conversion efficiency exceeding 21 %.

  3. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back strain treatment; Back pain - home care; Low back pain - home care; Lumbar pain - home care ... A common myth about back pain is that you need to rest and avoid activity for a long time. In fact, doctors do not recommend bed ...

  4. Gravitational Laser Back-Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Novaes, S. F.; Spehler, D.

    1993-01-01

    A possible way of producing gravitons in the laboratory is investigated. We evaluate the cross section electron + photon $\\rightarrow$ electron + graviton in the framework of linearized gravitation, and analyse this reaction considering the photon coming either from a laser beam or from a Compton back-scattering process.

  5. Quantum Tunneling and Back Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We give a correction to the tunneling probability by taking into account the back reaction effect to the metric of the black hole spacetime. We then show how this gives rise to the modifications in the semiclassical black hole entropy and Hawking temperature. Finally, we reproduce the familiar logarithmic correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking area law.

  6. Back-to-School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teaching moments. Speak up when you see unhealthy eating habits. Direct children to healthier options or say, "You can have a little ... a family to form healthy habits. Read More "Planning For A Healthy School Year" Articles Back to School ... Activity Fall 2015 Issue: Volume 10 Number ...

  7. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  8. A Novel Control Method for BLDCM Based on Phase Back-EMF Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to propose a novel back-EMF observer. It can drive a permanent magnet Brushless DC Motor (BLDCM smoothly from slow to high speed without position or speed sensors. In the method, a phase back-EMF observer, which could estimate phase back-EMFs in real time and only relies on DC voltage and phase currents of motor without an additional circuit or complicated operation process,had been established with phase back-EMF as a disturbance signal. This observer simplifies the structure of traditional back-EMF observers and only has one inertia element, hence the response time and robustness of the system could be improved. This study also detailedly provides a method for speed and position detection, which has high performance in low speed range. The validity of the proposed method is verified through simulation and experimental results.

  9. The drive-wise project: driving simulator training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Casutt, Gianclaudio; Theill, Nathan; Martin, Mike; Keller, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training. Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62–87 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) a driving simulator training group, (2) an attention training group (vigilance and selective...

  10. Flavonols drive plant microevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotewold, Erich

    2016-02-01

    The idea that pollinators are in large part responsible for the diversity of flowering plants dates back more than 150 years to Darwin's work, but even modern scientists have struggled to identify specific 'speciation genes' and determine how they influenced flower-pollinator interactions. A new study proposes that a series of mutations in a single gene controlling floral chemicals influenced pollinator preferences, likely resulting in speciation, bringing us closer to finding a speciation gene. PMID:26813762

  11. Superluminal warp drives are semiclassically unstable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations of General Relativity: they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to build them. Even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries created out of an initially flat spacetime have been analyzed in a previous work by the present authors in special locations, close to the wall of the bubble and in its center. Here, we present an exact numerical analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) in the whole bubble. We find that the the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to the front wall of the superluminal bubble, after some transient terms have disappeared, hence strongly supporting our previous conclusion that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical back-reaction. This result seems to implement the chronology protection conjecture, forbiddig the set up of a structure potentially dangerous for causality.

  12. Generating Geospatially Realistic Driving Patterns Derived From Clustering Analysis Of Real EV Driving Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Bro; Aabrandt, Andreas; Østergaard, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a vehicle fleet that realistically represents the predicted Electric Vehicle (EV) penetration for the future, a model is required that mimics people driving behaviour rather than simply playing back collected data. When the focus is broadened from on a traditional user...... scales, which calls for a statistically correct, yet flexible model. This paper describes a method for modelling EV, based on non-categorized data, which takes into account the plug in locations of the vehicles. By using clustering analysis to extrapolate and classify the primary locations where the...

  13. Driving without a GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited in...... an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS......, thereby contributing to a possible typology of challenges and solutions in international programmes from which all attendees may benefit. They will then not have to drive without a GPS, but will have a better background for navigating the international university. Singh, P. and C. Doherty (2004) “Global...

  14. Mitigating Distracted Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Tim; Kolberg, Kenny

    2014-01-01

    The scourge of distracted driving is not limited to any one demographic group or nation. It is global and affects every victim and victims’ families. This dire situation, caused largely by technology such as texting, requires technological solutions, including new traffic safety countermeasures. The transverse rumble strip, a countermeasure reinvented in 2009 as the temporary portable rumble strip, is already proving a significant, innovative addition to work zone safety processes and procedu...

  15. Driving on the Descartes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 mission commander, drives the 'Rover', Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) to its final parking place near the end of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Lunar Module pilot, took this photograph looking southward. The flank of Stone Mountain can be seen on the horizon at left. The shadow of the Lunar Module 'Orion' is visible in the foreground.

  16. Driving and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The proportion of elderly in the general population is rising, resulting in greater numbers of drivers with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). These neurodegenerative disorders impair cognition, visual perception, and motor function, leading to reduced driver fitness and greater crash risk. Yet medical diagnosis or age alone is not reliable enough to predict driver safety or crashes, or revoke the driving privileges of these drivers. Dri...

  17. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Control rod drive mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To accurately measure the loads generated upon scram and judge the absence or presence of deceleration in control rod drive mechanisms. Constitution: Control rod drive mechanisms for use in a BWR type reactor includes an index tube vertically movably, connected at the upper end to the control rod and having a drive piston at the lower end. A piezoelectric member for detecting the load generated upon uprise of the index tube is disposed and signals from the piezoelectric member is connected to a calculation processing device. A load exerted when the index tube uprises is measured by way of the piezoelectric member upon scram thereby judging the absence or presence of the decelerating operation. Therefore, the nuclear reactor can be shutdown only when it is required with no excess safety operation than required. As a result, the reactor availability can be improved and, in addition, it is also possible to mitigate the burden of in-service inspection and reduce the operators' exposure. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Control rod drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns an electromotive driving-type control rod driving system of a BWR type reactor, for which sliding resistance (friction) test can be performed of a movable portion of the control rod driving mechanisms. Namely, a hydraulic pressure control unit has following constitutions in addition to a conventional constitution as a sliding resistance test performing function. (1) A restricting valve is disposed downstream of the scram valve of scram pipelines to control flow rate and pressure of pressurized water flown in the pipelines. (2) A pressure gauge detects a pressure between the scram valve and the restricting valve. (3) A flow meter detects the flow rate of pipelines controlled by the restricting valve. (4) A recording pressure detector detects the pressure at the downstream of the restricting valve. (5) The recording device is attached when the sliding resistant test is performed for tracing the pressure measured by the pressure detection device. Further, the scram valve sends electric signals to a central operation chamber when it is fully closed. The central operation chamber has a function of fully opening the restricting valve by way of the electric signals. (I.S.)

  1. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Back-Of-Crate card

    CERN Document Server

    Wensing, M; The ATLAS collaboration; Mättig, P; Kugel, A; Falchieri, D; Travaglini, R; Gabrielli, A; Heim, T; Potamianos, K; Grosse-Knetter, J; Bindi, M

    2014-01-01

    For the new innermost layer of the ATLAS Pixel-Detector at CERN new off-detector hardware needs to be developed. The Back-Of-Crate card (BOC) is driving the optical interface to the detector and distributing the LHC clock to all detector components. A brief overview of the firmware and test results from production and system test will be presented.

  2. THE APPLICATION OF SIX SIGMA WITHIN BPM IN A FINANCIAL SERVICES OUTSOURCED BACK-OFFICE ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Paul SOARE

    2014-01-01

    The present paper investigates Six Sigma’s suitability within Business Process Management while exploring to what extent DMAIC can assist the management of a back-office and continuous improvement. The research is looking into the service industry, business process outsourcing in particular, exploring ways of driving productivity improvements and whether this is attainable through the application of Six Sigma.

  3. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  4. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    same time; an interest which historically both evokes ideas of pop music and pop culture, the role of the artist in a national, social-democratic context, and the role of the avant-garde artist after the completion of such projects as situationism and the American neo-avant-garde. In this manner, the...... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed the...... official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...

  5. Low Back Pain And Sexuality

    OpenAIRE

    KURU, Ö.; BEWYER, D.; KUTLU, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction in the patient with chronic low back pain is a frequently misunders¬tood and neglected aspect of this disease classification. Clinical experience and a review of the literature defines three causative factors: primary organic pathology interrupting nor¬mal nervous system function; side effects of medication prescribed for the condition, and psychological factors relating to anxiety over performance and fear of pain during sexual activity. The purpose of this article is to d...

  6. Drive like the wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    2001-06-09

    This article reports on research carried out by Robert J. Englar at the Georgia Technical Research Institute in Atlanta on the transformation of the aerodynamics of cars, trucks, buses etc using a series of nozzles or slots that pumps air over the back of the vehicle to aid steering, improve the hold on the road, and reduce fuel costs. The use of the Coanda effect to cut the aerodynamic drag on vehicles is discussed along with wind tunnel tests on a model car, and the reduction in the drag achieved by rounding the top and rear of a trailer.

  7. Constructing a Distracted Driving Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Foley, James; Ebe, Kazu; Owens, Justin M.; Angell, Linda; Hankey, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has become a topic of critical importance to driving safety research over the past several decades. Naturalistic driving data offer a unique opportunity to study how drivers engage with secondary tasks in real-world driving; however, the complexities involved with identifying and coding relevant epochs of naturalistic data have limited its accessibility to the general research community. Method This project was developed to help address this problem by creating an accessibl...

  8. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  9. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  10. Electric drive design methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Jufer, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation

  11. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  12. Modular droplet actuator drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Paik, Philip (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator drive including a detection apparatus for sensing a property of a droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling the detection apparatus electronically coupled to the detection apparatus; a droplet actuator cartridge connector arranged so that when a droplet actuator cartridge electronically is coupled thereto: the droplet actuator cartridge is aligned with the detection apparatus; and the detection apparatus can sense the property of the droplet on a droplet actuator; circuitry for controlling a droplet actuator coupled to the droplet actuator connector; and the droplet actuator circuitry may be coupled to a processor.

  13. PURE DRIVE GT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    在2004年奥林匹克赛事中,中国的李婷,孙甜甜取得了中国网球第一个金牌一女子双打冠军。忘记不了当时李婷挥动着她的BABOLAT(百保力)网拍Pure Drive Zylon 360°激动地拥抱着孙甜甜吵闹着,幸福地哭着的情景。

  14. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  15. Cycloconverter drive systems. Cycloconverter gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiashi, M.; Osawa, H.; Endo, K. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-10

    Fuji Electric has completed preparation for the production of various cycloconverter variable-speed AC drive systems used for low-speed large-capacity drives, and is ready to supply the optimum system to meet purposes. Among cycloconverter drive systems of Fuji Electric, circulating current-free cycloconverter fed synchronous motor drive is superior in respect of input power factor and equipment capacity, induction motor drive is superior in respect of maintenance, and circulating current cycloconverter fed motor drive is superior in respect of controllability. This report describes outlines, system components, comparison of performances, control systems and their characteristics, and technology for advanced performance of these various cycloconverter drive systems. Furthermore, was introduced a development of hybrid cycloconverter using a GTO thyristor which can regulate input power factor at 1. 2 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the fast wave in the range of high ion cyclotron harmonics in the ACT-1 device show that current drive is possible with the fast wave just as it is for the lower hybrid wave, except that it is suitable for higher plasma densities. A 1400 loop antenna launched the high ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave [ω/Ω = O(10)] into a He+ plasma with n/sub e/approx. =4 x 1012 cm-3 and B = 4.5 kG. Probe and magnetic loop diagnostics and FIR laser scattering confirmed the presence of the fast wave, and the Rogowski loop indicated that the circulating plasma current increased by up to 40A with 1 kW of coupled power, which is comparable to lower hybrid current drive in the same device with the same unidirectional fast electron beam used as the target for the RF. A phased antenna array would be used for FWCD in a tokamak without the E-beam

  17. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To rapidly detect the position to which a control rod has been rapidly inserted into the reactor core upon scram in the control rod drives for use in LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In control rod drives comprising an acceleration spring disposed to the outside of an extension pipe and an acceleration pipe for conducting the spring force to a control rod for rapidly dropping the rod into the reactor core, a magnet having a repulsive force is disposed to each acceleration pipe and guide pipe as decelerating and buffering means for the acceleration pipe. The position of the control rod is detected by the interaction between the magnet and the coils attached to the inside of the guide pipe or reactor lead switch. According to this invention, 85 % scram signal which has hitherto been difficult to be processed electrically can be obtained with a sufficient intensity and with no delay to thereby improve the entire safety of the reactor system. Then, the inserted position and the insertion time can accurately and rapidly be detected. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Turbulent current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ohm's law is modified when turbulent processes are accounted for. Besides an hyper-resistivity, already well known, pinch terms appear in the electron momentum flux. Moreover it appears that turbulence is responsible for a source term in the Ohm's law, called here turbulent current drive. Two terms contribute to this source. The first term is a residual stress in the momentum flux, while the second contribution is an electro-motive force. A non zero average parallel wave number is needed to get a finite source term. Hence a symmetry breaking mechanism must be invoked, as for ion momentum transport. E × B shear flows and turbulence intensity gradients are shown to provide similar contributions. Moreover this source term has to compete with the collision friction term (resistivity). The effect is found to be significant for a large scale turbulence in spite of an unfavorable scaling with the ratio of the electron to ion mass. Turbulent current drive appears to be a weak effect in the plasma core, but could be substantial in the plasma edge where it may produce up to 10 % of the local current density

  19. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  20. What is strenuous? Driving itself or the driving situation?

    OpenAIRE

    Schießl, Caroline; Vollrath, Mark; Altmüller, Tobias; Dambier, Michael; Kornblum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    To avoid driver overload, assistance systems can be adapted regarding the driver’s current strain. Physiological and performance workload measures require special sensors and are problematic concerning sensitivity and specificity. Within the presented study the driver’s stress level was estimated in real-driving based on an analysis of different driving manoeuvres and environmental factors. The analyses show that different driving manoeuvres result in significantly different subjective strain...

  1. Hysteresis and Back Transitions in Internal Transport Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. S.; Jhang, Hogun; Terzolo, L.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, J. M.; Diamond, P. H.; Malkov, M.; Hahm, T. S.

    2010-11-01

    Understanding and control of the transport barrier formation and back transition are essential to achieve the optimized plasma operation and performance in tokamak plasmas. Back transition dynamics, in particular, is complicated due to the phenomenon of hysteresis, whereby the barrier state persists when the driving power is lowered below the initial threshold value. Here we report new results from theoretical and computational studies of hysteresis in internal transport barrier (ITB) with reversed magnetic shear. A revised version of the global gyrofluid TRB code has been used to study ITG turbulence. ITB formation, back transition, and hysteresis are manifested during slow ramp-ups/downs of the central heating power. Comparisons are made of the similarity/difference in the characteristics of hysteresis when the control parameter is lowered dynamically. The strength of hysteresis is quantified as functions of ion Nusselt number, q-profile shape and lower order rational q surface. In addition to the computational study, an analytical study of a two-field model of pressure and density dynamics is presented for a reversed shear ITB plasma by extending a previous theory that is applied to the edge pedestal.

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. Magnetostrictive direct drive motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dipak; Dehoff, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new rare earth alloy, Terfenol-D, combines low frequency operation and extremely high energy density with high magnetostriction. Its material properties make it suitable as a drive element for actuators requiring high output torque. The high strains, the high forces and the high controllability of Terfenol alloys provide a powerful and challenging basis for new ways to generate motion in actuators. Two prototypes of motors using Terfenol-D rods were developed at NASA Goddard. The basic principles of operation are provided of the motor along with other relevant details. A conceptual design of a torque limiting safety clutch/brake under development is illustrated. Also, preliminary design drawings of a linear actuator using Terfenol-D is shown.

  4. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  5. Do emotions drive psychosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João G. Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control

  6. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  7. Aggressive Driving Behavior: Undergraduate Students Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rungson Chomeya

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The main purposes of this research were (1) to study the aggressive driving behavior of graduate students, (2) to develop aggressive driving behavior standard test, (3) to compare the aggressive driving behavior between gender, years of study, academic achievement, driving confidence and driving experience and (4) to study the relationship among aggressive driving behavior, driving confidence, driving experience and accident experience. Approach: The subjects consisted of 4...

  8. Therapy for back pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Yu Solovyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may be used in combination with B group vitamins. A number of independent trials demonstrates that B group vitamins potentiate the analgesic effect of NSAIDs and contribute to a rapider regression of pain syndrome than their monotherapy. To reduce the risk of adverse reactions of NSAID therapy, to enhance its adherence, and to reduce its cost, it is reasonable to administer combination drugs that contain these components and allow the dose of active substances to be decreased due to their synergism. The new combination drug neurodiclovit contains slow-release enteric-coated granules and individual immediate-release granules of vitamins B 1, B 6, and B 12. Incorporation of neurodiclovit into treatment regimens for back pain syndromes will promote optimization of their therapy.

  9. Taking it all back home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reprocessing contracts stipulate that Cogema's and BNFL's foreign customers will take back their vitrified residues to ensure subsequent storage themselves. National policies have been defined by those customers for the interim storage on return. Belgium and Japan have chosen to store them in glass canisters in air-cooled pits - at Mol and at Rokkasho-mura, respectively (similar to their current stores at the reprocessing plants) -while Germany and Switzerland have opted to use storage flasks. Aware of the need for vitrified residue return, almost 10 years ago Transnucleaire began developing a new model of flask to suit the various needs of the utilities concerned. Named TN 28 V in view of its basic payload of 28 vitrified waste canisters, this flask is currently being manufactured in two versions: one for the routine transport of glass-containing canisters and another for their transport followed by a long period of interim storage. (author)

  10. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  11. Asperger's disorder will be back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Luke Y

    2013-12-01

    This review focuses on identifying up-to-date number of publications that compared DSM-IV/ICD-10 Asperger's disorder (AspD) to Autistic Disorder/High-functioning Autism (AD/HFA). One hundred and twenty-eight publications were identified through an extensive search of major electronic databases and journals. Based on more than 90 clinical variables been investigated, 94 publications concluded that there were statistically significant or near significant level of quantitative and/or qualitative differences between AspD and AD/HFA groups; 4 publications found both similarities and differences between the two groups; 30 publications concluded with no differences between the two groups. Although DSM-5 ASD will eliminate Asperger's disorder. However, it is plausible to predict that the field of ASD would run full circle during the next decade or two and that AspD will be back in the next edition of DSM. PMID:23644916

  12. Automobile Driving and Aggressive Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Novaco, Raymond W.

    1991-01-01

    Automobile driving and aggressive behavior have had an extensive association. Themes of dominance and territoriality have long been part of automobile driving, which has also involved flagrant assaultive actions. Recent episodes of roadway violence in metropolitan areas have raised community concern about aggressive behavior in driving, although common beliefs about why such violence occurs can be seen as pseudoexplanations. Various themes in the psychology of aggression are presented as they...

  13. Quantum effects in warp drives

    OpenAIRE

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an expon...

  14. Searching in Lists While Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Koerner, Julia

    2006-01-01

    More and more in-vehicle systems are rapidly becoming commercially available, making the driving task more and more complex. Driving performance in such multiple-task situations depends primarily on the level of task demands imposed on the driver by certain situations. The higher the perceived task difficulty, the higher the workload level of that individual. The aim of this dissertation was therefore to investigate possible trade-offs between primary task (driving) and secondary task (se...

  15. The Drive-Wise Project: Driving Simulator Training increases real driving performance in healthy older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianclaudio Casutt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.

  16. Noninductive current drive in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)

  17. Motor Integrated Variable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer

    A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... converter losses and its size so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and...

  18. Heat resistant driving coil and control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceramic materials are used for each part of driving coils and used as the driving coils for a driving shaft. That is, a cylindrical bobbin having outwardly protruding flanges on the entire circumference at the upper and the lower portions is made of stainless steels. Ceramics sheets are appended as necessary to the outer circumferential surface of the bobbin. Then, ceramic electric wires are wound around the outer circumference of the bobbin by a required number of turns to constitute coils. The electric wire is prepared by coating the conductor of nickel-plated copper with ceramic coating material, disposing an insulation material to the outer circumference thereof the further coating the outside with ceramic coating material. This can improve the heat resistance and, since the control rod drives using such heat resistant driving coils can operate at a high temperature. It requires no cooling device and can simplify the reactor and its peripheral structures. (T.M.)

  19. Electric motor drive unit, especially adjustment drive for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litterst, P.

    1980-05-29

    An electric motor drive unit, particularly an adjustment drive for vehicles with at least two parallel drive shafts is described, which is compact and saves space, and whose manufacturing costs are low compared with those of well-known drive units of this type. The drive unit contains a suitable number of magnet systems, preferably permanent magnet systems, whose pole axes are spaced and run parallel. The two pole magnet systems have diametrically opposite shell-shaped segments, to which the poles are fixed. In at least one magnet system the two segments are connected by diametrically opposite flat walls parallel to the pole axes to form a single magnetic circuit pole housing. The segments of at least one other magnet system are arranged on this pole housing so that one of these flat walls is a magnetically conducting, connecting component of the magnetic circuit of the other magnet system.

  20. Detonation drive pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detonation drive pellet injector has been developed and tested. By this method the free piston is not necessary because the pellet accelerated the high pressure shock directly. In the experiment, the Teflon pellet (5 mm dia., 5 mm length) was accelerated by hydrogen, oxygen and dilution gas mixtured detonation. When the gas pressure was only 500 kPa and the mixture rates of hydrogen, oxygen and helium were 3:6:1 or 3:6:0, the Teflon pellet speed was up to 747 m/s. Typical experimental results over 300 kPa of the initial gas pressure range are 78--92% of the one-dimensional calculational values. It showed that the pellet could be accelerated by a relative low pressure gas. When the helium dilution rate is larger than 20%, it was often found the strong detonation of which speed is more than the Chapman-Jouguet speed. Then the pellet speed above 1,100 m/s was obtained

  1. Sensorless Operation of Brushless DC Motor Drive using Back EMF Technique

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saranya, S. Saravana kumar,R. Baskaran, A. Vinidha Roc, K. Sathiyasekar

    2014-01-01

    The Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motors are one of the motor types that is gaining rapid popularity. Its major appliances include refrigerators, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, freezers, etc. As the name implies, BLDC motors do not use brushes for commutation; instead, they are electronically commutated. This paper proposes a new optimized technique for the Sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless direct current (BLDC) motor, which is based on b...

  2. Cooling of a Micro-mechanical Resonator by the Back-action of Lorentz Force

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.D.; Semba, K.; Yamaguchi, H

    2007-01-01

    Using a semi-classical approach, we describe an on-chip cooling protocol for a micro-mechanical resonator by employing a superconducting flux qubit. A Lorentz force, generated by the passive back-action of the resonator's displacement, can cool down the thermal motion of the mechanical resonator by applying an appropriate microwave drive to the qubit. We show that this onchip cooling protocol, with well-controlled cooling power and a tunable response time of passive back-action, can be highly...

  3. Cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator by the back-action of Lorentz force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Semba, K.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2008-04-01

    Using a semi-classical approach, we describe an on-chip cooling protocol for a micro-mechanical resonator by employing a superconducting flux qubit. A Lorentz force, generated by the passive back-action of the resonator's displacement, can cool down the thermal motion of the mechanical resonator by applying an appropriate microwave drive to the qubit. We show that this on-chip cooling protocol, with well-controlled cooling power and a tunable response time of passive back-action, can be highly efficient. With feasible experimental parameters, the effective mode temperature of a resonator could be cooled down by several orders of magnitude.

  4. Thick backed carbon targets via mechanical rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For targets requiring thick backing foils, the straight-forward and usual method is to deposit the target material directly on the backing by thermal evaporation. In some instances the reverse is more desirable, adding a backing to an already existing target foil, for example. A recent study involving measurement of the lifetime of the first 2+ excited state in 36Ar by the Doppler shift attenuation method required 0.5 mg/cm2 natural carbon targets on thick (18 mg/cm2) gold and lead backings. Problems of delamination had arisen after beam irradiation using thick gold backings for these experiments. Carbon target foils were then prepared by mechanical rolling in direct contact with a thick lead backing using an intermediate layer of indium to assure good adhesion of the layers. Details of the method will be discussed. (author)

  5. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  6. Induction-drive magnetohydrodynamic propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of magnetohydrodynamic propulsion for marine applications is reviewed with emphasis on induction-drive systems such as the open-quotes rippleclose quotes motor. Comparisons are made with direct-drive MHD propulsion systems. Application to pumps for hazardous fluids and liquid-metal coolants is also discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Seriously Ill Child Featured Website: NIDA for Teens Past Issues Most Viewed February 2014 Print RSS Find us on Facebook External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Video technology and in-vehicle sensors showed that distracted driving, ...

  8. Driving Resistance from Railroad Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Erik Bjørn Grønning; Sorenson, Spencer C

    2005-01-01

    This report methods and parameters for calculating the driving resistance of railroad trains. Calculations and comparisons are presented for aerodynamic, rolling and total resistance for a variety of freight trains under different loading conditions, operating speed and configuration. Simplified...... methods are presented for the estimation of the driving resistance for passenger trains. This report is a supplement to the ARTEMIS rail emissions model....

  9. Warp Drive With Zero Expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Natario, Jose

    2001-01-01

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding space behind it. We show that this expansion/contraction is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre, and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  10. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back inj...

  11. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimize...

  12. [Driving and health at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Marie-Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician is to prevent occupational accidents and diseases. Therefore, he is the one to decide if a worker is fit to drive in the context of his professional activity, including in cases where no specific driving license is required (e.g. forklift truck, mobile crane). This decision is an important one, as two thirds of fatal occupational accidents occur on the road. The decision is made on the basis of both a medical examination and the regulation, which indicates all contraindications to driving. The physician's responsibility is involved, as is the employer's, as he must ensure that his employee is fit to drive and possesses a valid driving license at all times. PMID:25960440

  13. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  14. From There and Back Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    This article describes my journey from being a radical, person-centered therapist in the 1960s to the present. In the 1960s, my colleagues and I saw therapy as a person-to-person encounter. Over the years I lost that notion and became corrupted by the idea that therapy is a process of intervening to make things happen in clients. In the 1990s, I found my way back to the idea of therapy as a meeting of persons because of a research review that showed that it was clients' investment and creativity that were primarily responsible for making therapy work and because of my experiences with clients. In the meantime, the field had aged and political developments within it, such as the empirically supported treatments movement, also influenced how I came to view myself. I conclude by giving my current view of therapy as a process in which I am not intervening but engaging in a person-to-person meeting, within which I am free to offer techniques and ideas from many different approaches if appropriate. PMID:26360971

  15. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  16. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  17. How to prevent low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burton, A.K.; Balague, F.; Cardon, G.; Eriksen, H.R.; Henrotin, Y.; Lahad, A.; Leclerc, A.; Muller, G.; Beek, van der A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the European Guidelines for Prevention in Low Back Pain, which consider the evidence in respect of the general population, workers and children. There is limited scope for preventing the incidence (first-time onset) of back pain and, overall, there is limited robust evidence

  18. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back injury, low back injury, golf and low back pain, golf injury prevention, golf modern swing, muscles in golf swing, low back rehabilitation, diaphragm, and core stability. All studies addressed in some manner the rehabilitation, prevention, or return to sport from low back injury, preferably in direct relation to golf, as well as muscle firing patterns used during the golf swing. Results: Best practice for rehabilitation and prevention of low back injury in golf appears to be through a multidisciplinary approach. Conclusion: Movement patterns, muscle imbalances, and type of swing utilized all have a direct effect on the forces applied to the spine during the golf swing and need to be assessed to prevent or rehabilitate injury. Understanding the golf swing and how the body works during the swing is necessary. PMID:24459546

  19. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying on your stomach Sit-ups TAKING MEASURES TO PREVENT FUTURE BACK PAIN To prevent back pain, learn to lift and bend properly. Follow these tips: ...

  20. Can Back-Reaction Prevent Eternal Inflation?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenberger, Robert; Franzmann, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects which the back-reaction of long wavelength fluctuations exert on stochastic inflation. In the cases of power-law and Starobinsky inflation these effects are too weak to terminate the stochastic growth of the inflaton field. However, in the case of the cyclic Ekpyrotic scenario, the back-reaction effects prevent the unlimited growth of the scalar field.

  1. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua;

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  2. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department...

  3. LABORATORY ANALYSIS OF BACK-CORONA DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses an experimental research program to characterize back-corona generation and behavior in a range of environments and geometries common to electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A wire-parallel plate device was used to monitor the intensity and distribution of back...

  4. Backing up the stories: The psychological and social costs of chronic low-back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Justin; Singh, Samantha B.; Garis, Sally; Diwan, Ashish D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low-back pain is a widespread condition whose significance is overlooked. Previous studies have analyzed and evaluated the medical costs and physical symptoms of chronic low-back pain; however, few have looked beyond these factors. The purpose of this study was to analyze and evaluate the personal and psychosocial costs of chronic low-back pain. Methods To measure the various costs of chronic low-back pain, a questionnaire was generated using a visual analog scale, the Depr...

  5. Cost Reduction, Competitive Balance, and the Scheduling of Back-to-Back Games in the NBA

    OpenAIRE

    Yvan J. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    The NBA league office states that the playing schedule is devised to ensure competitive balance while keeping an eye towards minimizing costs. This paper examines those claims. Three years of travel data were analyzed and the results imply that the use of back-to-back road games in the NBA schedule may assist with competitive balance and that back-to-back games indeed reduce team travel costs.

  6. Phoning while driving II: a review of driving conditions influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C

    2010-05-01

    The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety. PMID:20432083

  7. Looking Back to the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Will (Australian National Univ., Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)). E-mail: will.steffen@anu.edu.au

    2008-12-15

    The emergence of climate change as a central political issue around the world, along with growing concern for the environment more generally, has raised the challenge to achieve sustainability as a high order social goal. Yet over the 20 y since the publication of the landmark Brundtland Report on sustainable development, humanity has moved further away from sustainability in many important aspects, particularly at the global scale. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of how the human-environment relationship has evolved through time, analyzes the quest for sustainability in contemporary society, and briefly explores the implications of these analyses for the trajectory of the human-environment relationship in the twenty-first century. The focus is on an Earth systems perspective. Exploration of the human-environment relationship through time shows a fundamental switch about 200 y ago, when human society shifted from being largely the recipient of changes in Earth system functioning to becoming a global geophysical force itself, rivaling the great forces of nature in magnitude. Contemporary human societies are now on a demonstrably nonsustainable trajectory, especially with regard to climate change, with no sign at the global scale of any change in trajectory. An analysis of the sustainability gap suggests that a crucial missing component in our quest for sustainability is a failure to engage the humanities, along with the biophysical and social sciences, economics, and technology, in the search for solutions. An examination of the ways in which past civilizations have responded to external stresses and the analysis of the contemporary sustainability gap have come to the same conclusion. Those societies that respond to environmental and other stresses by transformation rather than collapse have the capability to question their core values if they become dysfunctional and to drive fundamental shifts in those values, leading to more adaptive

  8. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experience...... is maintained over long periods: for example, people with pain continue to have it on and off for years, and people without pain do not suddenly develop long-term pain. A number of factors predict back pain presence in epidemiological studies, and these are often present, and predictive, at different...... life stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the...

  9. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  10. Dopaminergic Circuitry Underlying Mating Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Stephen X; Rogulja, Dragana; Crickmore, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    We develop a new system for studying how innate drives are tuned to reflect current physiological needs and capacities, and how they affect sensory-motor processing. We demonstrate the existence of male mating drive in Drosophila, which is transiently and cumulatively reduced as reproductive capacity is depleted by copulations. Dopaminergic activity in the anterior of the superior medial protocerebrum (SMPa) is also transiently and cumulatively reduced in response to matings and serves as a functional neuronal correlate of mating drive. The dopamine signal is transmitted through the D1-like DopR2 receptor to P1 neurons, which also integrate sensory information relevant to the perception of females, and which project to courtship motor centers that initiate and maintain courtship behavior. Mating drive therefore converges with sensory information from the female at the point of transition to motor output, controlling the propensity of a sensory percept to trigger goal-directed behavior. PMID:27292538

  11. Quantum effects in warp drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finazzi Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.

  12. Optimal Drunk Driving Penalty Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Darren Grant

    2007-01-01

    The expected penalty for drunk driving can and does vary by blood alcohol content. This paper outlines the "penalty structure" that does this optimally, using two different metrics, shows how the optimality conditions can be implemented with available data to analyze policy ex ante or ex post, and then uses these findings to investigate four fundamental features of current U.S. drunk driving policy. The paper provides theoretical and empirical support for large penalties at very high alcohol ...

  13. Warp drive with zero expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Natario, J

    2002-01-01

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.

  14. Warp drive with zero expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed

  15. Mulholland Drive: An Intertextual Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Barzegar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.

  16. Neural substrates of driving behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Spiers, H. J.; Maguire, E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Driving a vehicle is an indispensable daily behaviour for many people, yet we know little about how it is supported by the brain. Given that driving in the real world involves the engagement of many cognitive systems that rapidly change to meet varying environmental demands, identifying its neural basis presents substantial problems. By employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), an accurate interactive virtual simulation of a bustling central London (UK) a...

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum back contact layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, V.A.; Janssen, M.; Richardson, I.M. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Van Amstel, T.; Bennett, I.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    The overall demand to reduce solar energy costs gives a continuous drive to reduce the thickness of silicon wafers. Handling and bowing problems associated with thinner wafers become more and more important, as these can lead to cells cracking and thus to high yield losses. In this paper the microstructure and mechanical properties of the aluminium on the rear side of a solar cell are discussed. It is shown that the aluminium back contact has a complex composite-like microstructure, consisting of five main components: (1) the back surface field layer; (2) a eutectic layer; (3) spherical (3 - 5 {mu}m) hypereutectic Al-Si particles surrounded by a thin aluminum oxide layer (200 nm); (4) a bismuth-silicate glass matrix; and (5) pores (14 vol.%). The Young's modulus of the Al-Si particles is estimated by nanoindentation and the overall Young's modulus is estimated on the basis of bowing measurements. These results are used as input parameters for an improved thermomechanical multiscale model of a silicon solar cell.

  18. Microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminum back contact layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, V.A.; Janssen, M.; Richardson, I.M. [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); van Amstel, T.; Bennett, I.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Solar Energy, PV Module Technology, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-01-15

    The overall demand to reduce solar energy costs gives a continuous drive to reduce the thickness of silicon wafers. Handling and bowing problems associated with thinner wafers become more and more important, as these can lead to cells cracking and thus to high yield losses. In this paper the microstructure and mechanical properties of the aluminum on the rear side of a solar cell are discussed. It is shown that the aluminum back contact has a complex composite-like microstructure, consisting of five main components: (1) the back surface field layer; (2) a eutectic layer; (3) spherical (3-5 {mu}m) hypereutectic Al-Si particles surrounded by a thin aluminum oxide layer (200 nm); (4) a bismuth-silicate glass matrix; and (5) pores (14 vol%). The Young's modulus of the Al-Si particles is estimated by nanoindentation and the overall Young's modulus is estimated on the basis of bowing measurements. These results are used as input parameters for the improved thermomechanical multiscale model of a solar cell. (author)

  19. Design Optimization and Site Matching of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    generator systems, the combinations of five rated rotor speeds in the range of 10-30 rpm and nine power ratings from 100 kW to 10 MW, are optimally designed, respectively. The optimum results are compared graphically in terms of the generator design indexes. Next, according to the design principle......This paper investigates the possible site matching of the direct-drive wind turbine concepts based on the electromagnetic design optimization of permanent magnet (PM) generator systems. Firstly, the analytical models of a three-phase radial-flux PM generator with a back-to-back power converter...... are presented. The optimum design models of direct-drive PM wind generation system are developed with an improved genetic algorithm, and a 500-kW direct-drive PM generator for the minimal generator active material cost is compared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design optimization. Forty-five PM...

  20. Possible Mechanisms of Low Back Pain due to Whole-Body Vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, M. H.; Wilder, D. G.; Magnusson, M.

    1998-08-01

    The investigators describe their multifaceted approach to the study of the relationship between whole-body vibration and low back pain.In vitroexperiments, using percutaneous pin-mounted accelerometers have shown that the natural frequency is at 4·5 Hz. The frequency response was affected by posture, seating, and seat-back inclination. The response appears to be largely determined by the rocking of the pelvis. Electromyographic studies have shown that muscle fatigue occurs under whole body vibration. After whole body vibration exposure the muscle response to a sudden load has greater latency. Vehicle driving may be a reason for low back pain or herniated nucleus pulposus. Prolonged seating exposure, coupled with the whole body vibration should be reduced for those recovering from these problems. Vibration attenuating seats, and correct ergonomic layout of the cabs may reduce the risks of recurrence.

  1. Movable coil type magnetic drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In movable coil type magnetic drives suitable to reactor control element drives, if it is intended to increase the retaining force thereof, there has been a problem that the size of the device is increased. Then in electromagnetic coils surrounding a plunger mounted to a driving shaft, auxiliary annular poles are disposed to each of inner ends of poles at both ends of the coils so as to cover almost of the surface on the side of the plunger. As a result, the magnetic bonding force between the electromagnetic coils and the plunger is enhanced, and the retaining force for the driving shaft can be increased by a small sized device without increasing current supplied to the electromagnetic coils and the number of the electromagnetic coils. The present invention is not limited to reactor control element drives, but it can be applied to various kinds of fields such as a driving device for moving materials in contactless manner, for example, in a case of removing drum cans containing radioactive materials or harmful materials. (N.H.)

  2. PHENOMENON OF CARVED DRIVING WHEELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xianghua; ZHANG Jianwu

    2007-01-01

    A newly found phenomenon of carved driving wheels of a rea-wheel-drive tractor used in an airport is discussed. The circum of every driving wheel is damaged at three regions, which distribute regularly and uniformly. Everyday, the tractor tows a trailer which are times heavier than the tractor, and moves on the same road in the airport. The phenomenon is explained by the torsional self-excited vibration system of the powertrain. The simplified torsional vibration system is discribed by a 2-order ordinary differential equation, which has a limit circle. Experiments and numerical simulations show the followings: Because of the heavy trailer, the slip ratio of the tractor's driving wheels is very large. Therefore, there is severe torsional self-excited vibration in the tractor's drivetrain, and the self-excited vibration results in severe and regular fluctuations of the rear wheel's velocity. The severe fluctuations in velocity fastens the damage of the driving wheels. At the same time, the time interval in which an arbitrary point in the circum of the driving wheel contacts with the road twice is two times more than the period of the torsional self-excited vibration, and this times explained the existence of three damaged regions. At last, it points out that the phenomenon can be avoided when the torsional damping is large enough.

  3. On the impossibility of superluminal travel: the warp drive lesson

    CERN Document Server

    Barceló, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The question of whether it is possible or not to surpass the speed of light is already centennial. The special theory of relativity took the existence of a speed limit as a principle, the light postulate, which has proven to be enormously predictive. Here we discuss some of its twists and turns when general relativity and quantum mechanics come into play. In particular, we discuss one of the most interesting proposals for faster than light travel: warp drives. Even if one succeeded in creating such spacetime structures, it would be still necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum matter effects. Here, we show that the quantum back-reaction to warp-drive geometries, created out of an initially flat spacetime, inevitably lead to their destabilization whenever superluminal speeds are attained. We close this investigation speculating the possible significance of this further success of the speed of light postulate.

  4. Drowsy Driving: Asleep at the Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a major problem in the United States. The risk, danger, and often tragic results of drowsy driving are alarming. Drowsy driving is the dangerous combination of driving and sleepiness or fatigue. This usually happens when a driver has not ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Teen Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.58 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Teen Drinking and Driving A Dangerous Mix Recommend on ... Drinking and driving can be deadly, especially for teens Fewer teens are drinking and driving, but this ...

  6. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  7. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  8. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;

    2006-01-01

    Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical...... activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism...

  9. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  10. Exploring Forensic Implications of the Fusion Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Gupta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the forensic implications of Apple's Fusion Drive. The Fusion Drive is an example of auto-tiered storage. It uses a combination of a flash drive and a magnetic drive. Data is moved between the drives automatically to maximize system performance. This is different from traditional caches because data is moved and not simply copied. The research included understanding the drive structure, populating the drive, and then accessing data in a controlled setting to observe data migration strategies. It was observed that all the data is first written to the flash drive with 4 GB of free space always maintained. If data on the magnetic drive is frequently accessed, it is promoted to the flash drive while demoting other information. Data is moved at a block-level and not a file-level. The Fusion Drive didn't alter the timestamps of files with data migration.

  11. Back pain: A puzzle in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahle, Imad S; Hamam, Mohamed S; Masrouha, Karim Z; Afeiche, Nadim E; Abdelnoor, Johnny

    2016-08-01

    Back pain in children is underdiagnosed and increases incidence in adolescence. A systematic approach can diagnose the most common causes: trauma, structural deformities, inflammatory diseases, infection and malignancy. PMID:27535879

  12. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Sleep > Back to ...

  13. College backs domestic abuse awareness training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    All nurses should be trained to recognise signs of domestic abuse and provide support to victims, according to a resolution overwhelmingly backed by RCN members at congress in Glasgow last month. PMID:27384787

  14. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  15. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  16. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Back Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/backinjuries.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  18. Nanopore Back Titration Analysis of Dipicolinic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yujing; Zhou, Shuo; Wang, Liang; Guan, Xiyun

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a novel label-free nanopore back titration method for the detection of dipicolinic acid, a marker molecule for bacterial spores. By competitive binding of the target analyte and a large ligand probe to metal ions, dipicolinic acid could be sensitively and selectively detected. This nanopore back titration approach should find useful applications in the detection of other species of medical, biological, or environmental importance if their direct detection is difficult to achieve.

  19. Back End Programming in .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to develop a web application which provides the services for both web and mobile client. The complete application development process was carried out by the team of four members and a supervisor. According to the interest of group members the whole project was divided into four parts; that is user interface design, mobile application development, back end development for mobile services and server side back end development of application. I got the task of ser...

  20. Mechanical therapy for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Donald Grant

    2012-09-01

    Physical therapy and manual medicine for low back pain encompass many different treatment modalities. There is a vast variety of techniques that physical therapists commonly use in the treatment of low back pain. Some of the therapies include, but are certainly not limited to, education, exercise, lumbar traction, manual manipulation, application of heat, cryotherapy, and ultrasonography. Many of these approaches are discussed specifically in this article. PMID:22958560

  1. Drive: Theory and Construct Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegling, Alex B; Petrides, K V

    2016-01-01

    This article explicates the theory of drive and describes the development and validation of two measures. A representative set of drive facets was derived from an extensive corpus of human attributes (Study 1). Operationalised using an International Personality Item Pool version (the Drive:IPIP), a three-factor model was extracted from the facets in two samples and confirmed on a third sample (Study 2). The multi-item IPIP measure showed congruence with a short form, based on single-item ratings of the facets, and both demonstrated cross-informant reliability. Evidence also supported the measures' convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and incremental validity (Study 3). Based on very promising findings, the authors hope to initiate a stream of research in what is argued to be a rather neglected niche of individual differences and non-cognitive assessment. PMID:27409773

  2. Influence of roadside infrastructure on driving behavior: driving simulator study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, A.R.A. van der; Ridder, S. de

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a driving simulator study that focused on the influence of roadside infrastructure on speed choice and lateral placement of car drivers. A review of the RISER detailed accident database revealed that lateral positioning and speed of the vehicle were two of the pri

  3. Predictive Reliability Assessment of the Automatic Clutch on a Primary Sodium Pump Drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the reliability of a group of three clutch couplings each mounted between a pony motor and the main drive for the primary sodium pumps. The sodium pumps specification requires that continuously running AC pony motors be fitted to give a guaranteed 10% drive to the pumps in the event of a main supply failure. The drive to the main shaft is via 3 : 1 reduction gearing such that a six pole pony motor running at 300 rpm would drive the main shaft at 100 rpm i.e., 10% of its rated speed. In order that the pony motor drive could be permanently energised during normal operation a free wheeling clutch is fitted between the motor and the reduction gearing. The type of clutch chosen is. the Synchro-Self Shifting (SSS) clutch, shown in Figure 1. This type of clutch has proved itself under fairly onerous operating conditions, but is normally mounted on a horizontal driving shaft whereas in this case because of space limitations, it is necessary to mount it vertically. The reliability target set is that the chance of losing all three independent back-up pony motor drives on loss of main supplies should fall within the 10-5 - 10-6 band. Since the electrical supplies and other parts of the pony motor drives have been assessed within this target and some doubts expressed about the clutch it was now necessary to look at this in some detail

  4. The warp drive and antigravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Homer G.

    2004-01-01

    The warp drive envisioned by Alcubierre that can move a spaceship faster than light can, with modification, levitate it as if it were lighter than light, even allow it to go below a black hole's horizon and return unscathed. Wormhole-like versions of the author's `drainhole' (1973) might provide the drive, in the form of a by-pass of the spaceship composed of a multitude of tiny topological tunnels. The by-pass would divert the gravitational `ether' into a sink covering part of the spaceship'...

  5. Warp drives, wavefronts and superluminality

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Coule's primary objection to the Alcubierre "warpdrive" is that the material producing the warp field needs to be superluminal. This difficulty is solved by placing the drive material inside its own warp field (making the drive system part of the payload), but we then have to deal with Low's related objection, that there is then a restricted rate at which this "naked" warp-field can propagate through the background metric. We argue that the propagation of this sort of gravitational wave is no...

  6. The onset of driving phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munjack, D J

    1984-12-01

    Thirty driving phobics who called the Psychiatry Outpatient Phobia Clinic (25 females and five males) were given a 20-min semi-standardized telephone interview during which they were asked about the circumstances of the onset of their driving fears. Twelve (40%) reported that their fears were precipitated by a panic attack on the freeway; six (20%) by a collision; and three (10%) by other frightening experiences in automobiles. Four (13.3%) related the onset to family stress or upheaval. Other modes of onset also occurred. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of existing theories of fear acquisition and treatment approaches. PMID:6526942

  7. Digital control of electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, R; Szklarski, L

    1992-01-01

    The electromechanical systems employed in different branches of industry are utilized most often as drives of working machines which must be fed with electric energy in a continuous, periodic or even discrete way. Some of these machines operate at constant speed, others require wide and varying energy control. In many designs the synchronous cooperation of several electric drives is required in addition to the desired dynamic properties. For these reasons the control of the cooperation and dynamics of electromechanical systems requires the use of computers.This book adopts an unusual approach

  8. Driving and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on driving and age-related macular degeneration, which is motivated by the link between driving and the quality of life of older adults and their increased collision rate. It addresses the risk of crashes, driving performance, driving difficulty, self-regulation, and interventions to enhance, safety,…

  9. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park,

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720...

  10. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water). PMID:25902942

  11. Drive reconfiguration mechanism for tracked robotic vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drive reconfiguration apparatus for changing the configuration of a drive unit with respect to a vehicle body may comprise a guide system associated with the vehicle body and the drive unit which allows the drive unit to rotate about a center of rotation that is located at about a point where the drive unit contacts the surface being traversed. An actuator mounted to the vehicle body and connected to the drive unit rotates the drive unit about the center of rotation between a first position and a second position

  12. Episodicity in back-arc tectonic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Stuart R.; Stegman, Dave; Müller, R. Dietmar

    2008-12-01

    The evolution of back-arc basins is tied to the development of the dynamics of the subduction system they are a part of. We present a study of back-arc basins and model their development by implementing 3D time-dependant computer models of subduction including an overriding plate. We define three types of episodicity: pseudo-, quasi- and hyper-episodicity, and find evidence of these in nature. Observations of back-arc basin ages, histories of spreading, quiescence and compression in the overriding plate give us an understanding of the time-development of these subduction zones and back-arc basins. Across the globe today, a number of trenches are advancing—the Izu-Bonin Trench, the Mariana Trench, the Japan Trench, the Java-Sunda Trench and the central portion of the Peru-Chile Trench (the Andes subduction zone). The Izu-Bonin, Mariana and Japan all have established back-arc basins, while the others have documented episodes of spreading, quiescence, compression or a combination of these. The combination of advancing and retreating trench motion places these subduction zones in the category of hyper-episodicity. Quasi-episodicity, in which the back-arc shifts between phases of rifting, spreading and quiescence, is the dominant form of episodic back-arc development in the present. We find this type of episodicity in models for which the system is dynamically consistent—that we have allowed the subducting plate's velocity to be determined by the sinking slabs' buoyancy. Quasi- and hyper-episodicity are only found in subduction zones with relatively high subducting plate velocities, between 6 and 9 cm/year. Finally, those subduction zones for which the subducting plate is moving slowly, such as in the Mediterranean or the Scotia Sea, experience only pseudo-episodicity, where the spreading moves linearly towards the trench but often does so in discrete ridge-jump events.

  13. Evaluation, Generation, and Transformation of Driving Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Nyberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Driving cycles are important components for evaluation and design of vehicles. They determine the focus of vehicle manufacturers, and indirectly they affect the environmental impact of vehicles since the vehicle control system is usually tuned to one or several driving cycles. Thus, the driving cycle affects the design of the vehicle since cost, fuel consumption, and emissions all depend on the driving cycle used for design. Since the existing standard driving cycles cannot keep up with the c...

  14. Simulation of Surrounding Vehicles in Driving Simulators

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Driving simulators and microscopic traffic simulation are important tools for making evaluations of driving and traffic. A driving simulator is de-signed to imitate real driving and is used to conduct experiments on driver behavior. Traffic simulation is commonly used to evaluate the quality of service of different infrastructure designs. This thesis considers a different application of traffic simulation, namely the simulation of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. The surrounding tr...

  15. Driving Under the Influence of Our Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Hjalmarsson, Randi; Lindquist, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies intergenerational correlations in drunk driving between fathers and their children using the Stockholm Birth Cohort. We find strong evidence of an intergenerational drunk driving relationship. Cohort members who have fathers with a drunk driving record have 2.59 times higher odds of having a drunk driving conviction themselves than cohort members with non-drunk driving fathers. We then go on to investigate the underlying mechanisms that give rise to these correlations. The ...

  16. Two wheel speed robust sliding mode control for electric vehicle drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfatah Nasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the uses of electrical power resources are integrated in the modern vehicle motion traction chain so new technologies allow the development of electric vehicles (EV by means of static converters-related electric motors. All mechanical transmission devices are eliminated and vehicle wheel motion can be controlled by means of power electronics. The proposed propulsing system consists of two induction motors (IM that ensure the drive of the two back driving wheels. The proposed control structure-called independent machines- for speed control permit the achievement of an electronic differential. The electronic differential system ensures the robust control of the vehicle behavior on the road. It also allows controlling independently, every driving wheel to turn at different speeds in any curve. This paper presents the study and the sliding mode control strategy of the electric vehicle driving wheels.

  17. Anomalous-viscosity current drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stix, T.H.; Ono, M.

    1986-04-25

    The present invention relates to a method and apparatus for maintaining a steady-state current for magnetically confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic confinement device using anomalous viscosity current drive. A second aspect of this invention relates to an apparatus and method for the start-up of a magnetically confined toroidal plasma.

  18. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  19. Death Drive in Tourism Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina

    2014-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive refers to a constant metapsychological force at the junction between life and death: it is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Geographies of tourist performances in places in the proximity of

  20. Police enforcement and driving speed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Speed limits are violated frequently in the Netherlands. As speed is an important factor in road crashes, the surveillance of driving speeds is one of the spearheads in the policy plans of the Dutch police. Different methods of speed enforcement have proved to be effective in reducing speed and cras

  1. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  2. BackSPAD - developments: Latest results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durini, Daniel; Weyers, Sascha; Stuehlmeyer, Martin; Goehlich, Andreas; Brockherde, Werner; Paschen, Uwe; Vogt, Holger [Fraunhofer IMS, Duisburg (Germany); Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Zappa, Franco [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    In the recent years, a large amount of effort has been put into the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as a viable technology to replace the conventional photo multiplier tubes (PMT)in many low-light level applications. In parallel, a concept has been pursued where the Geiger avalanche diodes are integrated in the same substrate with the pixel-electronics, forming arrays of Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPAD) smart pixels exploiting in this way the advantages of the CMOS technology combined with single-photon counting possibilities. One of the huge problems accompanying the increase of the in-pixel circuit complexity is the unavoidable diminishing of the SPAD pixel fill-factors, which tend to descend to below 4%. Aiming at improving the SPAD front-end performance, we pursue the development of Back-Side Illuminated SPAD (BackSPAD) smart-pixel structures in the frame of the EU-FP7-ICT-5 project *MiSPiA* (grant agreement No. 257646). BackSPAD array and the smart-pixel electronics are placed one over the other in close mechanical and electrical contact. The BackSPAD detectors are isolated from each other by deep trenches. The recent measurement results of the BackSPAD structures are reported.

  3. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  4. Use of aceclofenac (aertal in back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis, Scheuermann-Mau' disease, Forestier's disease, osteoarthrosis, etc., are accompanied by back pain. The cause of back pain syndrome cannot be frequently identified. This abnormality is treated by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, among which aceclofenac (Aertal has acquired a reputation as an agent having a good tolerability.

  5. Council Approves Scanning All Back Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    At its last meeting, the 2002-2004 Council, which oversaw the first 2 years of electronic publishing by the Union, authorized funds to scan all back issues of journals, books, and the archival material from Eos and Transactions. In accepting the proposal of the Publications Committee, Council noted that providing the means to deliver all back issues is a fitting conclusion to the transition to electronic publishing. Expenditures of up to $1.1 million were authorized for the scanning project, and for creating searchable abstracts of all back material, and for several other smaller projects. The money comes from the Electronic Publishing Development Fund, which had been built in the 1990s specifically to assure the financial underpinning for the electronic publishing transition. Members should start seeing the fruits of this work in 2006.

  6. Back-Side Readout Silicon Photomultiplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Woon-Seng; Holland, Stephen E

    2012-07-19

    We present a novel structure for the back-side readout silicon photomultipler (SiPM). Current SiPMs are front-illuminated structures with front-side readout, which have relatively small geometric fill factor leading to degradation in their photon detection efficiency (PDE). Back-side readout devices will provide an advantageous solution to achieve high PDE. We designed and investigated a novel structure that would allow back-side readout while creating a region of high electric field optimized for avalanche breakdown. In addition, this structure has relatively high fill factor and also allow direct coupling of individual micro-cell of the SiPM to application-specific integrated circuits. We will discuss the performance that can be attained with this structure through device simulation and the process flow that can be used to fabricate this structure through process simulation. PMID:23564969

  7. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  8. AC drives for industrial plants. Plant kudoyo AC drive sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, M.; Shibata, M.; Yamada, S. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-08-01

    Features and product series of AC drives for industrial plants were outlined. Configurations and features of various types of AC drives were briefly discussed which are put into market to meet various requirements for industrial plants and wide ranges of output voltage and capacity. The following product series were outlined; the power bipolar transistor inverter for 3.5-600 kVA in output capacity, IGBT inverter for AC 400 V in output voltage and 1,000 kVA or less, GTO inverter for AC 600 V and 700-2,000 kVA, and cycloconverter for AC 1,000-3,000 V and 1,000 kW-20 MW. The following subjects were outlined as current technical trends of AC drives for industrial plants; increasing in capacity of voltage-source PWM inverters, downsizing of converters through highly efficient cooling and highly dense mounting, spreading of sensorless vector controls, and development of high-voltage large-capacity PWM inverters. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Quantum Back Reaction on a Classical Field

    CERN Document Server

    Brout, R; Popescu, S; Parentani, R; Spindel, P; Spindel, Ph.

    1995-01-01

    We show how to apply post selection in the context of weak measurement of Aharonov and collaborators to construct the quantum back reaction on a classical field. The particular case which we study in this paper is pair creation in an external electric field and the back reaction is the counter field produced by the pair \\underline {as} it is made. The construction leads to a complex electric field obtained from non diagonal matrix elements of the current operator, the interpretation of which is clear in terms of weak measurement. The analogous construction applied to black hole physics (thereby leading to a complex metric) is relegated to a future paper.

  10. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  11. [Driving fitness/driving capacity of patients treated with methadone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri-Bionda, R; Bär, W; Friedrich-Koch, A

    1998-10-10

    To answer the question whether or not therapeutic methadone doses significantly reduce traffic-related performance of drivers on medically supervised methadone programmes, 34 methadone substitution patients, all of them volunteers, were subjected to a test series: the focus of the study was a psychophysical test battery consisting of 10 individual performance tests to assess essential functions with regard to driving ability, such as concentration, attention, reaction capability, memory, perception and sensorimotor coordination. In evaluating the results of the psychophysical tests, multiple drug use and subjective methadone influence at the time of the examination were taken into consideration but current methadone blood level was neglected. The results were compared to those of a control group. The methadone group (n = 34) consisted of 25 men and 9 women aged between 18 and 38. At the time of the study, the majority of the test persons (29) were on low dosage methadone maintenance (up to 60 mg/day). In the urine samples of approximately 2/3 of the test persons, evidence was found for multiple drug use together with other psychotropic substances, the most frequent (14) being cannabis metabolites. Referring to their driving practices, a mere 4 out of 29 drivers had not committed any driving offences. A comparison of the psychophysical performance of the whole methadone group (n = 34) with a control group demonstrated that the methadone substitution patients achieved rather lower results in almost all variables. These performance deficits were particularly conspicuous in sustained attention, sensorimotor coordination and reaction capability. 12 "methadone only" participants, i.e. methadone probands without any additional consumption of psychotropic substances showed-partly considerably-better performance than the methadone group as a whole and also achieved normal results in relation to the test norm. Nevertheless, once again, results tended to be of lower level in

  12. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  13. The warp drive and antigravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, H G

    2004-01-01

    The warp drive envisioned by Alcubierre that can move a spaceship faster than light can, with modification, levitate it as if it were lighter than light, even allow it to go below a black hole's horizon and return unscathed. Wormhole-like versions of the author's `drainhole' (1973) might provide the drive, in the form of a by-pass of the spaceship composed of a multitude of tiny topological tunnels. The by-pass would divert the gravitational `ether' into a sink covering part of the spaceship's hull, connected by the tunnels to a source covering the remainder of the hull, to produce an ether flow like that of a river that disappears underground only to spring forth at a point downstream. This diversion would effectively shield the spaceship from external gravity.

  14. Warp-Drive Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Nakahara, M; Kondo, Y; Tanimura, S; Hata, K; Nakahara, Mikio; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Kondo, Yasushi; Tanimura, Shogo; Hata, Kazuya

    2004-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that time-optimal quantum computation is attained by using the Cartan decomposition of a unitary matrix. We extend this approach by noting that the unitary group is compact. This allows us to reduce the execution time of a quantum algorithm $U_{\\rm alg}$ further by adding an extra gate $W$ to it. This gate $W$ sends $U_{\\rm alg}$ to another algorithm $WU_{\\rm alg}$ which is executable in a shorter time than $U_{\\rm alg}$. We call this technique warp-drive. Here we show both theoretically and experimentally that the execution time of Grover's algorithm is reduced in two-qubit NMR quantum computer. Warp-drive is potentially a powerful tool in accelerating algorithms and reducing the errors in any realization. of a quantum computer

  15. Warp Drive: A New Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obousy, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Certain classes of higher dimensional models suggest that the Casimir Effect is a candidate for the cosmological constant. In this paper we demonstrate that a sufficiently advanced civilization could, in principal, manipulate the radius of the extra dimension to locally adjust the value of the cosmological constant. This adjustment could be tuned to generate an expansion/contraction of spacetime around a spacecraft creating an exotic form of field-propulsion. Due to the fact that spacetime expansion itself is not restricted by relativity, a faster-than-light 'warp drive' could be created. Calculations of the energy requirements of such a drive are performed and an 'ultimate' speed limit, based on the Planckian limits on the size of the extra dimensions is found.

  16. Warp drive space-time

    OpenAIRE

    González-Díaz, Pedro F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the problem of the quantum stability of the two-dimensional warp drive spacetime moving with an apparent faster than light velocity is considered. We regard as a maximum extension beyond the event horizon of that spacetime its embedding in a three-dimensional Minkowskian space with the topology of the corresponding Misner space. It is obtained that the interior of the spaceship bubble becomes then a multiply connected nonchronal region with closed spacelike curves and that the m...

  17. On translating "The Sunday Drive"

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Heide

    1991-01-01

    What difficulties confront the translator of a text by William H. Gass? Apart, that is, from the difficulties known to any translator of any literary text, differences of environment, culture, and mental habits, as well as linguistic problems regarding tense, aspect, or mode? The following text will point out a few of those difficulties by facing eight paragraphs from Gass's piece "The Sunday Drive" with a German translation, each section to be followed by a commentary on the text and an eval...

  18. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kevin L.; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K.; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of centromere-specific DNA repeats in different species (centromere paradox) and the seemingly parallel rapid evolution of the cenH3 histone protein have previously been interpreted to be related to evolutionary pressures acting on both molecules based on their interaction (centromere drive hypothesis). Here we describe the detailed mechanism and chronology of centromere repeat replacement, and identify inbreeding as a major driver of centromeric DNA replacement that ultimately ...

  19. High-performance motor drives

    OpenAIRE

    Kazmierkowski, Marian P.; García Franquelo, Leopoldo; Rodríguez, José; Pérez, Marcelo; León Galván, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the present state and trends in the development of key parts of controlled induction motor drive systems: converter topologies, modulation methods, as well as control and estimation techniques. Two- and multilevel voltage-source converters, current-source converters, and direct converters are described. The main part of all the produced electric energy is used to feed electric motors, and the conversion of electrical power into mechanical power involves motors ranges from...

  20. Opportunities and Cooperation Drive Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The old industrial base is lying in Northeast China. Although boasting many advantages such as talents, resources, transportation, environment, the region still have many disadvantages that needs opening up and reform. Revitalizing the Northeast region is an important task for China to built well-off society in an all-round way in the new century. It is also a big strategy made after developing costal region and western region by Chinese leaders according to current situation, which is a driving force

  1. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  2. Foreign driving licences in France

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The following information is subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of the Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 4 74 32 30 65 for the Ain and + 33 4 50 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a State belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA and with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it will be recognised for a maximum of one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France ...

  3. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The following information is provided subject to possible amendments decided by the competent French authorities. Those wishing to undertake the necessary steps with the prefectural services of the Departments of Ain and Haute-Savoie may obtain information by calling the following numbers: + 33 474 32 30 65 for Ain and + 33 450 33 60 00 for Haute-Savoie. 1. PEOPLE RESIDING IN FRANCE 1.1 Driving licences issued by a state belonging to the EU or the EEA a) Recognition on French territory All currently valid driving licences issued by States belonging to the European Union (EU) or to the European Economic Area (EEA) are generally valid for driving on French territory. However, if the licence was originally obtained in exchange for a licence issued by a State not belonging to the EU or to the EEA with which France has not concluded a reciprocity agreement, it is recognised only up to one year following the date of establishment of normal residence in France (date of the first special residence permit issu...

  4. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN FRANCE1.1 National driving licences from countries belonging to the EEAa) ValidityCurrent national driving licences issued by a country belonging to the European Economic Area (here inafter called EEA) are, in principle, valid in France. N.B. : The countries belonging to the EEA are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.b)\tRegistrationTo ensure that all the conditions of validity in France have been met, holders of driving licences issued by a country belonging to the EEA, who reside in France (i.e. hold a residence permit issued by a Préfecture, or a carte spéciale issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is equivalent to a residence permit), can have their licences registered with the Préfecture of the department where they live (for Ain, call 04 74 32 30 00, for Haute Savoie call 04 50 33 ...

  5. Managing low back pain second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 26 chapters. Some of the titles are: Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine; Diagnostic techniques; The site and nature of the lesion; The anatomy of the lumbosacral spine; The perception of pain; Differential diagnosis of low back pain; and A comprehensive outline of treatment

  6. Imaging studies in chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging brings to difficult problems in chronic low back pain incomplete data showing that it will need a lot of time to find therapeutic solutions. Some comparisons are made between tomodensitometry, nuclear magnetic imaging, the disco-scanner, these technologies allow to find small lesions but the problem is complete when it is not possible to find anything with persistent pains. 125 refs

  7. Neuropathic pain, back to the patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Seventer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pain can be classified in several ways. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommends describing pain according to five categories or axes, namely its anatomical location (neck, lower back, etc.), the body system involved (gastrointestinal, nervo

  8. Allee effect from parasite spill-back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkošek, Martin; Ashander, Jaime; Frazer, L Neil; Lewis, Mark A

    2013-11-01

    The exchange of native pathogens between wild and domesticated animals can lead to novel disease threats to wildlife. However, the dynamics of wild host-parasite systems exposed to a reservoir of domesticated hosts are not well understood. A simple mathematical model reveals that the spill-back of native parasites from domestic to wild hosts may cause a demographic Allee effect in the wild host population. A second model is tailored to the particulars of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and salmon lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis), for which parasite spill-back is a conservation and fishery concern. In both models, parasite spill-back weakens the coupling of parasite and wild host abundance-particularly at low host abundance-causing parasites per host to increase as a wild host population declines. These findings show that parasites shared across host populations have effects analogous to those of generalist predators and can similarly cause an unstable equilibrium in a focal host population that separates persistence and extirpation. Allee effects in wildlife arising from parasite spill-back are likely to be most pronounced in systems where the magnitude of transmission from domestic to wild host populations is high because of high parasite abundance in domestic hosts, prolonged sympatry of domestic and wild hosts, a high transmission coefficient for parasites, long-lived parasite larvae, and proximity of domesticated populations to wildlife migration corridors. PMID:24107371

  9. Back-Diffusion In Crystal Growth. Peritectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A model for the solute micro-segregation/redistribution is delivered. The description is associated with solidification of the peritectic alloys. The peritectic transformation is treated as the phenomenon which modifies the solute redistribution profile resulting from both partitioning and back-diffusion. The relationship allowing for the amount of peritectic phase calculation is also formulated.

  10. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  11. Winning Students Back from McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Lim Lee; Tin, Low Guat

    1996-01-01

    Describes a Singapore principal's turnaround strategy to improve his secondary students' academic performance and study habits. Principal Tong Pak Goh won students back from McDonald's and other distractions by creating an atmosphere of care and casual comfort, holding afterschool tutoring sessions for problem and latchkey kids, and counseling…

  12. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  13. Back to the Basics: Kansas City, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Lockwood, Catherine M.; Handley, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    "Back to the Basics" is an innovation of the WETMAAP Program (Wetland Education Through Maps and Aerial Photography) which offers a series of workshops that provide training in basics ecological concepts, technological skills, and methods of interpretation necessary for assessing geography and earth science topics. The precept of the series is to…

  14. Back azimuth relocation of monitoring arrays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eisner, L.; Boušková, Alena; Le Calvez, J. H.

    Houten : EAGE, 2008, s. 21-25. ISBN 978-90-73781-53-5. [EAGE conference & exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2008 /70./. Rome (IT), 09.06.2008-12.06.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : microseismic monitoring * back-azimuth * hydraulic fracturing Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  15. Computer Programming Goes Back to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    We are witnessing a remarkable comeback of programming. Current initiatives to promote computational thinking and to broaden participation in computing signal a renewed interest to bring programming back into K-12 schools and help develop children as producers and not simply consumers of digital media. This essay explores the re-emergence of…

  16. Emotional Disturbance and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Charles P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)

  17. Low Back Pain in a Tennis Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracker, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A group of physicians meet to discuss a case in which a middle-aged tennis player suffers from low back pain. The diagnosis, treatment and management of the case are discussed. The article is one in an occasional series. (JL)

  18. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie; Bech, Rasmus Nørgaard; Hestbæk, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  19. An adaptive input-output feedback linearization controller for doubly-fed induction machine drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Farrokh Amir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a nonlinear controller is presented for Doubly-Fed Induction Machine (DFIM drives. The nonlinear controller is designed based on the adaptive input-output feedback linearization control technique, using the fifth order model of induction machine in fixed stator d, q axis reference frames with stator currents and rotor flux components as state variables. The nonlinear controller can perfectly track the torque and flux reference signals in spite of stator and rotor resistance variations. Two level SVM-PWM back-to-back voltage source inverters are employed in the rotor circuit, in order to make the drive system capable of operating in the motoring and generating modes below and above the synchronous speed. Computer simulation results obtained, confirm the effectiveness and validity of the proposed control approach.

  20. Energy Optimal Control of Induction Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Flemming

    system. The dynamic performances were also evaluated in a vector controlled drive for CT applications. Based on these tests, the displacement power factor control and the direct air-gap flux control appeared to be best for small HVAC applications. Energy optimal control of medium-size drives was analyzed......This thesis deals with energy optimal control of small and medium-size variable speed induction motor drives for especially Heating, Ventilation and Air-Condition (HVAC) applications. Optimized efficiency is achieved by adapting the magnetization level in the motor to the load, and the basic...... purpose is demonstrate how this can be done for low-cost PWM-VSI drives without bringing the robustness of the drive below an acceptable level. Four drives are investigated with respect to energy optimal control: 2.2 kW standard and high-efficiency motor drives, 22 kW and 90 kW standard motor drives. The...

  1. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci; Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa; Neice Muller Xavier Faria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex. METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed), LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pai...

  2. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  3. Development of portable driving simulator system

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Y; Nemoto, T.; Matsuura, H.; M. Kihira; S. Yanai

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries, number of drivers who suffer from mild cognitive impairment (MCI drivers) is increasing. Since it has been reported that driving skill of the MCI drivers are deteriorated, it is important to train themselves in driving situation to preserve their driving skills. The present study was conducted to develop the simple driving simulator system, and to examine the effect of training in this system.Design/methodology/appr...

  4. Enhanced dynamic Performance of Matrix Converter Cage Drive with Neuro-fuzzy approach

    OpenAIRE

    R.R. Joshi; A.K. Wadhwani

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control algorithm for a matrix converter (MC) induction motor drive system. First, a new switching strategy, which applies a back-propagation neural network to adjust a pseudo dc bus voltage, is proposed to reduce the current harmonics of the induction motor. Next, a two-degree-of-freedom controller is proposed to improve the system performance. The controller design algorithm can be applied in an adjustable speed control system and a position control system to obtai...

  5. Improving Driving Safety Based on Safe Distance Design in Vehicular Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Qingqi Pei; Xiaobo Du; Lei Liu; Chen Chen; Xiangmo Zhao

    2012-01-01

    We proposed a Critical Safe Distance (CSD) model in V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) communication systems. By elaborately analyzing the vehicular movement features for car following, we proposed a CSD definition which well balances the requirement between driving safety and traffic throughput efficiency. Different from the time-headway and traditional braking models, our model fully takes the relative movement status of the front and back cars into consideration and derives a CSD which is more pract...

  6. 77 FR 51610 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: Department of... and enforcing distracted driving laws. The FY 2013 funds are subject to an annual obligation... FY 2013 may be less than the amount identified above. A State's distracted driving law must...

  7. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...

  8. Driving When You Have Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving When You Have Parkinson’s Disease DRIVEWELL You have been a safe driver for years. For you, driving means freedom and control. As you get ... mental health can affect how safely you drive. Parkinson’s disease is a disorder of the central nervous ...

  9. Looking back, looking forward: 10 years of development to collect, preserve and access the Danish Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte; Møldrup-Dalum, Per

    Digital heritage archiving is an ongoing activity that requires commitment, involvement and cooperation between heritage institutions and policy makers as well as producers and users of information. In this presentation, we will address how a web archive is created over time as well as what or who...... drives the development of a web archive. Empirically, we will look back on the 10 years of development to collect, preserve and access the Danish web, in the Danish national web archive called Netarkivet. In particular, we will address how a web archive is created and re-created over time in relation to...

  10. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A training workbook to prevent back injuries in nursing homes SEIU Education and Support Fund 1313 L ... short and to the point. Activity 1 - Can nursing home work be hazardous to your health? Purpose: ...

  11. Discussion on back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor compact design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lei; Liu, Huoxing

    2013-12-01

    Design a small flow back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor in the aviation turbocharger, the compressor is compact structure, small axial length, light weighted. Stationary parts have a great influence on their overall performance decline. Therefore, the stationary part of the back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor should pay full attention to the diffuser, bend, return vane and volute design. Volute also impact downstream return vane, making the flow in circumferential direction is not uniformed, and several blade angle of attack is drastically changed in downstream of the volute with the airflow can not be rotated to required angle. Loading of high-pressure rotor blades change due to non-uniformed of flow in circumferential direction, which makes individual blade load distribution changed, and affected blade passage load decreased to reduce the capability of work, the tip low speed range increases.

  12. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  13. Back-to-Back Black Holes decay Signature at Neutrino Observatories

    CERN Document Server

    Arsene, Nicusor; Caramete, Lauretiu Ioan; Micu, Octavian

    2013-01-01

    We propose a decay signature for non-thermal small black holes with masses in the TeV range which can be discovered by neutrino observatories. The black holes would result due to the impact between ultra high energy neutrinos with nuclei in water or ice and decay instantaneously. They could be produced if the Planck scale is in the few TeV region and the highly energetic fluxes are large enough. Having masses close to the Planck scale, the typical decay mode for these black holes is into two particles emitted back-to-back. For a certain range of angles between the emitted particles and the center of mass direction of motion, it is possible for the detectors to measure separate muons having specific energies and their trajectories oriented at a large enough angle to prove that they are the result of a back-to-back decay event.

  14. Warp-Drive Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahara, Mikio; Vartiainen, Juha J.; Kondo, Yasushi; Tanimura, Shogo; Hata, Kazuya

    2004-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that time-optimal quantum computation is attained by using the Cartan decomposition of a unitary matrix. We extend this approach by noting that the unitary group is compact. This allows us to reduce the execution time of a quantum algorithm $U_{\\rm alg}$ further by adding an extra gate $W$ to it. This gate $W$ sends $U_{\\rm alg}$ to another algorithm $WU_{\\rm alg}$ which is executable in a shorter time than $U_{\\rm alg}$. We call this technique warp-drive. Here we s...

  15. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2016-01-01

    perturbations. Forces were applied to the ankle joint during the early swing phase using an electrohydraulic ankle-foot orthosis. Repetitive 80 Hz electrical stimulation was applied to disrupt cutaneous feedback from the superficial peroneal nerve (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerve (foot sole) during...... anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  16. Looking back at 'looking back': operationalising referential gaze for dingoes in an unsolvable task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley Philip; Litchfield, Carla Anita

    2013-11-01

    This paper examined the performance of dingoes (Canis dingo) on the rope-pulling task, previously used by Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) to highlight a key distinction in the problem-solving behaviour of wolves compared to dogs when in the company of humans. That is, when dogs were confronted with an unsolvable task, following a solvable version of the task they looked back or gazed at the human, whereas, wolves did not. We replicated the rope-pulling task using 12 sanctuary-housed dingoes and used the Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) definition of looking back behaviour to analyse the data. However, at least three different types of look backs were observed in our study. We, then developed a more accurate operational definition of looking back behaviour that was task specific and reanalysed the data. We found that the operational definition employed greatly influences the results, with vague definitions potentially overestimating the prevalence of looking back behaviour. Thus, caution must be taken when interpreting the results of studies utilising looking back as behaviour linked to assistance seeking during problem solving. We present a more stringent definition and make suggestions for future research. PMID:23572065

  17. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047

  18. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed...... "old" group was 5 vs. 3 for the "new" group (p<0.03). Group exercise was a part of the treatment for 21% from the "old" group vs. 35% from the "new" group (p<0.03). There was no difference between the two approaches in relation to referral to primary care or back surgery. Conclusion: In our clinic, the...... to: 1) duration of treatment, 2) number of contacts with clinicians and participation in group exercise, and 3) admission to primary care or another hospital department.   Design: Retrospective inspection of patient files. Method: Files were retrieved from consecutive patients from the "old" and "new...

  19. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  20. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... LBP patients were evaluated. The correlations between CoP measurements and pain, fear of pain, and physical function were poor. There were no significant differences in CoP measurements between patients with no change or deterioration and patients with improvement in pain and back-specific function......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  1. Taxation and Venture Capital Backed Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, venture capital has increasingly become a factor in the financing of new firms. We examine how the value of mature firms determines the incentives of entrepreneurs to start up new firms and of venture capitalists to finance and advise them. We examine how capital gains taxes as well as subsidies to start-up costs of new firms affect venture capital-backed entrepreneurship. We also argue that dividend and capital gains taxes on mature firms have important con...

  2. Back Reaction Problem in the Inflationary Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the back reaction of cosmological perturbations on an inflationary universe using the renormalization-group method. The second-order zero mode solution which appears by the nonlinearity of the Einstein equation is regarded as a secular term of a perturbative expansion, we renormalized a constant of integration contained in the background solution and absorbed the secular term to this constant in a gauge-invariant manner. The resultant renormalization-group equation describes th...

  3. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Antić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accept...

  4. Use of aceclofenac (aertal) in back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliya Leonidovna Korsakova; Yulia Leonidovna Korsakova

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is a generalized type of locomotor lesion that is caused by soft tissue pathology and degenerative changes in the vertebral column in most cases and by intervertebral disk herniation, spinal stenosis, compression fractures in osteoporosis, by injuries, congenital anomalies, vertebral displacement less frequently, as well as by infections, tumors, inflammatory processes in the vertebral column, and related pain. A number of rheumatic diseases, including seronegative spondylarthritis,...

  5. Together we'll take America back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Van

    2009-01-01

    In this excepted speech, Jones asserts that politics was realigned last year, and it was inspiring. It also was the first step in a movement. Now the struggle goes from the ballot box to the work place to devise an economy to help both people and the planet. We must find our way back to the wisdom of our close-to-the-earth ancestors to move forward wisely from this place. And you are Ground Zero. PMID:19608512

  6. Back analysis of reinforced soil slopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, P.; Trčková, Jiřina

    Southampton : WIT Press, 2012 - (Mammoli, A.; Brebbia, C.), s. 423-432 ISBN 978-1-84564-602-8. ISSN 1743-3533. [Computational methods and experiments in material characterisation /3./. Material Characterisation 2007. Bologna (IT), 13.06.2007-15.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2119402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : back analysis * numerical and experimental modelling * slopes Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  7. Back to Kinship: A General Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Dwight W; El Guindi, Fadwa

    2013-01-01

    In this collection, we retrace some of the historical development of the anthropological study of kinship and go back to the concepts and ideas that we, as anthropologists, had previously been circulating about kinship knowledge.  We address issues that have been raised about the study of kinship, the place of kinship in anthropological knowledge and what constitutes kinship on the basis of local knowledge.

  8. Looking Back on the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Looking back at the ups and downs of China's stock market in 2007,it is clear that it has developed far beyond people's expectation. While the stock index constantly reaches new highs and the size of the market becomes larger and larger, the Chinese financial market has also reintegrated. A multi-level revolution occurred in 2007, involving changes in stock structure, the variety of core composition, chip cost of the capital market, investor makeup, as well as trade rules and operational methods.

  9. Low back pain and comorbidity in women

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, A. A.; N. V. Ismozerova

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To assess association of low back pain (LBP) in women with hypertension (H), coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic heart failure (CHF), vascular incidents, carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, osteoarthritis (OA), osteoporosis (OP), digestive tract diseases, depression and anxiety. Material and methods. 1194 women aged 28 to 64 years (median 51 years |48;55] ) visited an outpatient department were included in the cross-sectional study. Diagnosis was done according to latest nation...

  10. Implementation of Back Propagation Algorithm in Verilog

    OpenAIRE

    Neelmani Chhedaiya; Prof. Vishal Moyal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a design method of neural networks based on Verilog HDL hardware description language, implementation is proposed. A design of a general neuron for topologies using back propagation algorithm is described. The sigmoid nonlinear activation function is also used. The neuron is then used in the design and implementation of a neural network using Xilinx Spartan-3e FPGA. The simulation results obtained with Xilinx ISE 9.2i software. The backpropagation algorithm is one of the most u...

  11. Ballymore Inn Restaurant Back Bar Menu

    OpenAIRE

    Ballymore Inn

    2014-01-01

    We opened the doors of the Ballymore Inn in Kildare over 16 years ago guided by our philosophy that the best food comes from carefully selected ingredients infused with an imaginative simplicity. The Ballymore Inn has evolved over those 16 years but this philosophy has remained the same. We grow our own seasonal fruit and vegetables and work with some of the country's best suppliers to ensure the finest dining experience for our customers. Our tastefully decorated restaurant and Back Bar crea...

  12. Sri Lanka's Trade Policies: Back to Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Garry Pursell; F.M. Ziaul Ahsan

    2011-01-01

    In 1977 Sri Lanka was the first of the South Asian countries to decisively move away from the protectionist import-substitution trade policies that for many years had damaged their economic efficiency and hobbled their economic growth. Albeit with back-tracking episodes, Sri Lanka's liberalising trade policy reforms-especially reductions in the average level of import tariffs- were broadened and extended during the following 23 years. Together with other economic reforms this supported the ra...

  13. Smartphone Based Approach For Monitoring Inefficient And Unsafe Driving Behavior And Recognizing Drink And Drive Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Mane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many automobile drivers having knowledge of the driving behaviours and habits that can lead to inefficient and unsafe driving. However it is often the case that these same drivers unknowingly manifest these inefficient and unsafe driving behaviours in their everyday driving activity. The proposed system proposes a practical and economical way to capture measure and alert drives of inefficient and unsafe driving as well as highly efficient system aimed at early detection and alert of dangerous vehicle maneuvers typically related to drunk driving. The upcoming solution consists of a mobile application running on a modern smartphone device paired with a compatible OBDII On-board diagnostics II reader.

  14. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  15. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  16. [Cryotherapy for low-back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Z H

    1992-11-01

    In animal experiment, cryotherapy was used in 1997 adult patients with acute or chronic low-back pain of various causes. The posterior ramus of certain lumbar nerve was frozen to -140 degrees, -180 degrees C. Through a specially made freezing needle punctured into the place, 1902 patients were treated for 1 time and the rest 2 or 3 times. 1742 patients (87.2%) got immediate relief and resumed pain-free movement right after cryotherapy. After a period of 2.5 years on the average (range 0.5 to 4.5 years) 409 patients returned for re-examination. 371 of them got complete relief and resumed normal work, 15 experienced discomfort after exercise, 13 still had some degree of pain, 4 suffered from recurrence of low-back pain and 6 failed to response to the treatment. However, neither paresthesia over the related skin area nor muscular atrophy and paralysis of the corresponding muscles were found in any case. In brief, in dealing with low-back pain, cryotherapy is a simple, effective method. PMID:1535584

  17. Analysis Of Scoliosis By Back Shape Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Harris, John D.

    1983-07-01

    The use of surface topography for the assessment of scoliotic deformity in the clinic depends firstly on the quality of measures which reliably characterise deformity of the back, and secondly on the ease and speed with which these measures can be applied. A method of analysis of back shape measurements is presented which can be applied to any topographic measurement system. Measures presented are substantially independent of minor changes in the patient's posture in rotation and flexion from one clinic to the next, and yet sensitive enough to indicate significant improvement or degeneration of the disease. The presentation shows (1) horizontal cross-sections at ten levels up the back from sacrum to vertebra prominens, (2) angles of rotation of the surface over a small region about the spine, (3) three vertical profiles following the line of the spine, and (4) measures of maximum kyphosis and lordosis. Dependence on the operator has been reduced to a minimum. Extreme care in positioning the patient is unnecessary and those spinous processes which are easily palpable, the vertebra prominens and the two dimples over the posterior superior iliac spines are marked. Analysis proceeds entirely automatically once the basic shape data have been supplied. Applications of the technique to indirect moire topography and a television topographic measurement system are described.

  18. [Back pain in the working age population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, Andreas; Nydegger, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Back pain in the working age population can coincide with work-related activities and may lead to temporary or permanent work disability in the case of functional impairment that interacts with workplace demands. This can lead to economic if not existential problems for the affected individual. Although neurogenic or inflammatory back pain may be the cause, the big majority of all cases is caused by "common" low back pain with or without irradiating pain, the main problem being frequent recurrencies of acute pain episodes (periodic or relapsing course). After early exclusion of specific causes (i. e. "red flags": usually identified through history and simple laboratory findings!) repetitive examinations should be avoided. Structural changes and physical job demands should not be overestimated as causal factors. In the early phase of a work disability more emphasis should be laid however on appropriate information and medication and, in case of persistent impairment, active treatment (after 3 weeks or relapse). Longtime workplace absence has important individual and socioeconomic consequences. The risk for chronification can be estimated through evaluation of "yellow flags" and observation of characteristics of the course in the individual case. An early return to work and to activities of daily life is urgent. In cases at risk for chronification and/or with obstacles to reintegration at work an interdisciplinary work-oriented rehabilitation or social and occupational reintegration should be organised. PMID:23985149

  19. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... parameters which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping...... conditions for real chain drives. Examples are presented of both decoupled and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model and analytical results provides a framework for numerical and experimental investigations of roller chain drive motion and deepens the understanding of roller chain drive...

  20. Absorber rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns an absorber rod drive for Boiling Water Reactors, in which a mechanical drive is combined with a hydraulic drive working separately from it, so that both drives are situated concentric within an overall length. The driving torque of a motor is transmitted to a threaded spindle, which moves a free adjacent hollow piston vertically via a fixed nut. The same means are used for the hydraulic liquid which is used as coolant or moderator and there are nozzles, annular gaps and/or bores between the hydraulic system and the reactor pressure vessel for the purpose of pressure compensation. All the components of the absorber rod drive except the sealing housing and the setting drive are situated in one casing tube taking the differential pressure. (orig./HP)

  1. Driving Extreme Efficiency to Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbesi, Karina

    2014-03-01

    The rapid development of extremely energy efficient appliances and equipment is essential to curtail catastrophic climate disruption. This will require the on-going development of products that apply all best-practices and that take advantage of the synergies of hybridization and building integration. Beyond that, it requires the development of new disruptive technologies and concepts. To facilitate these goals, in 2011 the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy launched the Max Tech and Beyond Design Competition for Ultra-Low-Energy-Use Appliances and Equipment. Now in its third year, the competition supports faculty-lead student design teams at U.S. universities to develop and test new technology prototypes. This talk describes what the competition and the Max Tech Program are doing to drive such rapid technology progress and to facilitate the entry to the market of successful Max Tech prototypes. The talk also initiates a discussion of physicists' unique role in driving that technology progress faster and farther. Emerging Technologies, Building Technologies Office, U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Computer Security: drive-bye

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Like a lion waiting to ambush gazelles at a waterhole, malware can catch you by surprise.    As some of you might have noticed, the Computer Security Team had to block the news site “20min.ch” a while ago, as it was found to be distributing malware. This block comes after similar incidents at other Swiss organizations. Our blocking is protective in order to safeguard your computers, laptops, tablets and smartphones. Unfortunately, this is not the first time we have seen these so-called drive-by/waterhole attacks: once you have visited an affected website, embedded third-party malicious code is downloaded to your computer and subsequently infects it (if running Windows or Android as well as, less likely, Mac operating systems). Hence the name “drive-by”. As “20min.ch” is a very frequented website among CERN staff members and users, it makes it a perfect source for attacks against CERN (or other Geneva-based organisations): inste...

  3. Sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Chern, Tzuen-Lih; Pan, Ping-Lung; Huang, Tsung-Mou; Tsay, Der-Min; Kuang, Jao-Hwa

    2012-04-01

    The precise rotor-position information is required for a permanent-magnet brushless ac motor (BLACM) drive. In the conventional sinusoidal drive method, either an encoder or a resolver is usually employed. For position sensor-less vector control schemes, the rotor flux estimation and torque components are obtained by complicated coordinate transformations. These computational intensive methods are susceptible to current distortions and parameter variations. To simplify the method complexity, this work presents a sensor-less pseudo-sinusoidal drive scheme with speed control for a three-phase BLACM. Based on the sinusoidal drive scheme, a floating period of each phase current is inserted for back electromotive force detection. The zero-crossing point is determined directly by the proposed scheme, and the rotor magnetic position and rotor speed can be estimated simultaneously. Several experiments for various active angle periods are undertaken. Furthermore, a current feedback control is included to minimize and compensate the torque fluctuation. The experimental results show that the proposed method has a competitive performance compared with the conventional drive manners for BLACM. The proposed scheme is straightforward, bringing the benefits of sensor-less drive and negating the need for coordinate transformations in the operating process.

  4. Driving Experience, Alcohol and Monotonous Simulated Driving: Behavioural, Psychophisiological and Subjective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrier, Laurent; Galy, Edith; BERTHELON, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate driving performance during monotonous task depending on Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC), and driving experience. Assuming that, during monotonous driving task, performance should be impaired with a BAC increased. This impairment should be more pronounced for Young Novice Drivers (YND) than for Young Experienced Drivers (YED). YND (18 years, less than two months of driving license) and YED (21 years, 3 years of driving license) were invited to participate ...

  5. Power electronic converters application in modern electrical drives for the pump stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pumps are the most used working machines and they use about 20% of produced electrical energy. The pumps are typical continuous duty machines, their start up is with difficult conditions, and there are needs for the adjustable flow during their work. The modern solution for the pump drives is induction motors with soft starters or the current source inverters. Soft start with electronically change voltage is the most efficient way for the energy saving in the start up process. The classic pumps control systems is based on throttling, by pass and vanes rotation. The only way for the energy saving are adjustable speed drives, which are examined. The example shows that the investment in the adjustable speed drive will be paid back for a short time only with the lower electrical energy bills. (Author)

  6. Circuit for Driving Piezoelectric Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, David P.; Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an oscillator circuit for driving a piezoelectric transducer to excite vibrations in a mechanical structure. The circuit was designed and built to satisfy application-specific requirements to drive a selected one of 16 such transducers at a regulated amplitude and frequency chosen to optimize the amount of work performed by the transducer and to compensate for both (1) temporal variations of the resonance frequency and damping time of each transducer and (2) initially unknown differences among the resonance frequencies and damping times of different transducers. In other words, the circuit is designed to adjust itself to optimize the performance of whichever transducer is selected at any given time. The basic design concept may be adaptable to other applications that involve the use of piezoelectric transducers in ultrasonic cleaners and other apparatuses in which high-frequency mechanical drives are utilized. This circuit includes three resistor-capacitor networks that, together with the selected piezoelectric transducer, constitute a band-pass filter having a peak response at a frequency of about 2 kHz, which is approximately the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric transducers. Gain for generating oscillations is provided by a power hybrid operational amplifier (U1). A junction field-effect transistor (Q1) in combination with a resistor (R4) is used as a voltage-variable resistor to control the magnitude of the oscillation. The voltage-variable resistor is part of a feedback control loop: Part of the output of the oscillator is rectified and filtered for use as a slow negative feedback to the gate of Q1 to keep the output amplitude constant. The response of this control loop is much slower than 2 kHz and, therefore, does not introduce significant distortion of the oscillator output, which is a fairly clean sine wave. The positive AC feedback needed to sustain oscillations is derived from sampling the current through the

  7. Older drivers with cognitive impairment: Perceived changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... driving performance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether these findings also apply to cognitively impaired older drivers. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 25 cognitively impaired older drivers. The results showed that the participants were most likely to report their...... driving skills as unchanged. There was an association between level of discomfort and avoidance of driving situations, but not between cognitive status and discomfort or avoidance. The results suggest that cognitively impaired older drivers constitute a unique group; while cognitively impaired older...

  8. Driving Style: Determining Factors, Characteristics, Optimization Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobanova I. I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A system of description, identification and classification of factors determining driving style is proposed in the article; stable (sustained and variable (unstable factors determining driving style are studied. Driving style is analyzed within the framework of structural approach. The variable factor are: specifications and technical condition of the vehicle, class of the car, its prestige (from a social point of view, training of the driver, social regulators, features of the road environment, psychophysiological (and emotional condition of the driver. The stable factors are: individual-typological properties, the level of suitability for driver`s activities, personal (primarily characterological features of a driver and sources of activity. Five main characteristics of driving style are selected and presented: safety-risk, confidence with parking, relation to the means of security; planning-impulsivity; driving culture. There are results of empirical research directed on discovery of relationship between styles of driving activities (planning-universal-impulsive as one characteristic of driving style, emotions typical for driver while driving and accidents. Increase of safety as a result of planning style of activities is shown (especially for women drivers. The paper offers direction of work for optimizing driving style: the formation of compensating planning style of activities, psychotherapeutic work, modeling training, psychological selection, training and education work in driving schools.

  9. Bioelectricity inhibits back diffusion from the anolyte into the desalinated stream in microbial desalination cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Qingyun; Porat, Oded; Dosoretz, Carlos G; He, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) taking advantage of energy in wastewater to drive desalination represent a promising approach for energy-efficient desalination, but concerns arise whether contaminants in wastewater could enter the desalinated stream across ion exchange membranes. Such back diffusion of contaminants from the anolyte into the desalinated stream could be controlled by two mechanisms, Donnan effect and molecule transport. This study attempted to understand those mechanisms for inorganic and organic compounds in MDCs through two independently conducted experiments. Donnan effect was found to be the dominant mechanism under the condition without current generation. Under open circuit condition, the MDC fed with 5 g L(-1) salt solution exhibited 1.9 ± 0.7%, 10.3 ± 1.3%, and 1.8 ± 1.2% back diffusion of acetic, phosphate, and sulfate ions, respectively. Current generation effectively suppressed Donnan effect from 68.2% to 7.2%, and then molecule transport became more responsible for back diffusion. A higher initial salt concentration (35 g L(-1)) and a shorter HRT (1.0 d) led to the highest concentration gradient, resulting in the most back diffusion of 7.1 ± 1.2% and 6.8 ± 3.1% of phosphate and sulfate ions, respectively. Three representative organic compounds were selected for test, and it was found that organic back diffusion was intensified with a higher salt concentration gradient and molecular weight played an important role in compound movement. Principal component analysis confirmed the negative correlation between Donnan effect and current, and the positive correlation between molecule transport and concentration gradient related conditions. PMID:26512804

  10. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  11. [Stress of driving: general overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2012-01-01

    Driving is a stressful task that requires high levels of attention and vigilance to cope properly with job demands, mainly related to working hours and timetables, weather and traffic conditions, passengers and goods safety, responsibility in case of error and/or accident. Scientific literature shows a higher prevalence of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neuropsychic and musculoskeletal disorders, and consequent sick leaves, in professional bus/lorry and train drivers. Several studies have emphasized that stress, fatigue and excessive sleepiness give a significant contribution to occupational road and rail accidents. There are noteworthy, interindividual differences concerning alertness/sleepiness and tolerance to fatigue, related to psychophysiological and behavioural characteristics and health status, in particular: age, ability to overcome drowsiness, morningness/eveningness, diet and intake of psychotropic substances (alcohol, drugs, medicaments), primary and secondary sleep disorders (insomnia, ipersomnias, parasomnias). PMID:23213814

  12. What Drives Politicians’ Online Popularity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms...... in the 112 most competitive congressional districts in the 2010 U.S. midterm elections to address that question. Using multivariate regression models, we show that while district-level socioeconomic characteristics have little effect on candidates' online popularity, challengers and candidates in...... open-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These...

  13. Unsafe driving behaviors and hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tuinen, M

    1994-04-01

    The medical costs associated with motor vehicle crashes are difficult to measure. Most attempts have used crash data and cost data that are only indirectly related to each other or have followed patients in a few hospitals or trauma centers. These studies produce localized estimates or rough national estimates of limited use to policy makers. The result has been a dependence on more readily available mortality data, such as the Fatal Accident Reporting System, to guide automotive safety efforts. The limitations of mortality data and the increasing sophistication of medical care data bases have resulted in a strong interest in obtaining crash-linked morbidity data. Hence, in 1993, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded the Missouri Department of Health and six other applicants grants to link automotive crash records to statewide ambulance trip, outpatient care, hospitalization and mortality records. By identifying an individual across multiple data sets, states would be able to determine directly the relationship of driver behaviors and crash characteristics to hospitalization rates and other medical outcomes. Examination of hospital pay source information would expose the toll of automotive crashes on public tax dollars. Having recently completed the record linkage phase of this project, Missouri Department of Health staff are beginning to analyze the impact of automotive crashes on health care costs in Missouri. In this report, three unsafe driving behaviors, failure to use a safety device (seatbelts and motorcycle helmets), driving under the influence of alcohol, and speeding, are related to the risk of hospitalization or death, hospital costs, and expected pay source. PMID:8202067

  14. Children and Celiac Disease: Going Back to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... School Children and Celiac Disease: Going Back to School Going back to school is usually full of excitement and anticipation. For ... of anxiety. Keeping children gluten-free in the school cafeteria and at school parties, classmates’ birthday parties, ...

  15. Back Bay: Report on Salinity and Water Clarity in 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salinity, turbidity and various other water quality parameters were monitored monthly in 1986 at 24 stations on Back Bay. Results show Back Bay to be brackish (mean...

  16. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evidence that back belts use reduces spine range of motion, however the studies about intra-abdominal pressure and muscle activity presented contradictory results, as the epidemiologic studies, not allowing the recommendation of its use in the prevention of occupational low back pain. Based on this literature review it is suggested therefore, the implementation of new studies, to confirm or not the effectiveness of back belts as personal protective equipment, in the prevention of occupational low back disorders.

  17. STRIPE: Remote Driving Using Limited Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jennifer S.

    1997-01-01

    Driving a vehicle, either directly or remotely, is an inherently visual task. When heavy fog limits visibility, we reduce our car's speed to a slow crawl, even along very familiar roads. In teleoperation systems, an operator's view is limited to images provided by one or more cameras mounted on the remote vehicle. Traditional methods of vehicle teleoperation require that a real time stream of images is transmitted from the vehicle camera to the operator control station, and the operator steers the vehicle accordingly. For this type of teleoperation, the transmission link between the vehicle and operator workstation must be very high bandwidth (because of the high volume of images required) and very low latency (because delayed images can cause operators to steer incorrectly). In many situations, such a high-bandwidth, low-latency communication link is unavailable or even technically impossible to provide. Supervised TeleRobotics using Incremental Polyhedral Earth geometry, or STRIPE, is a teleoperation system for a robot vehicle that allows a human operator to accurately control the remote vehicle across very low bandwidth communication links, and communication links with large delays. In STRIPE, a single image from a camera mounted on the vehicle is transmitted to the operator workstation. The operator uses a mouse to pick a series of 'waypoints' in the image that define a path that the vehicle should follow. These 2D waypoints are then transmitted back to the vehicle, where they are used to compute the appropriate steering commands while the next image is being transmitted. STRIPE requires no advance knowledge of the terrain to be traversed, and can be used by novice operators with only minimal training. STRIPE is a unique combination of computer and human control. The computer must determine the 3D world path designated by the 2D waypoints and then accurately control the vehicle over rugged terrain. The human issues involve accurate path selection, and the

  18. Work-related risk factors for low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis work-related risk factors for low back pain are investigated. Low back pain is one of the most common work-related health problems. It has a considerable impact on sickness absence and work disability. Originally, the focus of most occupational research on low back pain was directed towards physical factors. Recently, however, the study of psychosocial work characteristics has also become an important aspect of epidemiological studies on low back pain in occupational settings. ...

  19. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    OpenAIRE

    João Marcos Bernardes; Antonio Renato Pereira Moro

    2012-01-01

    Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evid...

  20. THE CURRENT PROBLEMS OF NONSPECIFIC BACK PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznova, S; Zabara, A; Mamuladze, D

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of pain in degenerative diseases of the spine and with the actual problems of non-specific back pain. The data on the mechanisms of pain and analgesic treatment algorithms of the patients with radicular syndrome, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies is provided. The effect of structural-modifying drugs in relief of nonspecific back pain was investigated and compared with a traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy in combination with B vitamins, without chondroprotectors. The study population was composed of 85 patients (42 men and 43 women) aged 38 to 68 years (mean age - (46,3±2,6) years) with chronic vertebral pain syndromes (VPS). For objectification assessment of pain, severity of pain, and evaluate the effectiveness of therapy we used the visual analog scale (VAS).The majority (88%) of the patients included in the study, complained of a moderately severe pain (from 40 to 70 mm on the VAS). Patients were divided into two groups. The first (primary) group consisted of 55 patients (30 men and 25 women). The following treatment was applied: all patients of the first group, in addition to the NSAID administered with hondroprotektror arbitrarily - Struktum 1000 mg twice a day or 300 mg Piaskledin once a day for 40-60 days.The second (control) group consisted of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women). Patients in the control group administered with a traditional NSAID therapy in combination with B vitamins, without chondroprotectors. The results of the study on the influence of drugs Piaskledin 300, Struktum for the relief of nonspecific back pain revealed that in the treatment of vertebral pain, a combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with structure-modifying agents could achieve rapid rehabilitation of patients with locomotor activity and improve quality of life in general. PMID:26870977

  1. Work-related back pain in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignett, S

    1996-06-01

    This summary draws together the findings form over 80 studies published over three decades. The studies reviewed are categorized into three groups: (a) epidemiological; (b) 'testing out'; and (c) exploratory. There has been agreement on a number of points, in particular that nursing is among the high risk occupations with respect to low back problems, with a point prevalence of approximately 17%, an annual (period) prevalence of 40-50% and a lifetime prevalence of 35-80%. When considering the contributory factors there is some divergence, but one of the popular notions is generally proven, that more frequent patient handling appears to correlate with increased incidence of low back pain. However, the traditional approach of training in lifting and handling techniques alone has been shown to be of little, or no, long-term benefit and the value of ergonomics remains to be seen. Much work has also been done by taking aspects of nursing work into the laboratory, using experimental studies which have mostly focused on specific sub-tasks (of the generic task of patient handling), looking at specific transfers and procedures (e.g. bed to chair) or transfer techniques ('stoop versus squat'). Although a level of quantification can be made about the different techniques, it is questionable whether this is of any practical use, especially when considering the wide variation of loads encountered during manual handling of patients. The limitations of using quantitative methodologies is revealed in the very small number of exploratory studies. All of the studies cited in this review used methodologies based in the positivist paradigm. There does not appear to be any published work using participative or interview methods to obtain qualitative data which might identify contributory factors in the onset of occupational low back pain in nursing staff. PMID:8796474

  2. Putting 'Local' Back into Public Wifi Hotspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    Public Wifi hotspots in cafes and public places are based on wireless local area network technology (WLAN). In contrast to the common understanding of connecting directly to the internet when connecting to a Wifi hotspot, we are proposing to bring the original notion of connecting to a local...... network back to the fore. By hooking into the act of a user connecting to a local network, we see a design space emerge that allows us to spur various (off- and on-line) activities in a hyperlocal context. We propose to (re-)explore this notion of the locality of networks in the age of the ubiquitous Wifi...

  3. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  4. Back-Diffusion In Crystal Growth. Eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wołczyński W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solute segregation/redistribution model for some eutectic alloys is presented. The differential equation for the solute micro-segregation during solidification accompanied by the back-diffusion is formulated. The solution to this equation results in the definitions of: solidification path, solid/liquid (s/l interface path and redistribution path. An equation for the estimation of the amount of equilibrium and non-equilibrium precipitates is also delivered. It is proved that the current model is universal one. Thus, the model reduces perfectly, mathematically to both description of diffusion-less solidification and model of equilibrium solidification.

  5. Low Back Pain: Current Surgical Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Baliga, Santosh; Treon, Katrina; Craig, Niall John Angus

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a worldwide phenomenon. The UK studies place LBP as the largest single cause of absence from work; up to 80% of the population will experience LBP at least once in their lifetime. Most individuals do not seek medical care and are not disabled by their pain once it is managed by nonoperative measures. However, around 10% of patients go on to develop chronic pain. This review outlines the basics of the traditional approach to spinal surgery for chronic LBP secondary to os...

  6. A patient with back pain: therapy possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common clinical syndromes associated with the high rate of temporary disability and sizable material costs. The choice of adequate therapy for LBP requires that primary diseases that can be responsible for the occurrence of pain should be excluded. While choosing an analgesic, there must be a balance between its efficacy and the possible risk for undesirable side effects. One of the drugs that have proven effective in treating patients with LBP is ketoprofen (ketonal, the diversity of whose formulations allows maximally individualized therapy.

  7. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  8. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  9. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long......-term course of LBP in the general population. A systematic critical literature review was undertaken in order to study the natural course of LBP over time in the general population....

  10. Electromagnetic drive system of robotic fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-xiu; SUN Nai-di; YUE Yao-hui; DENG Jing; LI Fei-hang; GU Yue; JIA Rui-qing

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to apply the electric fish into practice to assist coal mine water disaster life detection and rescue work,based on the analysis on swing propulsion movements of tail fin,this paper integrates the electromagnet technology with tail fin drive system by analyzing how the fish swims with tail fin under the law of progression.The principle,structure,and drive signals of tail fin electromagnetic drive are researched,the enforced situation of fish under electromagnetic driving modes are analyzed,and the experimental plat-form of tail fin electromagnetic drive is established.The best distance between electromagnet and armature,which can realize the swing of tail fin,was researched in the experiment under water.The robotic fish structure parameters of tail fin electromagnetic drive was finalized by theoretical analysis and experimental measurement.

  11. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  12. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    OpenAIRE

    Durbin, Dennis R.; McGehee, Daniel V.; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the r...

  13. Instruction or distraction in the driving school?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mike Kirk; Caglio, Agnese

    In this paper we report an ongoing study of driving school practice. We recorded several hours of driving lessons in different environments, which we analyze with the Interaction Analysis method. Our initial analysis suggests that looking at how teachers make use of different communicative resour...... resources to instruct students in driving, can provide insights for the development of technologies that support drivers in managing distractions....

  14. Driving Style: Determining Factors, Characteristics, Optimization Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova I. I.

    2015-01-01

    A system of description, identification and classification of factors determining driving style is proposed in the article; stable (sustained) and variable (unstable) factors determining driving style are studied. Driving style is analyzed within the framework of structural approach. The variable factor are: specifications and technical condition of the vehicle, class of the car, its prestige (from a social point of view), training of the driver, social regulators, features of the road enviro...

  15. Fundamental limitations on "warp drive" spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    "Warp drive" spacetimes are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" communication. We verify the non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions of the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second order of the non-relativistic warp-bubble v...

  16. A causally connected superluminal Warp Drive spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Loup, F.; Held, R.; Waite, D; Halerewicz, Jr., E.; Stabno, M.; Kuntzman, M.; Sims, R.

    2002-01-01

    It will be shown that while horizons do not exist for warp drive spacetimes traveling at subluminal velocities horizons begin to develop when a warp drive spacetime reaches luminal velocities. However it will be shown that the control region of a warp drive ship lie within the portion of the warped region that is still causally connected to the ship even at superluminal velocities, therefore allowing a ship to slow to subluminal velocities. Further it is shown that the warped regions which ar...

  17. Perceptual and Cognitive Impairments and Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen

    1990-01-01

    Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient...

  18. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications

    OpenAIRE

    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi

    2003-01-01

    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  19. Driving Miss Bradley: performance measurement to support thermal driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Dino; Ferrett, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    The Driver's Vision Enhancer (DVE) program is providing a system to enlarge the driving envelope for the community of military wheeled and tracked vehicles. The DVE, an IR device, provides the driver with images of the forward scene under night and adverse day conditions. During the DVE development program, several questions emerged requiring performance-based data to resolve. A comprehensive program to provide the Project Manager, Night Vision/Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Target Acquisition with driver performance data that will aid in the decision-making process is described in this paper. The program involves several linked efforts including: the relative merits of the DVE and night vision goggles (NVG); drivers' ability to detect the presence of drop-offs when using the DVE and NVG; the effect on performance of various levels of nonuniformity and nonresponsiveness in the display/sensor system; the analysis of drivers' vision using an eye-tracker in a vehicle; and the evaluation of candidate symbology to enhance the DVE's utility in the M2 Bradley. The data collected will aid in making decisions on how to write a system specification to reduce cost without sacrificing driver performance, gain an understanding of how drivers use the DVE in operational settings, and determine where training is needed to enhance safety and reduce risk on the battlefield.

  20. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil Al-Mashhadi; Hendricks, Oliver; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim;

    2016-01-01

    for > 3 months were selected from a cohort of secondary care patients aged 18-40 years. Data included information on SpA features, human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 typing, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac joints, and self-reported IBP questions......OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inflammatory back pain (IBP) characteristics and analyse the discriminative value of IBP relative to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. METHOD: Patients who had low back pain...

  1. Mass transfer in back-to-back elbows arranged in an out of plane configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mass transfer in back-to-back elbows in an out of plane configuration was measured. • The Reynolds number was 70,000 and Schmidt number was 1280. • Maximum mass transfer was on the downstream elbow. • The maximum decreased as the separation distance between the elbows increased. • Relative roughness on the second elbow was higher than that in the upstream pipe. - Abstract: Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is a major degradation mechanism affecting carbon steel piping systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Flow and mass transfer conditions determine the local distribution of wall thinning, even though chemistry and materials determine the overall potential for FAC. Different localized thinning rates in back-to-back elbow configurations between the first and second elbows have been noted at NPPs, and this difference depends on the distance between elbows, flow conditions, and the configuration of the back-to-back elbows (S-, C-, or out of plane). This paper will focus on mass transfer measurements for back-to-back elbows arranged in an out of plane configuration for different elbow separation distances under single-phase flow conditions. The mass transfer measurements were performed using a mass dissolution technique of gypsum test sections in water. The experiments were performed at a Reynolds number of 70,000 and a resulting Schmidt number of 1280, which is similar to that for the diffusion of the iron magnetite layer of carbon steel piping in water, providing a mass transfer environment analogous to that in NPPs. Experiments were performed with 0, 1, 2 and 5 pipe diameters in length between the elbows. The mass transfer results show regions of higher mass transfer in the second elbow in comparison to the first elbow. The maximum mass transfer enhancement factor decreased from 2.7 to 2.1 as the separation distance increased from 0 to 5 pipe diameters. Flow streaks on the second elbow surface indicated swirling flow and its strength

  2. The Driven Pendulum at Any Drive Angle

    CERN Document Server

    VanDalen, G J

    2002-01-01

    The driven inverted pendulum undergoes stable oscillations if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough. This classroom demonstration is best used in junior or graduate level Classical Mechanics courses. This paper reintroduces the equation of motion of the driven pendulum, generalizing to arbitrary driving angle. The pendulum will oscillate about a stable angle, other than straight down, if the drive amplitude and frequency are large enough for a given drive angle. We will explore what is meant by ``large enough.'' Emphasis is given to parameters associated with a simply made demonstration apparatus.

  3. Effects of driving time on microsaccadic dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, Leandro L; McCamy, Michael B; Pannasch, Sebastian; Renner, Rebekka; Catena, Andrés; Cañas, José J; Velichkovsky, Boris M; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2015-02-01

    Driver fatigue is a common cause of car accidents. Thus, the objective detection of driver fatigue is a first step toward the effective management of fatigue-related traffic accidents. Here, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on the dynamics of fixational eye movements. Participants drove for 2 h in a virtual driving environment while we recorded their eye movements. Microsaccade velocities decreased with driving time, suggesting a potential effect of fatigue on microsaccades during driving. PMID:25417191

  4. Women drive better if not stereotyped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Cadinu, Mara; Maass, Anne

    2015-12-01

    A commonly held stereotype is that women are poor drivers. This stereotype is recognized and endorsed by women and girls very early on, long before taking their driving licence, nevertheless they are less involved in accidents and drive safer and less fast than men. In line with the stereotype threat theory, the present study tests the hypothesis that making the driving stereotype salient will lead women to underperform in a driving simulation task. In Experiment 1women in the stereotype threat condition were told that the aim of the study was to detect gender differences in driving whereas in a control condition no study aim was provided. In Experiment 2, two conditions were compared: stereotype threat (same instructions as in Experiment 1), and stereotype boost (the alleged goal was to compare driving ability of young vs. old people). As predicted, the results of both experiments showed that women under stereotype threat, as compared to either control or stereotype boost participants, doubled the number of mistakes. Nevertheless, they overall expected/self-reported to drive/have driven poorly. Importantly, their level of expectation was a significant predictor of their actual driving performance only in the stereotype threat condition. Implications of these effects of stereotype threat on women's driving performance and self-assessment are discussed. PMID:26457739

  5. Potential Risk Factors of Persistent Low Back Pain Developing from Mild Low Back Pain in Urban Japanese Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ko Matsudaira; Hiroaki Konishi; Kota Miyoshi; Tatsuya Isomura; Kyoko Inuzuka

    2014-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Two-year, prospective cohort data from the Japan epidemiological research of occupation-related back pain study in urban settings were used for this analysis. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between aggravated low back pain and psychosocial factors among Japanese workers with mild low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although psychosocial factors are strongly indicated as yellow flags of low back pain (LBP) leading to disability, the association between aggravated LB...

  6. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. Diagnosis. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a lumbalgia and b lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Treatment. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required. .

  7. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  8. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  9. Low back pain and comorbidity in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Popov

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess association of low back pain (LBP in women with hypertension (H, coronary heart disease (CHD, chronic heart failure (CHF, vascular incidents, carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, osteoarthritis (OA, osteoporosis (OP, digestive tract diseases, depression and anxiety. Material and methods. 1194 women aged 28 to 64 years (median 51 years |48;55] visited an outpatient department were included in the cross-sectional study. Diagnosis was done according to latest national guidelines. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (Cl were calculated. Results. 671 cases of LBP were revealed, 523 women did not have back pain. Age and menopausal status did not differ between these groups. LBP group had significantly higher body mass, waist and hips circumferences and more severe menopausal symptoms. LBP was associated with higher frequency of H (OR 1,40; Cl 1,10-1,79, CHD (OR 2,03; Cl 1,373,03, CHF (OR 1,74; Cl 1,35-2,25, OA (OR 2,43; Cl 1,91-3,09, chronic cholecystitis (OR 1,87; Cl 1,46-2,39, depression (OR 1,83; Cl 1,42-2,36 and anxiety (OR 1,69; Cl 1, 33-2,14. No association of LBP with OP was found. Conclusion. LBP is a marker of increased risk of socially important diseases. Pts visited the doctor due to LBP need timely diagnosis and management of comorbidity.

  10. [Physiotherapy and rehabilitation for low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Stefan; Oesch, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) continues to be a major health problem causing personal suffering and enormous socioeconomic costs. Evidence suggests that more than 85 % of individuals with LBP suffer from non-specific low back pain. Physiotherapy for non-specific LBP includes educational, physical, manual and movement therapy measures. In the acute phase, it is very important to prevent chronicity by identifying barriers for a full recovery and a quick return to everyday activities. If there is a chronicity of symptoms, the treatment must focus on improvement of the general physical activity despite the pain and promote participation in the social and work context. These aims are more important than pain relief. Therefore in the acute phase educational and activity-promoting measures are the primary treatment options. In the sub-acute and chronic phase a multidimensional treatment approach including exercise therapy with the aim of improving function, including return to work, should be applied. By now, there is scientific evidence that physiotherapy can reduce pain and disability due to LBP, and that return to usual activities including work can be achieved. PMID:23985153

  11. The Thermodynamics of Drunk Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    1997-05-01

    Chemical and instrumental tests for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) measure the concentration of ethanol in the breath (BrAC), while state DUI laws are described in terms of blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Consequently, accurate and fair conversion from BrAC to BAC is crucial to the judicial process. Theoretical treatment of the water-air-ethanol equilibrium system and the related blood-breath-ethanol system, based on principles from general chemistry and biology, yields an equation relating the ratio of BAC to BrAC to the absolute temperature of the breath, the fraction of water in the blood, and the enthalpy and entropy of vaporization of ethanol from aqueous solution. The model equation predicts an average value for the ratio of 2350+100, not significantly different from reported experimental values. An exponential temperature dependence is predicted and has been confirmed experimentally as well. Biological, chemical, and instrumental variables are described along with their contributions to the overall uncertainty in the value of BrAC/BAC. While the forensic science community uses, and debates, a fixed ratio of 2100, the theoretical model suggests that a value of 1880 should be used to reduce the fraction of false positives to <1%.

  12. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100trademark disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks

  13. Empathic concern drives costly altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Dalgleish, Tim; Evans, Davy; Mobbs, Dean

    2015-01-15

    Why do we self-sacrifice to help others in distress? Two competing theories have emerged, one suggesting that prosocial behavior is primarily motivated by feelings of empathic other-oriented concern, the other that we help mainly because we are egoistically focused on reducing our own discomfort. Here we explore the relationship between costly altruism and these two sub-processes of empathy, specifically drawing on the caregiving model to test the theory that trait empathic concern (e.g. general tendency to have sympathy for another) and trait personal distress (e.g. predisposition to experiencing aversive arousal states) may differentially drive altruistic behavior. We find that trait empathic concern--and not trait personal distress--motivates costly altruism, and this relationship is supported by activity in the ventral tegmental area, caudate and subgenual anterior cingulate, key regions for promoting social attachment and caregiving. Together, this data helps identify the behavioral and neural mechanisms motivating costly altruism, while demonstrating that individual differences in empathic concern-related brain responses can predict real prosocial choice. PMID:25462694

  14. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  15. Redundant arrays of IDE drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Sanders et al.

    2002-01-02

    The authors report tests of redundant arrays of IDE disk drives for use in offline high energy physics data analysis. Parts costs of total systems using commodity EIDE disks are now at the $4000 per Terabyte level. Disk storage prices have now decreased to the point where they equal the cost per Terabyte of Storage Technology tape silos. The disks, however, offer far better granularity; even small institutions can afford to deploy systems. The tests include reports on software RAID-5 systems running under Linux 2.4 using Promise Ultra 100{trademark} disk controllers. RAID-5 protects data in case of a single disk failure by providing parity bits. Tape backup is not required. Journaling file systems are used to allow rapid recovery from crashes. The data analysis strategy is to encapsulate data and CPU processing power. Analysis for a particular part of a data set takes place on the PC where the data resides. The network is only used to put results together. They explore three methods of moving data between sites; internet transfers, not pluggable IDE disks in FireWire cases, and DVD-R disks.

  16. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Manniche, Claus

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... theorized that low back pain in childhood may have important consequences for future low back pain. It is important to understand the nature of such a link if effective preventive programs are to be established. METHODS: Almost 10,000 Danish twins born between 1972 and 1982 were surveyed by means of postal...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...

  17. Low back pain and everyday activities : the influence of axial rotation on low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L.J.M. van Deursen (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLow back pain (LBP) is a major problem in the industrialized world. The aetiology of LBP is multicausal: heavy physical workload, sedentary work, whole body vibration, smoking, as well as minimal influence over work conditions, poor social relations and psychological factors all play a d

  18. Drunk Driving Among Novice Drivers, Possible Prevention with Additional Psychological Module in Driving School Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver’s license attempters during their driving school studies. Sub...

  19. Variable-speed drive and control systems for rolling mills; Atsuenkiyo drive seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasai, T.; Tochigi, T. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-11-10

    The drive systems of large rolling mills is of a cycloconverter type, a GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) type or high-voltage IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor) type. Drive systems for bar, rod and pipe mills use three and/or two level IGBT inverters. This paper describes recent technical trends of drives and control systems in rolling mills, including each drive application and the PLC (programmable controller) and HCI (human communication interface) controlling the total rolling mill line. (author)

  20. DeepDriving: Learning Affordance for Direct Perception in Autonomous Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chenyi; Seff, Ari; Kornhauser, Alain; Xiao, Jianxiong

    2015-01-01

    Today, there are two major paradigms for vision-based autonomous driving systems: mediated perception approaches that parse an entire scene to make a driving decision, and behavior reflex approaches that directly map an input image to a driving action by a regressor. In this paper, we propose a third paradigm: a direct perception approach to estimate the affordance for driving. We propose to map an input image to a small number of key perception indicators that directly relate to the affordan...

  1. Automobile driving in seniors: Factors affecting driving restriction in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    MARIE-DIT-ASSE, Laetitia; Fabrigoule, Colette; Helmer, Catherine; Laumon, Bernard; Lafont, Sylviane

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Independence for older people is linked to driving, this being their main mode of travel. Even in normal aging, sensory, functional, and cognitive deficits appear, and are more severe in brain pathology leading to dementia. These may profoundly affect driving, which is a complex task involving all of these functions. Many studies show that older drivers modify their driving habits (reduced distance, avoiding certain driving situations ...). When this regulation process ...

  2. Perception of the Risks Associated with Impaired Driving and Effects on Driving Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Georges Dionne; Claude Fluet; Denise Desjardins

    2006-01-01

    This research studies the perception of the risks associated with impaired driving-probability of being apprehended or of having an accident-and the relation between the perception of risks and driving behavior. The most important determinants of perceptual biases are age, an accumulation of violations in the year preceding the survey, being a non-drinker, knowledge of the legal alcohol limit for driving, opinion about zero tolerance for impaired driving, and family income. Perceptual biases ...

  3. Optical Generation of 60 GHz Downstream Data in Radio over Fiber Systems Based on Two Parallel Dual-Drive MZMs

    OpenAIRE

    Nael Ahmed Al-Shareefi; S.I.S Hassan; Fareq Malek; Razali Ngah; Sura Adil Abbas

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes an easy-implement quadruple-frequency optical carrier suppression millimeter-wave (OCS-MMW) generation scheme for the generation and transmission of a 2.5 Gbps downlink data stream in a Radio over Fiber (RoF) system, based two commercially Dual-Drive Mach–Zehnder Modulator (DD-MZM). Theoretical analysis for back-to-back (B-T-B) transmission and optical fiber transmission is conducted. Simulation experiments are implemented and verified by our theoretical analysis and good a...

  4. Wave Energy Conversion : Simulation Verification and Linearization of Direct Drive Wave Energy Converter with Variable DC-link Voltage Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ditlefsen, Arne Marius

    2009-01-01

    Lowering the cost of wave energy conversion is an essential task for it to succeed as a future energy resource. In this work a converter, assumed cheaper than the regular back to back converter setting, have been investigated for a electric direct drive point absorber. Both experimental work and simulations are used in the analysis. In the experimental work, a permanent magnet generator with a 6-pulse diode rectifier, a DC-link and a DC/DC converter equivalent, was used. Steady state, dynamic...

  5. 77 FR 61048 - Distracted Driving Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Distracted Driving Grant Program AGENCY: National Highway... Transportation (DOT) announced the availability of funding authorized for distracted driving grants on August 24... Progress in the 21st Century Act'' (MAP-21), Public Law 112-141, which created a new distracted...

  6. Reflector driving device of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a reflector driving device which eliminates driving at outside and rapidly start-up and shuts down the reactor. Namely, the device has an electromagnetic holding mechanism attracted to a reactor core barrel by electromagnetic attracting force. Electromagnetic repulsion coils for generating instantaneous electromagnetic repulsion force are disposed between the reflector and the electromagnet retaining mechanism. The reflector is driven using inertia force of the electromagnetic repulsion force and the reflector. Then, the reflector driving device is attracted and held at a start-up position of the reactor upon start-up of the reactor. The reflector elevated by fluid pressure is secured at a position of the start-up of the reactor while having the reflector driving device as a stopper. The reflector moves at an extremely slow speed while being secured to the reflector driving device along with the elevation of the reflector driving device. As a result, a driving shaft sealing material which supports a conventional driving device at the outside and the reflector is eliminated thereby simplifying the structure of the outside of the reactor. (I.S.)

  7. The ripple effect of automated driving

    OpenAIRE

    Milakis, D.; Van Arem, B.; van Wee, B

    2015-01-01

    Most papers published so far focus on traffic implications of automated driving, while papers that focus more on wider impacts do not present a respective conceptualization. This paper aims to fill this gap by proposing a conceptualization of policy and society related implications of automated driving inspired by the ripple effect model.

  8. Truck platooning : Driving the future of transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G.R.; Zwijnenberg, J; Blankers, I.J.; Kruijff, J.S. de

    2015-01-01

    Truck Platooning is the future of transportation in which trucks drive cooperatively at less than 1 second apart made possible by automated driving technology. Transportation companies benefit from lower fuel consumption and improvements in (driver) productivity, while society benefits from fewer accidents, safer traffic and less congested roads, and lower carbon emissions.

  9. Use of mobile phone while driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while driving has negative effects on driving behaviour. This is the case for conducting a conversation, dialling a number, and sending text messages as well as for using the extra functions that smartphones offer, like accessing internet or social networking sites. The negative

  10. Determining the focus of driving fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J E; Deane, F P; Podd, J V

    2000-01-01

    Fear of driving has been recognized as a complex diagnostic entity. Studies on flying phobia have drawn similar conclusions, although increasing clarity has been gained through research that indicates that there may be subtypes of flying phobia based on the focus of fear. However, it is unclear if similar subtypes exist for fear of driving. The aim of the present study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of driving fear subtypes and to clarify further whether there were differences between driving-fearful respondents who had been in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) and those who had not. Eighty-five driving-fearful, media-recruited respondents completed a questionnaire that assessed anxiety, avoidance, and concerns related to their driving fears. The sample had high expectations of negative events while driving. There were no significant differences between those who had experienced an MVA and those who had not on various measures of fear severity. Cluster analysis revealed two main foci of fear, one characterized by danger expectancies and the other based on anxiety expectancies and unpleasant driving situations. This emphasizes the importance of assessing both internal and external foci of fear. Although this finding is consistent with the results obtained for flying phobia, more research is required to replicate and extend these results and to develop and evaluate differential treatment programs. PMID:11095540

  11. Adjustable Speed Drives and Power Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Yang, Yongheng; Zare, Firuz;

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and proposes cost-effective and efficient opportunities in improving power quality in Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) systems. In particular, an Electronic Inductor (EI) technique has been used in single drives to overcome the existing challenges in conventional...

  12. A coding and high voltage driving module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coding and high-voltage pulse driving module used in free-space quantum communication is described. This module generate random control signal to drive High-Voltage Pulse generator to control receiver’s polarization, receive detector signal and encode them by signal channel. (authors)

  13. Influence of unexpected events on driving behaviour at different hierarchical levels: a driving simulator experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, T.W.; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Arem, B. van

    2008-01-01

    Computer based simulation models of human driving behaviour can be used effectively to model driving and behavioural adaptation to Intelligent Transport System (ITS). This can be a useful step in human centered design of ITS. To construct a comprehensive model of driving behaviour, the interaction b

  14. Cognitive problems, self-rated changes in driving skills, driving-related discomfort and self-regulation of driving in old drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Annette; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    2012-01-01

    that driving-related discomfort is an important factor affecting the self-regulation of driving. Finally, the findings indicate that driving-related discomfort functions as an indirect self-monitoring of driving ability and may contribute to the safe driving performance of Danish older drivers.......Ageing in general is associated with functional decline that may have an adverse effect on driving. Nevertheless, older drivers have been found to show good judgement and to self-regulate their driving, which may enable them to continue driving safely despite functional decline. The process of the...... self-monitoring of driving ability and the awareness of functional decline, and its association with the self-regulation of driving is, however, not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the perceived changes in driving skills, the discomfort experienced in driving, and the self...

  15. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A-1(sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 1650 to 1750. Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  16. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women. PMID:26239672

  17. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  18. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure;

    2014-01-01

    strategies were identified for each scenario. Appropriateness of the chosen management strategy was assessed using predetermined "best practice" for each scenario. Consensus was arbitrarily defined as "moderate" when 50- 69% of respondents agreed on the same management choice for a scenario, and "excellent......" when 70% or more provided the same answer. RESULTS: Excellent consensus was achieved for only one scenario, and moderate consensus for two scenarios. For five of the nine scenarios, the most common answers were in agreement with the "best practice" management strategies. Consensus between the French......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investigate...

  19. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk;

    2011-01-01

    (Romberg Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure......Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed...

  20. Low back pain following a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    The patient was a 29-year-old man who presented to an emergency department with a chief complaint of low back pain. Symptom onset occurred 3 weeks earlier, following a fall off a roof. The physician ordered radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar spines, which were interpreted as normal. After receiving the results of the radiographs, the physician referred the patient to a physical therapist working in the emergency department. Because of the strong suspicion for a fracture and because radiographs are not considered to be sensitive to some of the bony changes associated with fractures,1 computed tomography imaging of the thoracic and lumbar spines was ordered. The computed tomography imaging revealed multilevel, small end-plate compression defects, most marked at T12-L1, with mild anterior wedging and retropulsion of a small bone fragment at L1. PMID:23902792

  1. From nature to computing and back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke TANG; Xin YAO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nature has been the source of inspiration for many computational algorithms and promoted the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field called nature inspired computation, which studies computational systems and methodologies that are inspired by and/or borrow ideas from natural systems. In the past decades, scientific research in nature inspired computation has evolved substantially and diverse field of research topics have arisen.On one hand, a variety of novel computational techniques haven been developed via mimicking the behaviors of natural systems, e.g., evolutionary computation, neural computation, swarm intelligence, etc. On the other hand,the developments of these computational techniques result in powerful tools for understanding the nature, and thus benefit the advance of related fields, such as biology, chemistry and material science. This special section aims at bringing together some of the latest results that have been obtained in both directions, i.e., from nature to computing and back.

  2. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Multimedia

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  3. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... interviews. Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and...... ‘fear of losing functional ability permanently’. Key words: intermediate care, older people, discharge, interview, phenomenology...

  4. Hypnosis treatment for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gabriel; Fukui, Tenley; Jensen, Mark P; Thornby, John; Waldman, Karen L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a significant healthcare problem, and many individuals with CLBP remain unresponsive to available interventions. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is effective for many chronic pain conditions; however, data to support its efficacy for CLBP are outdated and have been limited primarily to case studies. This pilot study indicated that a brief, 4-session standardized self-hypnosis protocol, combined with psycho-education, significantly and substantially reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Significant session-to-session improvements were also noted on pain ratings and mood states; however, follow-up data suggest that these benefits may not have been maintained across time in this sample. These findings need to be replicated and confirmed in a larger clinical trial, which could also assess the long-term effects of this treatment. PMID:20183738

  5. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  6. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson's chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out...

  7. Drive linac for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chojnacki, E.; Konecny, R.; Rosing, M.; Simpson, J.

    1993-08-01

    The drive linac in Phase I of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) will be used to accelerate short duration (10 ps), high charge (100 nC) electron bunches from 2 MV to 20 MV for use in a variety of wakefield acceleration and measurement studies. The high charge is required since this drive bunch will generate the wakefields of interest in various test sections and their amplitudes are proportional to bunch charge. The short bunch duration is required to drive high-frequency wakefields without intra-bunch cancellation effects. The drive linac design was a balance between having a small wake function to maintain a drive bunch energy spread of {le}10% and obtaining an adequate accelerating gradient of {ge}10 MV/m. This yielded a large aperture, low shunt impedance, high group velocity, L-band, standing-wave linac. Details of the design, fabrication, and testing are presented in the following.

  8. Extracting periodic driving signal from chaotic noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Jing; TAO Chao; DU Gonghuan

    2003-01-01

    After periodic signals pass through some nonlinear systems, they are usually transformed into noise-like and wide-band chaotic signals. The discrete spectrums of the original periodic signals are often covered by the chaotic spectrums. Recovering the periodic driving signals from the chaotic signals is important not only in theory but also in practical applications. Based on the modeling theory of nonlinear dynamic system, a "polynomial-simple harmonic drive" non-autonomous equation (P-S equation) to approximate the original system is proposed and the approximation error between P-S equation and the original system is obtained. By changing the drive frequency, we obtain the curve of the approximation error vs. drive frequency. Based on the relation between this curve and the spectrums of the original periodic signals, the spectrum of the original driving signal is extracted and the original signal is recovered.

  9. RF current drive components in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical analysis of low frequency current drive in a tokamak is presented. The global model discussed includes kinetic hot plasma effects and collisions. It is found that all kinds of wave-plasma interactions (resonant wave-electron interaction, resonant wave-ion interaction and collisions) can contribute to the current drive. The analysis presented stresses the two new current drive components, the resonant helicity current and the nonresonant collisionless current. Helicity current drive is proportional to the parallel helicity flux and to the wave damping strength, which is defined by the wave-plasma interaction process. The collisionless part of the nonresonant current is proportional to wave damping on ions. However, this is an electron current, and wave-ion interaction just creates necessary polarization of the wave to drive a current. The resistive MHD limit is considered as well, and the correct expression for the RF driven current including the Alfven resonance effect, is given. (author) 17 refs

  10. Special Considerations in Distracted Driving with Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228

  11. DriveID: safety innovation through individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Ben; Teo, Grace; Mouloua, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    The driving task is highly complex and places considerable perceptual, physical and cognitive demands on the driver. As driving is fundamentally an information processing activity, distracted or impaired drivers have diminished safety margins compared with non- distracted drivers (Hancock and Parasuraman, 1992; TRB 1998 a & b). This competition for sensory and decision making capacities can lead to failures that cost lives. Some groups, teens and elderly drivers for example, have patterns of systematically poor perceptual, physical and cognitive performance while driving. Although there are technologies developed to aid these different drivers, these systems are often misused and underutilized. The DriveID project aims to design and develop a passive, automated face identification system capable of robustly identifying the driver of the vehicle, retrieve a stored profile, and intelligently prescribing specific accident prevention systems and driving environment customizations. PMID:22317376

  12. The lifetime of the control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetime of the control rod drives is studied. Their function is to take out or to pull in the control rods. The drive and the experiments carried out, are described. The analysis of the behaviour under operation, the drive inspections and surveyance, are also considered. The results are obtained from: the investigations performed on the fatigue strength of the 900 MW and 1300 MW drives, which allowed to deduce a low of wear and to identify the important aspects to be studied, the measurements of the dynamical stresses of mobile elements and a dynamical calculation model. The study leads to the conclusion that a probabilistic approach is needed for the fatigue damage analysis of some elements. Moreover, a systematic examination is also needed, to verify the agreement betwem the drives calculated aging values and the measured ones

  13. GCFR main helium circulator and electric drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major objectives of the helium circulators for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) is to achieve the highest possible operational reliability. This is no simple task considering the plant system integration requirements, auxiliary support systems, all possible transient requirements, and resulting complexity in supplying the driving power, primary coolant flow control, and lubrication and sealing. Therefore, the design of the circulator itself is highly dependent on the type of prime mover selected to drive the circulator, e.g., series turbine, parallel turbine, or electric motor. The circulator main drive has evolved from the series steam turbine drive into the variable-speed, synchronous electric motor drive mounted externally to the reactor and controlled by thyristor variable frequency controller. This design is a result of 18 months of joint effort by General Atomic Company and Westinghouse Electric Corporation

  14. Deep brain stimulation to reduce sexual drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Auer, Matthias K.; Biedermann, Sarah V.; Briken, Peer; Hacke, Werner

    2015-01-01

    To date there are few treatment options to reduce high sexual drive or sexual urges in paraphilic patients with a risk for sexual offending. Pharmacological therapy aims to reduce sexual drive by lowering testosterone at the cost of severe side effects. We hypothesize that high sexual drive could also be reduced with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of circuits that generate sexual drive. This approach would help to avoid systemic side effects of antiandrogenic drug therapies. So far the best investigated target to reduce sexual drive is the ventromedial hypothalamus, which was lesioned unilaterally and bilaterally by stereotaxic interventions in paraphilic patients in the 1970s. Here, we discuss DBS as a treatment strategy in patients with severe paraphilic disorders with a serious risk of sexual offending. There are profound ethical and practical issues associated with DBS treatment of paraphilic patients that must be solved before considering such a treatment approach. PMID:26057198

  15. Development of portable driving simulator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Itoh

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In accordance with aging of populations in many developed countries, number of drivers who suffer from mild cognitive impairment (MCI drivers is increasing. Since it has been reported that driving skill of the MCI drivers are deteriorated, it is important to train themselves in driving situation to preserve their driving skills. The present study was conducted to develop the simple driving simulator system, and to examine the effect of training in this system.Design/methodology/approach: Nineteen university students (8 males and 11 females participated in this study. After the habituation period (approximately 5min, three trials (approximately 12 min were conducted. Experimental situation imitated the real highway course. During trials, dangerous situation that would be resulted in car accident is randomly appeared and participants were required to avoid the car accidents. To avoid the possible car accidents are considered as correct response.Findings: Mean percent of correct responses for male and female were 75.2% and 56.6% in 1st trial and 95.7% and 72.6% in 3rd trial, respectively. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the main effect of sex(F (1, 14 = 7.84, p < .05 and trials (F (2, 34 = 10.19, p < .001. These results indicate that numbers of car accidents are dramatically decreased and the driving skills of male are superior to that of female.Practical implications: Although the present study revealed the differences in driving skills between the sexes, their driving history was not considered. Driving history of each participant should be examined in future study.Originality/value: Since the improvement of driving skills is revealed, our experimental design is expected as the tool for the preservation of driving skills in the MCI drivers.

  16. What drives successful verbal communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eDe Boer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a vast amount of potential mappings between behaviours and intentions in communication: a behaviour can indicate a multitude of different intentions, and the same intention can be communicated with a variety of behaviours. Humans routinely solve these many-to-many referential problems when producing utterances for an Addressee. This ability might rely on social cognitive skills, for instance, the ability to manipulate unobservable summary variables to disambiguate ambiguous behaviour of other agents (mentalizing and the drive to invest resources into changing and understanding the mental state of other agents (communicative motivation. Alternatively, the ambiguities of verbal communicative interactions might be solved by general-purpose cognitive abilities that process cues that are incidentally associated with the communicative interaction. In this study, we assess these possibilities by testing which cognitive traits account for communicative success during a verbal referential task. Cognitive traits were assessed with psychometric scores quantifying motivation, mentalizing abilities, and general-purpose cognitive abilities, taxing abstract visuo-spatial abilities. Communicative abilities of participants were assessed by using an on-line interactive task that required a speaker to verbally convey a concept to an Addressee. The communicative success of the utterances was quantified by measuring how frequently a number of Evaluators would infer the correct concept. Speakers with high motivational and general-purpose cognitive abilities generated utterances that were more easily interpreted. These findings extend to the domain of verbal communication the notion that motivational and cognitive factors influence the human ability to rapidly converge on shared communicative innovations.

  17. Inbreeding drives maize centromere evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kevin L; Xie, Zidian; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Presting, Gernot G

    2016-02-23

    Functional centromeres, the chromosomal sites of spindle attachment during cell division, are marked epigenetically by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant cenH3 and typically contain long stretches of centromere-specific tandem DNA repeats (∼1.8 Mb in maize). In 23 inbreds of domesticated maize chosen to represent the genetic diversity of maize germplasm, partial or nearly complete loss of the tandem DNA repeat CentC precedes 57 independent cenH3 relocation events that result in neocentromere formation. Chromosomal regions with newly acquired cenH3 are colonized by the centromere-specific retrotransposon CR2 at a rate that would result in centromere-sized CR2 clusters in 20,000-95,000 y. Three lines of evidence indicate that CentC loss is linked to inbreeding, including (i) CEN10 of temperate lineages, presumed to have experienced a genetic bottleneck, contain less CentC than their tropical relatives; (ii) strong selection for centromere-linked genes in domesticated maize reduced diversity at seven of the ten maize centromeres to only one or two postdomestication haplotypes; and (iii) the centromere with the largest number of haplotypes in domesticated maize (CEN7) has the highest CentC levels in nearly all domesticated lines. Rare recombinations introduced one (CEN2) or more (CEN5) alternate CEN haplotypes while retaining a single haplotype at domestication loci linked to these centromeres. Taken together, this evidence strongly suggests that inbreeding, favored by postdomestication selection for centromere-linked genes affecting key domestication or agricultural traits, drives replacement of the tandem centromere repeats in maize and other crop plants. Similar forces may act during speciation in natural systems. PMID:26858403

  18. Influence of driving frequency on discharge modes in a dielectric-barrier discharge with multiple current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the effect of the driving frequency on the discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure argon discharge with multiple current pulses. The discharge mode was discussed in detail not only at current peaks but also between two adjacent peaks. The simulation results show that different transitions between the Townsend and glow modes during the discharge take place with the driving frequency increased. A complicated transition from the Townsend mode, through glow, Townsend, and glow, and finally back to the Townsend one is found in the discharge with the driving frequency of 8 kHz. There is a tendency of transition from the Townsend to glow mode for the discharge both at the current peaks and troughs with the increasing frequency. The discharge in the half period can all along operate in the glow mode with the driving frequency high enough. This is resulted from the preservation of more electrons in the gas gap and acquisition of more electron energy from the swiftly varying electric field with the increase in driving frequency. Comparison of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the electron density at different driving frequencies indicates that the increment of the driving frequency allows the plasma chemistry to be enhanced. This electrical characteristic is important for the applications, such as surface treatment and biomedical sterilization

  19. Rating forces grip and driving and accelerations of the car with drive different configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows a typical drive systems used in today's vehicles, mainly cars. Approximated scheme of the formation of the driving force of the vehicle and the necessary mathematical relations for the calculation. For example, a typical passenger car BMW 320 was analyzed and calculations obtained a driving force, of adhesion and acceleration. The calculations were performed for the drive system, the classical (i.e. the rear axle of the vehicle for front-wheel drive and four-wheel drive (4×4. Virtually assumed that to the above mentioned vehicle it is possible buildings of each of said system. These are shown graphically in diagrams bearing a distribution of the forces acting on the substrate and the reactions - the data necessary for the calculations. The resulting calculation is graphically shown in the diagrams, in which is illustrated a change value of the resulting adhesive strength, and the acceleration depending on the drive type vehicle.

  20. Fundamental limitations on "warp drive" spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, F S N; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    "Warp drive" spacetimes are useful as "gedanken-experiments" that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of "superluminal" communication. We verify the non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions of the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second order of the non-relativistic warp-bubble velocity. We are primarily interested in a secondary feature of the warp drive that has not previously been remarked upon, if it could be built, the warp drive would be an example of a "reaction-less drive". For both the Alcubierre and Natario warp drives we find that the occurrence of significant energy condition violations is not just a high-speed effect, but that the violations persist even at arbitrarily low speeds. An interesting feature of this construction is that it is now meaningful to place a finite mass spaceshi...

  1. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  2. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  3. Is 'Back-End of the Fuel Cycle' really the back-end in future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Indian nuclear energy development and utilisation programme calls for recycling of Pu generated from PHWRs in FBRs or in the existing PHWRs or in some newly conceived reactors of the AHWR type. These concepts are evolved to maximise the use of available resources and are heavily dependent on the so called 'Back End of the Fuel Cycle', which comprises fuel reprocessing, fuel fabrication and waste management. With reprocessing, a variety of mid course options are available in both uranium and thorium fuel cycles with Pu forming the vital link between the two. Pu recycle calls for advanced reprocessing techniques to deal with minor actinide partitioning and to render the waste safe with respect to long term hazards. Thus in the near future, this back end activity involving Pu and minor actinide processing will open up new vistas in nuclear fuel cycle. The status of Indian nuclear power programme on U, Pu and Th fuel cycles are presented in this context. (author)

  4. Back-to-back correlations of boson-antiboson pairs for anisotropic expanding sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    In the hot and dense hadronic sources formed in high energy heavy ion collisions, the particle interactions in medium might lead to a measurable back-to-back correlation (BBC) of boson-antiboson pairs. We calculate the BBC functions of $\\phi\\,\\phi$ and $K^+K^-$ for anisotropic expanding sources. The dependences of the BBC on the particle momentum and source expanding velocity are investigated. The results indicate that the BBC functions increase with the magnitude of particle momentum and exhibit an obvious dependence on the direction of the momentum for the anisotropic sources. As the source expanding velocity decreases, the BBC function decreases when the particle momentum is approximately perpendicular to the source velocity, and the BBC function increases when the particle momentum is approximately parallel to the source velocity.

  5. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  6. Implementation Decision-making of WEEE Take-Back Directive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojun Ji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, based on the objective of social welfare maximization, the issues of take-back network, recycling targets setting, recovery catalogs sorting, supervision and stimulation of take-back models are discussed. Conclusion demonstrates that: manufacturers, recyclers and consumers do not always share the same preference over three patterns, but the mode of manufacture-leading take-back can reach maximum social welfare; the most efficient network system should be around the manufacturer individual take-back responsibility to build; the take-back level and the recovery catalogs must synthesize the factors involve environmental impact of product, take-back cost/benefit and recycling and manufacturing industries' market structure etc., the supervision and stimulation decision matrix associated with the PROs is as an effective tool to balance the environmental benefits and social welfare.

  7. Snubber assembly for a control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A snubber cartridge assembly is mounted to the nozzle of a control rod drive mechanism to insure that the snubber assembly will be located within the liquid filled section of a nuclear reactor vessel whenever the control rod drive is assembled thereto. The snubber assembly includes a piston mounted proximate to the control rod connecting end of the control rod drive leadscrew to allow the piston to travel within the liquid filled snubber cartridge and controllably exhaust liquid therefrom during a ''scram'' condition. The snubber cartridge provides three separate areas of increasing resistance to piston travel to insure a speedy but safe ''scram'' of the control rod into the reactor

  8. Stabilization of tearing mode by current drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-tian; SHI Man-li; MAO Guo-ping; ZHAO Shan-zhong; ZHENG Xiao-hu

    2004-01-01

    The major disruption limits the operation of present tokamaks. Experimental evidences point out that the growth of tearing modes or the magnetic islands is primarily responsible for the occurrence. Taking the non-inductive current drive effects into account, a set of 3D nonlinear equation is derived. It is shown from simulation that the growth of the magnetic island is suppressed effectively by RF current drive. It is consistent with recent experiments on the HL-1 tokamak in which the plasma is stabilized by an RF current drive.

  9. Optimal Control Development System for Electrical Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Marian GAICEANU; Emil ROSU; Romeo PADURARU; Cristinel DACHE

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the optimal electrical drive development system is presented. It consists of both electrical drive types: DC and AC. In order to implement the optimal control for AC drive system an Altivar 71 inverter, a Frato magnetic particle brake (as load), three-phase induction machine, and dSpace 1104 controller have been used. The on-line solution of the matrix Riccati differential equation (MRDE) is computed by dSpace 1104 controller, based on the corresponding feedback signals, generat...

  10. A causally connected superluminal Warp Drive spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Loup, F; Waite, D; Halerewicz, E F; Stabno, M; Kuntzman, M; Sims, R

    2002-01-01

    It will be shown that while horizons do not exist for warp drive spacetimes traveling at subluminal velocities horizons begin to develop when a warp drive spacetime reaches luminal velocities. However it will be shown that the control region of a warp drive ship lie within the portion of the warped region that is still causally connected to the ship even at superluminal velocities, therefore allowing a ship to slow to subluminal velocities. Further it is shown that the warped regions which are causally disconnected from a warp ship have no correlation to the ship velocity.

  11. Adjustable Speed Drives - Future Challenges and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Thoegersen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The main trends within Adjustable Drives in industrial and appliance applications for the next decade are discussed based on the newest developments seen on the market and a few historical trends. Different drive configurations are presented and the general demands to adjustable speed drives are...... specified. Further on power architectures and motor types are discussed in a short term and long-term view. Possible drivers of the future development are identified, and the concept of an ?Electronic Motor? is discussed. A number of applications are presented where variable speed is attractive....

  12. Vertebroplasty in the treatment of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to show the utility of vertebroplasty in the treatment of some types of back pain. Vertebroplasty is a venous embolisation of the vertebral body performed under computed tomography (CT) or fluoroscopy guidance with transpedicular, anterolateral, intercostovertebral or posterolateral approach with acrylic element. Materials and methods: We report our experience in 85 patients suffering from low back and thoracic pain and treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, vertebral haemangiomas or secondary lytic lesions of the spine. Patient selection was performed on the basis of physical examination, magnetic resonance or less frequently, with bone scan. CT has a minor role in selected cases to evaluate the integrity of the posterior wall. We treated 55 patients affected by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, 10 patients with vertebral haemangioma and 20 patients with metastatic lesions. The patients were placed in the prone position and the procedure was performed under fluoroscopy guidance in 80 patients and under CT guidance in 5 patients affected by metastatic lesions. In no case was phlebography performed before the treatment. The approach adopted was bilateral in 45 patients and unilateral in the remaining 30 cases. Injection with a low viscosity cement was performed under fluoroscopy guidance with extreme precision in all cases. The amount of cement injected ranged from 4 ml (thoracic level) up to 12 ml (lumbar level). Results: The results were better for osteoporotic cases (95%) and patients with vertebral haemangioma (90%) than with metastatic lesions (77%), with improvement within 24-72 hours after the treatment. We noted asymptomatic cement leakage in 39 cases but only in 2 cases was there an acute radiculopathy due to epidural cement leakage, which was treated and resolved medically in 1 month. At follow-up no cases were noted of fractures of vertebral bodies

  13. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  14. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  15. BREATHING PATTERNS IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka P. Ostwal; Wani S K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low Back pain is common clinical condition encountered in a day to day Physiotherapy practice. Very few authors has so far documented changes in breathing patterns in low back pain while performing certain motor control tests. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe the breathing pattern in individuals with low back pain (LBP) both at rest and during motor control tasks. Material and Method: 150 patients with LBP participated in this study and they were subcategorized ...

  16. Evaluation of the Back College for nursing staff

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Peter; Pietsch, Aki; Harling, Melanie; Behl-Schön, Susanne; Nienhaus, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Background Work-related musculoskeletal pain- particularly back pain - is an important individual and socioeconomic problem. The Back College for the insurance holders of the Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) is based on a multimodal concept and has been evaluated with respect to pain relief and continuing in the nursing profession. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, the participants in the Back College from 2009 to 2011...

  17. Review of Low Profile Substrate Integrated Waveguide Cavity Backed Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Yang Wang; Guo Qing Luo; Xiao Hong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Low profile cavity backed antennas (CBA) based on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology presented in published papers have been reviewed in this paper. Their operating mechanisms have been discussed and methods for improving the performance, such as bandwidth enhancement, size reduction, and gain improvement, have been presented. These novel antennas retain the advantage of conventional metallic cavity backed antenna, including high gain, high front-to-back ratio, and low cross pola...

  18. [An overview of conservative treatment for low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is the most frequent musculoskeletal complaint worldwide and leading cause of chronic disability. In this review we discuss knowledge about the role of management of non-invasive, conservative therapy for the nonspecific low back pain. Initial therapy includes modification of activity, pharmacological analgesic therapy and education of patients. In patients with sub acute or chronic low back pain, multimodal and interdisciplinary treatment approach is necessary with personalized and individual healthcare combined with different modality of therapy. PMID:22232958

  19. Psychological Evaluation of Acute Low Back Pain in Hospital Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lamontagne, Yves; Bousquet, Pierre; Elie, Robert; Courtois, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Personality, anxiety and depression were assessed in 62 hospital workers divided in three experimental groups: those with acute organic low back pain, those with acute functional low back pain, and asymptomatic control subjects. Results showed no statistical differences between groups in the evaluation of personality. Asymptomatic subjects had significantly lower scores for trait anxiety and depression than did patients suffering from low back pain. Patients with pain of organic origin were a...

  20. Risk factors for low back pain in nurses

    OpenAIRE

    MA. Mohseni-Bandpei; M. Fakhri; M. Ahmad-Shirvani; M. Bagheri-Nesami; A. Khalilian

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly work-related conditions and nursing profession has one of the highest rates of back injuries (more than 50%) among all occupations. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for back injuries in nursing personnel. Materials and methods : Following ethical approval, 1226 nurses were randomly recruited from 13 hospitals in North of Iran. Different questionnaires were designe...

  1. Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Dalke Meucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To estimate worldwide prevalence of chronic low back pain according to age and sex.METHODS We consulted Medline (PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE electronic databases. The search strategy used the following descriptors and combinations: back pain, prevalence, musculoskeletal diseases, chronic musculoskeletal pain, rheumatic, low back pain, musculoskeletal disorders and chronic low back pain. We selected cross-sectional population-based or cohort studies that assessed chronic low back pain as an outcome. We also assessed the quality of the selected studies as well as the chronic low back pain prevalence according to age and sex.RESULTS The review included 28 studies. Based on our qualitative evaluation, around one third of the studies had low scores, mainly due to high non-response rates. Chronic low back pain prevalence was 4.2% in individuals aged between 24 and 39 years old and 19.6% in those aged between 20 and 59. Of nine studies with individuals aged 18 and above, six reported chronic low back pain between 3.9% and 10.2% and three, prevalence between 13.1% and 20.3%. In the Brazilian older population, chronic low back pain prevalence was 25.4%.CONCLUSIONS Chronic low back pain prevalence increases linearly from the third decade of life on, until the 60 years of age, being more prevalent in women. Methodological approaches aiming to reduce high heterogeneity in case definitions of chronic low back pain are essential to consistency and comparative analysis between studies. A standard chronic low back pain definition should include the precise description of the anatomical area, pain duration and limitation level.

  2. Effects of Yoga on Low Back Stability, Strength and Endurance

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Anuj D

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the effects of Yoga on improving low back stability (threshold of stability, and mean total velocity of center of pressure), trunk strength (isometric strength in extension and flexion), and back endurance (isometric endurance in extension, flexion, and side laterals). METHODS: A pretest posttest control group experimental design was used. Sixteen participants, 10 females and 6 males, without a history of low back pain, and no prior experience of Yoga, were recruited. ...

  3. Is it all about a pain in the back?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Natvig, Bard; Ferreira, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    treatment of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders such as neck pain and lower limb osteoarthritis are very similar. In this chapter, we discuss the prevalence, consequences, and implications of commonalities between low back pain, pain in other sites and co-occurring pain. In addition, we......Multisite musculoskeletal pain is common among people suffering from low back pain. Although the mechanisms behind co-occurrence of multiple somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain are still unknown, patients with co-morbidities and co-occurring musculoskeletal symptoms tend to have worse...... propose a conceptual framework for a common stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of back and musculoskeletal pain....

  4. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risky drinking - cutting back References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. ...

  5. Looking Back at International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gwyn

    2012-03-01

    With the 11th International Synchrotron Radiation Instrumentation coming up in July 2012 in Lyons, France, we thought it might be of interest to our readers to review all the past meetings in this series. We thank Denny Mills of the APS, Argonne for putting the list together. Prior to these larger meetings, and in the early days, facilities held their own meetings similar to the user meetings of today. However, the meeting held at ACO in Orsay, France in 1977 was the first such meeting with an international flavor and so it is on the list. However it is not counted as number 1 since it was agreed way back to start the numbering with the 1982 DESY meeting. The 2005 USA National Meeting scheduled at CAMD in Baton Rouge had to be canceled due to Hurricane Katrina. It was ultimately held in 2007, with the CLS hosted meeting the following year. And a personal note from the magazine - Synchrotron Radiation News was born at the 1987 meeting in Madison, Wisconsin with a proposal that was put to a special session of the meeting organized by Susan Lord. Initial proposals were to model it after the CERN Courier, but it soon adopted its own distinct flavor.

  6. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  7. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  8. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  9. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  10. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world`s riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future.

  11. Making a start for backing out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immediately after Chernobyl, the 'Gesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft und Energiepolitik' (GEE) for the first time organized a technical meeting dealing with the question of whether a start was to be made for backing out of nuclear energy. At the time, the particular interest taken in this question appeared, to many, to be a specifically Federal German phenomenon. That this was not so is corroborated by this volume containing the papers read at the second meeting, and which permit an overview on the situation in our neighbour countries. One striking feature observed is the tendency also in these countries to polarize opinion, in spite of different starting conditions and a different argumentation structure. As it seems, other communities too besides our own are centrally divided over the question of 'nuclear energy - yes? or no? The papers, all of which are individually recorded, deal with the following subjects: Discussion on the phaseout of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries - Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Sweden; nuclear power: a hazard beyond reason?; appraisal of the analytical methods employed and the substitution potential in the event of a nuclear phaseout; overall economic perspective. (orig./HSCH)

  12. Scan of the back of human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    ProVision Technologies, a NASA commercial space center at Sternis Space Center in Mississippi, has developed a new hyperspectral imaging (HSI) system that is much smaller than the original large units used aboard remote sensing aircraft and satellites. The new apparatus is about the size of a breadbox. HSI may be useful to ophthalmologists to study and diagnose eye health, both on Earth and in space, by examining the back of the eye to determine oxygen and blood flow quickly and without any invasion. ProVision's hyperspectral imaging system can scan the human eye and produce a graph showing optical density or light absorption, which can then be compared to a graph from a normal eye. Scans of the macula, optic disk or optic nerve head, and blood vessels can be used to detect anomalies and identify diseases in this delicate and important organ. ProVision has already developed a relationship with the University of Alabama at Birmingham, but is still on the lookout for a commercial partner in this application.

  13. Classical Pendulum Feels Quantum Back-Action

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Gen; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, which has agreed with every experimental test, predicts superposition of position states even for macroscopic objects. Because of the massiveness, such states might have a key to investigate both quantum measurement problem and quantum gravity. Recently, the use of quasi-freely suspended mirror combined with a laser field was proposed to prepare such states. One of the key milestones for the quantum-optomechanical effects such as the generation of the entanglement state and a squeezed state of light is the observation of quantum back-action, which identifies the connection between the objects and quantumness of the light. Until now, this effect has been observed below the meso-scopic mass scale. However, it has not been observed yet in the macroscopic scale beyond Planck mass. This is partially due to a technical limitation-the radiation pressure of light will expose a free mass to instability such as anti-torsional spring effect. Also, there is the fundamental compromise between tolerance ...

  14. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, Jeff, E-mail: colgan@american.ed [International Relations, American University (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: {yields} A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. {yields} Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. {yields} Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  15. HANDWRITTEN TEXT IMAGE AUTHENTICATION USING BACK PROPAGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S N Chakravarthy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Authentication is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a datum or entity. This might involveconfirming the identity of a person, tracing the origins of an artefact, ensuring that a product is whatit’s packaging and labelling claims to be, or assuring that a computer program is a trusted one. Theauthentication of information can pose special problems (especially man-in-the-middle attacks, and isoften wrapped up with authenticating identity. Literary can involve imitating the style of a famous author.If an original manuscript, typewritten text, or recording is available, then the medium itself (or itspackaging - anything from a box to e-mail headers can help prove or disprove the authenticity of thedocument. The use of digital images of handwritten historical documents has become more popular inrecent years. Volunteers around the world now read thousands of these images as part of theirindexing process. Handwritten text images of old documents are sometimes difficult to read or noisy dueto the preservation of the document and quality of the image [1]. Handwritten text offers challenges thatare rarely encountered in machine-printed text. In addition, most problems faced in reading machineprintedtext (e.g., character recognition, word segmentation, letter segmentation, etc. are more severe, inhandwritten text. In this paper we Here in this paper we proposed a method for authenticating handwritten text images using back propagation algorithm..

  16. Implementation of Back Propagation Algorithm in Verilog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelmani Chhedaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a design method of neural networks based on Verilog HDL hardware description language, implementation is proposed. A design of a general neuron for topologies using back propagation algorithm is described. The sigmoid nonlinear activation function is also used. The neuron is then used in the design and implementation of a neural network using Xilinx Spartan-3e FPGA. The simulation results obtained with Xilinx ISE 9.2i software. The backpropagation algorithm is one of the most useful algorithms of ANN training. In this paper, we present the neuron impleme- ntation for the in topologies that are suitable for this algorithm. The neuron is then used in a multilayer neural network. For the implementation, Verilog HDL language is used. Verilog HDL is a hardware description language which simplifies the development of complex systems because it is possible to model and simulate a digital system form a high level of abstraction and with important facilities for modular design. The purpose of this work is to suggest and analyze several neuron implementations, show a way for the integration and control of the neurons within a neural network, and describe a way to implement a simple feedforward neural network trained by BP algorithm using Xilinx 9.2i.

  17. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  18. A 408 nm Laser System to Drive Stimulated Raman Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, James, II; Erickson, Christopher; Durfee, Dallin

    2011-05-01

    We will discuss a diode laser system that produces two laser beams, differing in frequency by 1 GHz, that can be used to drive Raman transitions in 87Sr+. This system will be used to generate the π and π / 2 pulses in an ion interferometer. The laser consists of a grating stabilized master laser. This is then passed through an AOM and retroreflected back through the AOM in order to provide two frequency-shifted beams. These beams are then used to injection lock two slave lasers, in a scheme similar to the one described in. The AOM can be modulated with a stability better than 1 Hz. Thus we guarantee that the light output from the slaves is at a constant detuning, while drift from the master laser corresponds to common mode drift (to which the Raman transition is less sensitive). We will also discuss a technique used to improve laser stability similar to the scheme described in but using the measured impedance of the diode rather than the amplitude noise on the light to generate an error signal. We will discuss a diode laser system that produces two laser beams, differing in frequency by 1 GHz, that can be used to drive Raman transitions in 87Sr+. This system will be used to generate the π and π / 2 pulses in an ion interferometer. The laser consists of a grating stabilized master laser. This is then passed through an AOM and retroreflected back through the AOM in order to provide two frequency-shifted beams. These beams are then used to injection lock two slave lasers, in a scheme similar to the one described in. The AOM can be modulated with a stability better than 1 Hz. Thus we guarantee that the light output from the slaves is at a constant detuning, while drift from the master laser corresponds to common mode drift (to which the Raman transition is less sensitive). We will also discuss a technique used to improve laser stability similar to the scheme described in but using the measured impedance of the diode rather than the amplitude noise on the light to

  19. Utilization of control rod drive (CRD) system for long term core cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we consider an application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to risk management. Foreseeable risk management strategies to prevent core damage are constrained by the availability of first line systems as well as support systems. The actual trend in the evaluation of risk management options can be performed in a number of ways. An example is the identification of back-up systems which could be used to perform the same safety functions. In this work we deal with the evaluation of the feasibility, for BWR's, to use the Control Rod Drive system to maintain an adequate reactor core long term cooling in some accident sequences. This preliminary evaluation is carried out as a part of the Internal Events Analysis for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (LVNPP) that is currently under way by the Mexican Nuclear Regulatory Body. This analysis addresses the evaluation and incorporation of all the systems, including the safety related and the back-up non safety related systems, that are available for the operator in order to prevent core damage. As a part of this analysis the containment venting capability is also evaluated as a back-up of the containment heat removal function. This will prevent the primary containment overpressurization and loss of certain core cooling systems. A selection of accident sequences in which the Control Rod Drive system could be used to mitigate the accident and prevent core damage are discussed. A personal computer transient analysis code is used to carry out thermohydraulic simulations in order to evaluate the Control Rod Drive system performance, the corresponding results are presented. Finally, some preliminary conclusions are drawn. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  20. The National Cancer Program: Driving Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of NCI’s role in driving cancer research discoveries: conducting and funding research in challenging areas and providing resources and leadership to national infrastructures for cancer research.

  1. Distracted driving: prevalence, problems, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Tiffany L; Rives, Terry E; Hecht, Carrie; Shafi, Shahid; Gandhi, Rajesh R

    2015-01-01

    While the number of motor vehicle crashes has declined over the years, crashes resulting from distracted driving are increasing in the United States resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The national public seems to be aware of the dangers associated with using technology while driving, but continues to engage in this dangerous behaviour, and may be unaware of or underestimate the impact of cell phone use on their own driving performance. Problems associated with distracted driving are not limited to novice or teenage drivers; multifaceted universal prevention efforts aimed at impacting large segments of the population may have the greatest impact. Legislation limiting drivers' cell phone use has had little impact, possibly due to low regulation and enforcement. Behaviour change programmes, improved vehicle safety, and public awareness campaigns have been developed as potential preventive efforts to reduce accidents caused by distracted drivers. PMID:24499372

  2. 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2005-01-01

    The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study was recently completed by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) and sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Virginia Tech, Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT), and Virginia Transportation Research Council (VTRC).

  3. Electromechanical drive for a reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention is related to control systems of nuclear researche swimming pool-type reactors. The presented electromechanical drive for a nuclear reactor control system consists of an electromagnetic grip of control element with magnet power supply cable, drum and flexible element, e.g., wire rope. Two branches of the rope which are separated from the electromagnet to the core and the drum form the closed loop. To decrease the dimensions of the drive, the magnet power supply cable serves as a loop flexible element which goes from the electromagnet to the core. For a particular reactor the drive, made according to the invention is 100 mm shorter and 20 mm narrower as compared with the known one, and that is rather significant in cases when a drive is to be installed directly on a control system channel

  4. 25 CFR 11.445 - Driving violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.445 Driving violations. (a) A person who shall operate any vehicle in....450 depending on the nature of the traffic code violation, and may be deprived of the right to...

  5. Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Natario, Jose

    2004-01-01

    We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.

  6. Driving Curfews May Curb Teen Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_158224.html Driving Curfews May Curb Teen Crime: Study Long-term reductions in arrests were seen ... cut car crashes, they may also lower youth crime rates, a new study suggests. Researchers from the ...

  7. Developing Castable Metal Harmonic Drives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort utilizes the high elastic strain limit and net-shaped processing of metallic glasses to fabricate low-cost harmonic drives that outperform steel. ...

  8. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to develop an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such devices. Fundamentally,...

  9. High Torque, Direct Drive Electric Motor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bear Engineering proposes to advance the development of an innovative high torque, low speed, direct drive motor in order to meet NASA's requirements for such...

  10. Control rod drive of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to nuclear reactors and, more particularly, to a drive of a control rod of a nuclear reactor and allows power control, excess reactivity compensation, and emergency shut-down of a reactor. (author)

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ignition interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been drinking. Interlocks are effective in reducing re-arrest rates from ...

  12. Providing driving rain data for hygrothermal calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Mikkel Kristian

    1996-01-01

    Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations.......Due to a wish for driving rain data as input for hygrothermal calculations, this report deals with utilizing commonly applied empirical relations and standard meteorological data, in an attempt to provide realistic estimates rather than exact correlations....

  13. Self-Commissioning of AC Motor Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Odhano, Shafiq Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    In modern motion control and power conversion applications, the use of inverter-fed electrical machines is fast growing with continuous development in the field of power electronics and drives. The Variable Voltage Variable Frequency (VVVF) supply for electrical machines gives superior performance in terms of speed control, efficiency and dynamics compared to the machines operated directly from the mains. In one of the most basic configurations, a drive system consists of a closed loop speed ...

  14. Use of mobile phone while driving.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while driving has negative effects on driving behaviour. This is the case for conducting a conversation, dialling a number, and sending text messages as well as for using the extra functions that smartphones offer, like accessing internet or social networking sites. The negative effects of mobile phone use are not only due to physical, visual and auditory distraction stemming from operating the phone and the vehicle at the same time, but also because drivers have to divid...

  15. Development of Sintered Iron Driving Bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Khanna

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation reports some detailed studies carried out on the development testing and proving of sintered Iron Driving Bands. Sintering studies on two different types of iron powders together with a few Fe-Cu compositions have been made and based on the results there of, parameters for development iron driving bands have been standardised. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that substitution of copper by sintered iron is highly practicable alternative.

  16. Direct Drive Technology for Wind Turbine Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Ziad

    2014-01-01

    Siemens Wind Power have developed direct-drive (DD) wind turbine technology over the past decade to meet the future demand for cost effective and reliable onshore and offshore wind power. The increasing power requirements from the industry resulting in higher torque requirements in the drive train, has made it necessary to reduce the complexity and improve reliability of wind turbines by going to DD generator technology.

  17. Linearized warp drive and the energy conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    ''Warp drive'' spacetimes are useful as ''gedanken-experiments'' and as a theoretician's probe of the foundations of general relativity. Applying linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, i.e., for non-relativistic warp-bubble velocities, we find that the occurrence of energy condition violations in this class of spacetimes is generic to the form of the geometry under consideration and is not simply a side-effect of the ''superluminal'' properties. Using the linearized construction it ...

  18. Superluminal warp drive and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime where the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two-dimensional case, we find that if the warp drive is placed in an accelerating universe the warp bubble size increases in a comoving way to the expansion of the universe in which it is immersed. Also shown is the result that the apparent velocity of the ship steadily increases with time as phantom energy is accreted onto it

  19. Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations in general relativity: At least theoretically, they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to exist as solutions of Einstein's equations. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to build them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries have been analyzed only for eternal warp-drive bubbles traveling at fixed superluminal speeds. Here, we investigate the more realistic case in which a superluminal warp drive is created out of an initially flat spacetime. First of all we analyze the causal structure of eternal and dynamical warp-drive spacetimes. Then we pass to the analysis of the renormalized stress-energy tensor (RSET) of a quantum field in these geometries. While the behavior of the RSET in these geometries has close similarities to that in the geometries associated with gravitational collapse, it shows dramatic differences too. On one side, an observer located at the center of a superluminal warp-drive bubble would generically experience a thermal flux of Hawking particles. On the other side, such Hawking flux will be generically extremely high if the exotic matter supporting the warp drive has its origin in a quantum field satisfying some form of quantum inequalities. Most of all, we find that the RSET will exponentially grow in time close to, and on, the front wall of the superluminal bubble. Consequently, one is led to conclude that the warp-drive geometries are unstable against semiclassical backreaction.

  20. Semiclassical instability of dynamical warp drives

    OpenAIRE

    Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Barceló, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Warp drives are very interesting configurations in General Relativity: At least theoretically, they provide a way to travel at superluminal speeds, albeit at the cost of requiring exotic matter to exist as solutions of Einstein's equations. However, even if one succeeded in providing the necessary exotic matter to build them, it would still be necessary to check whether they would survive to the switching on of quantum effects. Semiclassical corrections to warp-drive geometries have been anal...