Ortega S, Cesar A; Pacheco A, Maria Jojutla; Orozco V, Jaime A; Cristin V, Miguel A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)
The Lead-Acid Batteries (LAB) (or Pb-A) are widely used in the industry to store chemical energy and release it in electricity form. The phenomena that occur inside a LAB - during its charging and discharging cycles - in the long term affect the useful life of the battery. In this sense, diverse investigations around the world have been made; however, these studies have thrown only two conclusions: a) The selection of a suitable charge algorithm can extend the battery useful life. b) A continuous bank monitoring can help to consider the health state of the batteries and to detect the elements of the bank that are about to fail. A lead-acid battery is formed by a set of lead-acid cells connected in series. The higher the cell number, the higher the battery voltage. The LAB that are used to form energy backing banks are extremely delicate devices whose useful life strongly depends on factors such as: operation temperature, discharging rate, charging rate. The LAB are connected, in series, to raise the voltage, or in parallel, to increase the current supplied by the bank. With a combination of arrangements series-parallel it is possible to obtain almost any voltage and current specification. On the other hand, the reliable operation of an arrangement of cells requires that all the elements of this one work correctly. If in a series arrangement a cell fails, the rest stops working which causes maintenance costs, besides reducing the trustworthiness of the backing system. In order to increase the trustworthiness of the LAB cells arrangement, it is necessary an individual and continuous monitoring of the cells. It allows to determine which are those that have a greater fault probability and then, to be able to replace them. Among the main benefits of a battery monitoring system are: the increment of the trustworthiness of the backing system; the cost reduction of the maintenance service; the extension of the useful life of the batteries; the personnel security; the
@@ On July I8, Shenzhen Development Bank Co Ltd failed to receive an approval from holders of tradable shares to implement its share structure reform, a setback that dims the outlook of the city-level lender. In order to get 68.82 percent of non-tradable stakes listed on the bourse, the Shenzhen bank offered o.o48 yuan (0.6US cents) a share to tradable share owners as compensation. The proposal was opposed by holders representing 37.28 percent of tradable shares, and 23.79 percent abstained. The China Securities Regulatory Commission has stipulated that listed companies cannot implement their share reform plan unless they first secure two-thirds of votes from tradable share owners.
Olivier De Jonghe
This paper analyzes the relationship between banks’ divergent strategies toward specialization and diversification of financial activities and their ability to withstand a banking sector crash. We first generate market-based measures of banks’ systemic risk exposures using extreme value analysis. Systemic banking risk is measured as the tail beta, which equals the probability of a sharp decline in a bank’s stock price conditional on a crash in a banking index. Subsequently, the impact of (the...
De Jonghe, O.G.
This paper analyzes the relationship between banks’ divergent strategies toward specialization and diversification of financial activities and their ability to withstand a banking sector crash. We first generate market-based measures of banks’ systemic risk exposures using extreme value analysis. Systemic banking risk is measured as the tail beta, which equals the probability of a sharp decline in a bank’s stock price conditional on a crash in a banking index. Subsequently, the impact of (the...
Martín Serrano, Manuel
Los términos "Modelo" y "Sistema" son dos temas escritos por Manuel Martín Serrano para la docencia universitaria. De cada uno de ellos, se ha depositado en E-Prints la versión más difundida. Proporcionan conceptos y categorías que hacen posible la aplicación de las metodologías sistémicas en la investigación de las ciencias sociales. El capítulo "Sistema" incluye los siguientes epígrafes: I. El estudio de la organización y el funcionamiento de los sistemas: 1. Concepto de sistema. 2. Análisi...
Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria
Full Text Available El texto presentado a continuación, plantea en términos generales las principales posturas conceptuales del sociólogo alemán Niklas Luhmann sobre las ideas de Max Weber y su teoría de la acción social, y de Talcott Parsons y sus planteamientos en torno a la teoría de los sistemas sociales. Al final del escrito se hace especial énfasis en el rol protagónico que para Luhmann tienen las ciencias sociales y humanas en la autorreferencia del sistema social.
Abstract This paper provides a critical analysis of the World Bank’s new thinking on industrial policy. After outlining the changing perspectives on industrial policy put forward by the World Bank over the last three decades, we argue that the bank’s economists have taken one step forward (the approval for the enhanced role of the state) but also one if not two steps backward (by strong encouragement to countries to seek their current comparative advantage in pursuing industrial policy)....
Calle Prado, Alejandro
El present projecte final de carrera es situa dins de l’àmbit dels convertidors multinivell aplicats a la generació d’energia elèctrica a partir d’energia eòlica, particularment es centra en els convertidors de tres nivells. L’objectiu principal del projecte és aconseguir obtenir un conjunt funcional de dos convertidors de tres nivells connectats en configuració back-to-back, per connectar-los a l’emulador eòlic disponible al PERC (Centre de Recerca en Electrònica de Potència) ...
Pozsar, Zoltan; Adrian,Tobias; Ashcraft, Adam; Boesky, Hayley
The rapid growth of the market-based financial system since the mid-1980s changed the nature of financial intermediation in the United States profoundly. Within the market-based financial system, "shadow banks" are particularly important institutions. Shadow banks are financial intermediaries that conduct maturity, credit, and liquidity transformation without access to central bank liquidity or public sector credit guarantees. Examples of shadow banks include finance companies, asset-backed c...
Marcos Paulo Ludwig
Full Text Available As sementes de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. possuem a capacidade de permanecer viáveis no solo de um ano de cultivo para outro. Dessa forma, o objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o número de sementes de aveia preta resultantes de dois sistemas de manejo (colheita e ressemeadura natural, que poderão formar o banco de sementes do solo. Os ensaios foram realizados no município de Jari - RS, em uma área cultivada sob o sistema de "plantio direto". Foram coletadas 50 amostras em cada sistema de manejo, com um espaçamento de 10x20m, utilizando um amostrador de diâmetro de 0,05m e uma profundidade de 0,1m. O levantamento do número de sementes e da emergência das plântulas foi realizado no Laboratório Didático da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel (UFPel. Constatou-se que a colheita e a ressemeadura natural possibilitam a presença de sementes no solo por área, em quantidades superiores à indicada para a semeadura. Com a colheita, a área fica heterogênea em número de sementes no solo e em plântulas emergidas. A ressemeadura natural resulta em uma grande quantidade de sementes no solo e formação de plântulas.The black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. seeds are able to remain alive in soil from a culture to another. The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of black oat seeds resulting from two management, harvesting, and natural reseeding, which could form the seed bank of soil. The experiments were conducted in Jari-RS, Brazil, the cultivation system is "No Tillage". Were collected 50 samples in each management, at a spacing of 10mx20m, using a sampler diameter of 0.05m and depth of 0.1m. The evaluation of the number of seeds and seedling emergence was accomplish at the Laboratory of Seeds Analysis of the Faculdade de Agronomia "Eliseu Maciel" (UFPEL. It was found that both as the crop as the natural seeding allow large quantities of seeds in the soil for the upper area suitable for planting. The harvest area is
Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU
Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....
Luis A. de Avila
Full Text Available Num ecossistema agrícola, a redução do banco de sementes é um dos aspectos mais importantes no manejo de plantas daninhas; e em solos de várzeas, o arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L. é atualmente considerado a principal planta daninha. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução do banco de sementes de arroz vermelho no solo em diferentes sistemas de semeadura de arroz irrigado e em alternativas de manejo do solo de várzea. O experimento foi instalado em campo por dois anos consecutivos na mesma área (safras agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98 em Santa Maria, RS, em solo classificado como Planossolo, com infestação média de 516 sementes viáveis de arroz vermelho/m². A estimativa do banco de sementes de arroz vermelho foi realizada através de 10 coletas de solo, utilizando um cilindro com 0,10m de diâmetro a 0,10m de profundidade. Após a coleta, os grãos foram separados do solo e realizado teste de tetrazólio para determinar a quantidade de sementes viáveis na amostra. As coletas foram realizadas antes da instalação do experimento (set/1996, após a colheita do primeiro ano (mai/1997 e após a colheita do segundo ano (mai/1998. Os resultados mostraram que o cultivo do arroz no sistema convencional promove aumento no banco de sementes de arroz vermelho, enquanto que a semeadura de arroz em solo inundado (mix de pré-germinado, prégerminado ou transplante de mudas é tão eficiente na redução do banco de sementes de arroz vermelho quanto a rotação com o sorgo, o pousio do solo sem a presença de animais e também o preparo de verão.In an agricultural ecosystem, the redution of weed seed bank is of utmost importance. In lowland areas, red rice (Oryza sativa is the most important weed. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the evolution of the red rice seed bank under different seeding systems and alternatives of soil management. The experiment was conducted during two years (1996
Sistema bancario espa??ol: diferencias econ??mico-financieras de los grupos bancarios a trav??s de m??todos estad??sticos = Spanish banking system : economic and financial differencies of the banking groups by statistical methods
Ferreira Blanco, Mirian
La crisis financiera internacional iniciada ya hace m??s de seis a??os ha llegado a tener unas consecuencias de l??mites insospechados en todo el panorama econ??mico mundial. El sistema bancario espa??ol se ha visto sumergido en una profunda reestructuraci??n y recapitalizaci??n con el fin de estabilizar la econom??a y volver a crear confianza en los inversores. Con el objetivo de analizar si existen diferencias significativas en los diferentes grupos bancarios y comparar como ha variado l...
Verónica Évora Torres
Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es el análisis y definición de un procedimiento de calidad de datos financieros en el actual sistema informativo bancario, para el posterior diseño e implementación de servicios automatizados integrados: servicios online (procesos de validación y servicios Batch (procesos de verificación en donde se compruebe y decida si se manejan datos financieros y/o contables confiables asegurando la calidad de su entrada, con la finalidad de contar con información precisa, actualizada y oportuna, ejerciendo un impacto positivo en el apoyo a los analistas bancarios en el cumplimiento de sus funciones.This paper provides a systematic approach for improving and creating data and information quality at Banking System.It explains a procedure that defines and applies in practice on financial data by choosing the appropriate activities, processes, techniques and tools assessment to determine which are most appropriate to be integrated into our organization. The procedure encompasses five major phases.
Ramiro A. Pérez Vázquez
Full Text Available This paper provides a systematic approach for improving and creating data and information quality at Banking System.It explains a procedure that defines and applies in practice on financial data by choosing the appropriate activities, processes, techniques and tools assessment to determine which are most appropriate to be integrated into our organization. The procedure encompasses five major phases. El objetivo del trabajo es el análisis y definición de un procedimiento de calidad de datos financieros en el actual sistema informativo bancario, para el posterior diseño e implementación de servicios automatizados integrados: servicios online (procesos de validación y servicios Batch (procesos de verificación en donde se compruebe y decida si se manejan datos financieros y/o contables confiables asegurando la calidad de su entrada, con la finalidad de contar con información precisa, actualizada y oportuna, ejerciendo un impacto positivo en el apoyo a los analistas bancarios en el cumplimiento de sus funciones.
... pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, or a sudden jolt such as a car accident. The lower back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains and strains Herniated ...
Mohsen Rasoulian; Monire Safari
Back ground: electronic banking is an important and fundamental issue that plays an important role in reachingto electronic government. Generally speaking electronic banking includes all banking services using electronicsystem by the virtue of safe mediators in a way that physical presence is no longer necessary. The beginning ofelectronic banking turns back to 1960s when computers were used in banks for the first time. The second roundof electronic banking started at late 1970s and it was na...
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
The aim of this bachelor thesis is to introduce the Islamic banking. Describing historical and religious background of Islam, the Islamic banking and Shari'ah law. Then presenting financing techniques used in the Islamic banking. Eventually describing and analysing the Islamic banking in Malaysia. Comparison between the Islamic banking and the conventional banking is given throughout the bachelor thesis.
THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.
The retail banking plays more and more important role in polish banking sector. There are several targets of this article. First of all is retail banking identification, both in Euroland and Poland. The next one – trends, especially household deposits and credits and last – retail banking in particular banks.
Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas
Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011
Full Text Available Internet Banking (known also as online banking allows performing transactions and payments over the internet through a bank's secure website. This can be very useful, especially for banking outside bank hours (which tend to be very short and banking from anywhere where internet access is available. In most cases a web browser such as Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox is utilized and any normal internet connection is suitable. No special software or hardware is usually needed.
Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez
We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...
Gil S??nchez, Silvia
El sistema financiero espa??ol ha sufrido en los ??ltimos a??os numerosos cambios de gran relevancia, motivados en gran medida por debilidades estructurales y acentuados por la crisis financiera internacional. Este trabajo se estructura en dos bloques principales y comienza desarrollando en qu?? consiste el sistema bancario y su importancia en la econom??a. Con el objetivo de analizar la reestructuraci??n del sistema espa??ol, se ha profundizado en definir las caracter??sticas de la crisis fi...
Silva, Bento Duarte da
A consagração na Lei nº 46/86, mais conhecida por Lei de Bases do Sistema Educativo (LBSE), aprovada em Outubro de 1986, da criação dos departamentos regionais de educação (44º - 2) que podem vir a reunir um amplo leque de competências em todos os sectores educativos , de estruturas a nível local que assegurem a interligação do sistema educativo com a comunidade (43º - 2) atribuindo-se especial responsabilidade aos municipios (63º - 2), só por si justifica e torna premente a realização deste ...
Pieslak, Raymond F.
The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…
O outsourcing dos sistemas de informação como factor de competitividade no sector da banca El outsourcing de sistemas de información como factor de competitividad en el sector bancario The outsourcing of information systems as a factor of competitiveness in the banking sector
Renato Lopes da Costa
Full Text Available Numa era de competição particularmente intensa, a externalização dos sistemas de informação (SI está a tornar-se cada vez mais numa importante componente na tomada de decisão estratégica e uma importante forma de aumentar a eficiência e qualidade nas várias actividades empresariais, sendo visto por muitos gestores como uma ferramenta influenciadora e poderosa de mudança organizacional (Ferfusson, 1996, trazendo uma vida nova à organização e à cadeia processual da empresa. O que se pretende neste artigo é exactamente enfatizar o real valor desta moderna ferramenta de gestão estratégica, mostrando que o potenciamento das tecnologias de informação de gestão (TIG, quando combinadas com o outsourcing são, de facto, uma inevitabilidade virtual que tende a ganhar cada vez mais espaço no contexto empresarial, podendo esta visão ampla de negócio fomentar criatividade e dinamismo nas operações das organizações na mesma linha do que tem vindo a ser realizado a este nível pelo sector bancário.En una era de competencia especialmente intensa, la externalización de los sistemas de información (SI se está convirtiendo en un componente cada vez más importante en la toma de decisiones estratégicas y de una forma importante de aumentar la eficiencia y calidad en las diferentes actividades empresariales, siendo vista por muchos directivos como una herramienta influyente y poderosa para el cambio organizacional (Ferfusson, 1996, trayendo una nueva vida a la organización y la cadena de procesos de la empresa. El propósito de este artículo es precisamente hacer hincapié en el valor real de esta moderna herramienta de gestión estratégica, demostrando que las potencialidades de la tecnología de gestión de la información (TIC cuando se combina con el “Outsourcing” es en realidad una inevitabilidad virtual que tiende a ganar cada día más espacio en el contexto empresarial, y que esta visión amplia del negocio pueda
Investment banking is a generic term for transactional activities involving financial intermediation conducted through open markets. It was long associated with a legal demarcation in the US and Japan that separated banks that made loans and took deposits from those that traded in securities, but now denotes risk-based activities in banks of any kind. This paper explains investment banking practices in terms of reputational capital, and contrasts the transactional skills and innovation found ...
Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.
@@ The saying, "There's no such thing as a free lunch" is one that can be applied to the charges increasingly being imposed on savers by Chinese banks.Ranging from managementfees for small deposit accounts to charges for withdrawals of large amounts of cash, from ATM cross-bank withdrawal charges to annual fees for bank payment cards, charges by banks are becoming a unstoppable trend. But it is not a trend the general public is so keen to accept.
Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta
To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.
Napitupulu, Nancy Andriany
The rapid development on technology nowadays is influencing changes on many sectors, such as banking services and crimes. Banking services and their oroducts are now mostly backed up with Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), phone banking, sms banking and electronic fund transfer. The online banking product aims to assist customers for any banking transaction like depositing, withdrawing and transferring. These benefits of banking services may result negative effects that lead to money launderin...
There is no doubt that China’s banking system is a calm port in the global financial storm. Moreover, a great regulatory firewall and an easing monetary environment have enabled Chinese banks to increase lending and help shrug off the economic downturn. Yi Xianrong, a researcher at the Institute of Finance and Banking under the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed this topic in a recent article in the Shanghai Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow:
In my bachelor paper I focus on the issue of shadow banking. The paper is theoretically oriented. Its main goal is to provide overview on the shadow banking system. The text is divided into four parts. The first part includes the definition of shadow banking and the description of its characteristics. The credit intermediation in shadow banking and the process of securitization is explained in the second part. The third part is aimed at mapping of situation in the area of implementation of re...
In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...
Nonspecific back pain; Backache - chronic; Lumbar pain - chronic; Pain - back - chronic; Chronic back pain - low ... Low back pain is common. Almost everyone has back pain at some time in their life. Often, the exact cause of ...
A version of the Diamond-Dybvig model of banking is used to evaluate the narrow banking proposal, the idea that banks should be required to back demand deposits entirely by safe short-term assets. It is shown that the mere existence of an amount of safe short-term assets outside the banking system that exceeds banking system liabilities does not make the proposal either innocuous or desirable. In fact, despite such existence, using narrow banking to cope with banking system illiquidity elimin...
V diplomskem seminarju smo predstavili Centralno banko Srbije (nadaljevanju CBS) v integracijskem procesu v Evropski sistem centralnih bank. Stopnjo integracije CBS in njenega bančnega sistema smo določili skozi tri aspekte. Prvi je kompatibilnost monetarne politike Centralne banke Srbije z monetarno politiko Evropske centralne banke (v nadaljevanju ECB) ter izpolnjevanje maastrichtskih kriterijev konvergence s strani CBS, ki so vezani na morebitno bodočo uvedbo evra kot valute. Nato smo spoz...
Full Text Available The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of financial - banking commitments with various practical issues which are occurred by the use of those. From the legal point of view, the bank guarantees are not under an own legal regulation and are based on the common law, used in the guarantees domain. Through the new aspects of the actual Civil Code it are the legal regulation of the letter of bank guarantee and of the comfort letter, which shall constitute the main regulation in the negotiation and conclusion of a letter of bank guarantee or a bank comfort letter. For the legal reports with foreign elements, the parties can also use the Uniform Rules regarding the Guarantees at Request (URGR Publish no.758/2010.
Avila, Luis A.; Enio Marchezan; Sérgio L. de O. Machado; Ricardo P. da Silva
Num ecossistema agrícola, a redução do banco de sementes é um dos aspectos mais importantes no manejo de plantas daninhas; e em solos de várzeas, o arroz vermelho (Oryza sativa L.) é atualmente considerado a principal planta daninha. Nesse sentido, conduziu-se um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar a evolução do banco de sementes de arroz vermelho no solo em diferentes sistemas de semeadura de arroz irrigado e em alternativas de manejo do solo de várzea. O experimento foi instalado em campo...
LA EXPANSIÓN TERRITORIAL COMO FACTOR MOTIVADOR DE LA REESTRUCTURACIÓN DEL SISTEMA FINANCIERO ESPAÑOL: EL CASO DE LAS CAJAS DE AHORROS Y LAS COOPERATIVAS DE CRÉDITO / THE TERRITORIAL EXPANSION AS A MOTIVATING FACTOR OF THE RESTRUCTURING OF THE SPANISH FINANCIAL SYSTEM: THE CASE OF SAVING BANKS AND CREDIT COOPERATIVES
Milagros GUTIÉRREZ FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available La actual crisis financiera internacional está actuando como catalizador de un profundo proceso de cambio en el sector bancario español que está afectando también a las entidades de crédito de la Economía Social: cajas de ahorros y cooperativas de crédito. Su modelo de banca “minorista”, centrada en la cercanía al cliente, se ha visto acompañado en los últimos años de un fuerte proceso de expansión geográfica que ha supuesto un sobredimensionamiento de su red de sucursales. Sin embargo, como consecuencia de las actuales circunstancias de la economía española en general, y del sistema bancario en particular, dicha estrategia de desarrollo interno no parece sostenible, siendo necesario que se produzca un redimensionamiento del sector, para ver recuperada la confianza en el sistema y para que éste vuelva a ser considerado como uno de los más solventes del mundo. Bajo este enfoque, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las distintas estrategias de expansión territorial desarrolladas por dichas entidades con el objetivo de plasmar su situación actual y comprender por qué es necesaria la reestructuración del sector. Para ello se ha empleado tanto el análisis descriptivo como el econométrico, utilizando en todo momento los datos que presentan la Confederación Española de Cajas de Ahorros (CECA y la Unión Nacional de Cooperativas de Crédito (UNACC en sus anuarios estadísticos. / The current financial international crisis is acting as catalyst of a deep process of change in the Spanish banking sector which is affecting also the credit institutions of the Social Economy: saving banks and credit cooperatives. These entities share a model of "retail" banking, centered on the nearness to the client, that has been accompanied in the last years of a strong process of geographical expansion which has supposed an oversizing of its network of branches. Nevertheless, as a consequence of the current circumstances of the Spanish
Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.
The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back ... During Pregnancy FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during ...
Hüseyin ÖZTÜRK; Derya GULTEKIN-KARAKAS; Hisarciklilar, Mehtap
Development banks are influential institutions in financing development. Since their establishment back in the 19th century, development banks have played a leading role in supporting development in many countries. Despite the liberalization process of the 1980s and 1990s, development banks have continued to play an active role in financing development in the case of many countries. In the Turkish case, the performance of development banking in supporting development has varied over time. How...
ION Gr. IONESCU
Full Text Available Banking system, making the economic environment and the resources it provides, the subsystem consists of macro economic and social. He is in continuous interaction with the economic environment, which takes "input" in various forms - human, financial, information they process into "outputs" - products and banking services, financial derivatives used in banking, financial and banking information, etc. In other words, and the banking system is now an open system. What is specific to open systems, and hence the banking system is that it regulates activity by reverse connection (feed back, so they are capable of self.
Bettencourt, Catarina Maria Silveira
Trabalho apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciências Farmacêuticas Os sistemas gastroretentivos são formas farmacêuticas de libertação modificada desenhadas com o intuito de prolongarem o seu tempo de residência no trato gastrointestinal superior. Estes sistemas surgiram para preencher lacunas apresentadas pelos sistemas convencionais de libertação modificada. Os sistemas de libertação controlada convencionais não são des...
Bell, Venetia; Butt, Nick; Talbot, James
In order to improve understanding of the role of bank liabilities in driving credit and monetary conditions, the Bank of England began conducting a formal Bank Liabilities Survey last year. This survey is intended to supplement the data collected on the asset side of bank balance sheets by the Bank of England’s quarterly survey of credit conditions, which was introduced in 2007. The first results of the Bank Liabilities Survey will be published on 26 March. This article introduces the survey.
Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth
The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine and...
The Bank of Lithuania (BoL), the Central Bank, was established in 1990. BoL has the exclusive right to grant and revoke licenses to local and foreign banks and to supervise their activities. Private commercial banking boomed from 1991 to 1994 while bank regulation was lax. In late 1995, a bank crisis caused failures of most of the Lithuanian banks, and the remaining banks resulted in better ...
In this article, the author talks about Venezuela's national youth orchestra program called El Sistema whose attributes offer a direct challenge to traditional Western music practices. As U.S. classical music--and all "high arts"--struggle to find relevance to more than the small "arts club" percentage of the U.S. populace, El Sistema proposes…
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…
Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram fazer o levantamento da população vegetativa e determinar o número de sementes viáveis e sua distribuição no perfil do solo em área sob dois sistemas de manejo de solo. Para isso, foram realizados no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da ESALQ/USP dois ensaios condicionados a dois tipos de preparo de solo: convencional e pousio. Para análise estatística foram retiradas 28 amostras de cada tipo de solo (convencional e pousio, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste t a 5% de probabilidade. A identificação da população vegetativa e a quantidade de sementes viáveis e sua distribuição no perfil do solo foram determinadas pela retirada de 20 amostras simples de solo nas profundidades de 0,0-2,5; 2,5-5,0; 5,0-10,0; 10,0-15,0; e 15,0-20,0 cm, sendo acondicionadas em bandejas de alumínio e avaliadas em quatro épocas: aos 15, 30, 60 e 90 dias em casa de vegetação. Na área de pousio ocorreu menor número de espécies e sementes viáveis no solo. As famílias dominantes foram Compositae e Amaranthacea e as sementes concentraram-se nas camadas superficiais do solo (0-2,5 cm. Na área convencional, as famílias dominantes foram Compositae e Cruciferaceae e as sementes viáveis encontraram-se dispersas no perfil do solo.The objective of this work was to assess the vegetative population and to determine the number of viable seeds and their distribution in the soil profile under two soil management systems. Thus, two assays were conducted at the Department of Vegetable Production of ESALQ/USP using two types of soil preparation systems: tillage and no-tillage. For statistical analysis 28 samples of each type of soil handling were removed (tillage and pousio, being the averages compared by the test t to 5% of probability. The identification of the vegetative population and the amount of viable seeds and their distribution in the soil profile was determined by collecting the soil samples at depths of 0
Računalniška dinamika tekočin predstavlja učinkovito orodje pri iskanju izboljšav na področju izpušnih sistemov kot je SCR (angl.: Selectiv Catalytic Reduction, Selektivna katalitična redukcija) sistem. Omogoča analiziranje tokovnih karakteristik znotraj izpušnega sistema, vpliva geometrije sistema na konverzijo dušikovih oksidov. V predstavljeni nalogi je prikazano iterativno optimiranje SCR sistema s pomočjo računalniške dinamike tekočin. Najprej je bila izvedena numerična analiza obstoj...
Ist die Bank der Zukunft noch eine Bank? Ist sie noch eine Bank mit Menschen, oder wird die virtuelle Bank das Modell der Zukunft sein? Haben die Filialen noch eine Chance, oder werden künftig alle Bankgeschäfte über Computer abgewickelt? Umfragen unter Kreditinstituten bestätigen, dass die gegenwärtig drängendste Frage ist, auf welchem Weg die Bank und der Mensch zusammenkommen.
In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)
This research aims to unveil whether the tremendous banking sector reforms within the dynamic nature of the EU economic environment have achieved one of the catalyst EU goals, increase financial institutions’ cost efficiency. Using a single stage stochastic frontier approach, cost efficiency of the enlarged EU is estimated and evaluated for the period 2005-2011. The results suggest that EU pursuits have been successful but that stronger controls are needed.
This chapter examines the weakening and strengthening of relationships in technology determined bank-customer interactions. It focuses on the use of Internet banking for long-term service maintenance in a multiple channel usage context. The research findings from a study conducted with retail banking customers in the UK, indicate how customers combine the concepts of ‘convenience’ and ‘control’ in performing banking activities through Internet banking. In addition, while the users demand enhanced functionalities, the non-users seek innovation in customer service to aid their understanding and initiate their use of Internet banking. Such a scenario creates situations that transfer work back from the customers to the bank employees with likely changes in the roles and responsibilities of the frontline staff. As a social consequence of Internet banking usage, issues about the dichotomy of convenience and stress are also discussed. The potential of a virtual and remote channel like Internet banking in creating enhanced bank-customer relationships becomes salient with implications for organisational strategies.
Georgia's banking system restructure began in 1991 when Soviet Union collopsed.This paper tries to compare and constract the performance of banks and banking system between 1999 and 2004 with banks in other transition countries. Although Georgia banking system showed a long processing in banking sector, it is still lags behind other transition countries Central and Eastern Europe. Neverthless.An efficient financial institution and performance will not come without further economic development...
Full Text Available Most transactions or financial commitments have implications for a bank liquidity. Transactions are particularly vulnerable to liquidity problems at a specific institution. Therefore, one can deduce the importance of the correct calculation and liquidity indicator, not only for the bank concerned, but especially for NBR uses that bank risk management tool. That is why the authors took into consideration a sample of banks in Romania to show to what extent the banking crisis has influenced the development banks.
Domínguez López, Emiliano
Sistema detector d'incendis aprofitant una xarxa de sensors sense fils (WSN) mitjançant un sistema encastat. Sistema detector de incendios aprovechando una red de sensores inalámbricos (WSN) mediante un sistema empotrado.
Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.
... and sleeping. Prevention What's the best way to sit? Sit in chairs with straight backs or low-back ... than by twisting at your waist. When driving, sit straight and move the seat forward. This helps ...
... Prevent Back Pain Print This Topic En español Prevent Back Pain Browse Sections The Basics Overview Am ... at Risk? 3 of 5 sections Take Action: Prevent Injuries Focus on good posture. Good posture can ...
Alnaqeib, Rami; Jalab, Hamid A; Zaidan, M A; Hmood, Ali K
Internet Banking System refers to systems that enable bank customers to access accounts and general information on bank products and services through a personal computer or other intelligent device. Internet banking products and services can include detailed account information for corporate customers as well as account summery and transfer money. Ultimately, the products and services obtained through Internet Banking may mirror products and services offered through other bank delivery channels. In this paper, Internet Banking System Prototype has been proposed in order to illustrate the services which is provided by the Bank online services.
This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...
Mendiola Larringan, Ander
Memoria dokumentuan Auzolagun izeneko proiektuaren nondik-norakoak azaltzen dira. Sistema Informatikoko Ingeniaritza Teknikoko ikasketa amaierako proiektu hau, Talaios kooperatibarekin elkarlanean sortu da, helburu nagusitzat euskal komunitatearentzako crowdfunding sistema bat sortzea delarik.
Lagunas Mendoza, Javier
the fuzzy supervisory controller were compared with a conventional controller. The results shows that the supervisory controller fulfills the three main objectives of the system operation: I) to reduce the fuel consumption of the back-up system, II) to reduce the depth of the discharge of the battery bank, and III) to keep fully charged the battery bank as much as possible in order to make a better use of the available free renewable energy sources. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta el desarrollo de un controlador supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica (SHGE). En este trabajo se definio la configuracion y los elementos que componen el SHGE a utilizar, producto de la revision de configuraciones de sistemas hibridos propuestas actualmente. La configuracion del SHGE incluye: arreglos fotovoltaicos y aerogeneradores como fuentes de generacion renovable, una maquina de combustion interna como sistema de respaldo, un banco de baterias como medio de almacenamiento de energia, cargas electricas en corriente alterna y un inversor CD/CA para poder alimentarlas. Tambien a partir de la configuracion propuesta se buscaron y seleccionaron los modelos matematicos de los diferentes elementos del sistema. Se llevo a cabo la validacion de los modelos a traves de la comparacion de la salida contra datos reales obtenidos en un SHGE instalado en Pachuca. Con los modelos se llevo a cabo el desarrollo de un programa de simulacion para un SHGE en Matlab. Se determino la funcion principal del controlador supervisorio dentro del SHGE. La funcion es satisfacer el o los objetivos de operacion del sistema. La filosofia de operacion del controlador supervisorio se definio a partir de la configuracion electrica propuesta y de los objetivos de operacion del sistema. Por lo que respecta al desarrollo del controlador supervisorio, se llevo a cabo una revision de los controladores supervisorios actuales que utilizan alguna tecnica de control inteligente. A partir de
En la reseña de mi libro «Las sombras del mañana» (Ed. Lom, 2002), Juan Jiménez plantea un problema que merece discusión: «¿La subjetividad es algo importante, relevante, crucial para las personas o las sociedades?» Jiménez afirma que la subjetividad puede ser importante para las personas, pero -como la sociedad no estaría compuesta por personas, sino por sistemas funcionales-, no tendría importancia para el funcionamiento de la sociedad. Apoyándose en Luhmann, supone que los sistemas obedece...
Duran Rosich, Antoni
Introducció al desenvolupament d'un ERP. El projecte està centrat en el programa més extens de Planificació de Recursos Empresarials o ERP (de l'anglès Enterprise Resource Planning) de Microsoft. Aquests integren (o pretenen integrar) totes les dades i processos d'una organització en un sistema unificat. Aquest sistema utilitza múltiples components de programari i maquinari per aconseguir la integració. Un component clau de la majoria d' ERP és l'ús d'una base de dades única per emmagatzem...
Fernández Sáez, Aurelio
En el marco de la ingeniería de sistemas, la conferencia versa sobre algunos de los aspectos centrales de la disciplina: la ingeniería de requisitos, la verificación y la validación de sistemas. El eje central es la labor del ingeniero de pruebas y, haciendo uso de un ejemplo, se presentan tanto las ideas clave de esta actividad como la experiencia del conferenciante a lo largo de su trayectoria profesional. Un repaso a las lecciones aprendidas cierra la conferencia
Islamic bank as an intermediary institution in which the activities to collect funds and distribute it back to the community with regard to Islamic principles shall banking. Financing prudential aspects of banking activity into one that is very risky because if the Islamic banks provide financing to customers (Mudharib) means Islamic Bank has decided to take on and its manage risk. One of the efforts that have created laws to mitigate the risk of financing problems that arise from the provisi...
The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking) against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking) were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking ...
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
Bank resolution is a key pillar of the European Banking Union. This column argues that the current structure of large EU banks is not conducive to an effective and unbiased resolution procedure. The authors would require systemically important banks to reorganise into a ‘holding company’ structure...
Stijn Claessens; Lev Ratnovski
There is much confusion about what shadow banking is. Some equate it with securitization, others with non-traditional bank activities, and yet others with non-bank lending. Regardless, most think of shadow banking as activities that can create systemic risk. This paper proposes to describe shadow banking as â€œall financial activities, except traditional banking, which require a private or public backstop to operateâ€. Backstops can come in the form of franchise value of a bank or insurance c...
Summary: On Friday, October 25, 2002, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia held a workshop that focused on credit card asset-backed securities. Mark Adelson, head of structured finance research at Nomura Securities International, led the workshop. A veteran analyst of the ABS market, Adelson has written numerous articles and special reports on securitization. During the workshop, Adelson explained the growth, pricing, and mechanics of credit card asset-backed s...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank. 583.3 Section 583.3 Banks and Banking... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by...
Leser S., Heinz
Full Text Available Se describe el sistema constructivo de entramado en madera, “plataforma” (platform frame utilizado preferentemente en las construcciones de varios pisos en el campamento minero de Sewell, Chile./The following is a description of the platform frame used in several stories buildings in the mining settlement Sewell, in Chile.
Leser S., Heinz; Gómez Lerou, Luis; Salomone R., Vanessa
Se describe el sistema constructivo de entramado en madera, “plataforma” (platform frame) utilizado preferentemente en las construcciones de varios pisos en el campamento minero de Sewell, Chile./The following is a description of the platform frame used in several stories buildings in the mining settlement Sewell, in Chile.
Ananthakrishnan Prasad; Pierluigi Bologna
This note assesses the impact of the global financial risks on Oman's banking system and highlights the remaining risks. It concludes that the liquidity and prudential measures introduced by the authorities mitigated the adverse effects of the crisis on the banking system. Banks continue to make profits despite higher provisioning. Stress tests confirm the resilience of the banking system to credit and market risks. Banks have limited exposure to derivatives and the majority of the off-balanc...
Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian
The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...
The banking literature documents various roles for banks in financial systems. Banks are both ‘liquidity providers’ and ‘information producers’. Banks are especially important for small and medium-size enterprises and represent these firms' principal source of external finance. Hence, the banks’ role is relevant for the smooth functioning and growth of an economy as well. Moreover, when banks and firms enter into a relationship, they are able to overcome problems of asymmetric information and...
Adrian,Tobias; Adam B. Ashcraft; Cetorelli, Nicola
We provide a framework for monitoring the shadow banking system. The shadow banking system consists of a web of specialized financial institutions that conduct credit, maturity, and liquidity transformation without direct, explicit access to public backstops. The lack of such access to sources of government liquidity and credit backstops makes shadow banks inherently fragile. Shadow banking activities are often intertwined with core regulated institutions such as bank holding companies, secur...
Chinese banks expands its "going out" strategy but faces challenges in establishing a presence in foreign markets The world’s biggest lender by market value, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), and the Hong Kong-based Bank of East Asia signed an agreement in which ICBC would pay $140.23 million to buy an 80-percent inter- est in Bank of East Asia USA, the Hong Kong bank said on January 23.
<正>Germany is the prototypical economy country.Banks in Germany’s economic life plays a very important role.Germany has a large number of Banks and very dense network of bank branches.Deutsche Bank is by far the biggest German bank and Commerzbank is the second biggest.But with all the economic turmoil in the world these days,such rankings can change within
Lawrence J. Radecki; John Wenninger; Daniel Orlow
The largest U.S. commercial banks are restructuring their retail operations to reduce the cost disadvantage resulting from a stagnant deposit base and stiffer competition. As part of this effort, some banks are opening "supermarket," or "in-store," branches: a new type of banking office within a large retail outlet. An alternative to the traditional bank office, the supermarket branch enables banks to improve the efficiency of the branch network and offer greater convenience to customers.
Wilko Bolt; Leo de Haan; Marco Hoeberichts; Maarten van Oordt; Job Swank
This paper estimates the relation between bank profitability and economic downturns using a theoretical model that takes into account the bank's lending history as well as amortization and losses on outstanding loans. We focus on total bank profits and its components: net interest income, other income, and net provisioning plus other costs. Using both aggregate and individual bank panel datasets, our results confirm that pro-cyclicality of bank profits is stronger for deep recessions than dur...
Juel, Steinar; Molnar, Krisztina Molnar; Røed, Knut
Norges Bank has gone a long way in being open about its decisions and it is one of the most transparent central banks; this report makes a few recommendations about further improving the bank in this respect. Since Norges Bank already has a history of many years of transparency about its decisions and the principles used to make these decisions, it is possible to make a retrospective analysis and evaluate the bank. We think that evaluating and discussing the monetary policy of ...
Joao Granja; Gregor Matvos; Amit Seru
We study the recent episode of bank failures and provide simple facts to better understand who acquires failed banks and which forces drive the losses that the FDIC realizes from these sales. We document three distinct forces related to the allocation of failed banks to potential acquirers. First, a geographically proximate bank is significantly more likely to acquire a failed bank: only 15% of acquirers do not have branches within the state. Sales are more local in regions with more soft inf...
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg , Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervision can be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI) in the banking sector if political nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could...
Linda S. Goldberg
This article profiles the recent evolution and consequences of banking sector globalization. After presenting trends in international banking, the article overviews macroeconomic consequences of banking sector globalization, including the role of banks in the international transmission of shocks, comovements of business cycles, financial crises, and economic growth. Other consequences of banking globalization have parallels with the effects of real-side foreign direct investment, including te...
Silva, Valter Filipe Miranda Castelão da
Os sistemas integrados, ou genericamente os sistemas com reduzida capacidade de processamento e pouca memória, são actualmente sistemas economicamente acessíveis e muito divulgados. Os seus sistemas operativos estão, no entanto, ainda bastante dependentes do hardware o que faz que cada aplicação seja especialmente desenvolvida para cada tipo de sistema. Neste documento discute-se a aplicabilidade de uma máquina virtual Java em equipamentos com estas restrições. É proposta a ...
Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth
The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine and assess harmonic emission in the point of common coupling. Different modelling methods of power electronic devices installed in wind turbines are presented. Harmonic load flow analysis and impedance...
Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;
Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118
Vastukaaluks rahvusvahelisele ajakirjandusele pole Läti kohalike pankade - Parex ja Hansabanka - majandusanalüütikud nii pessimistlikud, prognoosides Läti majandust ja selle võimalikku ülekuumenemist
Gentiana Gjino; Orkida Ilollari (Findiku)
Banks are now being prepared to take advantage of another profit opportunity which is another product usable by all of us, the 'Mobile phone'. The interest over 'Mobile Banking' product is becoming increasingly intense. Applications and new technologies are spreading through European banks mobilized to embrace this profitable product. It is common knowledge that many users of mobile telephony are actively shifted from PC to mobile devices. It still remains to understand: to what extent this n...
This paper examines the 1931 German banking crisis using a bank-level data set. It specifically focuses on the link between banking structure and financial stability. The universality of banks, a key characteristic of the German banking system, is shown to increase the probability of bank failure after controlling for other bank-level characteristics and macroeconomic variables.
Besieged by state proposals to eviscerate collective bargaining, eliminate teacher tenure, and make it harder to collect dues, teachers' unions are fighting back. Lawsuits supported by local union affiliates have for now blocked anti-union legislation in Alabama and Wisconsin. E-mail "blasts," phone banks, and rallies are also among the tools…
Cocchini, Gianna; Watling, Rosamond; Della Sala, Sergio; Jansari, Ashok
Successful interaction with the environment depends upon our ability to retain and update visuo-spatial information of both front and back egocentric space. Several studies have observed that healthy people tend to show a displacement of the egocentric frame of reference towards the left. However representation of space behind us (back space) has…
Miranda Petronella VLAD; Mariana Rodica TIRLEA
E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accoun...
Krapf, Andrés; Casali, Ana
Este trabajo sintetiza el desarrollo de un Sistema Inteligente de Control (SIC) para la Automatización de Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia (SEPs) del tipo industrial. Las tareas automatizadas son detección y aislación de fallas, y automatización de métodos de back-up que soporten posibles pérdidas de integridad en los componentes involucrados. Para este sistema se propone una arquitectura multiagente altamente escalable y flexible, y se describen los agentes necesarios para realizar las distin...
César Viloria Núñez
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta el desarrollo de un sistema de información que permite la adquisición y la administración de información relacionada con los signos vitales como la presión arterial, la frecuencia cardiaca y respiratoria, y la saturación de oxígeno en la sangre de un paciente. La implementación del sistema se basa en una solución Web, permitiendo así que médicos especialistas puedan monitorear a sus pacientes desde cualquier punto conectado a la red en tiempo real y, al mismo tiempo, dar indicaciones críticas al personal médico que se encuentra en el lugar con el paciente.
Σκοπός της εργασίας είναι η μελέτη της Τραπεζικής του Διαδικτύου. Ειδικότερα η διερεύνηση των μελλοντικών εξελίξεων του Internet Banking αλλά και των επιπτώσεων που αναμένεται να επιφέρει η περαιτέρω ανάπτυξή του στην παραδοσιακή Τραπεζική και τον ευρύτερο Τραπεζικό και χρηματοοικονομικό τομέα. Η εργασία είναι οργανωμένη σε τρεις θεματικές ενότητες-κεφάλαια. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο γίνεται αναφορά σε θεμελιώδη θέματα που αφορούν την Τραπεζική του Διαδικτύου. Πέρα από τους ορισμούς των Τραπεζικ...
Kashmari A; Nejad AHG; Nayebyazdi A
Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of...
@@ Nine years of controversy regarding a national postal savings bank is expected to finally conclude this year. In April, the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)announced the establishment of a new department, one of the main functions of which will be to supervise postal savings.
Perbankan merupakan pokok dari sistem keuangan setiap negara, karena perbankan merupakan salah satu motor penggerak pembangunan seluruh bangsa. Krisis perbankan berdampak pada turunnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan. Berbagai masalah di sektor perbankan yang tidak terdeteksi secara dini akan mengakibatkan runtuhnya kepercayaan masyarakat terhadap industri perbankan, Skripsi mi mengemukakan bagaimana penilaian kesehatan bank umum yang dilakukan oleh Bank Indonesia, bagai...
Honoring its WTO commitments, China has begun to allow local incorporation by foreign banks, endowing them with the same status as their Chinese counterparts in an attempt to encourage diversified development in the Chinese banking sector On March 18, Wi
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — GenBank is the NIH genetic sequence database, an annotated collection of all publicly available DNA sequences. GenBank is designed to provide and encourage access...
Fernando Salgado Bernardino
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Apesar das pesquisas com sistemas silvipastoris terem sido iniciadas no final da década de 1970, as informações geradas até hoje não são em grande número. As vantagens advindas de um sistema silvipastoril são inúmeras e devidamente reconhecidas. Pelo fato de ser uma técnica de uso da terra capaz de recuperar ecossistemas alterados pelo mau manejo, estes sistemas, pela integração de atividades agrícolas, pecuárias e silviculturais, passam a representar uma tecnologia que confere maior sustentabilidade que os sistemas tradicionais, nos quais os monocultivos são predominantes. Nos últimos anos, instituições de ensino, pesquisa e extensão do País têm se voltado para o desenvolvimento de tais sistemas. O governo de Minas Gerais, por meio de sua Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura e de órgãos vinculados, vem promovendo a condução de modelos agrossilvipastoris num processo integrado de ocupação do solo, denominado lavoura-pecuária-silvicultura. Apesar dos grandes avanços no conhecimento de culturas anuais e dos componentes arbóreos, principalmente o eucalipto, e de gramíneas forrageiras tolerantes à diminuição da intensidade luminosa, ainda é necessário se comnhecer melhor o manejo do sub-bosque sob os efeitos do pastejo.
doi: 10.4336/2009.pfb.60.77Although researches related to silvopastoral systems have been initiated many years ago in Brazil, there are few informations generated until now. The advantages from a silvopastoral system are inumerous and well recognized. By the fact of being a technique of land using capable of recovering several disturbed ecosystems, the silvopastoral systems by the integration of agricultural, cattle, and silvicultural activities represent a technology that can achieve higher sustainability than the traditional systems as the monocultures. Today, research centers in Brazil dedicate great attention to agrossilvopastoral systems. The government of Minas Gerais
Stuart I. Greenbaum; Anjan V. Thakor
We examine a bank's choice of whether to fund the loans it originates by emitting deposits or to sell the loans to investors. With common knowledge of loan quality and laissez faire banking, we find that the choice is irrelevant. With asymmetric information but without government intervention, we find that better quality assets will be sold (securitized) and poorer quality assets will be funded with deposits. Public regulation can influence the bank's choice; subsidies can cause a bank to fav...
Danish bank, Danske Bank, during the 2008 financial crisis and hence in shaping its image projected to the public. Through the study of a number of semantic frames adopted by the Danish print press and those adopted by the Bank, this article will argue for the constructions of the press putting...... considerable strain on the Bank and its image, leading it to reconsider its previous strategy of denial of responsibility...
Casu, B; Clare, A; Sarkisyan, A.; Thomas, S.
Using predominantly precrisis U.S. commercial bank data, this paper employs a propensity score matching approach to analyze whether individual banks did improve their performance through securitization. On average, our results show that securitizing banks tend to be more profitable institutions, with higher credit risk exposure. Despite a more diversified funding structure, they face higher funding costs. We also find that securitizing banks tend to hold larger and less diversified loan portf...
Randall Morck; Fan Yang
The remote inland province of Shanxi was late Qing dynasty China's paramount banking center. Its remoteness and China's almost complete isolation from foreign influence at the time lead historians to posit a Chinese invention of modern banking. However, Shanxi merchants ran a tea trade north into Siberia, travelled to Moscow and St. Petersburg, and may well have observed Western banking there. Nonetheless, the Shanxi banks were unique. Their dual class shares let owners vote only on insiders'...
Roberds, William; Velde, François R.
Publicly owned or commissioned banks were common in Europe from the fifteenth century. This survey argues that while the early public banks were characterized by great experimentation in their design, a common goal was to create a liquid and reliable monetary asset in environments where such assets were rare or unavailable. The success of these banks was however never guaranteed, and even well-run banks could become unstable over time as their success made them susceptible to fiscal exploitat...
The goal of my thesis "Audit of a bank" is to identify and describe the area of external and internal audit in banking and to focus on specifics of bank audit in comparison to external audit of commercial enterprise. The first part is focused on audit of financial statements. In the second part are described the specifics of banking segment. Third part describes internal audit and cooperation between external and internal audit. In the last part there are described methods applied during the ...
Daniel Ferreira; Tom Kirchmaier; Daniel Metzger
We show that country characteristics explain most of the cross-sectional variation in bank board independence. In contrast, country characteristics have little explanatory power for the fraction of outside bank directors with experience in the banking industry. Exploiting the time-series dimension of the sample, we show that changes in bank characteristics are not robustly associated with changes in board independence, while changes in board experience are positively related to changes in ban...
Pesado, Patricia Mabel; Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Thomas, Pablo Javier; Boracchia, Marcos; Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; Ibañez, Eduardo; Estrebou, César Armando; Marrero, Luciano; Delía, Lisandro; Galdámez, Nicolás; Cáseres, Germán
Se presenta una línea de investigación y desarrollo, que tiene por objeto estudiar temas relacionados con aspectos de Ingeniería de Software orientados al desarrollo e implementación de proyectos concretos de Sistemas Distribuidos, en particular Sistemas Distribuidos con restricciones de Tiempo Real, Sistemas Web y Sistemas Sensibles al Contexto, considerando las extensiones necesarias en las metodologías y herramientas clásicas. En este sentido se trabaja en aspectos de la Ingeniería de Soft...
Technology has transformed the banking industry with the introduction of mobile banking services that offer unprecedented convenience and accessibility to customers. This Asia Focus report describes the various approaches to mobile banking in Asia, and examines how particular countries have addressed regulatory issues.
Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.
Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…
Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking
My name is Jane Carson and I'm the manager of savings bank in Portland,Oregon,My bank is open every day from8:30 in the moming until 4:00 in the aftermoon.On Fridays the bank remains oper until 6:30 in the evening.
The opening up of China’s banking sector took another giant step forward on March 20 when the first four foreign banks gained approval to incorporate locally. After going through commercial registration formalities, the banks will be able to con- duc
Brian Lang; John Barry
On 3 May 1999 the Bank issued a new $20 bank note into circulation that had been printed on a polymer substrate. This article traces the history of polymer, briefly describes the process of production, and highlights the benefits of the substrate and the implications for the future of bank note handling within the country.
Internet Research, 1996
Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…
The country's banking watchdog says that to engage in the retail renminbi business, foreign banks must become Chinese legal entities According to China's commitment at its accession to the WTO, as of December 11 this year, it will fully open renminbi business to foreign-funded banks. However, this does not mean that the 103 China branches of foreign
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if politica...
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner
back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...... and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...
José Alves Dantas
Full Text Available Since DeAngelo's study (1981 on audit quality, the latter has been a topic well discussed in the international accounting literature; however, there is little evidence about audit quality in the financial market. In Brazil, studies on audit quality began only in the 2000s, although without a specific focus on banks. The purpose of this study was to identify the quality determinants of audit work in Brazilian banking institutions. Using the practice of earnings management as a proxy for audit quality - more specifically, the discretionary accruals related to the process of the constitution of the Loan Loss Provision (LLP - tests were performed based on the quarterly information of commercial and multipleservice banks and savings banks from 2001 to 2012. Empirical tests have shown that the quality of audit work has several types of relationships as follows: negative with the client importance level for the auditor; negative with the works after the sixth year of the contract; positive with the establishment of the Audit Committee by the banks; positive with the judgment of punitive administrative proceedings against independent auditors; and positive with the level of rigor of the regulatory environment. Of the tested hypotheses, three were not confirmed empirically. The first hypothesis predicted an association between audit quality and the auditor degree of specialization in the banking industry. The second hypothesis predicted that audit quality would be negatively correlated with the degree of concentration of audit activity within the National Financial System (Sistema Financeiro Nacional - SFN. The third hypothesis predicted that audit quality would be lower when the auditorclient relationship is of a short term. The results of the study contribute to the debate concerning the role of auditors in the transparency and solidity of the financial system, including their role as a complementary or auxiliary supervisor.
Rashdan, Ahlam; Diarra, Maimouna; Lund, Tyeisha
The purpose of this project is to scrutinize the life opportunities of stateless Palestinian children living in the West Bank. Furthermore there will be a focus on how Israel violate their obligations as the Occupying Power of oPt. Israel is internationally acknowledged as a democratic state. As Occupying Power, Israel is justifying their violations and dominance through human rights, impairing the lives of stateless Palestinian children. Therefore it is essential to look back in time. Lookin...
A. N. McLeod
In the general context of controlling inflation, it is suggested that it may be useful to look back at how demand management worked in a small open economy. Trinidad and Tobago established a central bank in the middle of the 1960s and achieved some noteworthy initial successes with the new techniques for controlling inflation. The early policy experiences of the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago are discussed.
Richard W. Kopcke
Central banks in larger industrialized countries increasingly favor market operations, the buying and selling of securities, over standing facilities, such as lending and deposit facilities, in conducting their monetary policies. In their market operations, foreign central banks most commonly trade securities issued or guaranteed by their governments and repurchase agreements that are backed by a variety of assets, including private securities and securities denominated in foreign currencies....
This paper describes the current macro stress testing framework at the National Bank of Slovakia. Stress testing is aimed at testing the resilience of the banking sector to negative developments on the financial markets and in the real economy. The paper describes satellite models and assumptions used in the framework. The results of back testing and the most actual results of stress testing are also presented.
Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.
This paper presents evidence of banks using accounting discretion to overstate the value of distressed assets. In particular, we show that the stock market applies far greater discounts to a bank’s real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities than are implicit in the book values of these assets, especially following the onset of the U.S. mortgage crisis. This suggests that bank balance sheets overvalue real estate related assets during economic slowdowns. Estimated discounts are smaller f...
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;
Responsibility, Acknowledgement Introduction: Back conditions and back pain rank among the most common causes of reduced working capacity and lengthy, challenging and costly illness trajectories. According to international research, back conditions rank among the costliest conditions worldwide. A thorough review...... of qualitative studies. The synthesis takes form of three stages which overlaps to some degree: the free "line by line coding" of the findings of primary studies; the organzation of these "free codes" into related areas to construct "descriptive themes" and the development of "analytical themes". The...... of the literature in the field has further revealed that back conditions are associated with heavy personal costs. It is therefore of utmost importance that these conditions are dealt with as efficiently and effectively as possible as failure to do so can have severe implications for society as a...
... component. Other diseases. Some types of arthritis and cancer can cause back pain. Your job. If you ... pain. Spinal stenosis. This condition causes the spinal canal to become ... or a nerve root problem called cauda equina syndrome, surgery is needed ...
... body in numerous ways, including causing muscle tension. Backpack overload in children : Low back pain unrelated to ... is unusual in pre-teen children. However, a backpack overloaded with schoolbooks and supplies can strain the ...
... Fracture of the spinal cord Muscle spasm (very tense muscles) Ruptured or herniated disk Sciatica Spinal stenosis ( ... as ice, mild painkillers, physical therapy, and proper exercises. Most of the time, back pain will get ...
... is called core strengthening. Ask your doctor or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...
Laura Guarachi, Leonardo Ramiro
El objeto principal de este trabajo son los sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales que dependen de un parámetro u, control del sistema, tales sistemas se llaman sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales controlables, los cuales, en general, describen procesos dinámicos de fenómenos físicos. Estos procesos se describen mediante sistemas de ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarios (EDO), ecuaciones en diferencias o a través de ecuaciones derivadas parciales. Una clase de sistemas de mucha im...
The multifaceted project, Come Back to Me, critiques the current state of image commodification to pose questions about subjectivity constituted through an ever-expanding ecosystem of fashion. As fashion theorist Anne Hollander claims, clothes “share in the perpetually idealizing vision of art,” and therefore merit the same meticulous analysis as painting. The work in Come Back to Me examines the relationship of fashion to the canon of female portraiture. I claim that the bodies of women dep...
Finkelstein, M M
OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...
Christophe J. Godlewski; Frédéric Lobez; Jean-Christophe Statnik
We investigate the relationship between borrower quality and the structure of the pool of banks. First, we develop a theoretical model where the size of the banking pool is a credible signal of firm quality. We argue that better borrowers seek to disclose their quality in a credible way through the structure of the banking pool involving fewer banks. Second, we test our prediction using a sample of more than 3,000 loans from 19 European countries. We perform regressions of the number of bank ...
Segura Morales, Oriol
Este proyecto trata sobre un sistema de reconocimiento de caracteres que se implementa para sistemas Android en forma de aplicación para móvil y Tablet. La aplicación está orientada para que los niños aprendan a escribir de una forma más amena. El sistema utiliza el patrón de diseño Modelo-Vista-Controlador para separar la lógica del sistema de la interfaz visual. En la interfaz, el sistema pide que se escriba un carácter utilizando la pantalla táctil y una vez el usuario lo ha escrito el sis...
Milton Helfenstein Junior
Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.
del Águila, Alfonso
Full Text Available The present article summarizes the main points discussed in three Innovator Buildings Systems sessions, which are about different subjects of Industrialized Building.
The first part is about the topic of concrete panels, applied to building flats basically. It is given a historical summary and the general concepts, ending with "INDAGSA BUILDING SYSTEM", which is running several promotions with in Madrid.
In the second part it is developed the subject of building with boxes, beginning with general points which are extended to the concept of box, its classification, its historical aspects and its applications. It is continues with a description of the "SET HOME SYSTEM" of boxes of concrete, which is dedicated to industrialization of social housing services and equipments.
This part ends with the French system "TRANSLOKO" of big light boxes. Lately, it has made a building for laboratories in Madrid.
The last part is dedicated to a new subject in Interior Building, which is the Dry Floor, being detailedly described the "PLADUR" point of view about this.
El presente artículo resume lo tratado en tres jornadas de Sistemas Constructivos Innovadores, relativos a diversos temas de Construcción Industrializada. En la primera parte se trata el tema de los paneles de hormigón aplicados a la edificación, principalmente a viviendas. Se da una síntesis histórica y esquemática de conceptos generales, para terminar con una descripción del Sistema Constructivo INDAGSA que están realizando numerosas promociones en Madrid. La segunda parte, desarrolla el tema de la construcción con módulos tridimensionales, comenzando por unas consideraciones generales que abarcan el concepto de módulo tridimensional, su clasificación, aspectos históricos y campos de aplicación. Se sigue con una descripción del Sistema SET HOME, de módulos tridimensionales de hormigón, dedicado a la industrialización de servicios e instalaciones en vivienda social
Hiter in spremenljiv tehnološki razvoj je vse pogosteje narekoval vse večje zahteve po kontroliranju in evidentiranju kakovosti. Posledično so se s tem razvijali in oblikovali tudi novi in oprijemljivejši standardi za obvladovanje sistemov kakovosti. Z uvedbo sistema vodenja kakovosti lahko določena organizacija doseže številne prednosti in izboljša svoje poslovanje znotraj družbe. Kot prednosti lahko izpostavimo predvsem: preglednejšo organiziranost poslovanja, dokumentiranost postopkov...
Antón Alvarez, X.; Franco, Andrés; Cacabelos, Ramón
Este trabajo expone los efectos del envejecimiento sobre los distintos ejes del sistema neuroendocrino. El envejecimiento provoca cambios dramáticos en la mayor parte de ellos. Algunas de estas alteraciones van asociadas a los cambios conductuales y al rendimiento mental propios del envejecimiento normal y patológico. El mejor conocimiento del envejecimiento neuroendocrino permitirá en su día emplear fármacos y técnicas derivadas de la neurobiología y la genética molecular en ...
Martín Barraza, Juan Ignacio
En este trabajo de final de grado se realizará una aplicación de un sistema Brain Computer Interface en el cual, a partir del dipositivo Mind Wave de la compañía Neurosky, se pretenderá controlar el prototipo de una mano humana. Esta será controlada a partir de las ondas cerebrales medidas por el sensor que el dispositivo dispone. A continuación, la información captada por nuestro medidor de señales de electroencefalográficas será enviada por radiofrecuencia a un stick USB que viene incorpora...
Pereira, Carlos Alberto da Conceição
O presente relatório é desenvolvido no âmbito da unidade curricular de estágio do Mestrado em Engenharia Eletrotécnica com especialização em Controlo e Eletrónica Industrial e apresenta o meu trabalho na empresa na qual sou responsável pela parte de projeto, dimensionamento e supervisão de obra de sistemas fotovoltaicos para produção de energia. Os projetos apresentados neste relatório são da minha autoria. A empresa, Critical Kinetics apresenta-se no mercado como Consultores de energia...
Tiwari, Rajnish; Buse, Stephan; Herstatt, Cornelius
Mobile Commerce is gaining increasing acceptance amongst various sections of the society. This growth can be partly traced back to technological and demographical developments that have been influencing important aspects of the socio-cultural behaviour in today's world. The need/wish for mobility seems to be the driving force behind Mobile Commerce in general. Mobile Banking, availment of bank-related financial services via mobile devices, builds a cornerstone of Mobile Commerce. An empirical...
Guillermo Jopen Sánchez
This article provides an exploratory analysis of the process for determining intermediation margins in the Peruvian banking system. In the period between 2001 and 2010, this process was influenced primarily by two occurrences: the international financial crises towards the end of the 1990s, and the application of the Financial System Consolidation Program (Programa de Consolidación del Sistema Financiero) in Peru. The analysis delivers some evidence that in the case of Peruvian banking, marke...
ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...
Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back ... How Effective are X-rays? What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the ...
Paraschiv, Florentina; Qin, Minzi
The current financial crisis brought light to a large banking sector that existed for decades within the "darkness" of the financial system - the shadow banking sector. Shadow bank assets are widely traded in the financial markets and shadow banking activities are intertwined with the daily business of regular banks. This unregulated banking sector has become systematically important. Its failure affected the entire banking system. We present a model based on multivariate extreme value theory...
The paper examines how the banking system is organised in Romania. By comparing the organization of the banking system in Romania with banking systems of certain countries in the European Union, banks typology is highlighted at the international level. The aim of this paper is to highlight the factors influencing the Romanian banking system, the banking system role in the economy as well as the objectives of Romanian banking system. This paper examines indicators as: return on equity, return ...
Cargill, Thomas F.
This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC's experience teaches us three important lessons: First, systemically important financial institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be...
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure....... The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to...
Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...
This paper examines the overall banking system and the basic banking system development factors such as internet banking and deposit insurance in the world and particularly in Kyrgyzstan. The analyses show that progress in banking reform, introduction of deposit insurance and internet banking concepts are essential for avoiding harmful problems, development stable and solvent banking system. These developments include the more effective regulation of the entry and exit of banks, removal of ob...
G.O. Ofori-Dwumfuo; Betty A. Dankwah
This study looks at the benefits, challenges and barriers in adopting Internet banking at a major bank in Ghana. The development of the Internet is changing the way financial services are provided in Ghana. The Internet banking facility has resulted in new ways of delivering banking services. The research is a case study based on the staffs that has worked with the bank for more than three years. In evaluating benefits, challenges and barriers to the bank in adopting Internet banking, intervi...
This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...
Kooi Guan CHEAH
Full Text Available Internet banking has been increasingly used as a delivery channel in retail consumer banking. As far as the provision of internet banking services in developing countries is concerned, foreign banks definitely enjoy distinct advantages over domestic banks due to their experiences in other, more advanced financial markets. This paper reports a study that examined the levels of retail internet banking services provided by foreign and domestic commercial banks in Malaysia over a period of two years. The study found that while foreign banks are marginally more sophisticated at information provision level, domestic banks offer a significantly higher level of transactional facilities in both years.
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise; Birkelund, Regner
and integrate findings of qualitative studies. Results: The analysis reveals that many back patients feel that their experiences and perceptions are ignored by the health professionals, who are often concerned about identifying the cause. This can result in patients feeling mistrusted, marginalised...... and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to...... acknowledge the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process...
Mohammad Ali Haghighi
Full Text Available Abstract: in order to attract the customers, it’s really needed to consider the elements they take in to account in evaluating a company. New banks attempts in stealing the customers from the experienced bank especially in retail banks prove the importance of such topic. The main purpose of this research is to identify the criteria by which a customer chooses a bank in retail banking in competitive market. Doing so, 166 evaluating criteria were extracted using field study, interviews with 43customers, back office and front office in several banks. After reconsidering the criteria by the experts, they were reduced to 50 elements and distributed as a pre-test among 60 customers. After validity and reliability test by "Stage random sampling" and "Cochran method" 669 samples were obtained. 678 questionnaires were confirmed out of 810. In order to identify and analyze these factors, by "factor analysis method", 45 questions were remained, The identified factors are as follows: Employees and trust, Quality and ease of service, Up to date technology and techniques, Physical appearance, Variety of services, investment , credits and loan, cost, reputation, convenience, incentives. Among these factors, employee and trust by 13,317 percent of variance were recognized as most important ones.
Full Text Available From the 1980s onwards the banking sectors in all the industrialised countries have been experiencing intense restructuring, aggregation and consolidation, radically changing their ownership structures and geography. Whatever the reasons behind such restructuring processes, the globalisation of the credit markets, the consolidation of banking structures, the removal of barriers to the free location of banks and their penetration of peripheral markets pose two main questions. Will integration of the banking systems lead to a narrowing or a widening of the development gap between regions? What relations will there be between financial centres and the periphery, and how will financial labour be divided between national (international banks and local (regional banks? The aim of this paper is to address such questions in the light of recent developments in the theoretical and empirical literature on financial integration.
AlFarra, Diaa M. S.
Islamic Banking and Finance has been growing rapidly during the last decades. Descriptive analysis has been used in order to introduce the Islamic banking and finance and how it works. On other hand, clarify the Islamic Banking and Finance Systems and show how it works in part of liability and also profit and loss sharing basis. In addition to that, the main similarities and differences were properly identified, introduced and discussed in the paper. It is obvious that there are many similari...
Cabiles, Neil Adrian
This PhD Thesis is composed of three chapters, each discussing a specific type of risk that banks face. The first chapter talks about Systemic Risk and how banks get exposed to it through the Interbank Funding Market. Exposures in the said market have Systemic Risk implications because the market creates linkages, where the failure of one party can affect the others in the market. By showing that CDS Spreads, as bank risk indicators, are positively related to their Net Interbank Funding ...
Since there is not a special common framework for valuation banks and it gives possibilities to create establishment, improvement and adaptation of various approaches to measuring the value of banks and financial institutions. Most approaches banks valuation note the strong dependence of financial institutions value from market interest rates (Mishkin, F., Miller, WD, Copeland, T., Koller, T., Damodaran, A., and others). Each approache reflects greater or lesser degree of accuracy depending o...
Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix
ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is A...
Jeffrey Fear; Christopher Kobrak
As part of a series of related papers, the authors examine the conceptual foundations of German and American corporate governance, specifically highlighting the role of banks' relationships to corporations and the stock market. This paper focuses on how the regulatory and macroeconomic environments of the two countries helped shape how banks, especially money-centred bankers, actually interacted with their clients. Prior to 1914, despite many regulatory obstacles, American banks wielded more ...
Seibel, Hans Dieter
Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...
It seems impossible to drive a general rule concerning the outcomes of privatization that would be applicable to each country or sector. Privatization may lead to better use of resources but also to extraction of profit overseas and growing industrial concentration. Privatization of banking is more delicate an issue because of the potential to undermine confidence in the system. Moreover, there is the problem of obtaining data on bank privatization as public banks have always been an importan...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank bylaws. 917.10 Section 917.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS POWERS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF BANK BOARDS OF DIRECTORS AND SENIOR MANAGEMENT § 917.10 Bank bylaws. A Bank's board...
The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...
Full Text Available Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. this article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Through that natural necessity (placement and fulfillment of short term need, for Islamic banking in Indonesia has been availabled some instruments such as (IMA certificate of Mudhorobah Investment between bank, (PUAS market banking regulations between syariat bank, (SWBI Bank of Indonesia Wadiah certificate, (FPJPS provision about short term cost facility for Islamic banks.DOI:10.15408/ijies.v6i1.1371
This paper analyzes the causes and consequences of the 1994 economic crisis. Utilizing Malmquist index, it also examines productivity change in Turkish banks between 1992 and 1996 to explore its effects on banking performance. The pre and post crisis results demonstrate that bank productivity followed a V-shape pattern: hitting a dramatic level in 1994 (-17%) and bouncing back after 1994 (+15%). The major source of the productivity fall was a downward shift in production frontier (technical r...
Maheshwari, Dr. Meenu; Meena, Sapna
Effective Corporate Governance is important for any company to be successful irrespective of the type of business it does but for bank and financial institutions, Corporate Governance assumes a greater level of importance because firstly effi-cient banks help to create healthy economy as they are back bone of any financial system. Secondly, banks are normally responsible for the funds which they move within an economy as they care the money of their depositors. Responsibility, transparency...
John M Carey
El sistema único de elecciones legislativas chileno, en el que cada distrito elige a dos representantes (M=2), ha sido objeto de controversia y de propuestas de reforma, ya que fue impuesto por el régimen autoritario saliente en 1990. La mayor parte de ellas aboga por la llamada mayor proporcionalidad. Este ensayo sostiene que, a pesar de sus orígenes no democráticos, el sistema M=2 ha funcionado relativamente bien respecto a los sistemas empleados en muchos otros países. En particular, M=2 e...
Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel
En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...
Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer
We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...
The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…
Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer
pattern of traversing a data structure at return time "There And Back Again" (TABA).The TABA pattern directly applies to computing a symbolic convolution. It also synergizes well with other programming patterns, e.g., dynamic programming and traversing a list at double speed. We illustrate TABA and...
The authors give an overview of causes of back pain which may be detected by radiological examinations. They insist on practical points of view such as: main cause, accessory cause, problems arising by multiple causes, congenital malformation of the vertebral arch such as anisocoria, canalar stenosis, cheirolumbar dysostosis. They describe two new signs: the pedicular scalloping and the framed articular process. (orig.)
Fernández Herrero, Myriam
Materials docents programats mitjançant l'ajut del Servei de Política Lingüística de la Universitat de València. Explicacion de las funciones del sistema electoral en abstracto, de los elementos constitutivos y cómo lo definen. Aplicación al sistema electoral estatal, autonómico, local y europeo
This note considers why a banking union is an essential component of a well-functioning monetary union. I describe some the consequences of banking union for the euro area. I describe how the European banking union should be designed.
IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU
The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...
World Bank Group
This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...
Miranda Petronella VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.
Guillermo Jopen Sánchez
Full Text Available This article provides an exploratory analysis of the process for determining intermediation margins in the Peruvian banking system. In the period between 2001 and 2010, this process was influenced primarily by two occurrences: the international financial crises towards the end of the 1990s, and the application of the Financial System Consolidation Program (Programa de Consolidación del Sistema Financiero in Peru. The analysis delivers some evidence that in the case of Peruvian banking, market power and, specifically, the existence of market power-related inequalities between banks may be relevant factors in the process of determining financial intermediation margins.
Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.
This paper presents evidence of banks using accounting discretion to overstate the value of distressed assets. In particular, we show that the stock market applies far greater discounts to a bank’s real estate loans and mortgage-backed securities than are implicit in the book values of these assets,
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profitability of 112 rural banks (special unit banks created to promote rural financial intermediation in Ghana. The results generally show that bank size, funding risk, diversification, liquidity risk, and bank stability are significant predictors of rural bank profitability. Whereas an improvement in the funding risk of a rural bank in a particular period portends a drop in its profitability in the future, an improvement in the size, diversification, liquidity risk, and stability of a rural bank signifies an improvement in the future profitability of the bank.
The rather straightforward restructuring of the Bank of Beijing became more arresting in January after Deutsche Bank was reported to be competing with its Dutch rival ING to purchase a stake in the local city commercial bank.
The working group discusses the establishment of an international bank for nuclear fuels. The statements by representatives of seven countries discuss the specific features of a bank of this kind which is set up to facilitate access to nuclear fuels but also to permit a more rigid control in the sense of the non-proliferation philosophy
Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of banking innovations, the global trends of innovative strategies in the banking sector was described, analyzed the necessary methodology for their implementation, proposed plan of innovative activities and its possible application in Ukraine.
In May 1999 the Reserve Bank issued its first polymer bank notes into circulation. By March 2000 all denominations had been converted from paper to polymer. By the end of 2001 approximately 110 million polymer notes had been issued into circulation. This article assesses the performance of polymer notes compared with our expectations at the time they were introduced.
Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation
Full Text Available In the article it is determined the specificity of bank innovations. Level of their introduction in Ukraine is analyse. General tendencies in development of marketing of bank innovations are proved and the scientifically-methodical approach to an estimation of its efficiency is offered.
Full Text Available Sustainable enlargement can best be achieved by permitting markets to work within an appropriate framework of cost efficient regulations and economic instruments. One of the major economic agents influencing overall industrial activity and economic growth is the financial institutions such as banking sector. In a globalised economy, the industries and firms are vulnerable to stringent environmental policies, severe law suits or consumer boycotts. Since banking sector is one of the major stake holders in the Industrial sector, it can find itself faced with credit risk and liability risks. Further, environmental impact might affect the quality of assets and also rate of return of banks in the long-run. Thus the banks should go green and play a pro-active role to take environmental and ecological aspects as part of their lending principle, which would force industries to go for mandated investment for environmental management, use of appropriate technologies and management systems. This paper explores the importance of Green Banking, sites international experiences and highlights important lessons for sustainable banking and development in India. However, we find that there has not been much initiative in this regard by the banks and other financial institutions in India though they play an active role in India's emerging economy. Therefore, we suggest possible policy measures and initiative to promote green banking in India.
Bermundo, Cesar B.; Bermundo, Alex B.; Ballester, Rex C.
iBank is a project that utilizes a software to create an item Bank that store quality questions, generate test and print exam. The items are from analyze teacher-constructed test questions that provides the basis for discussing test results, by determining why a test item is or not discriminating between the better and poorer students, and by…
The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)
Gobert, Karine; González, Patrick; Poitevin, Michel
We propose a valuation model for a bank which faces a bankruptcy risk. Banks are identified with a possibly infinite random sequence of net benefits. A bank is solvent as long as its benefits remain non-negative. To preserve distressed banks from destruction, banks will be pooled within a financial coalition. When possible, those with current positive balance sheet will refinance those in need of liquidity. Banks are refinanced to the extent that their current needs for liquidity do not excee...
Timothy Rice; Cyril Peter
This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their...
Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.
Derivatives have become an essential instrument for hedging risks, yet moral hazard can lead to their misuse by problem banks. Given that the absence of comprehensive data on bank derivatives activities prevents an accurate assessment of bank risk-taking, banks have an opportunity to take unmonitored second bets. Thus , troubled banks have the motive to increase risk, and derivatives provide the means to do so. The role of bank supervisors should be to limit the opportunity through more compr...
Computer Security Team
Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone… Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...
Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education. However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.
Bremus, Franziska M.; Lambert, Claudia
Despite the most recent period of calm on the financial markets, the long-term resilience of the European financial system is not yet assured, even several years after the financial crisis began. However, the stability of the financial system playsa crucial role for real economic development and consequently for growth and prosperity. The financial crisis has shown that stricter regulation is required to improve the stability and resilience of the banking system. Further, it has become eviden...
Andrés J. Flores Alés,
Full Text Available La sección “En portada” de este mes está dedicada a los agentes infecciosos y al diagnóstico de algunas de las enfermedades respiratorias más habituales en los animales de compañía, estacando la relevancia adquirida por el diagnóstico mediante la obtención de de imágenes en este campo. También se hace incapie en la actuación que debe llevar a cabo elínico ante una urgencia respiratoria La obtención de imágenes por radiología o endoscopia son dos de las técnicas diagnósticas que más ayudan a dilucidar el proceso respiratorio que sufre un paciente. Sobre el momento en el que se encuentra el diagnóstico por imagen de las patologías del sistema respiratorio en veterinaria nos habla a continuación Andrés J. Flores.
Norhazlin Ismail; Zarehan Selamat; Ong Hway Boon
The process customers go through in choosing a bank has been studied for several decades using different approaches. Understanding the needs and analyzing how the customers select their banks are crucial steps towards the improvement of customer satisfaction. In this study, an attempt is made to identify the determinants of bank selection and customers’ perception of banks in Malaysia.
Brown, Martin; Döbeli, Barbara; Sauré, Philip
We examine the origin of deposits with Swiss banks on a country-by-country basis for the period 1987-2007. We relate the volume of Swiss bank deposits for 99 countries to the taxation of personal income as well as to political governance in these countries. Our results suggest that higher taxation in origin countries is not associated with a larger volume of deposits with Swiss banks. Our results do show however that countries with weak political governance, e.g. corruption, internal conflict...
Islamic Banking Liquidity Management. this article is about management of liquidity which discuss about the position of cash money in the company and its ability to fulfill the obligation (pay the debt) on time. Management of liquidity is one of the essential function which is done by banking institution and inside its efficient management, is needed instrument and finance market which is taking not only short term but also long term, and not only conventional banking but also syariat. Thr...
Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities â€“ for medium and big companies and for retail activities â€“ for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customersâ€™ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.
Full Text Available This study aims to identify perceptual barriers of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The per ceptual barrier factors that analyzed were difficulty to operate, hassle to use, unreliable, perceived risk and high connection fees. This study employs a quantitative approach using questionnaire survey at selected banks in Malaysia. The results indicate that there are significant barriers exist in the perception of Internet banking adoption among Malaysian retail banking customers. The results indicate several implications for bank managers to change the perceptions of retail internet banking customers.
Kasputytė - Šarkauskienė, Vita
Research object – Banking system. Research subject –The institutes of banking system, their briefs and indexs. Research aim – To rate the banking system in Lithuania. Objectives: 1) To analyze the banking system in Lithuania. 2) To survey indexes, which are describing brief of banks. 3) To formulate method of brief analysis.. Research methods – monographical, analysis and synthesis, comparison methods.
Full Text Available The banking industry has undergone tremendous changes with the introduction of information technology (IT. Electronic banking (EB is a new paradigm in banks’ product and service delivery. Electronic banking products and services have become increasingly popular in the past three decades as the banking industry operating in a complex and competitive environment has experienced the awareness to serve its customers electronically. Online banking has become the preferred way for many Americans to conduct financial activities. This paper explores a few published articles that reported on the impacts of electronic banking on the banking industry. The articles vary in their findings. Impacts on the banking industry from the points of view of consumers and bank employees were reported. This paper examines the study of few other articles to propose that more research be conducted utilizing a different research methodology such as qualitative method to fully understand how EB impacts the banking industry and address cyber crime threats.
Full Text Available Banking products are undergoing major changes due to extensive use of it and changing demands of the customers in current scenario. This study basically focuses on the changes came into banking industry and its impact on customers base and bank profits. Data is collected from 50 employees of both private and public sector banks with the help of questionnaire. Hence we can conclude that all banks are providing almost similar products and services to satisfy their customers fully. The continous metamorphsis of banking products not only results in improvement of customer base but also has positive impact on the profits of the bank. Private sector banks are earning more profits as a result of metamorphosis of traditional banking products in comparison to public sector bank.
Horácio M. Canelas
Full Text Available Os autores chamam a atenção sôbre os erros de diagnóstico nos casos de neuroblastomicose, seja nas formas meningoencefálicas, seja nas tumorais. São focalizadas a paracoccidioidose e a criptococose. Depois de caracterizarem clìnicamente a paracoccidioidose, acentuam a raridade das formas nervosas (1,2% dos casos dessa micose autopsiados no Departamento de Anatomia Patológica da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. Pela revisão da literatura foi verificado haver apenas 12 casos registrados. 0 caso de Casiello e Klass é o único em que o diagnóstico foi feito em vida; os demais, ou constituem achado de necropsia, ou foram inesperadamente revelados pelo exame histopatológico realizado após intervenções cirúrgicas. Os autores registram 2 casos de paracoccidioidose do sistema nervoso. No primeiro, tratava-se de meningomielorra-diculite crônica, sendo o parasito identificado no escarro; o segundo era portador de síndrome de compressão medular, cuja patogenia é discutida pelos autores, tendo sido a etiologia paracoccidióidica comprovada pelo exame da polpa e biópsia ganglionares. Considerações clínicas sôbre a criptococose precedem o relato de um caso de meningoencefalomielite subaguda, no qual fôra feito em vida o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, pelo exame micológico do liqüido cefalorraqueano; êste paciente, embora medicado com doses maciças de sulfa e tiossemicarbarsona, veio a falecer, tendo o exame anátomo-patológico revelado tratar-se, na realidade, de lesões nervosas produzidas pelo Crypíococcus neo-formans. Nos três casos era incisivo o caráter neurocirúrgico da sintomatologia. Entretanto, ante o diagnóstico de paracoccidioidose, foi instituído tratamento pelas sulfas, vacina específica e tiossemicarbarsona. Os resultados foram excelentes no caso 2, em que a terapêutica pôde ser instituída mais precocemente; melhoras também foram obtidas no caso 1. No caso 3, foram verificadas
Christensen, Line Hjorth
The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...
Yee, Alpha; Charrier, Jean-Claude
ABSTRACT: Zombies Strike Back Alpha Yee Jean-Claude Charrier This world has been controlled for far too long by the tyranny of the humans. As long as men are in control of the world, Zombies will never be free to enjoy this world they mindlessly walk in. You are the only hope for your kind. You have advanced beyond the capabilities of your zombie brethren and are able to think, use guns that projects syringes to fight, and lead your...
Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra
policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related to...
Mohd. Azmi Omar; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman; Rosylin Mohd. Yusof; M. Shabri Abd. Majid; Mohd. Eskandar Shah Mohd. Rasid
This study investigates the change in the productivity of banking industry during the period of 2000 to 2004. The data consists of a panel of 11 commercial banks in Malaysia namely Malayan Banking, Bumiputra-Commerce, Public Bank, RHB Bank, Hong Leong Berhad, EON Bank, Affin Bank, Southern Bank Berhad, Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB), Ambank and Bank Muamalat. Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique. The Malmquist productivity measu...
The new information technologies adoption and e-commerce emergence change the role of financial intermediaries in new E-conomy. During the last years, the banks have started an expansion to the web – they offer broad range of traditional bank products and services via Internet. The remote banking becomes one of the main channels for bank services distribution. This paper presents results from a research, which aims to describe actual picture of remote banking products and services offered by ...
The diploma thesis describes the current situation in the market of commercial banks in the Czech Republic, analyzes products offer in selected banks depending on the client preferences of individual commercial banks, and evaluates the influences and circumstances that determine the behavior of clients in relation to banks and financial products. Furthermore, it assesses the impact of demographic, social and economic factors on the usage of offered banking products. The thesis also includes a...
Vilas Virulegio, Alberto
La computación distribuida ha estado presente desde hace unos cuantos años, pero es quizás en la actualidad cuando está contando con una mayor repercusión. En los últimos años el modelo de computación en la nube (Cloud computing) ha ganado mucha popularidad, prueba de ello es la cantidad de productos existentes. Todo sistema informático requiere ser controlado a través de sistemas de monitorización que permiten conocer el estado del mismo, de tal manera que pueda ser gestionado fácilmente....
Pesado, Patricia; Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Boracchia, Marcos; Pasini, Ariel C.; De Vito, María Cecilia; Osella Massa, Germán Leandro; Estrebou, César
El proyecto de investigación y desarrollo en Sistemas de Software Distribuido, abarca aspectos que van desde los fundamentos del desarrollo (Técnicas de Ingeniería de Requerimientos, Metodologías de Gestión y Desarrollo de Proyectos, Técnicas de Planificación, Métricas, Normas de Calidad, Web-Systems) hasta la concepción de aplicaciones específicas orientadas a los procesos industriales (Sistemas de Planeamiento de Producción, Control Industrial en tiempo real), procesos de E-government (Voto...
Diplomsko delo obravnava uvedbo kadrovsko informacijskega sistema v podjetju, saj zaradi naraščanja števila zaposlenih vodenje evidence zaposlenih v papirni obliki predstavlja dolgoročno in zamudno delo z večjimi možnostmi za napake. V prvem delu je predstavljen problem ter na kratko podjetje Diss d.o.o. Sledi teoretična opredelitev razvoja kadrov ter njihov pomen. Osrednji del ter zaključek je namenjen rešitvi problema z uvedbo kadrovsko informacijskega sistema za podjetje Diss d.o.o. z ...
1. Introduction 2. The role of banks and what is different in banks? 3. Corporate Governance and risk management 4. Risk taking and executive board composition 5. Compensation structures – how to improve models for banks? 6. Banking supervision and regulation 7. Reform of European institutions for financial stability
Chebira, Amina; Mixon, Dustin G
In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using oversampled filter banks. In this work, we first provide polyphase domain characterizations of filter bank fusion frames. We then use these characterizations to construct filter bank fusion frame versions of discrete wavelet and Gabor transforms, emphasizing those specific finite impulse response filters whose frequency responses are well-behaved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...
Ravn Sørensen, Anders
In this article, I analyse the narratives of four Danish central bank governors from the late nineteenth century until the mid-1990s. By conducting a historical analysis informed by neo-institutional theory, I show how these central bank governors were continuously involved in public debates over...... the appropriateness and desirability of their decisions and policies. In these debates, interpretations and reproductions of Danish national identity were central to the governors' claims to legitimacy. I argue that past narratives of the Danish central bank and its governors enabled and framed future...... legitimacy claims and that the central bank and its governors gradually became embedded in national identity. Thus, the article highlights the historical development of the co-configuring relationship between Danish national identity and the legitimacy of monetary organization....
Bolster, Carole J
New technology is being used by banks to help providers improve their revenue cycle through: Digital lockbox service. Remote deposit. Web-based payment. Automated payment processing at the point of service. PMID:17427461
In real world, a market functioning is not perfect. Usually, there is one party in a contract that has weaker position than the other one. In a consumer contract it is a consumer who does not have sufficient information and knowledge. In developed countries, a consumer protection is therefore a part of law regulation. The thesis deals with the consumer protection in banking. It focuses on general topics as well as specific topics, such as banking accounts, electronic fund transfers and consum...
Michael Keen; Ruud A. de Mooij
Understanding the impact of the asymmetric tax treatment of debt and equity on the capital structures of financial institutions is critical to shaping and assessing responses to the problem of excessive leverage that underlay the 2009 financial crisis - but there is no empirical evidence to draw on. Guided by a simple model of banks? financing decisions in the presence of both regulatory constraints and tax asymmetries, this paper explores the impact of corporate tax bias on bank leverage, th...
Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA
In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...
The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze the sector of the Cyprus economy that deals with the International Banking or Offshore Banking as otherwise is being called in Cyprus. During the last two decades the island of Cyprus has managed to establish itself as a reputable international financial centre. Therefore the literature review of this paper examines the research theme from two different aspects. First it examines the financial system of Cyprus as related to international ban...
Di Cesare, Antonio
This paper analyzes the effects of CDO issuance on the risk of default of banks. Previous literature showed that the overall riskiness of a bank can increase when it sells part of the loans in its portfolio by issuing a CDO of which it retains the equity tranche. Using Monte Carlo simulations, this paper confirms previous results but also highlights that they can change substantially if one modifies the hypothesis regarding how the proceeds of securitizations are reinvested. The assessment of...
Ekeli, Thomas; Haug, Anne Kari; Houg, Kjetil; Steigum, Erling, Jr
The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the BI Norwegian School of Management has for the fourth time invited a committee of economists to participate on Norges Bank Watch, with the objective of evaluating the monetary policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. This time the committee has focused on the conduct of policy rather than addressing institutional issues. The committee refers to Norges Bank Watch 2002 for a detailed assessment of the mone...
Svensson, Lars E.O.; Houg, Kjetil; Solheim, Haakon O. Aa.; Steigum, Erling, Jr
The Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at the Norwegian School of Management BI has for the third time invited a committee of economists for Norges Bank Watch, with the objective to evaluate the monetary-policy regime in Norway and Norges Bank’s conduct of monetary policy. The committee for Norges Bank Watch 2002 consists of Professor Lars E.O. Svensson (chair), Princeton University, Chief Economist Kjetil Houg, Alfred Berg, Doctorate Student Haakon O.Aa. Solheim, Norwegian ...
VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA
Banking structure is redesigned to make India a fully digital nation and to usher in 100% E-governance. Multi dimensional and multipurpose savings account - It is the main keel of this restructured banking. Purpose of this multi dimensional account 1. This savings account can be used for receiving, storing and spending of money. 2. It can be used for buying, selling and holding property rights of immovable properties like lands, plots, flats and commercial establishments. 3...
The recurrent banking panics of the 19th century and the Great Depression of the 1930s are widely viewed as failures of our economic system. A simple version of Samuelson’s overlapping generations model is used to generate such failures of Walrasian equilibrium. The spontaneous “panics” generated involve a collapse of bank credit, causing in turn a drop in investment demand. The model suggests that both the recent technological advances in the intermediation industry and the current move towa...
Sarang Masani, Ila Parmar, Hitendra Jadeja
Full Text Available Among the current driving forces in wireless communications, there is a need for compact, efficient, inexpensive and reproducible antennas. In some instances, particularly long-distance applications, radiators with directive, high-gain characteristics are necessary. This paper proposes a cavity-backed slot antenna to that end. This antenna will enhance the gain, directivity and can also be easily flush mounted to the flying object. The shape and size of the slot can be effectively utilized to get the desired result. The proposed antenna is feed by waveguide which facilitate it to be applicable at high power operation where coaxial cable fails due to skin effect. Present antenna is verified using Numerical Technique called Finite Element Method FEM. The conception of this antenna is realized by the software HFSS “Ansoft-High Frequency Structure Simulator”. By properly selecting shapes, dimensions of the slots and number of slot affects the parameters like return loss, gain along Θ, Ø directions, Cartesian plot and radiation pattern .The Backing of cavity to the slot antenna provide the basics of the gain enhancement and the slot loading effect and the cavity volume plays an important role in achieving the desired return loss at the specific frequency.The simulated antenna shows the 7.0944 db of gain and return loss of -28.60. The proposed antenna works at 6 GHz.
Tchana Tchana, Fulbert
This paper empirically assesses whether banking regulation is effective at preventing banking crises. We use a monthly index of banking system fragility, which captures almost every source of risk in the banking system, to estimate the effect of regulatory measures (entry restriction, reserve requirement, deposit insurance, and capital adequacy requirement) on banking stability in the context of a Markov-switching model. Our methodology is less prone to selection and simultaneity bias which a...
Mohsin S. Khan
Deregulation, technology, and financial innovation are transforming banking. Indeed, banking is no longer the business it was even a few decades ago. The way banking services are provided has changed dramatically, and in many countries they are even offered by institutions that are quite different from traditional banks. As the old institutional demarcations become increasingly irrelevant, increased competition from other intermediaries has led to a decline in traditional banking in which ban...
Helmut Elsinger; Alfred Lehar; Martin Summer
In this paper we suggest a new approach to risk assessment for banks. Rather than looking at them individually we try to undertake an analysis at the level of the banking system. Such a perspective is necessary because the complicated network of mutual credit obligations can make the actual risk exposure of banks invisible at the level of individual institutions. We apply our framework to a cross section of individual bank data as they are usually collected at the central bank. Using standard...
Eduardo Levy Yeyati; Tito Cordella
This paper analyses the impact of public disclosure of banks’ risk exposure on banks’ risk taking incentives and its implications in terms of soundness of the banking system. We find that, when banks have a complete control over the volatility of their loan portfolio, public disclosure reduces the probability of banking crises. When asset risk is driven largely by exogenous factors beyond the control of bank managers, however, information disclosure may increase banking sector fragility, as t...
The globalisation of banking markets has raised important issues regarding corporate governance regulation for banking institutions. This research paper addresses some of the major issues of corporate governance as it relates to banking regulation. The traditional principal-agent framework will be used to analyse some of the major issues involving corporate governance and banking institutions. It begins by analysing the emerging international regime of bank corporate governance. This has been...
Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and ...
Galema, Rients; Koetter, Michael; Liesegang, Caroline
We adapt a theoretical model from the goods trade literature to test whether banks with a comparative cost advantage are more likely to enter foreign markets by means of foreign direct investment. We combine detailed proprietary bank-level data on the international activities of all German banks with publicly available bank micro data from possible destination markets to show that the decision to go abroad is driven by relative cost differences. Banks enter markets where they are cost leaders...
This paper focuses on the role of the banks in supporting sustainable development. Its objective is to examine recent trends in banking and sustainable development, as well as to assess the implementation and application of the sustainable development policies adopted by the banks in the banking sector in Republic of Macedonia. For that purpose it is made a comprehensive analysis on the trends of “sustainable finance”, as well as research on the practices in the Macedonian banking sector in s...
Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.
Villa, Jesus Simeon Villa
Abstract Banks have a central role and importance in all commerce and hence in all societies. This thesis investigates the ethical basis of banking practice with the aim of developing an account of the virtues appropriate to bankers and banking. One central issue concerns a conflict between the interests of banks and their customers, and how this conflict plays out in relation to the lending policies and fee structure of banks. Such lending policies can have a significant effect on ban...
Geoffrey P. Miller
Do central banks control the business cycle? Should price stability be their only monetary policy goal? Do politicians give up a degree of power and gain nothing personally when they grant central banks independence? This Commentary argues that none of these widely held notions is true. The Commentary is based on a speech presented to participants at the conference on the Origins and Evolution of Central Banking, sponsored by the Central Bank Institute of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland...
Menéndez Muñiz, Sergio
Sistema de detección de incendios inalámbrico basado en dispositivos "motes" para la monitorización del estado del sistema, detección y reconocimiento de alarmas. Sistema de detecció d'incendis sense fils basat en dispositius "motes" per a la monitorització de l'estat del sistema, detecció i reconeixement d'alarmes.
De Giusti, Armando Eduardo; Pesado, Patricia; Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; Boracchia, Marcos; Thomas, Pablo Javier; Madoz, María Cristina
Realizar investigación y desarrollo en temas relacionados con Sistemas de Software Distribuido, particularmente los relacionados con los aspectos de Ingeniería de Software que se orientan al desarrollo e implementación de proyectos de sistemas distribuidos, incluyendo especialmente los temas de métricas y calidad de software. Estas tareas abarcan aspectos propios de la arquitectura, comunicaciones, estructuración de bases de datos, así como especificación, validación y desarrollo de aplica...
González Martín, Jennifer
He pretendido con este proyecto analizar los cambios que actualmente está sufriendo nuestro sistema penitenciario desde una óptica meramente jurídica. A tal fin, este trabajo se centra en analizar, por una parte, el proyecto de reforma del Código Penal centrándose en los aspectos que afectan al sistema penitenciario (en el caso de que finalmente sea aprobado por las Cortes Generales), y, por otra parte, se estudia la conocida como "Doctrina Parot" analizando en qué consiste, cómo se implantó ...
RAMÍREZ OVALLE, CARLOS ERNESTO
En la programación concurrente con restricciones, el concepto básico es el de sistema de restricciones. Aquí presentamos una innovación sobre los sistemas de restricciones al introducir una lógica anotada como componente sintáctico y semántico junto con un motor de inferencia lógica en hiper-resolución anotada. Esto permite incrementar la capacidad expresiva de un modelo basado en satisfacción de restricciones pues es ahora posible incluir información adicional a las restricciones clásicas de...
Pagés Serra, Jorge
Investigació referent a l'aplicació pràctica d'un sistema constructiu per a realitzar una coberta ventilada transitable amb paviment continuu En el nostre clima la màxima insolació es produeix a la coberta. Per altre banda les cobertes a la catalana o cobertes ventilades, tant comuns a l'eixample i d'altres zones de barcelona han pràcticament desaparegut. Aquesta investigació preten desenvolupar un sistema constructiu que permeti la realització de cobertes ventilades amb paviments continus...
Aguiar Cabello, Arnau
Este proyecto realiza un estudio sobre las diferentes opciones referentes a la Realidad Aumentada, como primera parte. La Realidad Aumentada es una tecnología que en los últimos años ha experimentado un gran desarrollo. La Realidad Aumentada consiste en sobreponer información virtual con la ya existente realidad física. Como segunda parte, se escoge una de estas opciones, NyARToolkit, y se explica el funcionamiento del sistema de coordenadas basado en marcadores. El sistema basado en marca...
Este documento primeramente trata las tendencias recientes y el estado actual del sistema tributario japonés como antecedentes. Luego resume los impuestos principales y describe el actual sistema. Finalmente trata los incentivos tributarios y los aspectos internacionales del sistema japonés.
Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!
Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)
A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.
Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.
Camelia Cojocaru; Silviu Cojocaru
The concept of leadership is extremely complex and very often, there is a confusion between leadership and management. Although people are using these words interchangeably, they play very different, but still essential, roles. This paper aims to present a case study regarding an implementation project in banking back-office activities, in order to prove the importance of managing correct the back-office resources, but in the same time the need for a vision that would lead the people toward t...
Kurt Von Mettenheim
Full Text Available Since financial liberalization in the 1980s, non-profit maximizing, stakeholder-oriented banks have outperformed private banks in Europe. This article draws on empirical research, banking theory and theories of the firm to explain this apparent anomaly for neo-liberal policy and contemporary market-based banking theory. The realization of competitive advantages by alternative banks (savings banks, cooperative banks and development banks has significant implications for conceptions of bank change, regulation and political economy.
Full Text Available Romanian banking system has known in the last years significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements and governance principles on one hand and assimilation of the EU Directives for the banking sector on the other hand. The function of internal audit is new in the Romanian banks, being implemented as a result of the new regulation established by the Romanian National Bank in the effort to aligne the Romanian banking legislation to the international regulations and practice in the field. In the dynamic banking environment the internal audit has to define and strengthen its statute and role. We can say that in the new context – regulatory environment for banking system and professional requirements – internal audit become one of the most influential and value added function in the bank. The present paper presents the role of internal audit in the Romanian banks and its major areas of interest.
Allan, Julie; Moran, Nikki; Duffy, Celia; Loening, Gica
This paper reports on a knowledge exchange project, funded by the Scottish Funding Council and undertaken by a group of researchers from three higher education institutions in Scotland and the project partner, Sistema Scotland. This newly established charity is attempting to implement a major programme of social change, developed in Venezuela,…
The FESNOJIV (the Spanish acronym for the State Foundation for the National System of Youth and Children's Orchestras), more commonly known as "El Sistema," teaches 300,000 of Venezuela's poorest children in the nationwide music learning program. Many begin attending the "nucleo" as early as age two or three, and the vast majority continue well…
Narayan, R P
The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240
A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system
R P Narayan
Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.
Full Text Available Quality has become the basicfactor of economic efficiency and the basicprinciple of business activities of successfulorganizations. Its consequence is revolution in thearea of quality that has comprised all kinds ofproducts and services including the bank servicesas well. To understand the present and future needsof clients and to know how to fulfill and try toexceed their expectations is the task of everyefficient economy. Therefore, the banks in thedeveloped economies try to re-orientateorganizationally, technologically andinformatically their business activities placing theclient in the core of this business activity.Significant indicators of quality services that banksoffer are measured by the time clients wait for theprovision of the desired service and the number ofclients who give up to enter the bank due to thelong waiting for provision of the desired serviceand the number of clients who give up to enter thebank due to the long waiting queues. Dissatisfiedclient is the worst result of the bank's work andactivity. The great effort is made to improve thequality of services, which means professionalismand communication of personnel with whom theclients come in contact, giving punctual and clearinformation and short waiting period of standing inthe queues. The aim of this paper is to present anddescribe the functioning of the bank system underthe conditions of establishing quality in provision ofservices to clients and to recognize basic guidelinesfor improvement of quality in the work of thebanking sector.
A major concern in the design of weapons systems is compatibility of materials with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long-term storage and must have high reliability at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is thus based on past experience and on laboratory-accelerated testing to assure this long-term reliability. To assist in materials selection, a computerized materials data bank has been established. In addition to references on personnel and documents, this data bank provides annotated information on materials so that the designer and materials engineer can draw on it for guidance in selecting materials. The primary purpose of the data bank is to provide materials compatibility data. However, the structure of the system permits the data bank to be used for storage and retrieval of general materials information. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy is discussed and procedures for information gathering are outlined. Examples of data entries and a list of search routines are presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the system.
Sá, Jorge Vaz de Oliveira e
Tese de doutoramento em Tecnologias e Sistemas de Informação (área de conhecimento em Engenharia e Gestão de Sistemas de Informação) Os sistemas de Data Warehouse possibilitam que as organizações tenham acesso a informação de gestão que é essencial para a vida da organização. No entanto a implementação destes sistemas nas organizações sofre de uma elevada taxa de insucesso. Várias iniciativas de implementação de Sistemas de Data Warehouse arrancaram com grandes expectativas, mas r...
Full Text Available Development and diversity of electronic banking services is one of the aspects of financial innovation of banks. In Iran’s banking system, the development of multiple channels representing electronic banking services such as SWIFT system, ATM, POS, PIN pads, internet banking, mobile banking and telephone banking are made for more facility in paying money, so today, the development of this channels is one of the most competitive areas between banks for attracting resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate this innovation, which needs a heavy cost in terms of money and time, on the share of each bank in attracting deposit as one of the most important goals and competitive tools of a bank. By using Panel Data Vector Autoregressive methods (Panel-VAR and Granger causality test, data of 23 Iranian banks in the 7 years (2007-2013 has been studied. The results show that based on the Granger Causality Test, the number of ATM machines, POS, PIN pad, SWIFT system and amount of banking facilities provided by each bank, has causal relation in explaining the increase of the bank’s share in attracting deposits; but the Market Share was recognized as the cause of the innovation. Also, the causality direction of deposits’ share and the amount of facilities were noticed to be bilateral.
John M Carey
Full Text Available El sistema único de elecciones legislativas chileno, en el que cada distrito elige a dos representantes (M=2, ha sido objeto de controversia y de propuestas de reforma, ya que fue impuesto por el régimen autoritario saliente en 1990. La mayor parte de ellas aboga por la llamada mayor proporcionalidad. Este ensayo sostiene que, a pesar de sus orígenes no democráticos, el sistema M=2 ha funcionado relativamente bien respecto a los sistemas empleados en muchos otros países. En particular, M=2 en Chile entrega una mezcla adecuada de representatividad, gobernabilidad y responsabilidad individual del legislador. El ensayo considera varias alternativas para la reforma y perfila algunos problemas potenciales que cada una implicaría. Si se reforma el sistema chileno, entonces el autor recomienda que se haga por pasos incrementales, no fundamentales -un aumento moderado en la magnitud de cada distrito-, pero manteniendo las listas abiertas y no haciendo el salto a un sistema mixto de miembros (SMMChile's unique system of legislative elections, in which each district elects two representatives (M=2, has been subject to controversy and a target for reform proposals since it was imposed on the country by the outgoing authoritarian regime in 1990. Most reform advocates call for greater proportionality. This essay argues that, desipte its undemocratic origins, the M=2 system has performed quite well relative to systems used in many other countries. In particular, M=2 in Chile delivers a reasonable mix of representativeness, governability, and individual legislator accountability. The essay goes on to consider various alternatives for reform and outlines some potential problems each would entail. If the Chilean system is to be reformed, the essay recommends incrementalism - a moderate increase in district magnitude, perhaps, but maintaining open lists, and no change to a mixed-member system (MMS
Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted to...
Efficacy and safety of dynamic stabilization for patients with degenerative disc, spinal stenosis and low back pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials Eficacia y seguridad de los sistemas de estabilización dinámica en pacientes con enfermedad discal degenerativa, estenosis de canal y lumbalgia: revisión sistemática de estudios clínicos randomizados Eficácia e segurança dos sistemas de estabilização dinâmica em pacientes com doença discal degenerativa, estenose de canal e lombalgia: revisão sistemática de estudos clínicos randomizados
Gustavo Carriço de Oliveira
Full Text Available STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of the literature. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature to organize, critical appraisal and select the best evidence available about the efficacy and safety of non-fusion fixation and its potential use for patients with degenerative disc, spinal stenosis and low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Recent reports have increased debate about the role of dynamic stabilization in the treatment of chronic back pain associated with lumbar disc degeneration and spinal stenosis. We conducted a systematic review of randomized trials through a more sensitivity search strategy and rigorous criteria applied for the type of studies. METHODS: An electronic search was made in the databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (Lilacs extended to November 31, 2008, with no linguistic restrictions. RESULTS: One randomized controlled trial that fulfilled the inclusion criteria described above was included in this review. CONCLUSION: The data included in this review show that the use of non-fusion stabilization could be a suitable alternative to another therapies in well selected patients with spinal stenosis and degenerative disc disease. This review highlighted the need for continued research into the use of non-fusion stabilization in the treatment of spinal disorders. There is an urgency need to conduct randomized clinical trials. Long-term efficacy should be evaluated.DISEÑO DEL ESTUDIO: revisión sistemática de la literatura. OBJETIVO: realizar una revisión sistemática de la literatura para organizar, evaluar y seleccionar las mejores evidencias al respecto del uso de los sistemas de estabilización dinámica, su eficacia y seguridad en el tratamiento de la enfermedad degenerativa discal, estenosis del canal lumbar y dolor lumbar a través de estrategias de búsqueda apurada y selección con criterios aplicados
The coordination of nuclear data compilation within the OECD countries was initiated in 1964, with the creation of the Neutron Data Compilation Centre (CCDN) at Saclay close to Paris, France. This centre participated from the start in the 4-centre network. The NEA Data Bank was established at Saclay in 1978, by merging the CCDN and the Computer Program Library (CPL), Ispra, Italy. NEA Data Bank activities have evolved beyond nuclear data and computer programs, and now also include projects such as the coordination of the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) library of nuclear data, the compilation and critical review of chemical thermodynamic data for waste management applications, and the compilation of information relevant to computer code validation in the areas of: integral experiments, shielding, criticality safety, fuel behaviour, reactor physics and reactor safety. The Executive Group of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee manages the work programme of the NEA Data Bank.
Jeffrey E Jarrett
Full Text Available The purpose is to note the likelihood of continued growth of internet banking and commerce as individual consumers purchase more and more products to access the internet and complete both financial and consumer transactions. The growth is commercial and banking services on-line will grow as long as the hardware producers innovate with new faster and easy to use products. The pitfalls include attacks by savage interventionists who attempt to steal information and prevent end-users from employing the internet for purposes with good intentions. A challenge is made to software and hardware producers to use modern methods and techniques to predict where problems exist in internet banking and commerce. Serious solutions are necessary.
Senashova, M. Yu.; Gorban, A. N.; Wunsch II, D. C.
In this paper we solve the problem: how to determine maximal allowable errors, possible for signals and parameters of each element of a network proceeding from the condition that the vector of output signals of the network should be calculated with given accuracy? "Back-propagation of accuracy" is developed to solve this problem. The calculation of allowable errors for each element of network by back-propagation of accuracy is surprisingly similar to a back-propagation of error, because it is...
Moosajee, F; Kalla, A A
Lower back pain is one of the most common symptoms–and the most common musculoskeletal problem–seen by general practitioners. Iti s also a common cause of disability and an expensive condition in terms of economic impact because of absenteeism. This article discusses an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered, inflammatory back pain. PMID:26933725
C. Van Eck
Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background: Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient han...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to National banking association or State bank. 552.2-7 Section 552.2-7 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE... National banking association or State bank. A Federal stock association may convert to a National...
Full Text Available Measuring different risk factors such as credit risk in banking industry has been an interesting area of studies. The artificial neural network is a nonparametric method developed to succeed for measuring credit risk and this method is applied to measure the credit risk. This research’s neural network follows back propagation paradigm, which enables it to use historical data for predicting future values with very good out of sample fitting. Macroeconomic variables including GDP, exchange rate, inflation rate, stock price index, and M2 are used to forecast credit risk for two Iranian banks; namely Saderat and Sarmayeh over the period 2007-2011. Research data are being tested for ADF and Causality Granger tests before entering the ANN to achieve the best lag structure for the research model. MSE and R values for the developed ANN in this research respectively are 86×〖10〗^(-4 and 0.9885, respectively. The results showed that ANN was able to predict banks’ credit risk with low error. Sensibility analyses which has accomplished on this research’s ANN corroborates that M2 has the highest effect on the ANN’s credit risk and should be considered as an additional leading indicator by Iran’s banking authorities. These matters confirm validation of macroeconomic notions in Iran’s credit systematic risk.
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Podchufarova
source of pain and there is a great deal of treatments for this condition. Unlike chronic pain, acute musculoskeletal pain in the back is a benign and generally self-limited condition. To set off nonspecific back pain, i.e. pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders without signs of involvement of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral roots and specific spinal lesions (spondylolisthesis, osteoporosis, tumors, inflammatory spondyloarthropathies, etc. is convenient and warranted in most cases when a patient with acute back pain is examined by a general practitioner. The paper gives the data of the current guidelines for the management of patients with nonspecific back pain
This document presents the fall-back procedures planned for cases where the trilateral power market coupling cannot be run correctly or cannot produce correct results. The reasons for fall-back can occur in three situations: market coupling is subject to normal business risks but risks have been minimized, winter clock change handled differently in the different local systems, and excessive proportion of block orders leading to bids infeasibilities. The possible fall-back situations are listed and the main principles for fall-back are explained: critical deadline for results publication/participants information, explicit auctions, south border, north border. (J.S.)
Lorenzo Pigueiras, Eduardo; Narvarte Fernandez, Luis; Muñoz Cano, Javier
This paper presents a review of back-tracking geometry not only for single axis but also for two-axis tracking and analyses the corresponding energy gains. It compares the different back-tracking strategies with the ideal tracking in terms of energy yield concluding, on the one hand, that back-tracking is more useful for single horizontal axis than for the single vertical one, and on the other hand, that back-tracking is more efficient when applied in the primary axis of a two-axis tracker
Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.
The Nuclear Plant Data Bank (NPDB) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to assist analysts in the rapid and accurate creation of input decks for reactor transient analysis. The NPDB will reduce the time and cost of the creation or modification of a typical input deck. This data bank will be an invaluable tool in the timely investigation of recent and ongoing nuclear reactor safety analysis. This paper discusses the status and plans for the NPDB development and describes its anticipated structure and capabilities
An earlier version of this paper won the Best Paper Award of the Corporate Governance SIG at EURAM. Abstract We construct a comprehensive data set with detailed biographic data on 12,010 board directors working for 740 large banks from 41 countries over the period 2000-2008. The data allow us to create a novel and reliable measure of director independence. We report many new findings. Bank board independence increases rapidly and substantially in the pre-crisis period, peaking at abou...
Klaus Duellmann; Martin Erdelmeier
In this paper we stress-test credit portfolios of twenty-eight German banks based on a Merton-type multifactor credit-risk model. The stress scenario is an economic downturn in the automobile sector. Although the percentage of loans in the automobile sector is relatively low for all banks in the sample, the expected loss conditional on the stress event increases substantially by 70–80 percent for the total portfolio. This result confirms the need to account for hidden sectoral concentration r...
Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq
Full Text Available Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.
Ahmad Z. Siam
Problem statement: This study is conducted to present benefits and consequences of latest technology used in banking industries. In addition, it has focused on the dynamics of banking sector, electronic banking services and new courses especially with mergers that constitute most of these mechanisms. Approach: The study discussed this new activity and the extent of response level of services while the need, wants and demands of customers are met. Furthermore, how banks deal with such services...
Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resou...
This article assesses bank management’s perspective on the use and effectiveness of the risk measurement system under Basel II that setcapital requirements for banks. These requirements encouraged the use of risk measurement. Semi-structured interviews with various bank managers at Viking Bank (a fictitious name) provide the empirical data for this research. These interviews were conducted after the global financial crisis that led, among other events, to the bankruptcy of Lehman Brothers. Vi...
Dr. Abu Zafar Mahmudul Haq
Banking sectors of Bangladesh are not going well in terms of investment. Among different banks in Bangladesh, Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL) is running good for the modes of investment. So this study is conducted of the investment modes of this bank. Study is based on secondary information of the IBBL and opinion survey among twenty clients which has been done through convenient sampling on a purposively selected branch. It concludes that trend of investment of the IBBL runs well.
Dragan (Santamarian Oana Raluca
Full Text Available This paper describes one of the major challenges of the future: the sustainable development of the society. Sustainability is now increasingly recognized as central to the growth of emerging market economies. For the banking sector, this represents both a demand for greater social and environmental responsibility as well as a new landscape of business opportunity. Several years ago, the main part of the banks did not consider the social and environmental problems relevant for their operations. Recently, the banks began to realize the major impact of the sustainable development over the way of ulterior development of the society and, implicitly over the way of creating of the banking value in the future. In this context, the development of a banking management system, based on sustainable principles represents one of the provocations of these days.Starting from literature in the sustainable banking management field in this paper are presented several relevant issues related to risk management in the context of sustainable banking financing: the need to implement the sustainable management principles in financial and banking industry; the role of banks in sustainable development of society; social and environmental risk management policies, events that have shaped the role of the banking sector in sustainable development; international standards regarding sustainable banking management such us: Equator Principles for sustainable investment projectsâ€™ financing or GRI principles for sustainable reporting. Furthermore, we developed a practical case study related to the implementation of sustainable banking management at Bank of America.
Nowadays the role of central bank is unquestioned and nearly ubiquitous. But was this always the case? This thesis analyses how De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) developed into a central bank during the first four decades of its existence. Its establishment in 1814 was the result of a combination of both
All bank mergers and acquisitions (M&A) require the approval of regulators. This article describes the methods used by the Federal Reserve to evaluate whether a bank merger or acquisition is acceptable under federal antitrust laws and its Board of Governors’ bank competition policy.
Benzon, Honorio T; Asher, Yogen G; Hartrick, Craig T
The incidence of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia in the adult population is not different from that after general anesthesia. The pain is usually mild, localized in the low back, rarely radiates to the lower extremities, and has a duration of only a few days. The risk factors for development of back pain include the lithotomy position, multiple attempts at block placement, duration of surgery longer than 2.5 hours, body mass index ≥32 kg/m, and a history of back pain. However, there is no permanent worsening of preexisting back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. The back pain has been attributed to tears in the ligaments, fascia, or bone with localized bleeding; immobility of the spine; relaxation of the paraspinal muscles under anesthesia; flattening of the normal lumbar convexity; and stretching and straining of the lumbosacral ligaments and joint capsules. The addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic used for skin infiltration may decrease the incidence and severity of back pain. The use of spinal or epidural anesthesia in the adult, non-obstetric and obstetric populations should depend on the advantages offered by the technique and not on the occurrence of back pain after the procedure. Additional studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of epidural dexamethasone, or other steroids, or the addition of an anti-inflammatory drug to the local anesthetic infiltration for the prevention of back pain after neuraxial anesthesia. Future studies should involve a physician with expertise in the evaluation of chronic low back pain to help identify the cause of the back pain and institute appropriate treatment(s). PMID:27195644
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a wonder...
Bente Corneliu Cristian
Banking risks management as a fundamental element of banking management aims at diminishing as much as possible the negative impact of risk factors, at minimizing losses by expenditures cut-off and maximizing direct and transferred influxes, changing the
@@ The spate of recent scandals in the banking sector again raises the question of whether corporate governance in banks has been improved to a degree whereby ESOP is a correct and timely consideration.
Kuada, John; Narteh, Bedman
This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana......This article reports a study of the determinants of effective management of of retail banking services in Ghana...
EL DESAJUSTE DEL CRÉDITO EN EL SISTEMA BANCARIO Y LA ACCIÓN DE LA ECONOMÍA SOCIAL: EL CAMINO DE LA REESTRUCTURACIÓN. / THE MISMATCH OF CREDIT IN THE BANKING SYSTEM AND THE ACTION OF SOCIAL ECONOMY: THE PATH OF RESTRUCTURING.
Ricardo PALOMO ZURDO
Full Text Available Los cinco años transcurridos desde el inicio de la crisis financiera internacional en el año 2007 han provocado la que, probablemente, sea una de las mayores reestructuraciones del sector bancario realizadas hasta la fecha, tanto en su perspectiva global como en su dimensión doméstica en España. Las entidades de crédito de la Economía Social, cajas de ahorros y cooperativas de crédito, han protagonizado un extraordinario proceso de concentración. Las primeras han sufrido, además, una radical transformación que ha modificado su configuración y naturaleza societaria –mediante la conversión de muchas en bancos- y, consiguientemente, su modelo de negocio y sentido finalista. Desde otra perspectiva, la crisis ha revelado la insuficiencia de las entidades financieras para el ejercicio de su principal misión como entidades suministradoras de crédito. Su amenazada o difícil solvencia, la necesidad de implantar un exigente control del riesgo y las elevadas tasas de morosidad han llevado a una restricción sin precedentes de la actividad crediticia que ha terminado por estrangular a una gran parte de la economía real o productiva. Las tres reformas financieras aprobadas hasta agosto de 2012 han generado cierto “descrédito” entre la sociedad por su elevado coste directo e indirecto que se unen al “descrédito” por las restricciones crediticias que la situación del sector y las reformas han impuesto. / During the last five years, after the beginning of the financial crisis in 2007, one of the major banking restructuring was caused, both in a global perspective and in a domestic dimension for Spain. The credit entities of the social economy, savings banks and credit cooperatives, have led an extraordinary concentration process. The first credit entities, suffered a radical transformation that has modified their corporate structure by converting many of them into banks, and consequently, its business model. From another
This dissertation uses a qualitative research approach, and examines the importance and its current situation of banks risk management in China banking. The commercial banking analysis covers China state-own commercial banks and joint-stock commercial banks as well as local city commercial banks, but mainly analysis stems from state-owned and joint-stock commercial banks, excluding foreign banks in China. In addition, this dissertation reveals that China Center Bank and China Bank Regulatory ...
Sumit Agarwal; David Lucca; Amit Seru; Francesco Trebbi
US state chartered commercial banks are supervised alternately by state and federal regulators. Each regulator supervises a given bank for a fixed time period according to a predetermined rotation schedule. We use unique data to examine differences between federal and state regulators for these banks. Federal regulators are significantly less lenient, downgrading supervisory ratings about twice as frequently as state supervisors. Under federal regulators, banks report higher nonperforming loa...
Edward Simpson Prescott
Auditing is introduced into a model of bank capital regulation. Deterministic and stochastic auditing strategies are studied. Contrary to intuition, auditing of bank risk should be focused on the safest banks because they hold the least amount of capital. Risky banks, which hold more capital, need to be audited less. The importance of auditing by regulators and penalties for non-compliance are discussed in light of the Basel II capital regulation proposals. Emphasis is placed on the importanc...
Bachelor thesis "Scrum methodology in banking environment" is focused on one of agile methodologies called Scrum and description of the methodology used in banking environment. Its main goal is to introduce the Scrum methodology and outline a real project placed in a bank focused on software development through a case study, address problems of the project, propose solutions of the addressed problems and identify anomalies of Scrum in software development constrained by the banking environmen...
This paper explores whether the level of financial integration of banks in a country increases the incidence of systemic banking crises. The paper uses a de facto proxy for financial integration based on network statistics of banks participating in the global market of interbank syndicated loans. Specifically, the network statistics degree and betweenness are used to proxy for the de facto integration of the average bank in a country. The paper fits a count data model in the cross-section for...
The Agricultural Bank of China (ABC),the only non-listed bank among China’s"big four"state-owned commercial banks,is currently un- der the glare of the reform spotlight.This follows on the heals of Premier Wen Jiabao’s announcement during his government work report in March, that a shareholding system will be introduced in the bank and its role in serving agriculture,farmers and rural areas will remain unchanged.
This paper discusses recent bank runs in seven transition economies (Russia, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania), comparing them against the older US experience and theoretical research. Bank runs seem to usually be information based. For example, improvements in bank transparency such as new accounting rules can reveal a bank’s insolvency and trigger a run. However, bank runs, as seen a few years ago in East Asia, Bulgaria and Russia, may also be accompanied by runs on...
Mousa T AL-Akhras; Rizik Al-Sayyed; Marwah Alian; Doaa Qwasmi
Due to the widespread use of computer technologies in almost all aspects of life, organisations that are connected to the Internet started extending their services to their customers to include new applications and services that satisfy their customers’ desires to make better businesses. One of these emerging applications is mobile banking. The term mobile banking (or m-banking) describes the banking services that the user can perform via a mobile device ubiquitously at anytime and from anywh...
Frederick S. Mishkin
This paper explores where central banking is heading after the recent financial crisis. First it discusses the central bank consensus before the crisis and then outlines the key facts learned from the crisis that require changes in the way central banks conduct their business. Finally, it discusses four main areas in which central banks are altering their policy frameworks: 1) the interaction between monetary and financial stability policies, 2) nonconventional monetary policy, 3) risk manage...
This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...
Horton, Joanne; Serafeim, Georgios; Wu, Shan
We study how career concerns influence banking analysts’ forecasts and how their forecasting behavior benefits both them and bank managers. We show that banking analysts issue early in the year relatively more optimistic and later in the year more pessimistic forecasts for banks that could be their future employers. This pattern is not observed when the same analysts forecast earnings of companies that are not likely to be their future employers. Moreover, we use the Global Settlement as an e...
There is little doubt that the Internet has revolutionized the entire communication system. As much as banking involves communication in one way or the other, banks have joined the communication bandwagon. Having observed the astronomical growth rate and acknowledging the potential banks adapting and often adapting the Internet to suit their functions and roles. As in any new venture there are setbacks in terms of issue of security and associated costs. As a consequence banks are working towa...
This research aims to identify the currently used techniques in evaluating credit risk in Egypt’s banking sector, then to evaluate these techniques and to develop model(s) to evaluate credit risk in Egyptian banks. In a pilot study, the researcher conducted informal interviews with key personnel in three of the Egyptian banks, in order to evaluate credit risk policies. The pilot study showed that these banks do not use any of the statistical techniques in the evaluation pr...
Bryan J. Noeth; Wolla, Scott A.
Modern economies rely heavily on financial intermediaries to channel funds between borrowers and lenders. In the first edition of the Page One Economics Newsletter, the role of traditional banking is outlined and a parallel system—shadow banking—is explored.
This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…
Li, Jianjun; Hsu, Sara
This is an English summary of a 300-page report produced by Jianjun Li, Sara Hsu and Guangning Tian, “The Annual Report of China Shadow Banking System,” Project Sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project Number 71173246,
Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…
Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.
The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
This chapter argues that the work of the European Banking Union remains incomplete in one important respect, the structural re-organization of large European financial firms that would make “resolution” of a systemically important financial firm a credible alternative to bail-out or some other sort...
BERGMAN, MICHAEL; Juel, Steinar; Steigum, Erling, Jr
This report evaluates the conduct of monetary policy in Norway in 2008. We will not discuss the institutional framework for monetary policy. The report offers, however, an evaluation of the new price index, CPIXE, which Norges Bank adopted in 2008 for measuring underlying inflation.
UBS, CERN branch
UBS SA, formerly Société de Banque Suisse (Swiss Bank Corporation), which has been providing banking services on the CERN site since 1954, is delighted to continue its financial partnership with the CERN personnel. Recent trends in payment methods - a decline in the use of cash combined with an increase in the use of 'virtual money', credit or payment cards and e-banking - have led UBS SA to place greater emphasis on customer services compared with conventional, over-the-counter transactions. Since our customers' banking habits have also changed, we will be implementing the following changes at our CERN offices: Building 500: conversion work will shortly be commencing to provide a comfortable and well-appointed customer services area offering, in particular, greater privacy, as well as two counters. Throughout the work, every measure will be taken to minimise inconvenience to our customers. Building 504: owing to the improvements to be made to our Building 500 premises, we will hencef...
Due to the increased competitive environment in the retail banking industry, customer satisfaction and efficient back office processes have become more important. Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a management style that is focused on improving processes and increasing customer satisfaction. Discrete-Event Si
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 ] CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank ] or bank holding company. The...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank ] Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company....
Full Text Available Back ground: electronic banking is an important and fundamental issue that plays an important role in reachingto electronic government. Generally speaking electronic banking includes all banking services using electronicsystem by the virtue of safe mediators in a way that physical presence is no longer necessary. The beginning ofelectronic banking turns back to 1960s when computers were used in banks for the first time. The second roundof electronic banking started at late 1970s and it was named automation of the office. Using telecommunicationservices was also common in this period. The third round started in the middle of 1980s by connection ofcustomers to accounts. In this round the connection of customers with their accounts, telephone, ATM, etc wasused. Finally, fourth period was accompanied by uniting the systems and connecting the customer to all bankingoperations. The beginning of electronic banking in Iran goes back to 1981-1991. Tejarat bank issued the firstbank card in 1991 and after that Sepah bank started to establish 7 ATM stands all over the country. In 1992 Iranjoined SWIFT(Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication international channel and itwas connected to the channel in 1993.Methods: The type of study is operational from the perspective of its aim and practical from the perspective of itsimplementation and it includes two parts. The first part is concerned with a comparison of banking systems inTurkey-Malaysia and Iran. The second part is however concerned with the obstacles in the way of electronicbanking in Iran including: management obstacles, financial obstacles, technical obstacles, cultural obstacles andsafety obstacles. It is attempted to use statistics from the organizations like central bank, telecommunicationcenter, etc and study the amount of influence in each of them. Statistical data used in this study is during 2010-2011.Results: The result of the first chapter of the present study is the
The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch
Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard
Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480
Flynn, David T.
The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…
The normal operations of commercial banks in Western economies do not conform to the religious requirements of the Islamic faith. In this article, Shabbir Dastgir explores the differences and outlines how the worldwide industry in Islamic banking has developed new banking practices.
M. De Souza Maia
Full Text Available En las comunidades vegetales, el banco de semillas en el suelo (BSS constituye el potencial regenerativo. La reposición de los individuos a partir del BSS puede tener un efecto marcado en la composición y en los patrones de vegetación de la comunidad. Numerosas investigaciones se han llevado a cabo en bancos de semillas en hábitats agrícolas o en comunidades naturales. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo analizar los conceptos relacionados a BSS, los procesos de formación de éstos, las implicancias agrícolas y cómo esta información puede ser usada para la conservación de los sistemas productivos.In plant communities, the soil seed bank (SSB represents their regenerative potential. The replacement of individuals from the seed bank may have profound effects on the composition and patterns of the vegetation within the community. Many investigations about seed banks have been made within agricultural habitats or in natural communities. The attempt of this review about the seed banks in the soil is to analyze the concepts related to SSBs, their formation, the agricultural implications and how this information might be used for the conservation of the productive systems.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of bank-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability, using an empirical framework that incorporates the traditional Structure-Conduct- Performance (SCP hypothesis. A panel data approach has been adopted and effectively applied to six Greek banks. The evidence generated suggests that for any consistent or systematic size the profitability relationship is relatively weak. Most of the bank-specific determinants were found to significantly affect bank profitability. A more ambiguous picture emerged when the macroeconomic factors were considered.
Thayná Maria José Clemente da Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Back school consists in an educational program aimed at pre-venting back pain and rehabilitating individuals with degenerative disorders.Objective: To evaluate the effects of back school components (education and/or exercise therapy in relieving pain and improving quality of life in patientswith chronic back pain.Method: Forty-one patients were randomized and al-located into four groups: (i a back school group (educational lessons and physicalexercise; (ii an educational lessons group; (iii a physical exercise group and (iva waiting list control group.Patients were evaluated before and after treatmentwith a visual analogue scale, a short form quality-of-life questionnaire, a RolandMorris disability questionnaire and a finger-floor distance test.Results: The backschool group showed significant reduction in scores in the visual analogue scaleand the Roland Morris disability questionnaire and an increase in the short-form quality of life questionnaire. Conclusion: The effectiveness of back schoolprograms in chronic back pain patients seems to be due to the physical exercisecomponent and not on account of the educational lessons.
U članku se raspravlja o modelima sistema posluživanja (MSP). Razrađuju se osnovni elementi MSP-a, navodi se primjer i najznačajnije karakteristike. Ukazuje se također na složenost postavljanja odgovarajuće koncepcije upravljanja transakcijama te navode karakteristike najčešćih načina posluživanja. U trećem dijelu komentiramo najčešća obilježja sistema koje obično tretiramo modelom. U četvrtom dijelu navode se ograničenja modela te iz toga proizašla potreba za proširenjem definicije MSP-a. Na...
Mark J. Flannery; W. Scott Frame
Founded in 1932, the twelve Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs) have historically provided long-term funding to specialized mortgage lenders. But legislative changes in the wake of the 1980s’ thrift crises spurred the FHLBs to expand in both size and scope. For example, FHLB balance sheets now also include a substantial investment in mortgages and mortgage-backed securities, and the attendant interest rate risk has created financial and accounting difficulties at some of the FHLBs. ; Like Fannie ...
... Federal Register on January 10, 2013 (78 FR 2290). The subject firm supplies banking and financial... ``Project Manager for PNC Bank at Tata Consultancy Services'' in India. The request also states that...
Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas
Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders, and...... blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...... for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify and examine the factors that contribute to bank switching intentions of e-banking customers and whether these intentions differ according to demographic characteristics (age, gender, education, marital status and income levels of customers. Regression results suggested that customer dissatisfaction, low service quality, high price, unfavorable bank reputation, limited product variety and involuntary switching factors were positively related to customers’ bank switching intentions in e-banking. On the other hand, promotion efforts were negatively related to customers’ switching intentions. In addition to this, bank switching intentions were revealed to be differing according to education levels. Bank switching intentions of well-educated customers were tend to be higher, while age, gender, marital status and income level didn’t make a difference on intentions. Based on the empirical results of current study, we will provide several theoretical and managerial implications in the area of service industry.
Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.
decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change. PMID:12314276
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of
Banking reform is crucial to China, as banks dominate the country's financial system. The banking sector is dominated by four state-owned commercial banks-the ICBC, the CCB, the BOC, and the Agricultural Bank of China (ABC). The listing of the Bank of Communications (BOCOM), China's fifth
Martin Shubik; Jingang Zhao
We introduce a strategic market game for an exchange economy not having enough commodity money. We show the existence of a non-cooperative equilibrium for any finite replication economy with a mutual bank, we then show that efficient trade can be achieved in the limiting economy by expanding the money supply through the use of fractional reserves, where the commodity money is demonetized and used for reserves. The means of exchange becomes bank credit backed in part, by "gold." However, effic...
Spatial and temporal variations in the carbonate production and sediment export of the Pedro Bank carbonate platform were studied in response to the late Quaternary sea level fluctuations. A set of nine sediment cores were obtained from up- and downcurrent position to Pedro Bank to form a downcurrent offbank transect that covers the proximal toe-of-slope to a distal basinal setting. The sediments studied were deposited between 650 to 2520 meter below recent sea level, and reach back until oxy...
I empirically analyze the dynamics of business investment following normal recessions (declines in business investment that are not associated with banking crises) and banking crises. Using a panel of 16 advanced economies, I find evidence for significant non-linear trend reversion or bounce-back effects on the level of business investment following normal recessions, i.e., the deeper the previous recession was, the higher the growth rate of business investment will be. The trend reversion ef...
Bernardo Batiz-Lazo; Douglas Wood
Technological innovation in general and information technology (IT) applications in particular, have had a major effect in banking and finance. Following Garbade and Silber (1978), this research reviews the effects on banking organisations with reference to front office or external changes as described by the nature of product and service offerings. Following Morris (1986) and Quintás (1991), the research also considers innovations in the back office or internal (operational function) changes...
Full Text Available This paper aims to make a comparison between the performances of three banks in the banking system in Romania, considered the most representative but also to achieve their classifications and identify correlations between a number of used indicators and indicators expressing banking performance.
This paper addresses the questions related to the cost of China's bank restructuring and how it has been financed. We first propose a framework for recognizing losses. Then, we examine the recent major moves by the Chinese Government to repair the country's bank balance sheets. Finally, we explore the implications of the Chinese Government's methods of funding bank restructuring. We find that the Chinese Government has been decisive in confronting the costly task of bank restructuring. So far, Chinese taxpayers have paid most of the bill for bank restructuring.
Kim, Do Yeon; Oh, Chang Hyun; Yoon, Seung Hwan; Park, Hyung Chun; Park, Chong Oon
Objective To evaluate the usefulness of back pain questionnaires for lumbar disc screening among Korean young males. Methods We carried out a survey for lumbar disc screening through back pain questionnaires among the volunteers with or without back pain. Three types of back pain questionnaire (Oswestry Low Back Pain Score, Aberdeen Low Back Pain Scale, and Acute Low Back Pain Screeing Questionnaire) were randomly assigned to the examinees. The authors reviewed lumbar imaging studies (simple ...
Sultan T Al-Otaibi
Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.
V nalogi smo podrobneje predstavili zdravstveni sistem Republike Slovenije, ureditev obveznega zdravstvenega zavarovanja in drugih virov, s katerimi financiramo zdravstveni sistem. Preučili smo poslovanje sistema, plačevanje zdravstvenih izvajalcev in zaposlenih ter predstavili partnerje pri upravljanju sistema. Natačneje smo predstavili porazdelitev in ureditev različnih ravni zdravstvenega sistema, razporeditev in organiziranost človeških, finančnih, materialnih in drugih virov. Sis...
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank hours and closings. 7.3000 Section 7.3000 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Operations § 7.3000 Bank hours and closings. (a) Bank hours. A national bank's board of...
Full Text Available This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.
Devereux, Michael P.; Johannesen, Niels; Vella, John
In the wake of the financial crisis, a number of countries have introduced levies on bank borrowing with the aim of reducing risk in the financial sector. This paper studies the behavioral responses to the bank levies and evaluates the policy. We find that the levies induced banks to borrow less...... but also to hold more risky assets. The reduction in funding risk clearly dominates for banks with high capital ratios but is exactly offset by the increase in portfolio risk for banks with low capital ratios. This suggests that while the levies have reduced the total risk of relatively safe banks......, they have done nothing to curb the risk of relatively risky banks, which presumably pose the greatest threat to financial stability...
Alejandro D. Pérez Corzo
Actualmente, hablar del «sistema de transparencia» en México, es referirse a un término que no ha sido generalmente delimitido o reconocido. Se habla de sistema constitucional, sistema electoral como conceptos cuyos elementos y funcionamiento están aceptablemente bien definidos. Es así que se vuelve imprescindible, por todos los cambios, reformas e iniciativas de ley, en el ámbito energético, en el sistema educativo nacional, en el poder judicial, económico asir el concepto. En los dos último...
Mariela Rubano Lapasta
La modificación del sistema electoral público chileno se ha transformado nuevamente en tema de debate público, después de la Reforma Constitucional de 2005. El Gobierno ha propuesto reformar el sistema electoral, sustituirlo por otro que permita a las minorías tener representación en el Congreso. Se abordan brevemente los sistemas electorales en el derecho comparado, en especial el caso chileno, evaluando las ventajas y desventajas del sistema electoral nacional. Se propone ...
Guillermo E. Yáber; María E. Malott; Elizabeth Valarino
La gerencia de sistemas conductuales es una tecnología basada en un enfoque científico para el análisis del comportamiento en sistemas humanos. Esta tecnología ayuda a las organizaciones a definir y lograr sus metas. Consiste en el análisis, especificación, diseño, implementación, evaluación y reciclaje de sistemas de motivación humana que optimizan el desempeño y desarrollo a nivel del sistema total, departamental e individual de la organización. Utiliza tres modelos: El di...
... size of bank board. 7.2024 Section 7.2024 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... bank directors and size of bank board. (a) Staggered terms. Any national bank may adopt bylaws that... bylaws so amended. (b) Maximum term. Any national bank director may hold office for a term that does...
Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan karakteristik Dana Pihak Ketiga (DPK, Non Performing Financing (NPF, Sertifikat Wadiah Bank Indonesia (SWBI, dan penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Serta untuk menganalisis pengaruh DPK, NPF, dan bonus SWBI secara simultan maupun parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang diberikan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. Sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah laporan keuangan bulanan Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia tahun 2005-2007. Hasil penelitan ini menunjukkan bahwa DPK, NPF, dan Bonus SWBI berpengaruh secara simultan terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 99,2% dan sisanya 0,8%Â dipengaruhi oleh faktor lain yang tidak diungkap dalam penelitian ini. Secara parsial DPK berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap penyaluran dana Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia sebesar 98,65%, sedangkan NPF dan Bonus SWBI tidak signifikan berpengaruh secara parsial terhadap penyaluran dana yang dilakukan oleh Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.This study aims to describe the characteristics of Third Party Funds (TPF, Non-Performing Financing (NPF, Bank Indonesia Certificates Wadiah (SWBI, and funds Islamic Bank Mega Indonesia. Moreover to analyze the influence of DPK, NPF, and the bonus SWBI simultaneously or partially on the distribution of funds provided by the Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia. The sample in this study is the monthly financial report of Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia in 2005-2007. The results of this research showed that DPK, NPF, and Bonus SWBI simultaneous effect on the distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 99.2% and the remaining 0.8% influenced by other factors that are not revealed in this study. DPK is partially positive and significant effect on the distribution of funds Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia at 98.65%, while the NPF and Bonus SWBI insignificant effect on the partial distribution of funds committed by Bank Syariah Mega Indonesia.
Full Text Available This exploratory study set out to understand the true value of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in the banking sector. Businesses, including banks, actively participate in CSR but the question of value still persists. What does the bank receive in return for participating in CSR? Do banks get more customers as a result of their CSR programmes? Do banks have a better customer retention rate because of their CSR programme? Will customers change banks purely because they disagree with their banks CSR programme? These were some of the issues addressed but due to the small sample size, the findings cannot be generalised. The study did not find any significant, positive nor negative relationship, between CSR and the bank customers; meaning the tests could not provide evidence that for instance CSR programmes should be targeted towards female customers or customers of a certain age or income bracket. More importantly 80% of the respondents did not consider CSR an issue that was important enough to affect their choice of banks. They will not switch banks purely based on a bank’s CSR programme. Understandably they were more interested in bank fees and interest rates. These issues directly affected their reason for choosing a particular bank. So the question of why banks, and presumably other businesses, still participate and spend a lot of money on CSR when their customers do not seem to place much value on it, still persists. The findings suggest that a much larger study on the topic is warranted. It will aid banks and other businesses decide on their role in corporate social responsibility. Whose needs are being satisfied by participating in CSR?
EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og stærktmed......EN VIDEO på Danske Banks hjemmeside fremstiller banker som neutrale formidlere af penge. Den giver et misvisende indtryk af passivitet og harmløshed og strider stærkt mod de fleste menneskers oplevelse af banker som særdeles aktive, næsten aggressive I årene op til finanskrisen 2008, og...
Robb, David W.
The International Court of Justice has resolved the long-term conflict between the United States and Canada over claims to mineral and living resources lying along the countries' common Atlantic maritime border. On October 12, in a 4-1 decision, the World Court rejected the United States' claim to the entire Georges Bank area, a region of the Continental Shelf off Massachusetts and Nova Scotia that is a prime fishing ground and is believed to have good potential for oil and gas deposits as well. The disputed area is roughly the top third of the Georges Bank area. The court awarded each country approximately half of this disputed area. No appeals are allowed under this decision.
David Lucca; Francesco Trebbi
We present a new automated, objective and intuitive scoring method to measure the content of central bank communication about future policy rate moves. We apply the methodology to statements released by the Federal Open Market Commitee (FOMC) after monetary policy meetings. Using high-frequency financial data, we find that yields on short-term risk-free nominal rates respond both to changes in policy rates and the content of the statements, whereas, medium and long-term rates only respond to ...
Chebira, Amina; Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.
In this paper we characterize and construct novel oversampled filter banks implementing fusion frames. A fusion frame is a sequence of orthogonal projection operators whose sum can be inverted in a numerically stable way. When properly designed, fusion frames can provide redundant encodings of signals which are optimally robust against certain types of noise and erasures. However, up to this point, few implementable constructions of such frames were known; we show how to construct them using ...
Nikita YUrevich DENISOV
Full Text Available In clause the attention of essence and is paid to features ВРО, as tool of interbank calculations applied with recent times in sphere of international trade. The author, com-paring the bank payment obligation with the documen-tary letter of credit, allocates its advantages and brings to a focus to lacks on the basis of what does conclusions concerning a scope and economic expediency of the new tool.
Dørum, Øystein; Holden, Steinar; Isachsen, Arne Jon
Monetary policy in Norway is quite successful. The series of cuts in the signalling rate starting in December 2002, and a low interest rate during 2004, seems the appropriate policy choice. The analyses on monetary policy done in the Bank document a highly competent staff. Communication with the market is good and steadily improving. Not surprisingly, there is still room for improvement in the conduct of monetary policy in Norway. Those areas should receive particular attention in a Report li...
Bjørnland, Hilde C.; Wilhelmsen, Bjørn Roger
Each year the Centre for Monetary Economics (CME) at The Department of Economics, BI Norwegian School of Management appoints an independent group of experts to evaluate monetary policy in Norway. The Ministry of Finance partly funds the Norges Bank Watch reports, which contain useful information and analyses for the Ministry’s evaluation of monetary policy that is presented each year in a White Paper to Parliament.
Danezis, G.; Meiklejohn, S.
Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also serve to generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of computational costs and scalability. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on...
The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...
The financial intermediation sector is important not only for channeling resources from agents in excess of funds to agents in need of funds (lending channel). By issuing liabilities it also creates financial assets held by other sectors of the economy for insurance purpose. When the intermediation sector creates less liabilities or their value falls, agents are less willing to engage in activities that are individually risky but desirable in aggregate (bank liabilities channel). The paper st...
Ioan Alexandru Bubu
Computer software products are among the most complex artifacts, if not the most complex artifacts mankind has created. Securing those artifacts against intelligent attackers who try to exploit flaws in software design and construct is a great challenge too.The purpose of this paper is to introduce a secure alternative to banking software applications that are currently in use. This new application aims to cover most of the well-known vulnerabilities that plague the majority of current softwa...
Rubinton, Brian J
This paper introduces crowdfunding as a concept and model for the evolution of investment banking. Crowdfunding, an application of crowdsourcing, is defined as one party’s attempt to finance a project by offering three types of investment opportunities to potential investors. The investment opportunities are donations, passive investments, and active investments. From this foundation I develop a model in which interdependent agents operate in a dynamic, discrete setting. Potential investors d...
Danezis, George; Meiklejohn, Sarah
Current cryptocurrencies, starting with Bitcoin, build a decentralized blockchain-based transaction ledger, maintained through proofs-of-work that also generate a monetary supply. Such decentralization has benefits, such as independence from national political control, but also significant limitations in terms of scalability and computational cost. We introduce RSCoin, a cryptocurrency framework in which central banks maintain complete control over the monetary supply, but rely on a distribut...
Kit Fai Wong
Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.
Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the ...
... have been successfully used in the management of pain and anxiety. These include stress management, relaxation training, biofeed- back, hypnosis and cognitive-behavioral therapy (a method to reduce ...
C. Van Eck
Full Text Available Study Design: Clinical PerspectiveObjective: To provide back care education for patients with low back pain. Background: Understanding the internal and external forces the body issubjected to, as well as the spine’s response to these forces, can better equipphysiotherapists in educating patients with low back pain. Methods and Measures: The focus of the clinical perspective is to providephysiotherapists with clinically sound reasoning when educating patients. Results: Providing a patient handout, educating them in how to incorporate back care knowledge into their dailyactivities.Conclusion: Physiotherapists can play a significant role in empowering patients through education to take responsi-bility for their disability.
Bjuggren, Per-Olof; Elmoznino Laufer, Michel
In the paper we look at the bank lending routines of Swedish banks and their consequences for external financing of start-ups. Results from a questionnaire sent out to start-ups listed in the files of the Swedish interest organization “NyföretagarCentrum” were used. We looked at firms founded during the period 2010-2011, which can be considered family firms in terms of the ownership structure. The survey indicated that bank loans had to be backed up with personal assets used as collaterals ...
Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti
This paper analyzes the relationship between the terms on bank loans and local crime rates, employing a sample of over 300,000 bank-firm relationships. Controlling for firm, market and bank characteristics the results show that where the crime rate is higher borrowers pay higher interest rates, pledge more collateral, and resort less to asset-backed loans and more to revolving credit lines than borrowers in low-crime areas. The evidence also suggests that access to credit is adversely affecte...
Siahaan, Jojor L. B.
PT. Bank Danamon Indonesia, Tbk DSP Helvetia is a business that collecting fund from society in deposit form and send back to society in credit form use to increase the wealth life of many people. The purpose of this research is to get and knowing how the procedures operational audit of credit in PT. Bank Danamon Indonesia, Tbk DSP Helvetia to select criteria of debitur is it proper or not to get the credit from bank The research had been done, the write analysis data by use descrip...
William F. Bassett; Egon Zakrajsek
The profitability of the U.S. commercial banking industry remained robust in 2000, but returns on equity and on commercial bank assets fell back somewhat from the peak reached in 1999. The falloff reflected a continuation of the decline in net interest margin that dates from the extraordinarily high levels of the early 1990s, a significant increase in loan-loss provisions, and a notable slowing in noninterest income growth. The expansion of bank balance sheets was much stronger in 2000 than i...
Full Text Available The subprime crisis triggered a series of bankruptcies and bank runs at a level never experienced since the Great Depression. The banking environment radically changed since the 1930’s, in particular the development of infor mation technology decreases considerably the cost of information. Furthermore internet banking increases severely the speed at which the demand for withdrawals are addressed to troubled banks. In the past demand for withdrawals could be slow down by fact t hat depositors had to physically « queue » and by the existence of opening hours of banks branches. Given these new circumstances a liquidity shortage may have an even more severe consequence on a bank since the delay between the « bad news » and the bank run can shorten dramatically. Indeed the Northern Rock Bank case in Great Britain illustrates that situation where a bank unable to borrow from its peers in the interbank market is within few hours ran by its depositors. The aim of the paper is to analyze the consequences of the major instability introduced by internet banking on the bank’s ability to manage a liquidity crisis and an opportunity to discuss further the so - called “endemic instability” of the fractional reserve banking system
K. BAEYENS; S. MANIGART
We study the financing strategies of 191 start-ups after they have received venture capital (VC) and thereby contribute to the staging literature. The VC backed start-ups have raised financing on 345 occasions over a five-year period after the initial VC investment. Surprisingly, bank debt is the most important source of funding for these young and growthoriented companies, supporting the view that VC investors have a certifying role in their portfolio companies. Bank debt is available to fir...
Sabino, Jennifer; Grauer, Jonathan N.
Back pain is ubiquitous in today’s society and is particularly common during pregnancy. There are multiple factors contributing to these symptoms during pregnancy including pelvic changes as well as alterations to loading. Potential imaging modalities are limited during pregnancy due to the desire to limit ionizing radiation exposure to the fetus. Treatments are generally conservative, exercise-based interventions and alternative modalities may also be considered. Low back pain associated wit...
Mitran Paula Cornelia
Full Text Available The purpose of every economic activity in general and the financial one in particular is thesatisfaction of clients’ necessities. The specificity of clients’ consumption behavior in the financial – bankingrealm, impose the understanding of the necessities and their occasional process to the banking system. Theclient’s behavior analysis, as an obvious barometer of a bank evolution is the most important component of amarketing research. The relationship between the client, as a natural person or a juridical person and bank, isvery important and requires to be supported in order to assure clients’ loyalty and to develop long termrelations with them. Therefore, banks should give advice to their clients concerning their finance organizationor concerning the preparation of their business plans, fact which is able to reinforce the professional image ofthe bank. This aspect must be completed by the presence of some communication specialists who will assurethe information transfer, creating a feed-back between the employees and the clients.
Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.
Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.
Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.
Casali, Ana; Corti, Rosa Marina; D'Agostino, Estela; Biga, Adrián; Siragusa, Martha; Aciar, Silvana
En este trabajo se describe el desarrollo y evolución, a través de distintos prototipos, de un sistema de apoyo a la enseñanza diagnóstica en Endodoncia. Este sistema tiene como objetivo reforzar el conocimiento que adquieren los estudiantes a través de la práctica clínica. Los dos primeros prototipos de este sistema se han desarrollado para ser ejecutados por los alumnos en una sola Terminal. El primero de estos sistemas es EndoDiag, un sistema experto que acompaña al alumno en el diagnóstic...
Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio
Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is "interrupted" by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an "interrupted" Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate-which we propose as a shadow banking index-compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096
Fiaschi, Davide; Kondor, Imre; Marsili, Matteo; Volpati, Valerio
Using public data (Forbes Global 2000) we show that the asset sizes for the largest global firms follow a Pareto distribution in an intermediate range, that is “interrupted” by a sharp cut-off in its upper tail, where it is totally dominated by financial firms. This flattening of the distribution contrasts with a large body of empirical literature which finds a Pareto distribution for firm sizes both across countries and over time. Pareto distributions are generally traced back to a mechanism of proportional random growth, based on a regime of constant returns to scale. This makes our findings of an “interrupted” Pareto distribution all the more puzzling, because we provide evidence that financial firms in our sample should operate in such a regime. We claim that the missing mass from the upper tail of the asset size distribution is a consequence of shadow banking activity and that it provides an (upper) estimate of the size of the shadow banking system. This estimate–which we propose as a shadow banking index–compares well with estimates of the Financial Stability Board until 2009, but it shows a sharper rise in shadow banking activity after 2010. Finally, we propose a proportional random growth model that reproduces the observed distribution, thereby providing a quantitative estimate of the intensity of shadow banking activity. PMID:24728096
M. A. Petersen
Full Text Available This contribution is the second in a series of papers on discrete-time modeling of bank capital regulation and its connection with the subprime mortgage crisis (SMC. The latter was caused by, amongst other things, the downturn in the U.S. housing market, risky lending and borrowing practices, inaccurate credit ratings, credit default swap contracts as well as excessive individual and corporate debt levels. The Basel II Capital Accord's primary tenet is that banks should be given more freedom to decide how much risk exposure to permit; a practice brought into question by the SMC. For instance, institutions worldwide have badly misjudged the risk related to investments ranging from subprime mortgage loans to mortgage-backed securities (MBSs. Also, analysts are now questioning whether Basel II has failed by allowing these institutions to provision less capital for subprime mortgage loan losses from highly rated debt, including MBSs. Other unintended consequences of Basel II include the procyclicality of credit ratings and changes in bank lending behavior. Our main objective is to model the dependence of bank credit and capital on the level of macroeconomic activity under Basel I and Basel II as well as its connection with banking behavior for the period before and during the SMC.
Full Text Available The present article has as a reserch field theoretical, methodological and practical aspects of the own funds, taking into account the line-up attempts of the romanian banking system to the requirements of the European Union, materialised in the Basel Agreement. The objectives of the research theme, presented in this paper, are mainly oriented towards own funds. We also proposed the following secondary objectives: presenting the concept approaches concerning own funds, emphasysing the tipology of own funds and pointing out their purpose in the banking activity; presenting and analyse the evolution of the own funds in Romania, for a period of 8 years (2004-2011. Even though the actual stage of the research in this field is advanced, in the romanian and foreign literature which dedicate a lot of theoretical and empiric studies concerning own funds. In our study we will use a theoretical and a practical research. The theoretical research describes the laws, reglementations and rules of application in the banking field in our country. In the practical part we will use as a research method the quality-comparative analyse by presenting details regarding bank back-ups. Despite the global financial crisis, the Romanian banking system can be considered as stable as a whole, with levels of capitalization, solvency and liquidity in accordance with consistent with prudential requirements. Tier 1, defined as the core of their sources of credit institutions through the permanent criteria, payment flexibility and capacity to absorb losses continued to overwhelmingly support a total equity. Appropriate quality of own funds is on their structure. The most important component frame our capital plus capital frame attached. The second component in terms is still represented by legal reserves. An important challenge for banks was to maintain a level of own funds accordance, in the conditions witch they were eroded by the current period losses. Tier 2 support rate of
Justo Aznar Lucea
Full Text Available The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.
Stig Helberg; Snorre Lindset
We use a structural model of default risk to study how optimal bank capital and bond risk are influenced by deposit insurance, implicit guarantees, depositor preference, asset encumbrance, and bail-in resolution frameworks. We find that these features of bank financing, in addition to having an immediate impact on bond debt risk, also change optimal bank capital, countering the first-order effect on bond debt risk. Bondholders' risk is thereby not materially affected, but shareholder value an...
Acharya, Viral V; Iftekhar Hasan; Anthony Saunders
We study empirically the effect of focus (specialization) vs. diversification on the return and the risk of banks using data from 105 Italian banks over the period 1993-1999. Specifically, we analyze the tradeoffs between (loan portfolio) focus and diversification using a unique data set that is able to identify individual bank loan exposures to different industries, to different sectors, and to different geographical regions. Our results are consistent with a theory that predicts a deteriora...
Bassem Salhi; Younes Boujelbene
This article aims to study the impact of new forms of banking intermediation on the performance of Tunisianbanks. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 10 Tunisian banks for a period of analysis that spans 13 years,from 1997 until 2009. To make better use of our database, we have utilized the panel data technique.Our empirical validation shows that the context of bank intermediation is still traditional, despite the reforms offinancial liberalization; they still carry the traditional busi...
Rachdi Houssem; Trabelsi Mohamed Ali; Trad Naama
Banks are in the business of taking risks. The 3 pillars of Basel II capital accord highlight the crucial role of informative risk disclosures in enhancing market discipline. The specific role and responsibilities of the board of directors or supervisory boards in banking institutions continue, however, to fuel debate. Findings of the literature are often inconclusive. The main contribution of this study is examining how board characteristics affect risk in banking industry. We explore this r...
The adoption of electronic self-service systems (SSTs), using informationtechnology (IT) devices and channels, for the provision of banking services(also known as electronic banking or e-banking) has evolved in the last decadein emerging markets. In Nigeria, for instance, this development is driving themovement towards a cashless economy. These services, however, are fraughtwith problems ranging from incidents of fraud, empty automated teller machines(ATMs), the inability of the ATMs to dispe...
Rim Boussaada; Majdi Karmani
This paper analyzes the impact of ownership concentration on MENA banks’ performance over the period 2004-2011. The sample includes 38 commercial banks belonging to ten countries of the MENA region. We use an econometric method that deals with the endogeneity problems that have arisen in the corporate governance literature. We show that ownership concentration is significant in explaining performance differences between MENA banks. Our analysis shows that bank performance depends on the ident...
Le, Vo Phuong Mai; Matthews, Kent; Meenagh, David; Minford, Patrick; Xiao, Zhiguo
The downturn in the world economy following the global banking crisis has left the Chinese economy relatively unscathed. This paper develops a model of the Chinese economy using a DSGE framework with a banking sector to shed light on this episode. It differs from other applications in the use of indirect inference procedure to test the fitted model. The model finds that the main shocks hitting China in the crisis were international and that domestic banking shocks were unimportant. However, d...
Buch, Claudia M.; Koetter, Michael; Ohls, Jana
In this paper, we use detailed data on the sovereign debt holdings of all German banks to analyse the determinants of sovereign debt exposures and the implications of sovereign exposures for bank risk. Our main findings are as follows. First, sovereign bond holdings are heterogeneous across banks. Larger, weakly capitalised banks and banks with a small depositor base hold more sovereign bonds. Around 31% of all German banks hold no sovereign bonds at all. Second, the sensitivity of banks to m...
Since the mid-1990s, major Japanese banks have sold off a significant portion of their holdings of corporate equity. Using information on the identity of Japanese firms' top 10 shareholders, this paper explores the process of banks' equity disposal. There is some evidence that, after FY2001, banks' sales of equity accelerated, even holdings in firms for which the bank served as the main bank. However, affiliation with a main bank - proxied by firm-bank loan and shareholding ties - continues t...
N. Gordon, Jeffery; Ringe, Georg
The Greek Crisis is a crisis rather than a problem due to the vulnerability of Greek banks. While the banks have deep problems, this column argues that these would have been mitigated if a fully operational banking union were in place. A full banking union requires joint banking supervision, join...... bank resolution, and joint deposit insurance. The EZ only has the first so far. Completing the banking union must be part of any long-term solution....
André Redlinghuis; Chris Rensleigh
Background: South Africa has a well-developed and established banking system which compares favourably with those in many developed countries (e.g. USA), but also sets South Africa apart from many other emerging market countries like Egypt and Brazil. Four dominant banks, namely the Amalgamated Banks of South Africa (ABSA), Standard Bank, Nedcor and First National Bank (FNB) influence the South African banking environment. Internet banking has slowly been taking off in South Africa since 1996...
Tini, María Natalia
El presente trabajo apunta a analizar cuál es el lugar "real" que ocupa la Argentina en el Sistema Internacional, en contraste, con el lugar "ideal" en que lo ha ido posicionando nuestra dirigencia en los últimos 10 años. Para ello, es esencial realizar un breve repaso de la política exterior llevada a cabo por las administraciones Menem y De La Rúa, como sustento empírico de dicho análisis. La hipótesis plantea que para proyectar una adecuada política exterior es necesario formular un ...
Šio darbo tyrimo sritis – programinės įrangos projektavimo metodai, leidžiantys išplėsti egzistuojančias sistemas, ir jų taikymas bibliotekų informacinei sistemai. Tyrimo objektas – mokslo publikacijų, atitinkančių lituanistikos sampratą, bibliografinės duomenų bazės projektavimas ir kūrimas. Darbo tikslas – pagerinti lituanistikos sampratą atitinkančių mokslo publikacijų vertinimo bei sklaidos galimybes, automatizuoti šių publikacijų pateikimo, ekspertavimo bei sklaidos procesus....
Para desarrollar el presente proyecto se partió de considerar al mobiliario urbano como todos los elementos que forman parte del paisaje de la ciudad y que tienen la finalidad de ser útiles para el ciudadano. En este caso, se diseñó un sistema de bancos que interactúan entre sí y que permite incorporar más piezas según el uso, las funciones o las necesidades que se quieran satisfacer. El objetivo fue resolver el problema de sentarse. Para ello, se partió de la acción de sentarse, y se la p...
José Torquato Severo
Full Text Available É relatado o caso de uma paciente com 6 anos de idade, hospitalizada com síndrome de hipertensão intracraniana. Após o exame neuro-radiológico que evidenciou processo expansivo frontal direito, a paciente foi submetida à cirurgia, durante a qual ocorreu o óbito. O exame histo-patológico do material retirado durante o ato operatório, permitiu o diagnóstico de neurocitoma, tumor raro no sistema nervoso central.
Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Romero, Fernando; Pesado, Patricia Mabel; Bertone, Rodolfo Alfredo; Boracchia, Marcos; Thomas, Pablo Javier; Esponda, Silvia
El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es el estudio y desarrollo de sistemas de software que poseen restricciones temporales. Resulta de interés el estudio de diferentes metodologías para la especificación y desarrollo de aplicaciones en tiempo real, así como las plataformas donde dichas aplicaciones pueden ejecutarse. Se trabaja experimentalmente con distintos tipos de hardware y software entre los que pueden mencionarse placas A/D, mini-robots, máquinas multimicroprocesadores y dife...
Ramón, Hugo Dionisio; Romero, Fernando; González, Alejandro Héctor; Novarini, Pablo; Estrebou, César Armando
El objetivo de esta línea de investigación es el estudio y desarrollo de sistemas de software que poseen restricciones temporales. Resulta de interés el estudio de diferentes metodologías para la especificación y desarrollo de aplicaciones en tiempo real, así como las plataformas donde dichas aplicaciones pueden ejecutarse. Se trabaja experimentalmente con distintos tipos de hardware y software entre los que pueden mencionarse placas A/D, mini-robots, plataformas de hardware (PC, PIC, etc....
During the last years the development of e-banking in Estonia has been very significant. According to the report of the World Economic Forum, the Estonian IT-development has been substantial. The success of e-banking in Estonia can be compared to the corresponding success of the Nordic countries. According to the Deutsche Bank Research, around 70-80% of the Internet users in Estonia use Internet banking and in this respect, Estonia could be compared to Finland, Norway and Iceland. Despite of ...
Frye, Jon; Pelz, Eduard
BankCaR is a credit risk model that forecasts the distribution of a commercial bank's charge-offs. The distribution depends only on systematic factors; BankCaR takes each bank and projects its expected charge-off across a distribution of good years and bad years. Since most bank failures occur in bad years, this analysis has promise for both banks and bank supervisors. In BankCaR, charge-offs depend on the bank's loan balances and the charge-off rates of twelve categories of lending. A joint ...
Fernández García, David
El objetivo principal de este proyecto es realizar un sistema de información que sea capaz de efectuar video vigilancia. Este sistema de información está formado por un servidor y un número, en principio, limitado de clientes
...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors... Apple Valley, Minnesota; to acquire voting shares of Bridgewater Bancshares, Inc., and...
... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors..., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55480-0291: 1. Sharon Bauman, Apple Valley, Minnesota; Virginia Bauman,...
Deyo, Richard A; Von Korff, Michael; Duhrkoop, David
Back pain affects most adults, causes disability for some, and is a common reason for seeking healthcare. In the United States, opioid prescription for low back pain has increased, and opioids are now the most commonly prescribed drug class. More than half of regular opioid users report back pain. Rates of opioid prescribing in the US and Canada are two to three times higher than in most European countries. The analgesic efficacy of opioids for acute back pain is inferred from evidence in other acute pain conditions. Opioids do not seem to expedite return to work in injured workers or improve functional outcomes of acute back pain in primary care. For chronic back pain, systematic reviews find scant evidence of efficacy. Randomized controlled trials have high dropout rates, brief duration (four months or less), and highly selected patients. Opioids seem to have short term analgesic efficacy for chronic back pain, but benefits for function are less clear. The magnitude of pain relief across chronic non-cancer pain conditions is about 30%. Given the brevity of randomized controlled trials, the long term effectiveness and safety of opioids are unknown. Loss of long term efficacy could result from drug tolerance and emergence of hyperalgesia. Complications of opioid use include addiction and overdose related mortality, which have risen in parallel with prescription rates. Common short term side effects are constipation, nausea, sedation, and increased risk of falls and fractures. Longer term side effects may include depression and sexual dysfunction. Screening for high risk patients, treatment agreements, and urine testing have not reduced overall rates of opioid prescribing, misuse, or overdose. Newer strategies for reducing risks include more selective prescription of opioids and lower doses; use of prescription monitoring programs; avoidance of co-prescription with sedative hypnotics; and reformulations that make drugs more difficult to snort, smoke, or inject. PMID
This thesis consists of three chapters. The rst, "Paying for Payments", examines the role of interchange fees in payment card networks. The second, "Bank Liquidity and the Interbank Market" (co-authored with Mikael Reimer Jensen), investigates how banks' liquidity holdings at the central bank a ect...... outcomes in the money market. The third, "Collateralized Lending and Central Bank Collateral Policy", considers the emergence of credit constraints under collateralized lending, and how central banks use collateral policy to mitigate these constraints. While the chapters can be read independently, they...... share common themes. Each chapter is concerned with payments in one way or another, each is concerned with the e ciency of market outcomes, and, to the extent that there is scope for improving these outcomes, each discusses the appropriate role for policy, in particular central bank policy....
Full Text Available Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to improve their risk management process.Operational risk is considered a significant risk and has an important impact on banks activity and results. Now, there is a clear effort of the banks for applying more advanced methods on operational risk so that their control and management to be improved. The present paper presents the specificity of the operational risk management and the author’s solution for the operational risk management in banks.
Full Text Available The marvelous kinds of innovation in technology and hard line blend of it with information technology has made a paradigm shift in the banking industry. Transformation from traditional, bricks-and-mortar banking to E-banking has been momentous. The major innovation in technology have been a major force in the radical transformation that has led to the geographical, legal and industrial barriers and has led to the creation of new products and services more so in the banking industry. E-banking can be traced back to as early as 1970s. The main two reason as to why banks began replacing some of their traditional branch functions include:- Firstly, the setup and maintenance of branches was very expensive because of the overhead expenses associated with them, and Secondly, E-banking products/services created a completive advantage for the banks that utilized them. E-banking is a composite of various or technologies, such as telephone (both landline and cell phones, direct bill payment i.e. (Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT and PC or Internet banking and mobile banking. The five main basic services associated with ebanking include: view of account balances and transaction histories; paying bills; transferring funds between accounts; requesting credit card advances; and ordering checks. The objective of this study to evaluate the perceptual view of the male and female respondents on the e-banking complexities and how they affect the male and female customer’s satisfaction. The research evaluated the view of the respondents based on their demographic profile on the E-banking complexities and its effects on their satisfaction. This research was perceptual-tailored and relationship-oriented; identifying the underpinning e-banking complexities, and how they are influenced by the customer’s gender and its effect on customer satisfaction. The study used the descriptive and co relational research designs. The respondents sampled in this study were only
Nicola Cetorelli; Pietro F. Peretto
We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model of capital accumulation where credit is intermediated by banks operating in a Cournot oligopoly. The number of banks affects capital accumulation through two channels. First, it affects the quantity of credit available to entrepreneurs. Second, it affects banks' decisions to collect costly information about entrepreneurs, and thus determines the efficiency of the credit market. We show that under plausible conditions, the market structure that ma...
Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine
This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...
Cabello, Julia García
Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks’ branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank ...
The subject of this diploma thesis is managing credit risk in banks, as the most significant risk faced by banks. The aim of this work is to define the basic techniques, tools and methods that are used by banks to manage credit risk. The first part of this work focuses on defining these procedures and describes the entire process of credit risk management, from the definition of credit risk, describing credit strategy and policy, organizational structure, defining the most used credit risk mi...
The current state of development of financial markets and financial system, and environmental developments in which they operate have imposed a different perspective approach to economic risk issues generally and the banking in particular. Until the 1970s the banking risks took into consideration just the credit risks in the bank’s relationships with customers and the payment system; as instability has already become a dominant feature of the economic environment, banks face new risks. To mee...
Y. Aysha Fathima; S. Muthumani
In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. ...
Recent years have emphasized focus on risk management, and it became clear that there is an urgent need for a robust framework to effectively manage risk. The financial and economic crisis showed the importance of a strong risk management process and forced banks to take a critical look at how they manage risks. Romanian banking system has known significant changes determined by the implementation of Basel II requirements. These requirements determined an important effort of the banks to impr...
Roberto Fuentes; Rubén Hernández-Murillo; Gerard Llobet
In this paper we study the determinants of banks’ decision to adopt a transactional website for their customers. Using a panel of commercial banks in the United States for the period 2003-2006, we show that although bank-specific characteristics are important determinants of banks’ adoption decisions, competition also plays a prominent role. The extent of competition is related to the geographical overlap of banks in different markets and their relative market share in terms of deposits. In m...
Does banking market power contribute to the formation of non-financial industries populated by few, large firms, or does it instead enhance industry entry? Theoretical arguments could be made to support either side. The banking industry of European Union (EU) countries has been significantly deregulated in the early 1990s. Under the old regime, cross-border expansions were heavily constrained, while after deregulation banks from EU countries have instead been allowed to branch freely into oth...
Capitaine G.; Guilmo J.; Mercier L.; Point E.
In a challenging economic environment for 2012, characterised by a 0.6% drop in Eurozone GDP, the French largest banking groups benefited from the stabilisation of markets following decisive actions by the European Central Bank (ECB) introducing Very Long Term Refinancing Operation (VLTRO) and Outright Monetary Transactions (OMT). In 2012 the top 6 French banking groups generated an aggregated profit after tax of EUR 8.4 billion, sharply down, as compared with EUR 14.5 billion in 2011, owing ...
The purpose of the scientific approach is to demonstrate the usefulness of the adoption of modern promotion techniques in the actual financialbanking sector, in addition to the classical techniques. To achieve this end, the investigation of the Romanianfinancial-banking sector has been deeply conducted, by evaluating the market relations existing between the financial and banking institutions and individuals, as well as promotional techniques adopted by banks, during the communication process...
The use of financial services and products that comply with the Shariah principles cause special issues for supervision and risk management. Efficient risk management in Islamic banking has assumed particular importance as they try to cope with the challenges of globalization. This paper highlights the special and general risks surrounding Islamic banking. It also explains the key challenges ahead to promote further development of Islamic banking in the global financial syst...
A.M. Karminskiy; O.R. Zhdanova
The current stage of the global banking system development takes place in an increasingly competitive environment and unstable financial markets. One of the key factors of bank's successful development is a policy of continuous innovative behavior. Nowadays innovation is a key factor of bankingnstability, competitiveness and sustainable growth.The aim of the article. The main goal of this article is to examine key trends of banking innovations and innovative in Russia. Experience in the devel...
José María Tortosa
Full Text Available Partiendo de varios diagnósticos producidos recientemente sobre los riesgos del sistema mundial, se hace una propia lista de los que parecen ser los diez más importantes, a saber, la cuestión del petróleo, el auge de la China, el desplome de los Estados Unidos, la desconexión de América Latina, la crisis de Naciones Unidas, los nuevos terrorismos, la amenaza nuclear, pandemias, cambio climático y polarización social. Como existe una conexión y retroalimentación entre muchos de ellos, se concluye indicando la posibilidad deque estemos entrando en una etapa particularmente caótica en el sistema mundial.Starting from some recent diagnosis about the risks of the world system, a new list is made with the possible more important ones, namely, tipping point in oil, rise of China, breakdown of the United States, new terrorisms, nuclear threat, pandemics, climatic change and social polarization. As far as a connexion and feedback between these elements can be found, the conclusion points to the possibility of a new era especially chaotic in the world system.