WorldWideScience

Sample records for background translocation frequencies

  1. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  2. Reciprocal Translocations in Cattle: frequency estimation

    OpenAIRE

    De Lorenzi, Lisa; Morando, Paola; Planas Cuchi, Jordi; Zannotti, Michele; Molteni, Luciano; Parma, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal anomalies, like Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations represent a big problem in cattle breeding as their presence induces, in the carrier subjects, a well documented fertility reduction. In cattle reciprocal translocations (RCPs, a chromosome abnormality caused by an exchange of material between nonhomologous chromosomes) are considered rare as to date only 19 reciprocal translocations have been described. In cattle it is common knowledge that the Robertson...

  3. Translocation frequencies in lymphocytes of long term radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Translocation frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in two groups of healthy radiation workers and a group of similarly aged controls with no known occupational or medical exposure to clastogens. By restricting the analysis to the non-smokers a dose response was obtained in line with in vitro dose response data thus providing support for the use of translocation frequencies as a method for assessing the extent of chronic or past exposures. (author)

  4. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nicholas A W; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier limited, length dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry.

  5. Stability of the translocation frequency following whole-body irradiation measured in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, J. N.; Hill, F. S.; Burk, C. E.; Cox, A. B.; Straume, T.

    1996-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are persistent indicators of prior exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of 'chromosome painting' to efficiently detect translocations has resulted in a powerful biological dosimetry tool for radiation dose reconstruction. However, the actual stability of the translocation frequency with time after exposure must be measured before it can be used reliably to obtain doses for individuals exposed years or decades previously. Human chromosome painting probes were used here to measure reciprocal translocation frequencies in cells from two tissues of 8 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) irradiated almost three decades previously. Six of the monkeys were exposed in 1965 to whole-body (fully penetrating) radiation and two were unexposed controls. The primates were irradiated as juveniles to single doses of 0.56, 1.13, 2.00, or 2.25 Gy. Blood lymphocytes (and skin fibroblasts from one individual) were obtained for cytogenetic analysis in 1993, near the end of the animals' lifespans. Results show identical dose-response relationships 28 y after exposure in vivo and immediately after exposure in vitro. Because chromosome aberrations are induced with identical frequencies in vivo and in vitro, these results demonstrate that the translocation frequencies induced in 1965 have not changed significantly during the almost three decades since exposure. Finally, our emerging biodosimetry data for individual radiation workers are now confirming the utility of reciprocal translocations measured by FISH in radiation dose reconstruction.

  6. Characterization of Common Chromosomal Translocations and Their Frequencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients of Northwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Elnaz Amanollahi Kamaneh; Karim Shams Asenjan; Aliakbar Movassaghpour Akbari; Parvin Akbarzadeh Laleh; Hadi Chavoshi; Jamal Eivazi Ziaei; Alireza Nikanfar; Iraj Asvadi Kermani; Ali Esfahani

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Detection of chromosomal translocations has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of hematological disorders. We aimed to evaluate the 46 new cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients for common translocations and to assess the effect of geographic and ethnic differences on their frequencies. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used on 46 fresh bone marrow or peripheral blo...

  7. Frequency and distribution analysis of chromosomal translocations induced by x-ray in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of ionizing radiation suggests that induced chromosomal damage in the form of translocations would appear to be randomly distributed. However, the outcome of tests performed in vitro and in vivo (irradiated individuals) are contradictories. The most translocation-related chromosomes, as far as some studies reveal on one hand, appear to be less involved in accordance with others. These data, together with those related to molecular mechanisms involved in translocations production suggest that in G0 -irradiated cells, the frequency and distribution of this kind of chromosomal rearrangement, does not take place at random. They seem to be affected by in-nucleus chromosome distribution, by each chromosome's DNA length and functional features, by the efficiency of DNA repair mechanisms, and by inter individual differences. The objective of this study was to establish the frequency pattern of each human chromosome involved in radio-induced translocations, as well as to analyze the importance the chromosome length, the activity of DNA polymerase- dependant repair mechanisms, and inter individual differences within the scope of such distribution. To achieve the goals, peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy donors were irradiated in presence and absence of 2'-3' dideoxithimidine (ddThd), a Β - DNA polymerase inhibitor, which takes part in the base repair mechanism (B E R). The results showed that: The presence of ddThd during the irradiation increase the basal frequency of radioinduced translocations in 60 %. This result suggests that ddThd repair synthesis inhibition can be in itself a valid methodology for radiation-induced bases damage assessment, damage which if not BER-repaired may result in translocation-leading double strand breaks. A statistically significant correlation between translocation frequency and chromosome length, in terms of percentage of genome, has been noticed both in (basal) irradiation and in irradiation with ddThd inhibitor

  8. Retrospective biodosimetry using translocation frequency in a stable cell of occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cases of hematological malignancies were reported in an industrial radiography company over a year, which were reasonably suspected of being consequences of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation because of the higher incidence than expected in the general population. We analyzed chromosomal aberrations in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from the other workers who had been working under similar circumstances as the patients in the company. Among the subjects tested, 10 workers who belonged to the highest band were followed up periodically for 1.5 years since the first analysis. The aim of this study was to clarify pertinence of translocation analysis to an industrial set-up where chronic exposure was commonly expected. To be a useful tool for a retrospective biodosimetry, the aberrations need to be persistent for a decade or longer. Therefore we calculated the decline rates and half-lives of frequency for both a reciprocal translocation and a dicentric chromosome and compared them. In this study, while the frequency of reciprocal translocations was maintained at the initial level, dicentric chromosomes were decreased to 46.9% (31.0–76.5) of the initial frequency over the follow-up period. Our results support the long-term stability of reciprocal translocation through the cell cycle and validate the usefulness of translocation analysis as a retrospective biodosimetry for cases of occupational exposure. (author)

  9. Translocation frequencies measured in individuals exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation using chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome painting, the selective staining of one or more chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using whole-chromosome probes, facilitates rapid and accurate detection of chromosome translocations in human lymphocytes. Using this method, entire lengths of targeted chromosomes may be stained. After chromosome painting, interchromosomal exchange aberrations become rapidly apparent as bicolor chromosomes when all non-painted chromosomes are counter stained a different color. Here, following a brief discussion of this methodology, the use is described of chromosome painting for measuring translocation frequencies in individuals exposed years to decades previously to whole-body doses of ionizing radiation. Also the use of 3-color FISH for increasing the translocation detection efficiency is discussed. (author). 10 refs., 1 fig

  10. Characterization of Common Chromosomal Translocations and Their Frequencies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients of Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz Amanollahi Kamaneh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Detection of chromosomal translocations has an important role in diagnosis and treatment of hematological disorders. We aimed to evaluate the 46 new cases of de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML patients for common translocations and to assess the effect of geographic and ethnic differences on their frequencies. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used on 46 fresh bone marrow or peripheral blood samples to detect translocations t (8; 21, t (15; 17, t (9; 11 and inv (16. Patients were classified using the French-American-British (FAB criteria in to eight sub-groups (M0-M7. Immunophenotyping and biochemical test results of patients were compared with RT-PCR results. Results: Our patients were relatively young with a mean age of 44 years. AML was relatively predominant in female patients (54.3% and most of patients belonged to AML-M2. Translocation t (8; 21 had the highest frequency (13% and t (15; 17 with 2.7% incidence was the second most frequent. CD19 as an immunophenotypic marker was at a relatively high frequency (50% in cases with t (8; 21, and patients with this translocation had a specific immunophenotypic pattern of complete expression of CD45, CD38, CD34, CD33 and HLA-DR. Conclusion: Similarities and differences of results in Iran with different parts of the world can be explained with ethnic and geographic factors in characterizations of AML. Recognition of these factors especially in other comprehensive studies may aid better diagnosis and management of this disease.

  11. A Statistical Model of Background Air Pollution Frequency Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Antonovsky, M.Y.; Buchstaber, V. M.; Zaleniuk, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this paper describe an approach for identifying statistically stable central tendencies in the frequency distributions of time series of observations of background atmospheric pollutants. The data were collected as daily mean values of concentrations of sulfur dioxide and suspended particulate matter at five monitoring stations -- three in the USSR, one in Norway, and one in Sweden. In their approach, the authors use well-developed statistical techniques and the usual meth...

  12. The origin of recurrent translocations in recombining lymphocytes: a balance between break frequency and nuclear proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Pedro P.; Skok, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Translocations occur through the aberrant joining of large stretches of non-contiguous chromosomal regions. The substrates for these illegitimate rearrangements can arise as a result of damage incurred during normal cellular processes, such as transcription and replication, or through the action of genotoxic agents. In lymphocytes many translocations bear signs of having originated from abnormalities introduced during programmed recombination. Although recombination is tightly controlled at d...

  13. On the frequency dependence of the high temperature background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature background (HTB) damping in metals and alloys has been measured mostly as a function of temperature. These data were described by several empirical expressions proposed in the literature. In the present work, HTB in pure Mg and in two alloys (Zry-4 and Cu-5 at.%Au), measured with a torsion pendulum with variable moment of inertia, are analyzed on considering a new treatment of the data. This analysis provides an useful tool to determine whether a damping process is linear or not. (orig.)

  14. Reciprocal translocation frequency in irradiated sensitive and resistant human tumor cells in correlation with clonogenic in vitro cell survival: a possibility of tumor radiosensitivity prediction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the yields of radiation-induced translocation in several human tumor cell lines and in normal diploid human fibroblasts by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The translocation yields were determined with respect to chromosome no. 1 in all cell lines investigated, and moreover in chromosomes nos. 2, 4 and 9 in fibroblasts and one tumor cell line. The chromosomes were 'painted' with fluorescent whole chromosome-hybridization probes. The clonogenic survival of the studied cell lines was determined by standard colony-formation assay. We observed a higher frequency of reciprocal translocations in the radiosensitive cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-436 as compared with the radioresistant cells CaSki and normal skin fibroblasts. Thus, the results suggest a possibility to predict the intrinsic tumor radiosensitivity on the basis of reciprocal translocation yield determined in cells irradiated in vitro. The correlation was observed in spite of the trisomy no. 1 which occurred in all three investigated tumor cell lines. On the other hand, the results obtained with different chromosomes in MCF-7 cells suggest that only chromosomes with relatively low 'spontaneous' translocation yields are suitable for this kind of analysis

  15. Stable type chromosome aberrations in the residents of the high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome translocations were analyzed by chromosome painting techniques using No.1, 2 and 4 whole chromosome painting probes to examine the effect of high-level natural radiation on the frequencies of chromosome translocations in human peripheral lymphocytes. The subjects were 5 children and 13 old men from the high background radiation area and 6 children and 11 old men from the control area. Children had lesser translocations and smaller variation compared with the old men. The frequency of translocations among the old subjects varied widely from person to person. There is no difference of the frequency of chromosome translocations between high background radiation area and control area. No effect of high-level natural background radiation on the frequencies of stable chromosome translocation was detected

  16. Combined effects of frequency and layer removal on background track characteristics of ECE polycarbonate detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Soltani, Zahra; Hakimi, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD) when electrochemically etched (ECE) provide excellent characteristics for registering relatively lower-LET charged particles (e.g. alphas, fast-neutron-induced recoils) for many health physics and ion detection applications.The layer removal method of PCTDs by ethylenediamine (EDA) developed in our laboratory reduces the background track (BGT) density significantly. The frequency of the applied electric field strongly affects the BGT density and diameter and thus affects the minimum detection limit (MDL). In order to study the combined effects of the frequency and layer removal on the BGT density and thus on the MDL, this research was conducted. The BGT density versus the layer thickness removed at frequencies up to 12 kHz decrease rapidly to about 10-20 μm above which they reach a minimum constant level, while the mean BGT diameter verses layer removed at all frequencies are constant with flat responses. On the other hand the BGT density and diameter versus frequency at different layers removed up to ~50 μm increase till 4 kHz above which they reach plateaus. The PCTDs with ~20 μm layer removal at frequencies up 1 to 2 kHz showed the lowest MDL. The results are presented and discussed.

  17. Background frequency of Bacillus species at the Canberra Airport: A 12 month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahan, Michelle E; Thomas, Rory; Rossi, Rebecca; Nelson, Michelle; Roffey, Paul; Richardson, Michelle M; McNevin, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is a naturally occurring disease in Australia. Whilst mainly limited to livestock in grazing regions of Victoria and New South Wales, movement of people, stock and vehicles means B. anthracis could be present outside this region. Of particular interest is the "background" prevalence of B. anthracis at transport hubs including airports. The aim of this study was to determine the background frequency of B. anthracis and the commonly used hoax agent Bacillus thuringiensis at the Canberra Airport over a 12 month period. Samples were collected daily for seven days each month from August 2011-July 2012 and analyzed using species specific real-time polymerase chain reaction. Fourteen samples (of a total of 575) were positive for the B. anthracis PL3 genomic marker, 24 for the cya (pXO1) plasmid marker and five for the capB (pXO2) plasmid marker. Whilst five samples were positive for both PL3 and cya, no samples were positive for all three markers hence there is no evidence to suggest the presence of pathogenic B. anthracis strains. B. anthracis targets were detected primarily in February 2012 and B. thuringiensis peaked in October and November 2011 and again in April and May 2012. This study provides a rapid method to screen for, and differentiate, Bacillus species. Armed with this information investigators will be able to discriminate a "threat" from "background" frequencies should the need arise. PMID:26298416

  18. A measurement of the low frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a larger effort to measure the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) at low frequencies, the intensity of the CBR has been measured at a frequency of 1.410 GHz. The measurement was made by comparing the power received from the sky with the power received from a specially designed cooled calibration target with known properties. Sources of radiation other than the CBR were then identified and subtracted to calculate the antenna temperature of the CBR at 1.410 GHz. The instrument used to measure the CBR was a total-power microwave radiometer with a 25 MHz bandwidth centered at 1.410 GHz. The radiometer had a noise temperature of 80 K, and sufficient data were taken that radiometer noise did not contribute significantly to the total measurement error. The sources of error were predominantly systematic in nature, and the largest error was due to uncertainty in the reflection characteristics of the cold-load calibrator. Identification and subtraction of signals from the Galaxy (0.7 K) and the Earth's atmosphere (0.8 K) were also significant parts of the data reduction and error analysis. The brightness temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation at 1.410 GHz is 222. +- 0.55 Kelvin. The spectrum of the CBR, as determined by this measurement and other published results, is consistent with a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.741 +- 0.016. Constraints on the amount by which the CBR spectrum deviates from Planck spectrum are used to place limits on energy releases early in the history of the universe. 55 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Calibration of low-frequency radio telescopes using the galactic background radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Erickson, W. C.; Manning, R.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the calibration of flux densities of radio bursts from decametric to kilometric wavelengths using ground-based and space-based data. The method we derive is applicable to low-frequency radio telescopes where galactic background radiation is the principal contribution to system temperature. It can be particularly useful for telescopes of low angular resolution observing spectra of radio bursts from the Sun and the planets because absolute calibration of these telescopes is very difficult with conventional techniques. Here we apply the method to observations from about 7 to 47 MHz that were made on the ground with the Bruny Island Radio Spectrometer located in Tasmania, Australia, and those from about 20 kHz to 13.8 MHz were made with the radio experiment WAVES on the WIND spacecraft. The spectrum of the galactic background radiation from 30 MHz has been carefully measured with low-resolution telescopes, starting more than a decade ago. We use this known spectrum to calibrate both BIRS and WAVES on an absolute scale. The accuracy we achieve is about a factor of two, whereas the flux densities of solar and planetary radio sources vary by many orders of magnitude. Our method permits inter-calibration of ground-based and space-based observations, and allows corrections to be made for instrumental uncertainties on both radio experiments. In addition, on the ground, it allows the spectra to be corrected for ionospheric absorption and partial ground reflections. As an application we show the spectrum of a solar type III burst observed from 47 MHz to 20 kHz. Its flux density was largest, S~ 10-17 W m-2 Hz-1, at about 3 MHz, while at 60 kHz and at 47 MHz it was lower by a factor of about 300.

  20. Cryocooled terahertz photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance in 1.5–4 THz frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Makoto [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Hiromoto, Norihisa, E-mail: dnhirom@ipc.shizuoka.ac [Graduate School of Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8011 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    We describe a 4-K-cryocooled dual-band terahertz (THz) photoconductive detector system with background-limited performance. The detector system comprises two THz photoconductive detectors covering a response in a wide frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz, low noise amplifiers, optical low-pass filters to eliminate input radiation of higher frequencies, and a mechanical 4 K Gifford-McMahon refrigerator that provides practical and convenient operation without a liquid He container. The electrical and optical performances of the THz detector system were evaluated at a detector temperature of 4 K under 300 K background radiation. We proved that the detector system can achieve background-limited noise-equivalent-power on the order of 10{sup −14} W/Hz{sup 1/2} in the frequency range from 1.5 to 4 THz even if the vibration noise of the mechanical refrigerator is present.

  1. Effects of fast-acting high-frequency compression on the intelligibility of speech in steady and fluctuating background sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M A; Moore, B C; Wojtczak, M; Gudgin, E

    1997-08-01

    This study examines whether speech intelligibility in background sounds can be improved for persons with loudness recruitment by the use of fast-acting compression applied at high frequencies, when the overall level of the sounds is held constant by means of a slow-acting automatic gain control (AGC) system and when appropriate frequency-response shaping is applied. Two types of fast-acting compression were used in the high-frequency channel of a two-channel system: a compression limiter with a 10:1 compression ratio and with a compression threshold about 9 dB below the peak level of the signal in the high-frequency channel; and a wide dynamic range compressor with a 2:1 compression ratio and with the compression threshold about 24 dB below the peak level of the signal in the high-frequency channel. A condition with linear processing in the high-frequency channel was also used. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for two background sounds: a steady speech-shaped noise and a single male talker. All subjects had moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Three different types of speech material were used: the adaptive sentence lists (ASL), the Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB) sentence lists and the Boothroyd word lists. For the steady background noise, the compression generally led to poorer performance than for the linear condition, although the deleterious effect was only significant for the 10:1 compression ratio. For the background of a single talker, the compression had no significant effect except for the ASL sentences, where the 10:1 compression gave significantly better performance than the linear condition. Overall, the results did not show any clear benefits of the fast-acting compression, possibly because the slow-acting AGC allowed the use of gains in the linear condition that were markedly higher than would normally be used with linear hearing aids. PMID:9307821

  2. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, M. A.; Lueker, M.; Padin, S.; Shirokoff, E.; Staniszewski, Z.; Vieira, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s–1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelengt...

  3. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  4. Spectroscopic measurement of high-frequency electric fields in the interaction of explosive debris plasma with magnetized background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collision-less transfer of momentum and energy from explosive debris plasma to magnetized background plasma is a salient feature of various astrophysical and space environments. While much theoretical and computational work has investigated collision-less coupling mechanisms and relevant parameters, an experimental validation of the results demands the measurement of the complex, collective electric fields associated with debris-background plasma interaction. Emission spectroscopy offers a non-interfering diagnostic of electric fields via the Stark effect. A unique experiment at the University of California, Los Angeles, that combines the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility has investigated the marginally super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via emission spectroscopy. Spectral profiles of the He II 468.6 nm line measured at the maximum extent of the diamagnetic cavity are observed to intensify, broaden, and develop equally spaced modulations in response to the explosive C debris, indicative of an energetic electron population and strong oscillatory electric fields. The profiles are analyzed via time-dependent Stark effect models corresponding to single-mode and multi-mode monochromatic (single frequency) electric fields, yielding temporally resolved magnitudes and frequencies. The proximity of the measured frequencies to the expected electron plasma frequency suggests the development of the electron beam-plasma instability, and a simple saturation model demonstrates that the measured magnitudes are feasible provided that a sufficiently fast electron population is generated during C debris–He background interaction. Potential sources of the fast electrons, which likely correspond to collision-less coupling mechanisms, are briefly considered

  5. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors. PMID:22852677

  6. Adaption of frequency-domain readout for Transition Edge Sensor bolometers for the POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Kaori; Barron, Darcy; Dobbs, Matt; de Haan, Tijmen; Harrington, Nicholas; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Holzapfel, William L; Keating, Brian; Lee, Adrian T; Morii, Hideki; Myers, Michael J; Smecher, Graeme; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    The POLARBEAR-2 CosmicMicrowave Background (CMB) experiment aims to observe B-mode polarization with high sensitivity to explore gravitational lensing of CMB and inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR-2 is an upgraded experiment based on POLARBEAR-1, which had first light in January 2012. For POLARBEAR-2, we will build a receiver that has 7,588 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to two-band (95 and 150 GHz) polarization-sensitive antennas. For the large array's readout, we employ digital frequency-domain multiplexing and multiplex 32 bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). An 8-bolometer frequency-domain multiplexing readout has been deployed on POLARBEAR-1 experiment. Extending that architecture to 32 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics to 3 MHz. To achieve this increase in bandwidth, we use Digital Active Nulling (DAN) on the digital frequency multiplexing platform. In this paper, we present requirements and imp...

  7. Polarimeter Arrays with Comprehensive Frequency Coverage for the Next Generation of Precision Microwave Background Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Duff, Shannon; gao, jiansong; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; li, dale; McKenney, Christopher; Ullom, Joel; van lanen, jeffrey; Vissers, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Spectral resolution at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths is now understood to be crucially important in precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recent results from the Planck and BICEP/KECK experiments have established that measurements of the CMB polarization signal is limited, in part, by polarized foreground emission. In particular, polarized emission from galactic dust has been found to dominate and obscure potential signals of cosmic inflation, even in regions of the sky specifically identified as having relatively low galactic emission. Current and future experiments aim to address foreground contamination by conducting high-sensitivity observations with broad spectral coverage that will allow for differentiation within the measured signal between foreground sources of polarization and that of the CMB, which each have distinct spectral characteristics. To efficiently achieve these goals within a limited focal plane area, NIST-Boulder has developed multi-band TES-based polarimeters that simultaneously measure multiple spectral bands in each of two orthogonal polarizations. This acts to both increase pixel sensitivity through an increased total bandwidth, as well as providing broad spectral information for differentiation of emission sources. Here, we describe recent achievements and ongoing efforts at NIST-Boulder in the development of millimeter and sub-millimeter detector and focal plane technologies for future experiments, including the stage-IV CMB experiment, CMB-S4. NIST-Boulder provides critical cryogenic components to a large number of current and in-development CMB experiments. Recent milestones include the fielding of the first broadband multi-chroic mm-wave polarimeters in the ACTPol experiment, multi-band array fabrication on large-format 150 mm wafers, and development of matching 150 mm silicon platelet feedhorn arrays. We also review several related development efforts in detector, optical coupling, and readout technologies

  8. Adaptation of frequency-domain readout for Transition Edge Sensor bolometers for the POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kaori, E-mail: khattori@berkeley.edu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Arnold, Kam; Barron, Darcy [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Dobbs, Matt; Haan, Tijmen de [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Harrington, Nicholas [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Holzapfel, William L. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Keating, Brian [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Lee, Adrian T. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Morii, Hideki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Myers, Michael J. [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Smecher, Graeme [Three-Speed Logic, Inc., Vancouver (Canada); Suzuki, Aritoki [University of California, Berkeley, Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tomaru, Takayuki [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    The POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment aims to observe B-mode polarization with high sensitivity to explore gravitational lensing of CMB and inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR-2 is an upgraded experiment based on POLARBEAR-1, which had first light in January 2012. For POLARBEAR-2, we will build a receiver that has 7588 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to two-band (95 and 150 GHz) polarization-sensitive antennas. For the large array's readout, we employ digital frequency-domain multiplexing and multiplex 32 bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). An 8-bolometer frequency-domain multiplexing readout has been deployed with the POLARBEAR-1 experiment. Extending that architecture to 32 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics to 3 MHz. To achieve this increase in bandwidth, we use Digital Active Nulling (DAN) on the digital frequency multiplexing platform. In this paper, we present requirements and improvements on parasitic inductance and resistance of cryogenic wiring and capacitors used for modulating bolometers. These components are problematic above 1 MHz. We also show that our system is able to bias a bolometer in its superconducting transition at 3 MHz.

  9. Translocation Renal Cell Carcinomas in Adults: A Single Institution Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Minghao; De Angelo, Patricia; Osborne, Lisa; Mondolfi, Paniz; Geller, Matthew; Yang, Youfeng; Linehan, W. Marston; Merino, Maria J.; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Cai, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Translocation renal cell carcinoma is a newly recognized subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with chromosomal translocations involving TFE3 (Xp11.2) or, less frequently, TFEB (6p21). Xp11 translocation RCC was originally described as a pediatric neoplasm representing 20–40% of pediatric RCCs with a much lower frequency in the adult population. TFEB translocation RCC is very rare, with approximately 10 cases reported in the literature. Here, we describe the clinicopathological features of ad...

  10. Statistical properties of polarized radio sources at high frequency and their impact on cosmic microwave background polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, R. A.; Browne, I. W. A.; Peel, M. W.; Jackson, N. J.; Dickinson, C.

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the implications of high-sensitivity polarization measurements of objects from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) point source catalogue made using the Very Large Array (VLA) at 8.4, 22 and 43 GHz. The fractional polarization of sources is almost independent of frequency with a median of ≈2 per cent and an average, for detected sources, of ≈3.5 per cent. These values are also independent of the total intensity over the narrow range of intensity we sample. Using a contemporaneous sample of 105 sources detected at all three VLA frequencies, we have investigated the spectral behaviour as a function of frequency by means of a two-colour diagram. Most sources have power-law spectra in total intensity, as expected. On the other hand, they appear to be almost randomly distributed in the polarized intensity two-colour diagram. This is compatible with the polarized spectra being much less smooth than those in intensity and we speculate on the physical origins of this. We have performed an analysis of the correlations between the fractional polarization and spectral indices including computation of the principal components. We find that there is little correlation between the fractional polarization and the intensity spectral indices. This is also the case when we include polarization measurements at 1.4 GHz from the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). In addition we compute 45 rotation measures from polarization position angles which are compatible with a λ2 law. We use our results to predict the level of point source confusion noise that contaminates cosmic microwave background polarization measurements aimed at detecting primordial gravitational waves from inflation. We conclude that some level of source subtraction will be necessary to detect r˜ 0.1 below 100 GHz and at all frequencies to detect r˜ 0.01. We present estimates of the level of contamination expected and the number of sources which need to be subtracted as a function of the

  11. Background rhythm frequency and theta power of quantitative EEG analysis: predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment post-cerebral infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zang, Da-Wei; Jin, Yan-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Ni, Hong-Yan; Yin, Jian-Zhong; Ji, Dong-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In clinical settings, cerebral infarct is a common disease of older adults, which usually increases the risk of cognitive impairment. This study aims to assess the quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) as a predictive biomarker for the development of cognitive impairment, post-cerebral infarcts, in subjects from the Department of Neurology. They underwent biennial EEG recording. Cerebral infarct subjects, with follow-up cognitive evaluation, were analyzed for qEEG measures of background rhythm frequency (BRF) and relative δ, θ, α, and β band power. The relationship between cognitive impairment and qEEG, and other possible predictors, was assessed by Cox regression. The results showed that the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment was 14 times higher for those with low BRF than for those with high BRF (P BRF, and relative power in θ band, are potential predictive biomarkers for cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. These biomarkers might be valuable in early prediction of cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. PMID:24699438

  12. Bacterial translocation: impact of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of data in humans showing that patients who cannot take in nutrients enterally have more organ failure in the intensive care unit, a less favourable prognosis, and a higher frequency of septicaemia, in particular involving bacterial species from the intestinal tract. However, there is little evidence that this is connected with translocation of bacterial species in humans. Animal data more uniformly imply the existence of such a connection. The main focus of thi...

  13. Investigating binding particles distribution effects on polymer translocation through nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Abdolvahab, Rouhollah

    2016-03-01

    Chaperone driven polymer translocation is an important model for biopolymer's translocation in vivo. Binding proteins spatial distribution is a significant factor in calculating the translocation time of the polymer in this type of translocation. Here using a dynamical Monte Carlo simulation we compare the results of the usual uniform distribution with the exponential distribution of different rates for a stiff polymer. Our simulation results show that just by changing the chaperones spatial distribution the translocation time of the biopolymer will change by as large as an order. It can change the translocation regime of the polymer completely from a diffusive to a ballistic one. Although generally increasing the exponential rate and the background concentration will increase the translocation velocity, it is not always true and one should consider both the sequence and the background concentration. We show that the results depend on the sequence and changing the distribution rates for increasing the translocation velocity will change the whole Probability Density Function (PDF) of the polymer translocation time accordance to its sequence. The translocation time sequence dependency will change in the extreme cases e.g. in the high exponential rate. Investigating the binding protein size, λ, also shows the importance of the so called parking lot effect in distribution dependency of the translocation velocity. Although there is not any important dependency for λ = 1, translocation time depends clearly on the chaperone spatial distribution for the case of λ ≥ 2.

  14. A family with Robertsonian translocation: a potential mechanism of speciation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Jieping; LI, XI; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shuqin; Liu, Nian; Yao, Yanyi; LIU, ZHI; Wang, Weipeng; Rong, Han; Wang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Robertsonian translocations occur in approximately one in every 1000 newborns. Although most Robertsonian translocation carriers are healthy and have a normal lifespan, they are at increased risk of spontaneous abortions and risk of producing unbalanced gametes and, therefore unbalanced offspring. Here we reported a previously undescribed Robertsonian translocation. Case Presentation We identified three Robertsonian translocation carriers in this family. Two were heterozygous trans...

  15. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  16. Increase in frequencies of circulating Th-17 cells correlates with microbial translocation, immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1 infected patients with poor CD4 T-cell reconstitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiathan, Ranjini; Asthana, Deshratn

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the association of circulating Th-17 cells (cTh-17) with immune activation (IA), immune exhaustion (IE) and regulatory T-cells (T-regs) in 20 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients with impaired restoration of CD4 T-cell counts despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia (discordant) and compared it with 20 HIV-1 infected patients showing good immunologic and virologic responses (concordant) following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Discordant HIV-1 infected patients showed significantly higher frequencies of cTh-17 cells compared to concordant patients and healthy controls after PMA+Ionomicin stimulation. Discordant patients also showed higher CD4 T-cell immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+) than concordant patients which directly correlated with microbial translocation. Additionally, CD4 T-cells of discordant patients showed higher frequencies of CD4 T-cells expressing multiple immune exhaustion markers (Tim3+PD-1+) which correlated with immune activation indicating that combined analysis of inhibitory molecules along with PD-1 might be a better predictor for immune exhaustion of CD4 T-cells. Increased cTh-17 cell frequency correlated inversely with CD4 T-cell percentages and absolute counts and directly with CD4 T-cell immune activation and T-reg frequencies. Persistent CD4 T-cell immune activation might favor differentiation of activated CD4 T-cells toward cTh-17 phenotype in discordant patients. Discordant patients had significantly lower baseline CD4 T-cell counts and higher viral load at the initiation of HAART and higher immune activation and immune exhaustion after being on HAART for long time indicating that these factors might be associated with an increase in cTh-17 cell frequency, thus, increasing the risk of disease progression despite virologic control. PMID:26817581

  17. Frequencies of Dicentric Chromosome and Translocation in Lymphocytes from Residents in Radio-contaminated Villages near Semipalatinsk Nuclear Explosion Test Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kimio; Iida, Shozho; Takeichi, Nobuo; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    More than 400 above-ground and underground nuclear explosion tests were conducted at Semipalatinsk nuclear explosion test site (SNETS). The significant radioactive substances was released and radioactive plumes moved on villages at the time of explosion test, then residents in villages near SNETS are considered to be exposed internally and externally. In order to assess the biological effects on residents, frequencies of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were observed in ...

  18. Problem-elephant translocation: Translocating the problem and the elephant?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Prithiviraj; Leimgruber, Peter; Prasad, Tharaka; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they we...

  19. Problem-Elephant Translocation: Translocating the Problem and the Elephant?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando, Prithiviraj; Leimgruber, Peter; Prasad, Tharaka; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Translocating “problem-elephants” is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they we...

  20. Explaining the Adoption and Habits of Playing Exergames: The Role of Physical Activity Background and Digital Gaming Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Tuomas

    2015-01-01

    Exergaming, a form of digital gaming that combines physical exercise and video games, has become increasingly common in recent years. Exergaming has also become a subject of growing interest among academic researchers. They can be used to motivate people towards more active and a healthier lifestyle. This study examines the adoption and habits of playing exergames, focusing especially on whether and how exercise and gaming backgrounds are associated with the usage of these types o...

  1. Dynamics of forced biopolymer translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtola, V V; Kaski, K; 10.1209/0295-5075/85/58006

    2009-01-01

    We present results from our simulations of biopolymer translocation in a solvent which explain the main experimental findings. The forced translocation can be described by simple force balance arguments for the relevant range of pore potentials in experiments and biological systems. Scaling of translocation time with polymer length varies with pore force and friction. Hydrodynamics affects this scaling and significantly reduces translocation times.

  2. Further studies on the possible relationship between radiation-induced reciprocal translocations and intrinsic radiosensitivity of human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose. The aim of the present study was to estimate yields of radiation-induced translocations in surviving cells of several human tumor cell lines and in normal diploid human fibroblasts, and to compare these yields with corresponding intrinsic radiosensitivities determined by standard colony-formation assay. Material and methods. The yields of radiation-induced reciprocal translocations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 were 'painted' with fluorescent hybridization probes for whole chromosomes. Translocation yields and cell survival were determined for different doses up to 6 Gy of 200 kV X-rays. Results. We observed a higher frequency of reciprocal translocations in the radiosensitive cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-436 than in the radioresistant cells CaSki, WiDr, A549 and normal skin fibroblasts. For primary squamous cell carcinoma cells, ZMK-1, an intermediate radiosensitivity and an intermediate translocation yield were observed. The dose-dependence of translocation yields involving chromosomes no. 1 or no. 4 varied in different cell lines: it was linear or linear with a plateau at higher doses. Conclusions. A comparison of the data obtained with chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 in the investigated cell types, indicates that intrinsic radiosensitivity of different tumor cells observed at the survival level, is correlated with different translocation yields, respectively. This correlation was observed for all cell types investigated, independent of the number of copies of the painted chromosome per cell or the radiation dose. However, for low doses (under 1 Gy), the yields of translocations determined for the individual chromosomes seem to be too low for a discrimination between radioresistant or radiosensitive cells

  3. The adult polyglucosan body disease mutation GBE1 c.1076A>C occurs at high frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Armistead, Joy; Gushulak, Lara; Kruck, Christa; Pind, Steven; Triggs-Raine, Barbara; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2012-09-21

    Mutations of the glycogen branching enzyme gene, GBE1, result in glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IV, an autosomal recessive disorder having multiple clinical forms. One mutant allele of this gene, GBE1 c.1076A>C, has been reported in Ashkenazi Jewish cases of an adult-onset form of GSD type IV, adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD), but no epidemiological analyses of this mutation have been performed. We report here the first epidemiological study of this mutation in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish background and find that this mutation has a gene frequency of 1 in 34.5 (95% CI: 0.0145-0.0512), similar to the frequency of the common mutation causing Tay-Sachs disease among Ashkenazi Jews. This finding reveals APBD to be another monogenic disorder that occurs with increased frequency in persons of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. PMID:22943850

  4. Does the exposure of children in the UK to background residential power-frequency magnetic fields differ from that of the whole population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background power-frequency magnetic fields in homes in the UK vary with the category of accommodation. The categories considered, in ascending order of average field, are detached, semidetached and terraced houses and flats. Because children occupy a different distribution of accommodation compared with the population as a whole, they will on average be exposed to a different background field. Using data on fields from a survey of two hundred people and on distribution of accommodation types from national statistics, it is estimated that this effect leads to children being exposed to background fields which are lower than those experienced by the population as a whole, 54.2 nT, by an average of 0.7 ± 0.6 nT, a difference which is barely significant. (Author)

  5. The Incidence and Type of Chromosomal Translocations from Prenatal Diagnosis of 3800 Patients in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilevska, M; Ivanovska, E; Kubelka Sabit, K; E. Sukarova-Angelovska; Dimeska, G

    2013-01-01

    Robertsonian and reciprocal chromosomal translocations are the most frequent type of structural chromosomal aberrations in the human population. We report the frequency and type of detected translocations in 10 years of prenatal diagnosis of 3800 prenatal samples. The materials came from amniocentesis and chorionic villus samples (CVS). We detected seven Robertsonian translocations (0.18%), eight autosomal reciprocal translocations (0.21%) and one sex chromosome translocation (0.03%). The ove...

  6. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  7. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly. PMID:27083746

  8. Causes of oncogenic chromosomal translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Aplan, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Non-random chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a variety of cancers, especially hematologic malignancies and childhood sarcomas In addition to their diagnostic utility, chromosomal translocations are increasingly being used in the clinic to guide therapeutic decisions. However, the mechanisms which cause these translocations remain poorly understood. Illegit...

  9. Mass Production of Intergeneric Chromosomal Translocations through Pollen Irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa Amphiploid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa possesses a lot of important agronomic traits and has been a powerful gene resource for wheat improvement. However,only several wheat-H. Villosa translocation lines have been reported so far.In this study,we attempted to develop an efficient method for inducing wheat-H. Villosa chromosomal translocations.Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid pollen treated with 1200 rad 60Co-γ-rays was pollinated to Triticum aestivum cv.'Chinese Spring'.Ninety-eight intergeneric translocated chromosomes between T. Durum and H.villosa were detected by genomic In situ hybridization in 44 of 61 M1 plants,indicating a translocation occurrence frequency of 72.1%;much higher than ever reported.There were 26,62 and 10 translocated chromosomes involving whole arm translocations,terminal translocations,and intercarlary translocations,respectively.Of the total 108 breakage-fusion events,79 involved interstitial regions and 29 involved centric regions.The ratio of small segment terminal translocations(W·W-V) was much higher than that of large segment terminal translocations (W-V·V).All of the M1 plants were self-sterile,and their backcross progeny was all obtained with Chinese Spring as pollen donors.Transmission analysis showed that most of the translocations were transmittable.This study provides a new strategy for rapid mass production of wheat-alien chromosomal translocations.especially terminal translocations that will be more significant for wheat improvement.

  10. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum – H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H. villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line were irradiated by 60CO-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translo-cation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by backcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome struc-tural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  11. Major translocations in genetic counselling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    József Gábor Joó; Ákos Csaba; Zsanett Szigeti; Judit Nagy Oroszné; János Rigó jr

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To review major chromosome translocation, with special regard to the clinical differences between balanced and unbalanced, as well as de novo and inherited cases.Methods:The authors have included cases of major chromosome translocations detected during a20-year period.Among the28 cases,25 patients carried balanced and3 were affected by unbalanced translocations.Results:In cases of balanced translocation, maternal age ranged between26 and42 years, with a median age value of(30.5±2.67) years, while in unbalanced translocations the values were between24-37 with a median age of(30.5±4.59) years.In three cases(13%) of balanced translocations in the patient’s history previous chromosomal aberrations had been recorded.In nine cases of the same group(39%) previous miscarriages were reported.In cases in which balanced translocation was suspected, karyotyping was done in the16th-23rdgestational weeks.In three cases of unbalanced translocation, karyotyping was performed in weeks18 or19. Among the28 cases examined by us,12 carried reciprocal and16 were affected byRobertsonian translocations.If the involvement of chromosomes in balanced translocations was concerned, chromosome14was found to be overwhelmingly affected.In14 of the25 cases(56%) examined by us, this chromosome was definitely affected by translocation.Frequently occurring translocations in chromosomes1,13 and22 are also worth mentioning.Conclusions:Ultrasonography performed after karyotyping-in the cases of balanced translocations-and the results of fetal echocardiography-if such imaging was done at all-provide important information about the prognosis of the fetus.In case of sonographically normal fetal anatomy the good outcome of pregnancy is probable, while in cases of unbalanced translocations the sonography reconfirms the chances of poor outcome.

  12. Effects of the Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa T4DL·4VS Translocation Chromosome on the Agronomic Important Traits in Different Backgrounds%小麦-簇毛麦T4DL·4VS易位染色体对小麦农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕; 赵仁慧; 袁春霞; 张守忠; 肖进; 王秀娥

    2012-01-01

    It has been found that the T4DL·4VS translocation can be used in wheat breeding programs as a donor of resistance to wheat yellow mosaic bymovirus and take-all disease and can be used in wheat breeding for disease resistance.In order to further elucidate the potential application of this translocation line,five F2 population derived from crosses of the T4DL·4VS with 5 wheat varieties from different ecological wheat grown areas were used to assess the effects of the T4DL·4VS translocation on agronomic characters in different genetic backgrounds.It was found for all the used cross combinations,there was no significant difference between T4DL·4VS lines and non-T4DL·4VS lines on the number of effective spikes,the total spikelets per spike and the number of grains per spike.Positive effect of the T4DL·4VS lines on plant height was found in the background of Zheng 9023,Zhou 9823 and Mianyang 26,while negative effects were found on thousand-kernel weight in the background of Zhou 9823,Shi 4185 and Yangmai 15,on spike length in the background of Zheng 9023,Zhou 9823,and Yangmai 15,on the flag leaf area in the background of Yangmai 15.These results showed that significant variation occurred for some traits among different crosses,indicating that parent selection could lead to further improvements.%为了进一步探究小麦-簇毛麦T4DL·4VS易位系的育种利用价值,选用以T4DL·4VS易位系为亲本组配的5个F2群体为试验材料,研究了T4DL·4VS易位染色体在不同遗传背景中对小麦农艺性状的影响。结果表明,在所有组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对有效穗数、每穗小穗数和穗粒数无明显影响;在与郑麦9023、周9823和绵阳26配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对株高表现出一定的正向效应;在与周9823、石4185和扬麦15配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体对千粒重表现出负向效应;在与郑麦9023、周9823和扬麦15配置的3个组合中,T4DL·4VS易位染色体

  13. The Use of Double-Monotelodisomics to Identify Translocations in Triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Larsen, J.

    1974-01-01

    By analysing metaphase I of double-monotelodisomic hybrids between two varieties of hexaploid wheat differentiated by reciprocal translocations it is possible to establish reliably the chromosomes involved in each translocation. Also the chromosome parts translocated may be identified. The use of...... the double-monotelodisomic method should be especially valuable when the monosomic method has identified four or more chromosomes participating in multivalent formation in roughly similar frequencies. The method was used to confirm the 5BL-7BL translocation differentiating Cappelle Desprez from...... Chinese Spring and Starke and to show a 7AL-7DS translocation differentiating Starke from Cappelle Desprez and Chinese Spring....

  14. Inhibition of Vitamin D Receptor Translocation by Cigarette Smoking Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Uh, Soo-Taek; Koo, So-My; Kim, Yang Ki; Kim, Ki Up; Park, Sung Woo; Jang, An Soo; Kim, Do Jin; Kim, Yong Hoon; Park, Choon Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D can translocate a vitamin D receptor (VDR) from the nucleus to the cell membranes. The meaning of this translocation is not elucidated in terms of a role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) till now. VDR deficient mice are prone to develop emphysema, suggesting that abnormal function of VDR might influence a generation of COPD. The blood levels of vitamin D have known to be well correlated with that of lung function in patients with COPD, and s...

  15. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a

  16. Studies of Experimental Bacterial Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Stenbäck, Anders

    2005-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to maintaining patients with short bowel syndrome on parenteral nutrition, or successfully transplanting these patients with a small bowel graft, is the many severe infections that occur. Evidence is accumulating that translocating bacteria from the patient’s bowel causes a significant part of these infections. In this thesis bacterial translocation is studied in a Thiry-Vella loop of defunctionalised small bowel in the rat. Bacterial translocation to the mesenteric ...

  17. Inducement of chromosome translocation with small alien segments by irradiating mature female gametes of the whole arm translocation line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ShengWei; CHEN PeiDu; WANG XiuE

    2008-01-01

    Haynaldia villosa Schur. (syn. Dasypyrum villosum Candargy, 2n=14, VV) has been proved to be an Important genetic resource for wheat improvement. The development of translocation with small alien chromosome segments, especially interstitial translocation, will be helpful for better utilization of its useful genes. Up to now, most of the reported Triticum aestivum - H. villosa translocation lines are involved in a whole arm or large alien fragments. In this paper, we report a highly efficient approach for the creation of small chromosome segment translocation lines. Before flowering, the female gametes of wheat-H, villosa 6VS/6AL trsnslocation line were irradiated by 60Co-γ ray at 160 Rad/M dosage rate and three dosages (1600, 1920, 2240 Rad). Anthers were removed from the irradiated florets on the same day and the florets were pollinated with normal fresh pollens of T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring after 2-3 days. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) at mitosis metaphase of root-tip cell of M1 plants was used to detect the chromosome structural changes involving 6VS of H. villosa. Among the 534 M1 plants screened, 97 plants contained small segment chromosome structural changes of 6VS, including 80 interstitial translocation chromosomes, 57 terminal translocation chromosomes and 55 deletion chromosomes. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the inducement frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The M2 seeds were obtained by bsckcrossing of 74 M1 plants involving 146 chromosomes structural changes of 6VS, and it was found that the structural aberrations in the M1 plants could be transmitted to their progenies. Irradiating mature female gametes of whole arm translocation is a new and highly efficient approach for creation of small segment chromosome structural changes, especially for interstitial translocations.

  18. Reciprocal translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by nonhomologous end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xin; Gabriel, Abram

    2004-02-01

    Reciprocal translocations are common in cancer cells, but their creation is poorly understood. We have developed an assay system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study reciprocal translocation formation in the absence of homology. We induce two specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) simultaneously on separate chromosomes with HO endonuclease and analyze the subsequent chromosomal rearrangements among surviving cells. Under these conditions, reciprocal translocations via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) occur at frequencies of approximately 2-7 x 10(-5)/cell exposed to the DSBs. Yku80p is a component of the cell's NHEJ machinery. In its absence, reciprocal translocations still occur, but the junctions are associated with deletions and extended overlapping sequences. After induction of a single DSB, translocations and inversions are recovered in wild-type and rad52 strains. In these rearrangements, a nonrandom assortment of sites have fused to the DSB, and their junctions show typical signs of NHEJ. The sites tend to be between open reading frames or within Ty1 LTRs. In some cases the translocation partner is formed by a break at a cryptic HO recognition site. Our results demonstrate that NHEJ-mediated reciprocal translocations can form in S. cerevisiae as a consequence of DSB repair. PMID:15020464

  19. A Common Breakpoint on 11q23 in Carriers of the Constitutional t(11;22) Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, L.; Spiteri, E.; McCain, N.; Goldberg, R.; Pandita, R. K.; Duong, S; Fox, J; Blumenthal, D; Lalani, S. R.; Shaffer, L. G.; Morrow, B E

    1999-01-01

    Structural chromosomal rearrangements occur commonly in the general population. Individuals that carry a balanced translocation are at risk of having unbalanced offspring; therefore, the frequency of translocations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions is higher than that in the general population. The constitutional t(11;22) translocation is the most common recurrent non-Robertsonian translocation in humans and may serve as a model to determine the mechanism...

  20. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... hybridization approach developed for label-free detection of the chromosome translocations. For specific translocation detection it is necessary to determine that the two DNA sequences forming a derivative chromosome are connected, which is achieved by two subsequent hybridization steps. The electrochemical...... impedance spectroscopy was selected as the sensing method on a microfabricated chip with array of 12 electrode sets. Two independent chips (Chip1 and Chip2) were used for targeting the chromosomal fragments involved in the translocation. Each chip was differentially functionalized with DNA probes matching...

  1. Translocation junctions in TCF3-PBX1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma cluster near transposable elements

    OpenAIRE

    Rodić, Nemanja; Zampella, John G; Toby C Cornish; Sarah J Wheelan; Burns, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hematolymphoid neoplasms frequently harbor recurrent genetic abnormalities. Some of the most well recognized lesions are chromosomal translocations, and many of these are known to play pivotal roles in pathogenesis. In lymphoid malignancies, some translocations result from erroneous V(D)J-type events. However, other translocation junctions appear randomly positioned and their underlying mechanisms are not understood. Results We tested the hypothesis that genomic repeats, including ...

  2. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  3. Structural insights into ribosome translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Clarence; Ermolenko, Dmitri N

    2016-09-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF-G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF-2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single-molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the 'head' domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward- and back-swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF-G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF-G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620-636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  4. Irradiation-Induced Wheat-Alien Translocation Lines and their Application in Wheat Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of useful alien genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-Gamma-rays at doses ranging from 800 to 2240 rad. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that a dose of 800∼1200 rad was suitable for pollen irradiation while 1500∼2000 rad was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquire more M1 hybrids with a high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than 100 translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. Translocations with small alien chromosome segments, 57 terminal and 80 intercalary, were induced through female gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat breeding and many elite cultivars, such as Nannong 9918, Neimai 9, Shimai 14, etc. have been developed and released. (author)

  5. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge trumperter swan translocation project : Issues/action items

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Background information and current issues regarding the trumpeter swan translocation project at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge. Major issues include harvesting of...

  6. Partners with reciprocal translocations: genetic counseling for the 'double translocation'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L; Hartsfield, J K; Vance, G H

    1998-05-01

    SV at age 2 years presented with multiple congenital anomalies including an absent left kidney, anal stenosis, vertebral abnormalities, partial sacral agenesis, microcephaly, dysmorphic facial features, growth deficiency, and developmental delay. She was found to have a complex chromosomal rearrangement derived from balanced translocations in each parent. PMID:9660061

  7. An essential role for CtIP in chromosomal translocation formation through an alternative end-joining pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yu; Jasin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations arise from the misjoining of DNA breaks, but the identity of the DNA repair factors and activities involved in their formation has been elusive. Here we show that depletion of CtIP, a DNA end-resection factor, results in a substantial decrease in chromosomal translocation frequency in mouse cells. Moreover, microhomology usage, a signature of the alternative nonhomologous end-joining pathway (alt-NHEJ), is significantly lower in translocation breakpoint junctions re...

  8. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  9. Prader-Willi syndrome - type 1 deletion, a consequence of an unbalanced translocation of chromosomes 13 and 15, easily to be mixed up with a Robertsonian translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Frenny; Liehr, Thomas; Shah, Krati; Sheth, Jayesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome, due to microdeletion of proximal 15q, is a well-known cause of syndromic obesity. Case characteristics A couple with history of repeated first trimester abortions had a son with balanced Robertsonian translocation of chromosomes 13 and 15 according to cytogenetic banding technique. Results Chromosomal analysis for the couple was performed. A balanced translocation involving BP1-BP3 region of proximal 15q was observed in the father. Discussion Investigations o...

  10. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in...... voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  11. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  12. DNA Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Grégory F; Calado, Victor E; Pandraud, Grégory; Zandbergen, Henny W; Vandersypen, Lieven M K; Dekker, Cees

    2010-01-01

    Nanopores -- nanosized holes that can transport ions and molecules -- are very promising devices for genomic screening, in particular DNA sequencing. Both solid-state and biological pores suffer from the drawback, however, that the channel constituting the pore is long, viz. 10-100 times the distance between two bases in a DNA molecule (0.5 nm for single-stranded DNA). Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to realize and use ultrathin nanopores fabricated in graphene monolayers for single-molecule DNA translocation. The pores are obtained by placing a graphene flake over a microsize hole in a silicon nitride membrane and drilling a nanosize hole in the graphene using an electron beam. As individual DNA molecules translocate through the pore, characteristic temporary conductance changes are observed in the ionic current through the nanopore, setting the stage for future genomic screening.

  13. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  14. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole. PMID:19143783

  15. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  16. Experimental observation of G banding verifying X-ray workers' chromosome translocation detected by FISH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: FISH is the most effective way of detecting chromosome aberration and many factors affect its accuracy. G-banding is used to verify the results of early X-ray workers' chromosome translocation examined by FISH. Methods: The chromosome translocations of early X-ray workers have been analysed by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) and G-banding, yields of translocation treated with statistics. Results: The chromosome aberrations frequencies by tow methods are closely related. Conclusion: FISH is a feasible way to analyse chromosome aberrations of X-ray workers and reconstruct dose

  17. Successive Translocation of the Rings in a [3]Rotaxane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagesar, Dhiredj C; Wiering, Piet G; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Brouwer, Albert M

    2016-06-17

    A [2]rotaxane, a [3]rotaxane and the corresponding thread containing two succinamide (succ) binding stations and a central redox-active pyromellitimide (pmi) station were studied. Infrared spectroelectrochemical experiments revealed the translocation of the macrocycle between the succinamide station and the electrochemically reduced pmi station (radical anion and dianion). Remarkably, in the [3]rotaxane, the rings can be selectively translocated. One-electron reduction leads to the translocation of one of the two macrocycles from the succinamide to the pyromellitimide station, whereas activation of the shuttle through two-electron reduction results in the translocation of both macrocycles: the dianion, due to its higher electron density and hence greater hydrogen-bond accepting affinity, is hydrogen bonded to both macrocycles. Systems with such an on-command contraction are known as molecular muscles. The relative strengths of the binding between the macrocycle and the imide anions could be estimated from the hydrogen-bond-induced shifts in the C=O stretching frequencies of hydrogen-bond accepting amide groups of the macrocycle. PMID:26918870

  18. Disease dynamics during wildlife translocations: disruptions to the host population and potential consequences for transmission in desert tortoise contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Christina M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Walde, Andrew D.; Esque, Todd C.; Emblidge, Patrick G.; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, S.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife managers consider animal translocation a means of increasing the viability of a local population. However, augmentation may disrupt existing resident disease dynamics and initiate an outbreak that would effectively offset any advantages the translocation may have achieved. This paper examines fundamental concepts of disease ecology and identifies the conditions that will increase the likelihood of a disease outbreak following translocation. We highlight the importance of susceptibility to infection, population size and population connectivity – a characteristic likely affected by translocation but not often considered in risk assessments – in estimating outbreak risk due to translocation. We then explore these features in a species of conservation concern often translocated in the presence of infectious disease, the Mojave Desert tortoise, and use data from experimental tortoise translocations to detect changes in population connectivity that may influence pathogen transmission. Preliminary analyses comparing contact networks inferred from spatial data at control and translocation plots and infection simulation results through these networks suggest increased outbreak risk following translocation due to dispersal-driven changes in contact frequency and network structure. We outline future research goals to test these concepts and aid managers in designing effective risk assessment and intervention strategies that will improve translocation success.

  19. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development. PMID:25040040

  20. Chromosomal analysis by G-banding techinque in youngsters of high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was demonstrated that the frequency of chromosome aberrations of peripheral lymphocytes in inhabitants of the high background radiation area was higher than that in people of the control area. In this study, the chromosome aberrations in inhabitants of both areas were analysed by means of G-banding techique in an efforf to improve the detection of stable aberrations. Chromosome aberrations were studied in blood lymphocytes from 34 inhabitnts of the high background radiation area, and from 40 controls of normal background radiation area. Seabright's trypsin G-banding technique with minor modification was employed. In the result, in the high background group 55 aberrations were found in 1711 banded metaphases with a frequency of 3.21/100 cells, while in the control group only 39 aberrations were observed in 2006 metaphases, showing a frequency of 1.94/100 cells. Obviously, the frequency in the former group was significantly higher than that in the latter. On analysis of the types of aberrations, translocations and deletions accounted for approximately 85% of the total aberrations. There were 86 breaks found by G-banding in the high background group and 67 breaks in the control. A statistical comparison of observed and expected values showed that the distributions of chromosome breaks in both groups were nonrandom. When individual chromosomes were compared separately, it was found that the observed values of the breaks of chromosomes 1, 2 and 8 were higher than the expected

  1. Clinical and molecular cytogenetic analyses of four patients with imbalanced translocations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong Yan; Huang, Jia; Li, Tao; Wu, Dong; Wang, Hong Dan; Wang, Yue; WANG, Tao; Guo, Liang Jie; Guo, Qian Nan; Huang, Fei Fei; Wang, Rui Li; Wang, Ying Tai

    2016-01-01

    Background Chromosomal abnormalities that result in genomic imbalances are main causes of congenital and developmental anomalies including intellectual disability and multiple congenital malformations. In this report we describe four patients from three families with imbalanced translocations. Only a small percentage of imbalanced translocation individuals can be born to live, most of them were aborted in embryonic period. It is of great significances to precisely analysis the chromosome vari...

  2. Balanced Chromosomal Translocation of Chromosomes 6 and 7: A Rare Male Factor of Spontaneous Abortions

    OpenAIRE

    Resim, Sefa; Kadıoğlu, Ateş; Akman, Tolga; Bayrak, Ayşe Gül; Efe, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carriers of structural chromosomal rearrangements such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and producing offspring with genetic abnormalities. Case Report: We report a man with balanced chromosomal translocations located at 6p22, and 7q22. His wife has a history of four spontaneous abortions. Conclusion: Couples with a history of abortions should be investigated cytogenetically, after other causes of mis...

  3. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Simsek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4, suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  4. Irradiation induced wheat-alien translocation lines and their application in wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of alien useful genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-γ-rays at doses ranged from 8 to 22.4Gy. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that the dose of 8∼12Gy was suitable for pollen irradiation while 15∼20Gy was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquisition of more M1 hybrids with high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than one hundred translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. 57 terminal and 80 intercalary translocations with small alien chromosome segments were induced through female-gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 22.4Gy dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than that previously reported. These genetic stocks will be useful for physical mapping of alien genes such as Pm21. Some compensate translocations conveying useful agronomic traits would be useful in wheat breeding. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat

  5. Campylobacter jejuni induces transcellular translocation of commensal bacteria via lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalischuk Lisa D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter enteritis represents a risk factor for the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD via unknown mechanisms. As IBD patients exhibit inflammatory responses to their commensal intestinal microflora, factors that induce translocation of commensal bacteria across the intestinal epithelium may contribute to IBD pathogenesis. This study sought to determine whether Campylobacter induces translocation of non-invasive intestinal bacteria, and characterize underlying mechanisms. Methods Mice were infected with C. jejuni and translocation of intestinal bacteria was assessed by quantitative bacterial culture of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, liver, and spleen. To examine mechanisms of Campylobacter-induced bacterial translocation, transwell-grown T84 monolayers were inoculated with non-invasive Escherichia coli HB101 ± wild-type Campylobacter or invasion-defective mutants, and bacterial internalization and translocation were measured. Epithelial permeability was assessed by measuring flux of a 3 kDa dextran probe. The role of lipid rafts was assessed by cholesterol depletion and caveolin co-localization. Results C. jejuni 81–176 induced translocation of commensal intestinal bacteria to the MLNs, liver, and spleen of infected mice. In T84 monolayers, Campylobacter-induced internalization and translocation of E. coli occurred via a transcellular pathway, without increasing epithelial permeability, and was blocked by depletion of epithelial plasma membrane cholesterol. Invasion-defective mutants and Campylobacter-conditioned cell culture medium also induced E. coli translocation, indicating that C. jejuni does not directly 'shuttle' bacteria into enterocytes. In C. jejuni-treated monolayers, translocating E. coli associated with lipid rafts, and this phenomenon was blocked by cholesterol depletion. Conclusion Campylobacter, regardless of its own invasiveness, promotes the translocation of non-invasive bacteria across

  6. How does DNA break during chromosomal translocations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are one of the most common types of genetic rearrangements and are molecular signatures for many types of cancers. They are considered as primary causes for cancers, especially lymphoma and leukemia. Although many translocations have been reported in the last four decades, the mechanism by which chromosomes break during a translocation remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the molecular mechanism of chromosomal t...

  7. Microbiology of bacterial translocation in humans

    OpenAIRE

    O'Boyle, C; MacFie, J; Mitchell, C.; Johnstone, D.; Sagar, P; Sedman, P

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gut translocation of bacteria has been shown in both animal and human studies. Evidence from animal studies that links bacterial translocation to the development of postoperative sepsis and multiple organ failure has yet to be confirmed in humans. 
Aims—To examine the spectrum of bacteria involved in translocation in surgical patients undergoing laparotomy and to determine the relation between nodal migration of bacteria and the development of postoperative septic co...

  8. Translocation of DNA across bacterial membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiseikelmann, Brigitte

    1994-01-01

    DNA translocation across bacterial membranes occurs during the biological processes of infection by bacteriophages, conjugative DNA transfer of plasmids, T-DNA transfer, and genetic transformation. The mechanism of DNA translocation in these systems is not fully understood, but during the last few years extensive data about genes and gene products involved in the translocation processes have accumulated. One reason for the increasing interest in this topic is the discussion about horizontal g...

  9. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  10. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  11. Persistence of radiation-induced translocations in rat peripheral blood determined by chromosome painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we address the issue of persistence of chromosome exchanges following acute in vitro exposure of rat peripheral blood to 137Cs. Irradiation occurred 24 hr after culture initiation, and metaphase chromosomes were prepared 2, 3, 4, and 5 days later. Chromosomes 1, 2, and 4 were painted in unique colors and scored for structural aberrations. Dicentric chromosomes an acentric fragments diminished rapidly with time, as expected. Translocations exhibited greater persistence, but still showed a reduction in frequency, reaching a plateau of approximately 65 and 55% of their initial values, 4 days after exposure to 1 and 2 Gy, respectively. An exponentially declining model was fit to the combined dicentric, acentric fragment, and translocation frequencies, which showed that all three aberration types declined at equivalent rates. The frequencies of dicentrics and fragments declined to a plateau of zero, while translocations reached a plateau at frequencies significantly greater than zero. The decline in translocations with time is inconsistent with prevailing theoretical expectations, but is consistent with a model where some translocations are fully stable (persistent) and some are unstable (not persistent) through cell division. These results may have implications for radiation biodosimetry in humans. have implications for radiation biodosimetry in humans

  12. Population demographics and genetic diversity in remnant and translocated populations of sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, J.L.; Ballachey, B.E.; Cronin, M.A.; Scribner, K.T.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of small population size on genetic diversity and subsequent population recovery are theoretically predicted, but few empirical data are available to describe those relations. We use data from four remnant and three translocated sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations to examine relations among magnitude and duration of minimum population size, population growth rates, and genetic variation. Metochondrial (mt)DNA haplotype diversity was correlated with the number of years at minimum population size (r = -0.741, p = 0.038) and minimum population size (r = 0.709, p = 0.054). We found no relation between population growth and haplotype diversity, altough growth was significantly greater in translocated than in remnant populations. Haplotype diversity in populations established from two sources was higher than in a population established from a single source and was higher than in the respective source populations. Haplotype frequencies in translocated populations of founding sizes of 4 and 28 differed from expected, indicating genetic drift and differential reproduction between source populations, whereas haplotype frequencies in a translocated population with a founding size of 150 did not. Relations between population demographics and genetic characteristics suggest that genetic sampling of source and translocated populations can provide valuable inferences about translocations.

  13. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  14. Functional reconstitution of bacterial Tat translocation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Yahr, Timothy L.; Wickner, William T.

    2001-01-01

    The Tat (twin-arginine translocation) pathway is a Sec-independent mechanism for translocating folded preproteins across or into the inner membrane of Escherichia coli. To study Tat translocation, we sought an in vitro translocation assay using purified inner membrane vesicles and in vitro synthesized substrate protein. While membrane vesicles derived from wild-type cells translocate the Sec-dependent substrate proOmpA, translocation of a Tat-dependent substrate, SufI, was not detected. We es...

  15. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penedo M Cecilia T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness.

  16. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  17. gamma. -ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1984-12-01

    The yield of translocations induced by ..gamma..-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity.

  18. Unique Variant Complex Chromosome Translocation in Myeloid Leukemia: Report of a Case and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Movafagh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the literature, there are a number of chronic and acute myeloid leukemias with unique, complex chromosome translocations. This study aims to conduct a brief review of the incidence of complex chromosome translocations in myeloid leukemia and reports a case of myeloid leukemia with complex chromosome translocations.Methods: We conducted a web-based search for all peer review articles published on the subject of complex chromosome tranlsocations in chronic and acute myeloid leukemia in MEDLINE, PubMed and Mitelman (http://cgapanci.nih.gov/chromosomes/Mitelman databases in addition to other pertinent web references. In addition, we performed conventional cytogenetic studies of 24- to 72-h cultures on bonemarrow/peripheral blood cells obtained from the current case. Cells were finally treated by the giemsa-trypsin-giemsa banding technique.Results: The result of this case revealed an abnormal karyotype that had a novel complex translocation which involved chromosomes 2, 5, 9, and 22. We performed karyotyping after the initiation of chemotherapy. Karyotyping results showed a complex karyotype 46,XX,t(9;22;2;5.Conclusion: This study discusses a case of chronic myeloid leukemia with complex chromosome translocations and may provide novel information regarding these translocations in leukemias.

  19. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A Hogenbirk; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Applying innovative integrative analyses of multifactorial genome-wide data, we now demonstrate that an open chromatin configuration, which is generically enriched promoter-proximal but not promoter-specific, is the common denominator and key translocation risk-determinant of active chromatin. The finding that gene size directly correlated with its translocation risk, in both mice and cancer patients, independently emphasized the generic irrelevance of any promoter-specific activity. These da...

  20. Bacterial translocation: the influence of dietary variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Deitch, E A

    1994-01-01

    Transmucosal passage of bacteria in critically ill patients may lead to a significant incidence of systemic sepsis. This has attracted much clinical interest, as it has been shown that malnutrition in itself, impairs various aspects of barrier function. Bacterial translocation is increased in animal models where nutrients are given by the parenteral route, while enteral feeding reverses this. Translocation is also considerably increased in response to a non-lethal endotoxin challenge, if ther...

  1. Imperceptible effect of radiation based on stable type chromosome aberrations accumulated in the lymphocytes of residents in the high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic investigation of stable type aberrations (translocations) was performed with our improved methods in 6 children and 15 elderly persons in a high background radiation area (HBRA) in China, and in 8 children and 11 elderly persons in a control area. The total numbers of cells analyzed in elderly persons were 68,297 in HBRA and 35,378 in controls and in children were 45,535 in HBRA and 56,198 in controls. On average 5138 cells per subject were analyzed. The variation in the frequencies of translocations per 1000 cells was small in children while it was large in elderly persons. No significant difference was found in the frequencies between HBRA and control (P>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). On the other hand, correlation between age and translocation frequencies was significant at the 1% level (rs=0.658 with 37DF, Spearman rank correlation test). The contribution of an elevated level of natural radiation in HBRA in China to the induction of stable type chromosome aberrations does not have a significant effect compared with the contribution of chemical mutagens and/or metabolic factors. The present study suggests that the probability of the risk of causing malignant and/or congenital diseases by the increased amount of radiation is imperceptible in HBRA where the level of natural radiation is 3 to 5 times higher than that in the control area. (author)

  2. Human chromosome 'painting' probes used to measure chromosome translocations in non-human primates: extrapolations from monkey to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome painting with a probe specific for human chromosome 4 was used to 'paint' monkey chromosomes to measure the persistence of translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a rhesus monkey exposed to ionising radiation more than 25 years ago. The human probe painted the entire length of two large rhesus and cynomolgus monkey chromosomes with no cross hybridisation to other chromosomes, facilitating rapid detection of chromosome translocations. Translocation frequency measured in one monkey was significantly higher than that for unirradiated animals. The use of human probes to obtain cytogenetic data from Macaca species irradiated years previously or exposed to chemical clastogens makes this genus an excellent model for studying genetic damage. (author)

  3. Monocyte Activation, but not Microbial Translocation, Is Independently Associated With Markers of Endovascular Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin K; Manner, Ingjerd W; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation has been suggested as a driver of cardiovascular disease in HIV infection. We hypothesized that microbial translocation and the resulting monocyte activation would be associated with markers of endovascular dysfunction. METHODS: In 60 HIV-infected patients on c...

  4. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  5. Association of markers of bacterial translocation with immune activation in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Hobolth, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bacterial translocation (BT) may cause infections, in particular, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). In the absence of overt infection, BT may further stimulate the immune system and contribute to haemodynamic alterations and complications. Bacterial DNA (bDNA) is claimed to be a...

  6. Combined Effects of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Glutamine on Bacterial Translocation in Obstructive Jaundiced Rats:

    OpenAIRE

    Hatipoğlu, Ahmet Rahmi; Gürcan, Şaban; Yalta, Tülin; ALBAYRAK, Doğan; Erenoğlu, Cengiz; Sağıroğlu, Tamer; SEZER, Yavuz Atakan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Bacterial Translocation is believed to be an important factor on mortality and morbidity in Obstructive Jaundiced. Aims: We investigated the probable or estimated positive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which has antibacterial and regulatory effects on intestinal flora, together with glutamine on BT in an experimental obstructive jaundiced rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used...

  7. IGFBP-5 Promotes Fibrosis Independently of Its Translocation to the Nucleus and Its Interaction with Nucleolin and IGF

    OpenAIRE

    Yunyun Su; Tetsuya Nishimoto; Carol Feghali-Bostwick

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-5 levels are increased in systemic sclerosis (SSc) skin and lung. We previously reported that IGFBP-5 is a pro-fibrotic factor that induces extracellular matrix (ECM) production and deposition. Since IGFBP-5 contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that facilitates its nuclear translocation, we sought to examine the role of nuclear translocation on the fibrotic activity of IGFBP-5 and identify IGFBP-5 binding partners relevant ...

  8. Insulin Phosphorylates Tyrosine Residue 464 of Tub and Translocates Tubby into the Nucleus in HIRcB Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Kim, Sang Dae; Park, Jung Yul

    2014-01-01

    Background The tubby protein has a motif that might be relevant for its action in the insulin signaling pathway. Previous studies have indicated that tubby undergoes phosphorylation on tyrosine residues in response to several stimuli and is known to localize in the nucleus as well as in the plasma membrane. However, the relationship between phosphorylation and nuclear translocation is not well understood. Here, we report that insulin directly phosphorylates tubby, which translocates into the ...

  9. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner Mathias; Gretz Norbert; Lanig Sybille; Kleczka Martha; Keese Michael; Samel Stephan; Sturm Jörg; Post Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injectio...

  10. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  11. Down syndrome and the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy-21 is a complex human clinical entity compromising several functional, structural and developmental features with wide variation in expression levels. The diagnosis is confirmed in majority of the cases by an extra dose of chromosome 21 by cytogenetics and occasionally it may be due to either chromosomal translocation or mosaicism (different cell lines in the same individual). The extra chromosome 21 is usually formed by non-disjunction during meiosis and is the most common numerical chromosomal anomaly compatible with life, as chromosome 21 is one of the smallest with relatively fewer genes most of which are reckoned to be non lethal. Though exact causative factors and pathogenesis is not fully understood, a rise in maternal age at conception coupled with deleterious environmental influence on an ageing ovum is a recognized risk factor. The de novo nature of trisomy-21 and its relatively higher frequency makes it a reliable indicator to assess the role of chronic high background radiation in inducing germ line mutation and congenital malformation. Many other relatively common congenital malformations with multifactorial origin may not have this de novo property and associating its incidence with the prevailing natural background radiation become more complex. In vitro studies have shown association between high intensity radiation and genetics effects but such a relationship so far was not established between DS and radiation

  12. Theory of polymer translocation through a flickering nanopore under an alternating driving force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2015-08-01

    We develop a theory for polymer translocation driven by a time-dependent force through an oscillating nanopore. To this end, we extend the iso-flux tension propagation theory [Sarabadani et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 214907 (2014)] for such a setup. We assume that the external driving force in the pore has a component oscillating in time, and the flickering pore is similarly described by an oscillating term in the pore friction. In addition to numerically solving the model, we derive analytical approximations that are in good agreement with the numerical simulations. Our results show that by controlling either the force or pore oscillations, the translocation process can be either sped up or slowed down depending on the frequency of the oscillations and the characteristic time scale of the process. We also show that while in the low and high frequency limits, the translocation time τ follows the established scaling relation with respect to chain length N0, in the intermediate frequency regime small periodic, fluctuations can have drastic effects on the dynamical scaling. The results can be easily generalized for non-periodic oscillations and elucidate the role of time dependent forces and pore oscillations in driven polymer translocation.

  13. Liver Cirrhosis and Intestinal Bacterial Translocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction, facilitating translocation of bacteria and bacterial products, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of liver cirrhosis and its complications. Intestinal defense system including microbial barrier, immunologic barrier, mechanical barrier, chemical barrier, plays an important role in the maintenance of intestinal function. Under normal circumstances, the intestinal barrier can prevent intestinal bacteria through the intestinal wall from spreading to the body. Severe infection, trauma, shock, cirrhosis, malnutrition, immune suppression conditions, intestinal bacteria and endotoxin translocation, can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The intestinal microlfora is not only involved in the digestion of nutrients, but also in local immunity, forming a barrier against pathogenic microorganisms. The derangement of the gut microlfora may lead to microbial translocation, deifned as the passage of viable microorganisms or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen to the mesenteric lymph nodes and other extraintestinal sites. In patients with cirrhosis, primary and intestinal lfora imbalance, intestinal bacterial overgrowth, intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction, endotoxemia is associated with weakened immunity.

  14. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude;

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not...... affect the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the...

  15. Translocation of organic compounds in sunflower, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apical portions of intact sunflower leaves were infiltrated with 14C-glucose, 14C-fructose or 3-O-methyl-14C-glucose and the basal portions were treated with inhibitors. The effects of oligomycin, ouabain and phlorizin on translocation were studied. Inhibition of translocation from the basal portion of the leaf to the stem was determined by experiments using oligomycin. In other experiments, each leaf was divided into three parts. The apical portion was fed with 14C-glucose and the basal part treated with oligomycin. The effects of oligomycin on the distribution of 14C-glucose, 14C-sucrose, 14C-fructose and 14C-sugar phosphate along the three parts of the leaf were investigated. Inhibition of sucrose synthesis in the leaves treated with oligomycin was observed. Oligomycin inhibited 14C translocation from the leaf. (author)

  16. Review of translocations detected by fish for retrospective biological dosimetry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several European laboratories have combined their research efforts to arrive at a consensus view on using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for retrospective dosimetry. The aim of this review is to report these views and to highlight some areas where further work is needed. Translocations in the stable cells should be measured only in the cells that contain the full complement of the painted material. Two-way and one-way translocations should be combined with equal weight. The control level of translocations has a strong dependence on age, which has now been measured and the system has been calibrated. In conclusion, the technique works and a lifetime dose to the bone marrow from low-linear energy transfer radiation of 0.5 Gy above normal background levels can be measured for any individual. The main application is considered to provide an independent verification of lifetime doses to individuals who might form a part of an epidemiological study. (authors)

  17. Hyaluronan synthase mediates dye translocation across liposomal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Andria P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronan (HA is made at the plasma membrane and secreted into the extracellular medium or matrix by phospolipid-dependent hyaluronan synthase (HAS, which is active as a monomer. Since the mechanism by which HA is translocated across membranes is still unresolved, we assessed the presence of an intraprotein pore within HAS by adding purified Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS to liposomes preloaded with the fluorophore Cascade Blue (CB. Results CB translocation (efflux was not observed with mock-purified material from empty vector control E. coli membranes, but was induced by SeHAS, purified from membranes, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CB efflux was eliminated or greatly reduced when purified SeHAS was first treated under conditions that inhibit enzyme activity: heating, oxidization or cysteine modification with N-ethylmaleimide. Reduced CB efflux also occurred with SeHAS K48E or K48F mutants, in which alteration of K48 within membrane domain 2 causes decreased activity and HA product size. The above results used liposomes containing bovine cardiolipin (BCL. An earlier study testing many synthetic lipids found that the best activating lipid for SeHAS is tetraoleoyl cardiolipin (TO-CL and that, in contrast, tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TM-CL is an inactivating lipid (Weigel et al, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36542, 2006. Consistent with the effects of these CL species on SeHAS activity, CB efflux was more than 2-fold greater in liposomes made with TO-CL compared to TM-CL. Conclusions The results indicate the presence of an intraprotein pore in HAS and support a model in which HA is translocated to the exterior by HAS itself.

  18. Evaluation of RT-PCR to Detect Translocations in Children Diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Galehdari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common subtype of childhood cancer. Chromosomal ab­normality, specially the replacement of chromosomal material is one of the main reasons in generating leukemia, wherein the kind of translocation play a key role in managing the remedy. The goal of the present study was to develop a reliable, rapid, and cost effective method to detect translocations, which are the main sources of leukemia."nMethods: Twenty seven samples were collected from leukemia affected individuals that were referred to the Shafa Hospital in Ahwaz from summer 2007 to spring2008. Total RNA was extracted from one milliliter whole blood, and then reversely tran­scribed using reverse transcriptase. Finally, multiplex RT-PCR was performed for each sample."nResults: Cell lines (K562, Jurkat E 6.1 that are harboring known translocations were used as positive control, with addi­tional internal control to prove false negative results. Translocations t (9; 22, t (12; 21, t (1; 19 and t (4; 11 were ob­served in patients that have been diagnosed with the ALL, respectively. No Translocation has been seen in individuals suf­fering lymphoma."nConclusion: Multiplex RT-PCR assay is an effective, sensitive, accurate, and cost-effective diagnostic tool, which can im­prove the ability to accurately and rapidly risk-stratify patients that were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  19. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  20. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of novel wheat-Thinopyrum bessarabicum recombinant lines carrying intercalary translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patokar, Chetan; Sepsi, Adel; Schwarzacher, Trude; Kishii, Masahiro; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2016-03-01

    Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ or E(b)E(b)) is a valuable source of genes for bread wheat (2n = 6x = 42) improvement because of its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Development of wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation lines by backcrossing the amphiploid in the absence of the Ph1 gene (allowing intergenomic recombination) can assist its utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, six novel wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation lines involving different chromosome segments (T4BS.4BL-4JL, T6BS.6BL-6JL, T5AS.5AL-5JL, T5DL.5DS-5JS, T2BS.2BL-2JL, and the whole arm translocation T1JS.1AL) were identified and characterized using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). No background translocations between wheat genomes were observed. The involvement of five of the seven chromosomes and small terminal segments of Th. bessarabicum chromosome arm were important, contributing to both reduced linkage drag of the derived lines by minimizing agronomically deleterious genes from the alien species and high stability including transmission of the alien segment. All three wheat genomes were involved in the translocations with the alien chromosome, and GISH showed the Th. bessarabicum genome was more closely related to the D genome in wheat. All the introgression lines were disomic, stable, and with good morphological characters. PMID:26238987

  1. Gamma-rays induced reciprocal translocations in Nigella damascena L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiations (5 kR, 10 kR and 20 kR) of Nigella damascena L. (cultivated variety Miss Jekyl) seeds (with moisture content 13.33%) induced 3 translocation heterozygotes (P-I from 5 kR, P-38 from 5 kR and P- 73 from 20 kR). These exhibited the formation of either a ring or a chain of 4 chromosomes in 30.7% to 68.1% meiocytes. Predominance of rings or equal proportion of rings and chains occurred in translocation heterozygotes P-38 and in P-I and P-73 respectively. The rings showed preponderance of adjacent orientation and the chains demonstrated frequent alternate orientation. Though pollen fertility was 16.5%, 24.8% and 17.1% in P-I, P-38 and P-73 respectively, frequency of viable pollen grains was nil in P-38 and P-73 and it was 5.2% in P-I. Seed sterility was complete in P-38 and P-73 but P-I yielded 2.11% filled seeds per capsule on selfing and 2.56% seeds/capsule on cross pollination. (author)

  2. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  3. Nitrogen uptake and translocation by Chara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, C.P.; Escher, M.; Portielje, R.; Klein, de J.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The potential for above-ground and below-ground uptake and subsequent internal translocation of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) by the macroalga Chara spp. was investigated. In a two compartment experimental set-up separating above-ground and below-ground algal parts, the charophytes were exposed

  4. Meiotic behaviour of two human reciprocal translocations.

    OpenAIRE

    Egozcue, J; S Marina; Templado, C

    1981-01-01

    The meiotic behaviour of two male human reciprocal translocations is described. One patient had an unbalanced son and a chain configuration. The second had a stillborn child and a ring corresponding to an adjacent I segregation. The meiotic behaviour of chromosomal rearrangements must be investigated for proper genetic counselling.

  5. Stat1 nuclear translocation by nucleolin upon monocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Jerke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat family of transcription factors traverse the nuclear membrane through a specialized structure, called the nuclear pore complex (NPC, which represents a selective filter for the import of proteins. Karyophilic molecules can bind directly to a subset of proteins of the NPC, collectively called nucleoporins. Alternatively, the transport is mediated via a carrier molecule belonging to the importin/karyopherin superfamily, which transmits the import into the nucleus through the NPC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we provide evidence for an alternative Stat1 nuclear import mechanism, which is mediated by the shuttle protein nucleolin. We observed Stat1-nucleolin association, nuclear translocation and specific binding to the regulatory DNA element GAS. Using expression of nucleolin transgenes, we found that the nuclear localization signal (NLS of nucleolin is responsible for Stat1 nuclear translocation. We show that this mechanism is utilized upon differentiation of myeloid cells and is specific for the differentiation step from monocytes to macrophages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data add the nucleolin-Stat1 complex as a novel functional partner for the cell differentiation program, which is uniquely poised to regulate the transcription machinery via Stat1 and nuclear metabolism via nucleolin.

  6. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  7. A novel selection system for chromosome translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Tennyson, Rachel B; Ebran, Nathalie; Herrera, Anissa E; Lindsley, Janet E.

    2002-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are common genetic abnormalities found in both leukemias and solid tumors. While much has been learned about the effects of specific translocations on cell proliferation, much less is known about what causes these chromosome rearrangements. This article describes the development and use of a system that genetically selects for rare translocation events using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A translocation YAC was created that contains the breakpoint cluster regi...

  8. Does Gene Translocation Accelerate the Evolution of Laterally Transferred Genes?

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Weilong; Golding, G. Brian

    2009-01-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) and gene rearrangement are essential for shaping bacterial genomes during evolution. Separate attention has been focused on understanding the process of lateral gene transfer and the process of gene translocation. However, little is known about how gene translocation affects laterally transferred genes. Here we have examined gene translocations and lateral gene transfers in closely related genome pairs. The results reveal that translocated genes undergo elevated ra...

  9. Utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detection of radiation-induced translocations in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes recent progress in a collaborative study by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and university of California, San Francisco, to investigate the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of A-bomb survivors. The frequencies of radiation-induced translocations measured between FISH and G-band/conventional stains for 33 Hiroshima a-bomb survivors (7 distally and 26 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 bone marrow dose ranging from 0-3.0 Sv). Findings showed that, except for a few discrepant cases, translocation frequencies from the same survivors agree reasonably well between FISH and G-banding, provides the assumption that the number of breaks involved in the radiation-induced translocations increases linearly with chromosomal dna content. Present findings have validated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of persistent translocations for quantification of previous exposures to ionizing radiation. (author). 9 refs

  10. Tailoring particle translocation via dielectrophoresis in pore channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Tsutsui, Makusu; Theodore, Hu; Yuhui, He; Arima, Akihide; Tsuji, Tetsuro; Doi, Kentaro; Kawano, Satoyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru; Kawai, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling electrophoretic motions of nanoscopic objects in fluidic channels are a central challenge in developing nanopore technology for molecular analyses. Although progress has been made in slowing the translocation velocity to meet the requirement for electrical detections of analytes via picoampere current measurements, there exists no method useful for regulating particle flows in the transverse directions. Here, we report the use of dielectrophoresis to manipulate the single-particle passage through a solid-state pore. We created a trap field by applying AC voltage between electrodes embedded in a low-aspect-ratio micropore. We demonstrated a traffic control of particles to go through center or near side surface via the voltage frequency. We also found enhanced capture efficiency along with faster escaping speed of particles by virtue of the AC-mediated electroosmosis. This method is compatible with nanopore sensing and would be widely applied for reducing off-axis effects to achieve single-molecule identification. PMID:27527126

  11. Post-release dispersal in animal translocations: social attraction and the "vacuum effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Robert, Alexandre; Le Gouar, Pascaline; Sarrazin, François

    2011-01-01

    Animal translocations are human-induced colonizations that can represent opportunities to contribute to the knowledge on the behavioral and demographic processes involved in the establishment of animal populations. Habitat selection behaviors, such as social cueing, have strong implications on dispersal and affect the establishment success of translocations. Using modeling simulations with a two-population network model (a translocated population and a remnant population), we investigated the consequences of four habitat selection strategies on post-translocation establishment probabilities in short- and long-lived species. Two dispersal strategies using social cues (conspecific attraction and habitat copying) were compared to random and quality-based strategies. We measured the sensitivity of local extinctions to dispersal strategies, life cycles, release frequencies, remnant population and release group sizes, the proportion of breeders and the connectivity between populations. Our results indicate that social behaviors can compromise establishment as a result of post-release dispersal, particularly in long-lived species. This behavioral mechanism, the "vacuum effect", arises from increased emigration in populations that are small relative to neighboring populations, reducing their rate of population growth. The vacuum effect can drive small remnant populations to extinction when a translocated group is large. In addition, the magnitude of the vacuum effect varies non-linearly with connectivity. The vacuum effect represents a novel form of the behaviorally mediated Allee effect that can cause unexpected establishment failures or population extinctions in response to social cueing. Accounting for establishment probabilities as a conditional step to the persistence of populations would improve the accuracy of predicting the fates of translocated or natural (meta)populations. PMID:22194784

  12. Post-release dispersal in animal translocations: social attraction and the "vacuum effect".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mihoub

    Full Text Available Animal translocations are human-induced colonizations that can represent opportunities to contribute to the knowledge on the behavioral and demographic processes involved in the establishment of animal populations. Habitat selection behaviors, such as social cueing, have strong implications on dispersal and affect the establishment success of translocations. Using modeling simulations with a two-population network model (a translocated population and a remnant population, we investigated the consequences of four habitat selection strategies on post-translocation establishment probabilities in short- and long-lived species. Two dispersal strategies using social cues (conspecific attraction and habitat copying were compared to random and quality-based strategies. We measured the sensitivity of local extinctions to dispersal strategies, life cycles, release frequencies, remnant population and release group sizes, the proportion of breeders and the connectivity between populations. Our results indicate that social behaviors can compromise establishment as a result of post-release dispersal, particularly in long-lived species. This behavioral mechanism, the "vacuum effect", arises from increased emigration in populations that are small relative to neighboring populations, reducing their rate of population growth. The vacuum effect can drive small remnant populations to extinction when a translocated group is large. In addition, the magnitude of the vacuum effect varies non-linearly with connectivity. The vacuum effect represents a novel form of the behaviorally mediated Allee effect that can cause unexpected establishment failures or population extinctions in response to social cueing. Accounting for establishment probabilities as a conditional step to the persistence of populations would improve the accuracy of predicting the fates of translocated or natural (metapopulations.

  13. Translocation strategies for multiple species depend on interspecific interaction type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Michaela; Bode, Michael; Moir, Melinda L; Vesk, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    Conservation translocations, anthropogenic movements of species to prevent their extinction, have increased substantially over the last few decades. Although multiple species are frequently moved to the same location, current translocation guidelines consider species in isolation. This practice ignores important interspecific interactions and thereby risks translocation failure. We model three different two-species systems to illustrate the inherent complexity of multispecies translocations and to assess the influence of different interaction types (consumer-resource, mutualism, and competition) on translocation strategies. We focus on how these different interaction types influence the optimal founder population sizes for successful translocations and the order in which the species are moved (simultaneous or sequential). Further, we assess the effect of interaction strength in simultaneous translocations and the time delay between translocations when moving two species sequentially. Our results show that translocation decisions need to reflect the type of interaction. While all translocations of interacting species require a minimum founder population size, which is demarked by an extinction boundary, consumer-resource translocations also have a maximum founder population limit. Above the minimum founder size, increasing the number of translocated individuals leads to a substantial increase in the extinction boundary of competitors and consumers, but not of mutualists. Competitive and consumer-resource systems benefit from sequential translocations, but the order of translocations does not change the outcomes for mutualistic interaction partners noticeably. Interspecific interactions are important processes that shape population dynamics and should therefore be incorporated into the quantitative planning of multispecies translocations. Our findings apply whenever interacting species are moved, for example, in reintroductions, conservation introductions, biological

  14. Quantized biopolymer translocation through nanopores: departure from simple scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone; Fyta, Maria; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Succi, Sauro

    2009-01-01

    We discuss multiscale simulations of long biopolymer translocation through wide nanopores that can accommodate multiple polymer strands. The simulations provide clear evidence of folding quantization, namely, the translocation proceeds through multi-folded configurations characterized by a well-defined integer number of folds. As a consequence, the translocation time acquires a dependence on the average folding number, which results in a deviation from the single-exponent power-law characterizing single-file translocation through narrow pores. The mechanism of folding quantization allows polymers above a threshold length (approximately $1,000$ persistence lengths for double-stranded DNA) to exhibit cooperative behavior and as a result to translocate noticeably faster.

  15. Origin of translocation barriers for polyelectrolyte chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Muthukumar, M

    2009-11-21

    For single-file translocations of a charged macromolecule through a narrow pore, the crucial step of arrival of an end at the pore suffers from free energy barriers, arising from changes in intrachain electrostatic interaction, distribution of ionic clouds and solvent molecules, and conformational entropy of the chain. All contributing factors to the barrier in the initial stage of translocation are evaluated by using the self-consistent field theory for the polyelectrolyte and the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann description for ions without radial symmetry. The barrier is found to be essentially entropic due to conformational changes. For moderate and high salt concentrations, the barriers for the polyelectrolyte chain are quantitatively equivalent to that of uncharged self-avoiding walks. Electrostatic effects are shown to increase the free energy barriers, but only slightly. The degree of ionization, electrostatic interaction strength, decreasing salt concentration, and the solvent quality all result in increases in the barrier. PMID:19929072

  16. Unforced polymer translocation compared to the forced case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, V V; Linna, R P; Kaski, K

    2010-03-01

    We present results for unforced polymer translocation from simulations using Langevin dynamics in two dimensions (2D) to four dimensions and stochastic rotation dynamics supporting hydrodynamic modes in three dimensions (3D). We compare our results to forced translocation and a simplified model where the polymer escapes from an infinite pore. The simple model shows that the scaling behavior of unforced translocation is independent of the dimension of the side to which the polymer is translocating. We find that, unlike its forced counterpart, unforced translocation dynamics is insensitive to pore design. Hydrodynamics is seen to markedly speed up the unforced translocation process but not to affect the scaling relations. Average mean-squared displacement shows scaling with average transition time in unforced but not in forced translocation. The waiting-time distribution in unforced translocation follows closely Poissonian distribution. Our measured transfer probabilities align well with those obtained from an equilibrium theory in 3D, but somewhat worse in 2D, where a polymer's relaxation toward equilibrium with respect to its translocation time is slower. Consequently, in stark contrast to forced translocation, unforced translocation is seen to remain close to equilibrium and shows clear universality. PMID:20365761

  17. Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an important component of environmental characterization activities and serves as a basis for distinguishing the presence and significance of contamination. Background data can also be used to assess the levels of baseline risk to which humans or other receptors are typically exposed and to establish remediation goals. Evaluating background on a sitewide basis provides a consistent, technically defensible definition of background as opposed to determining area-specific background compositions for each waste management unit being considered for remediation across the Hanford Site

  18. Photosynthesis/translocation studies in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the basic methods of 14C use in plant science are presented with three examples of applications in the field of plant physiology and ecology. Since environmental factors play a major role in the rates of photosynthesis and translocation processes, a majority of the chapter is devoted to the description of methods and technologies involved to maintain normal growth conditions for the plants used for 14C experiments

  19. Two phase picture in driven polymer translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Takuya; Sakaue, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Two phase picture is a simple and effective methodology to capture the nonequilibrium dynamics of polymer associated with tension propagation. When applying it to the driven translocation process, there is a point to be noted, as briefly discussed in our recent article [Phys. Rev. E 85, 061803 (2012)]. In this article, we address this issue in detail and modify our previous prediction [Euro. Phys. J. E 34, 135 (2011)] by adopting an alternative steady-state ansatz. The modified scaling predic...

  20. Microscopy of bacterial translocation during small bowel obstruction and ischemia in vivo – a new animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner Mathias

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing animal models provide only indirect information about the pathogenesis of infections caused by indigenous gastrointestinal microflora and the kinetics of bacterial translocation. The aim of this study was to develop a novel animal model to assess bacterial translocation and intestinal barrier function in vivo. Methods In anaesthetized male Wistar rats, 0.5 ml of a suspension of green fluorescent protein-transfected E. coli was administered by intraluminal injection in a model of small bowel obstruction. Animals were randomly subjected to non-ischemic or ischemic bowel obstruction. Ischemia was induced by selective clamping of the terminal mesenteric vessels feeding the obstructed bowel loop. Time intervals necessary for translocation of E. coli into the submucosal stroma and the muscularis propria was assessed using intravital microscopy. Results Bacterial translocation into the submucosa and muscularis propria took a mean of 36 ± 8 min and 80 ± 10 min, respectively, in small bowel obstruction. Intestinal ischemia significantly accelerated bacterial translocation into the submucosa (11 ± 5 min, p E. coli were visible in frozen sections of small bowel, mesentery, liver and spleen taken two hours after E. coli administration. Conclusions Intravital microscopy of fluorescent bacteria is a novel approach to study bacterial translocation in vivo. We have applied this technique to define minimal bacterial transit time as a functional parameter of intestinal barrier function.

  1. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis. PMID

  2. Determinants of the t(14;18) translocation and their role in t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Rachel S.; Roulland, Sandrine; Morgado, Ester; Sungalee, Stéphanie; Jouve, Nathalie; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Masala, Giovanna; Sánchez, María José; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Sala, Núria; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Vermeulen, Roel; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Nieters, Alexandra; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Stocks, Tanja; Melin, Beatrice; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Nadel, Bertrand; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established. Methods: t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakp

  3. Determinants of the t(14;18) translocation and their role in t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Rachel S; Roulland, Sandrine; Morgado, Ester; Sungalee, Stéphanie; Jouve, Nathalie; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Polidoro, Silvia; Masala, Giovanna; Sánchez, María-José; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Sala, Núria; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Dorronsoro, Miren; Travis, Ruth C; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Murphy, Neil; Vermeulen, Roel; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Peeters, Petra H; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Lagiou, Pagona; Nieters, Alexandra; Canzian, Federico; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Stocks, Tanja; Melin, Beatrice; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Brennan, Paul; Johansson, Mattias; Nadel, Bertrand; Vineis, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established. METHODS: t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakp

  4. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider Anja; Kunze Reinhard; Wipf Daniel; Hilpert Melanie; Desimone Marcelo; Catoni Elisabetta; Flügge Ulf-Ingo; Schumacher Karin; Frommer Wolf B

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitoc...

  5. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  6. Targeted Chromosomal Translocations and Essential Gene Knockout Using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyang; Li, Mu; Feng, Xuezhu; Guang, Shouhong

    2015-12-01

    Many genes play essential roles in development and fertility; their disruption leads to growth arrest or sterility. Genetic balancers have been widely used to study essential genes in many organisms. However, it is technically challenging and laborious to generate and maintain the loss-of-function mutations of essential genes. The CRISPR/Cas9 technology has been successfully applied for gene editing and chromosome engineering. Here, we have developed a method to induce chromosomal translocations and produce genetic balancers using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and have applied this approach to edit essential genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. The co-injection of dual small guide RNA targeting genes on different chromosomes resulted in reciprocal translocation between nonhomologous chromosomes. These animals with chromosomal translocations were subsequently crossed with animals that contain normal sets of chromosomes. The F1 progeny were subjected to a second round of Cas9-mediated gene editing. Through this method, we successfully produced nematode strains with specified chromosomal translocations and generated a number of loss-of-function alleles of two essential genes (csr-1 and mes-6). Therefore, our method provides an easy and efficient approach to generate and maintain loss-of-function alleles of essential genes with detailed genetic background information. PMID:26482793

  7. DNA damage-induced translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus regulates cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulbricht Tobias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteins are able to react in response to distinct stress stimuli by alteration of their subcellular distribution. The stress-responsive protein S100A11 belongs to the family of multifunctional S100 proteins which have been implicated in several key biological processes. Previously, we have shown that S100A11 is directly involved in DNA repair processes at damaged chromatin in the nucleus. To gain further insight into the underlying mechanism subcellular trafficking of S100A11 in response to DNA damage was analyzed. Results We show that DNA damage induces a nucleolin-mediated translocation of S100A11 from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. This translocation is impeded by inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of PKCα. Translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus correlates with an increased cellular p21 protein level. Depletion of nucleolin by siRNA severely impairs translocation of S100A11 into the nucleus resulting in a decreased p21 protein level. Additionally, cells lacking nucleolin showed a reduced colony forming capacity. Conclusions These observations suggest that regulation of the subcellular distribution of S100A11 plays an important role in the DNA damage response and p21-mediated cell cycle control.

  8. Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, A A; Yamauchi, K.; Chan, Y. C.; Konishi, M; Yamamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nucleoside-nucleotide mixture has been shown to improve gut morphology and reduce the incidence of bacterial translocation in protein deficient mice. AIMS--To compare the reparative effect of nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and their individual components on maintenance of gut integrity and bacterial translocation based on their differential metabolism and utilisation. METHODS--ICR (CD-1) mice were randomised into eight groups of 10 animals each and fed 20% casein diet (control), pr...

  9. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Shinichiro Ikuma; Takeshi Sato; Mayumi Sugiura-Ogasawara; Motoi Nagayoshi; Atsushi Tanaka; Satoru Takeda

    2015-01-01

    Background Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first ...

  10. Stochastic background of gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    D'Araújo, J C N; Aguiar, O D

    2000-01-01

    A continuous stochastic background of gravitational waves (GWs) for burst sources is produced if the mean time interval between the occurrence of bursts is smaller than the average time duration of a single burst at the emission, i.e., the so called duty cycle must be greater than one. To evaluate the background of GWs produced by an ensemble of sources, during their formation, for example, one needs to know the average energy flux emitted during the formation of a single object and the formation rate of such objects as well. In many cases the energy flux emitted during an event of production of GWs is not known in detail, only characteristic values for the dimensionless amplitude and frequencies are known. Here we present a shortcut to calculate stochastic backgrounds of GWs produced from cosmological sources. For this approach it is not necessary to know in detail the energy flux emitted at each frequency. Knowing the characteristic values for the ``lumped'' dimensionless amplitude and frequency we show tha...

  11. The role of the Philadelphia translocation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Geurts Van Kessel, Ad

    1983-01-01

    textabstractDuring the last two decades evidence for a close association between the presence of specific chromosomal abnormalities and the occurrence of several types of cancers and leukemias has accumulated. The Philadelphia (Ph 1) translocation, present in about 90% of the patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), is one of the most typical and best documented examples of such an aberration. Usually this translocation involves chromosome 9 and 22: t(9;22)(q34;q11). The translocation pr...

  12. Mapping RFLP Loci in Maize Using B-a Translocations

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, D.; Helentjaris, T

    1989-01-01

    Plants hypoploid for specific segments of each of the maize (Zea mays L.) chromosomes were generated using 24 different B-A translocations. Plants carrying each of the B-A translocations were crossed as male parents to inbreds, and sibling progeny hypoploid or not hypoploid for specific chromosomal segments were recovered. Genomic DNAs from the parents, hypoploid progeny, and nonhypoploid (euploid or hyperploid) progeny for each of these B-A translocations were digested with restriction enzym...

  13. Dithiothreitol and the translocation of preprolactin across mammalian endoplasmic reticulum

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The translocation mode of preprolactin (pPL) across mammalian endoplasmic reticulum was reinvestigated in light of recent findings that nascent secretory polypeptides synthesized in the presence of a highly reducing environment could be translocated posttranslationally and independently of their attachment to the ribosome (Maher, P. A., and S. J. Singer, 1986, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83:9001-9005). The effects of the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) on pPL synthesis and translocation w...

  14. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K; Haissman, Judith M; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2014-01-01

    crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk....

  15. Bacterial translocation and gut microflora in obstructive jaundice.

    OpenAIRE

    Parks, R W; Clements, W D; Pope, C; Halliday, M I; Rowlands, B J; Diamond, T.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial translocation from the gut is implicated in the pathophysiology of complications associated with obstructive jaundice. Absence of intraluminal bile salts and their antiendotoxic effects may result in overgrowth of bacteria, promoting bacterial translocation. The large bowel is the largest source of gram negative bacteria but the small bowel is more permeable. This study investigated the effect of obstructive jaundice on bacterial translocation and on the indigenous luminal microflor...

  16. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    OpenAIRE

    S. K. Kakkos; Kirkilesis, J.; Scopa, C D; Arvaniti, A.; Alexandrides, T.; Vagianos, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by admin...

  17. The protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, P; Gilmore, R; Müller, M; Blobel, G

    1982-12-24

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (r.e.r.) has been postulated to possess a single translation-coupled translocation system (in multiple copies) that effects signal sequence-mediated translocation of all secretory and lysosomal proteins and integration of all integral membrane proteins whose port of entry is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (G. Blobel 1980 Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496-1500). Two proteins have been isolated that are components of the r.e.r. translocation system. Their properties and function in protein translocation across and integration into membranes are discussed. PMID:6131460

  18. Obstacle Effects on One-Dimensional Translocation of ATPase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xian-Ju; AI Bao-Quan; LIU Liang-Gang

    2002-01-01

    We apply a general random walk model to the study of the ATPase's one-dimensional translocation along obstacle biological environment, and show the effects of random obstacles on the ATPase translocation along single stranded DNA. We find that the obstacle environment can reduce the lifetime of ATPase lattice-bound state which results in the inhibition of ATPase activity. We also carry out the ranges of rate constant of ATPase unidirectonal translocation and bidirectional translocation. Our results are consistent with the experiments and relevant theoretical consideration, and can be used to explain some physiological phenomena.

  19. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, P. M.; Linna, R. P.

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β ≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β ≈1.36 . This value can be explained by our derivation of β =4 /3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics.

  20. Calreticulin Translocation Aggravates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-associated Apoptosis during Cardiomyocyte Hypoxia/Reoxygenation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Fei Xu; Xiu-Hua Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Calreticulin (CRT) is major Ca2+-binding chaperone mainly resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen.Recently,it has been shown that non-ER CRT regulates a wide array of cellular responses.We previously found that CRT was up-regulated during hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and this study was aimed to investigate whether CRT nuclear translocation aggravates ER stress (ERS)-associated apoptosis during H/R injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.Methods:Apoptosis rate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage in culture medium were measured as indices of cell injury.Immunofluorescence staining showed the morphological changes of ER and intracellular translocation of CRT.Western blotting or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of target molecules.Results:Compared with control,H/R increased apoptosis rate and LDH activity.The ER became condensed and bubbled,and CRT translocated to the nucleus.Western blotting showed up-regulation of CRT,Nrf2,activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4),CHOP and caspase-12 expression after H/R.Exogenous CRT overexpression induced by plasmid transfection before H/R increased cell apoptosis,LDH leakage,ER disorder,CRT nuclear translocation and the expression of ERS-associated molecules.However,administration of the ERS inhibitor,taurine,or CRT siRNA alleviated cell injury,ER disorder,and inhibited ERS-associated apoptosis.Conclusions:Our results indicated that during H/R stress,CRT translocation increases cell apoptosis and LDH leakage,aggravates ER disorder,up-regulates expression of nuclear transcription factors,Nrf2 and ATF4,and activates ERS-associated apoptosis.

  1. Multistep protein unfolding during nanopore translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Larrea, David; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-04-01

    Cells are divided into compartments and separated from the environment by lipid bilayer membranes. Essential molecules are transported back and forth across the membranes. We have investigated how folded proteins use narrow transmembrane pores to move between compartments. During this process, the proteins must unfold. To examine co-translocational unfolding of individual molecules, we tagged protein substrates with oligonucleotides to enable potential-driven unidirectional movement through a model protein nanopore, a process that differs fundamentally from extension during force spectroscopy measurements. Our findings support a four-step translocation mechanism for model thioredoxin substrates. First, the DNA tag is captured by the pore. Second, the oligonucleotide is pulled through the pore, causing local unfolding of the C terminus of the thioredoxin adjacent to the pore entrance. Third, the remainder of the protein unfolds spontaneously. Finally, the unfolded polypeptide diffuses through the pore into the recipient compartment. The unfolding pathway elucidated here differs from those revealed by denaturation experiments in solution, for which two-state mechanisms have been proposed.

  2. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  3. Chromosome translocations measured by fluorescence in-situ hybridization: A promising biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biomarker for exposure and risk assessment would be most useful if it employs an endpoint that is highly quantitative, is stable with time, and is relevant to human risk. Recent advances in chromosome staining using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) facilitate fast and reliable measurement of reciprocal translocations, a kind of DNA damage linked to both prior exposure and risk. In contrast to other biomarkers available, the frequency of reciprocal translocations in individuals exposed to whole-body radiation is stable with time post exposure, has a rather small inter-individual variability, and can be measured accurately at the low levels. Here, the authors discuss results from their studies demonstrating that chromosome painting can be used to reconstruct radiation dose for workers exposed within the dose limits, for individuals exposed a long time ago, and even for those who have been diagnosed with leukemia but not yet undergone therapy

  4. Rifaximin has a Marginal Impact on Microbial Translocation, T-cell Activation and Inflammation in HIV-Positive Immune Non-responders to Antiretroviral Therapy – ACTG A5286

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio, Allan R.; Chan, Ellen S; Bosch, Ronald J.; Macatangay, Bernard J.C.; Read, Sarah W.; Yesmin, Suria; Taiwo, Babafemi; Margolis, David M.; Jacobson, Jeffrey M.; Landay, Alan L.; Wilson, Cara C.; Mellors, John W.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Rodriguez, Benigno; Aziz, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    Background. Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic that decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cirrhotics, may decrease the elevated levels of microbial translocation, T-cell activation and inflammation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive immune nonresponders to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  5. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce Levi CT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer-specific recurrent translocations, we have examined 444 unique pairs of genes involved in these translocations to determine the correlation of translocation breakpoints and fragile sites in the gene pairs. We found that over half (52% of translocation breakpoints in at least one gene of these gene pairs are mapped to fragile sites. Among these, we examined the DNA sequences within and flanking three randomly selected pairs of translocation-prone genes, and found that they exhibit characteristic features of fragile DNA, with frequent AT-rich flexibility islands and the potential of forming highly stable secondary structures. Conclusion Our study is the first to examine gene pairs involved in all recurrent chromosomal translocations observed in tumor cells, and to correlate the location of more than half of breakpoints to positions of known fragile sites. These results provide strong evidence to support a causative role for fragile sites in the generation of cancer-specific chromosomal rearrangements.

  6. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  7. Reconstruction and modeling protein translocation and compartmentalization in Escherichia coli at the genome-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Joanne K.; O’Brien, Edward J.; Lerman, Joshua A.;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Membranes play a crucial role in cellular functions. Membranes provide a physical barrier, control the trafficking of substances entering and leaving the cell, and are a major determinant of cellular ultra-structure. In addition, components embedded within the membrane participate in...... into genome-scale models. Results: The recent genome-scale model of metabolism and protein expression in Escherichia coli (called a ME-model) computes the complete composition of the proteome required to perform whole cell functions. Here we expand the ME-model to include (1) a reconstruction of...... protein translocation pathways, (2) assignment of all cellular proteins to one of four compartments (cytoplasm, inner membrane, periplasm, and outer membrane) and a translocation pathway, (3) experimentally determined translocase catalytic and porin diffusion rates, and (4) a novel membrane constraint...

  8. 14q12 translocation in a non-Burkitt lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto,Kanji

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome analysis was performed on cells from a patient of null cell lymphoma, well-differentiated type. A 14q12 translocation was observed in all the banded cells. In addition, there were multiple chromosome abnormalities. This case will be useful in considering the significance of the 14q1(1-3 translocation in malignant lymphoma disease.

  9. Adsorption-driven translocation of polymer chain into nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2012-06-01

    The polymer translocation into nanopores is generally facilitated by external driving forces, such as electric or hydrodynamic fields, to compensate for entropic restrictions imposed by the confinement. We investigate the dynamics of translocation driven by polymer adsorption to the confining walls that is relevant to chromatographic separation of macromolecules. By using the self-consistent field theory, we study the passage of a chain trough a small opening from cis to trans compartments of spherical shape with adsorption potential applied in the trans compartment. The chain transfer is modeled as the Fokker-Plank diffusion along the free energy landscape of the translocation pass represented as a sum of the free energies of cis and trans parts of the chain tethered to the pore opening. We investigate how the chain length, the size of trans compartment, the magnitude of adsorption potential, and the extent of excluded volume interactions affect the translocation time and its distribution. Interplay of these factors brings about a variety of different translocation regimes. We show that excluded volume interactions within a certain range of adsorption potentials can cause a local minimum on the free energy landscape, which is absent for ideal chains. The adsorption potential always leads to the decrease of the free energy barrier, increasing the probability of successful translocation. However, the translocation time depends non-monotonically of the magnitude of adsorption potential. Our calculations predict the existence of the critical magnitude of adsorption potential, which separates favorable and unfavorable regimes of translocation.

  10. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer;

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore...

  11. Pb distribution and translocation in Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The trends of distribution, translocation and seasonal change of heavy metal Pb were studied based on the surface and bottom water sampling in Jiaozhou Bay in 1979, and compared with those in 1990's. The results showed that the source of Pb in the bay was from wastewater and sewage in the east of Jiaozhou Bay from ocean vessels. Pb concentration was higher in spring and lower in summer and autumn, and remained stable through sedimentation in the bottom layer. The overall water quality was good in 1970's. Compared with the environmental monitoring data of 1995-1999, Pb pollution had become serious. Therefore, more efforts should be made to protect the bay from Pb pollution.

  12. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  13. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, P M

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain $\\beta \\approx 1.26$ for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be ...

  14. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.;

    2012-01-01

    Chromosome translocations are a common cause of congenital disorders and cancer. Current detection methods require use of expensive and highly specialized techniques to identify the chromosome regions involved in a translocation. There is a need for rapid yet specific detection for diagnosis and...... prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control the...... fluid flow. The microvalves in series are designed to enable fluid movement from the center towards the periphery of the disc to handle DNA sequences representing translocation between chromosome 3 and 9. The translocation detection is performed in two hybridization steps in separate sorting and...

  15. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph

    2004-12-31

    Edwards, John W.; Costa, Ralph. 2004. Range-wide success of red-cockaded woodpecker translocations. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 307-311. Abstract: Red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) have declined range-wide during the past century, suffering from habitat loss and the effects of fire exclusion in older southern pine forests. Red-cockaded woodpecker translocations are a potentially important tool in conservation efforts to reestablish red-cockaded woodpeckers in areas from which they have been extirpated. Currently, translocations are critical in ongoing efforts to save and restore the many existing small populations. We examined the effects of demographic and environmental factors on the range-wide success of translocations between 1989 and 1995.

  16. Bacterial Translocation and Change in Intestinal Permeability in Patients after Abdominal Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi QIAO; Zhanliang LI; Jiye LI; Lianrong LU; Yi LV; Junyou LI

    2009-01-01

    sely related with bacterial translocation. Intestinal bacterial translocation (most commonly E. coli) might occur at early stage (2 h) after ab-dominal surgery. Postoperative SIRS and infection might bear a close relationship with bacterial translocation.

  17. Translocations of amphibians: Proven management method or experimental technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigel, Richard A.; Dodd, C. Kenneth, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    In an otherwise excellent review of metapopulation dynamics in amphibians, Marsh and Trenham (2001) make the following provocative statements (emphasis added): If isolation effects occur primarily in highly disturbed habitats, species translocations may be necessary to promote local and regional population persistence. Because most amphibians lack parental care, they areprime candidates for egg and larval translocations. Indeed, translocations have already proven successful for several species of amphibians. Where populations are severely isolated, translocations into extinct subpopulations may be the best strategy to promote regional population persistence. We take issue with these statements for a number of reasons. First, the authors fail to cite much of the relevant literature on species translocations in general and for amphibians in particular. Second, to those unfamiliar with current research in amphibian conservation biology, these comments might suggest that translocations are a proven management method. This is not the case, at least in most instances where translocations have been evaluated for an appropriate period of time. Finally, the authors fail to point out some of the negative aspects of species translocation as a management method. We realize that Marsh and Trenham's paper was not concerned primarily with translocations. However, because Marsh and Trenham (2001) made specific recommendations for conservation planners and managers (many of whom are not herpetologists or may not be familiar with the pertinent literature on amphibians), we believe that it is essential to point out that not all amphibian biologists are as comfortable with translocations as these authors appear to be. We especially urge caution about advocating potentially unproven techniques without a thorough review of available options.

  18. X-ray-induced reciprocal translocations in stem-cell spermatogonia of the rhesus monkey: Dose and fractionation responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhesus monkeys received total body or local testes X-irradiation with unfractionated (50, 300, 400, 800 and 850 rad) or fractionated (200+200 rad with 24-h interval) exposures. At different times after irradiation, chromosomal analysis was made of C-banded dividing spermatocytes. The observed frequencies of translocation configurations confirmed earlier results about the low induction rate of reciprocal translocations in stem-cell spermatogonia of the rhesus monkey. The absence of any translocation induction at doses of 400 rad and higher indicates an extreme insensitivity of surviving radiation-resistant stem cells for the induction of this type of genetic damage. The frequency of translocations following a fractionated exposure to 400 rad, which is above the peak yield for single exposures, was clearly higher than that obtained when the same dose was applied as a single exposure (0.7 l versus 0%), but significantly lower than expected on the basis of additivity of the two fractions (0.71% versus 1.98%). (orig.)

  19. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications in Neurospora can disrupt genes and create novel open reading frames

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parmit K Singh; Srividhya V Iyer; T Naga Sowjanya; B Kranthi Raj; Durgadas P Kasbekar

    2010-12-01

    In Neurospora crassa, crosses between normal sequence strains and strains bearing some translocations can yield progeny bearing a duplication (Dp) of the translocated chromosome segment. Here, 30 breakpoint junction sequences of 12 Dp-generating translocations were determined. The breakpoints disrupted 13 genes (including predicted genes), and created 10 novel open reading frames. Insertion of sequences from LG III into LG I as translocation T(UK818) disrupts the eat-3 gene, which is the ortholog of the Podospora anserine gene ami1. Since ami1-homozygous Podospora crosses were reported to increase the frequency of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), we performed crosses homozygous for a deficiency in eat-3 to test for a corresponding increase in RIP frequency. However, our results suggested that, unlike in Podospora, the eat-3 gene might be essential for ascus development in Neurospora. Duplication–heterozygous crosses are generally barren in Neurospora; however, by using molecular probes developed in this study, we could identify Dp segregants from two different translocation–heterozygous crosses, and using these we found that the barren phenotype of at least some duplication–heterozygous crosses was incompletely penetrant.

  20. Protein Translocation by Bacterial Toxin Channels: A Comparison of Diphtheria Toxin and Colicin Ia

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhengyan; Jakes, Karen S.; Samelson-Jones, Ben S.; Lai, Bing; Zhao, Gang; London, Erwin; Finkelstein, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Regions of both colicin Ia and diphtheria toxin N-terminal to the channel-forming domains can be translocated across planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. In this article we show that the translocation pathway of diphtheria toxin allows much larger molecules to be translocated than does the translocation pathway of colicin Ia. In particular, the folded A chain of diphtheria toxin is readily translocated by that toxin but is not translocated by colicin Ia. This difference cannot be attributed...

  1. Fetal irradiation of rats induces persistent translocations in mammary epithelial cells similar to the level after adult irradiation, but not in hematolymphoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Mimako; Nishimura, Mayumi; Hamasaki, Kanya; Mishima, Shuji; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Nakata, Akifumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Noda, Asao; Nakamura, Nori; Kodama, Yoshiaki

    2014-02-01

    In both humans and mice, fetal exposure to radiation fails to induce a persistent increase in the frequency of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Such a low-level response to radiation exposure is counterintuitive in view of the generally accepted belief that a fetus is sensitive to radiation. To determine if this is a general phenomenon, both mammary epithelial cells and spleen cells were studied in rats. Fetuses of 17.5 days postcoitus were irradiated with 2 Gy of gamma rays, and mammary tissues were removed 6-45 weeks later. Subsequently, short-term cultures were established to detect translocations using the two-color FISH method. The results showed that translocation frequencies were not only elevated in rats irradiated as fetuses, but were also almost as high as those in rats that were irradiated as adults (12 weeks old, pregnant mothers or young virgins) and examined 6-45 weeks later. There was no evidence of higher sensitivity in fetal cells with respect to the induction of translocations. In contrast, translocation frequencies in spleen cells were not elevated in adult rats irradiated as fetuses but were increased after irradiation of adults as previously seen in mouse spleen cells and human T lymphocytes. In the case of irradiation of adult rats, the induced translocation frequencies were similar between spleen cells and mammary epithelial cells. If we take translocation frequency as a surrogate marker of potential carcinogenic effect of radiation, the current results suggest that fetal irradiation can induce persistent potential carcinogenic damage in mammary stem/progenitor cells but this does not contribute to the increased risk of cancer since it has been reported that irradiation of fetal rats of the SD strain does not increase the risk of mammary cancers. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:24512615

  2. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  3. Does translocation influence physiological stress in the desert tortoise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K.K.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Barber, A.M.; Vittum, K.M.; Medica, P.A.; Tracy, C.R.; Hunter, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife translocation is increasingly used to mitigate disturbances to animals or habitat due to human activities, yet little is known about the extent to which translocating animals causes stress. To understand the relationship between physiological stress and translocation, we conducted a multiyear study (2007–2009) using a population of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) near Fort Irwin, California. Blood samples were collected from adult tortoises in three treatment groups (resident, translocated and control) for 1 year prior to and 2 years after translocation. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay for plasma total corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid hormone commonly associated with stress responses in reptiles. CORT values were analyzed in relation to potential covariates (animal sex, date, behavior, treatment, handling time, air temperature, home-range size, precipitation and annual plant production) among seasons and years. CORT values in males were higher than in females, and values for both varied monthly throughout the activity season and among years. Year and sex were strong predictors of CORT, and translocation explained little in terms of CORT. Based on these results, we conclude that translocation does not elicit a physiological stress response in desert tortoises.

  4. Genetic outcomes from the translocations of the critically endangered woylie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo PACIONI, Adrian F.WAYNE, Peter B.S.SPENCER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Translocations are an important conservation strategy for many species. However simply observing demographic growth of a translocated population is not sufficient to infer species recovery. Adequate genetic representation of the source population(s and their long-term viability should also be considered. The woylie Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi has been subject to more formal translocations for conservation than any other marsupial that, up until recently, has resulted in one of the most successful species recoveries in Australia. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to assess the genetic outcomes of translocated woylie populations. These populations have lost genetic variability, differentiated from their source population and the supplementation program on two island populations appears to have failed. We discuss the conservation implications that our results have for managing threatened species, outline some general recommendations for the management of present and future translocations and discuss the appropriate sampling design for the establishment of new populations or captive breeding programs that may mitigate the genetic ‘erosion’ seen in our study species. This research provides some practical outcomes and a pragmatic understanding of translocation biology. The findings are directly applicable to other translocation programs [Current Zoology 59 (3: 294-310, 2013].

  5. Genetic outcomes from the translocations of the critically endangered woylie

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo PACIONI; Adrian F.WAYNE; Peter B.S.SPENCER

    2013-01-01

    Translocations are an important conservation strategy for many species.However simply observing demographic growth of a translocated population is not sufficient to infer species recovery.Adequate genetic representation of the source population(s) and their long-term viability should also be considered.The woylie Bettongiapenicillata ogilbyi has been subject to more formal translocations for conservation than any other marsupial that,up until recently,has resulted in one of the most successful species recoveries in Australia.We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to assess the genetic outcomes of translocated woylie populations.These populations have lost genetic variability,differentiated from their source population and the supplementation program on two island populations appears to have failed.We discuss the conservation implications that our results have for managing threatened species,outline some general recommendations for the management of present and future translocations and discuss the appropriate sampling design for the establishment of new populations or captive breeding programs that may mitigate the genetic ‘erosion' seen in our study species.This research provides some practical outcomes and a pmgrnatic understanding of translocation biology.The findings are directly applicable to other translocation programs.

  6. Observing GLUT4 Translocation in Live L6 Cells Using Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 plays a key role in maintaining whole body glucose homeostasis. Tracking GLUT4 in space and time can provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms of insulin-regulated GLUT4 translocation. Organic dyes and fluorescent proteins were used in previous studies for investigating the traffic of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle cells and adipocytes. Because of their relative weak fluorescent signal against strong cellular autofluorescence background and their fast photobleaching rate, most studies only focused on particular segments of GLUT4 traffic. In this study, we have developed a new method for observing the translocation of GLUT4 targeted with photostable and bright quantum dots (QDs in live L6 cells. QDs were targeted to GLUT4myc specifically and internalized with GLUT4myc through receptor-mediated endocytosis. Compared with traditional fluorescence dyes and fluorescent proteins, QDs with high brightness and extremely photostability are suitable for long-term single particle tracking, so individual GLUT4-QD complex can be easily detected and tracked for long periods of time. This newly described method will be a powerful tool for observing the translocation of GLUT4 in live L6 cells.

  7. Chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, P M; Linna, R P

    2016-01-01

    Polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore assisted by chaperones binding to the polymer is a process encountered in vivo for proteins. Studying the relevant models by computer simulations is computationally demanding. Accordingly, previous studies are either for stiff polymers in three dimensions or flexible polymers in two dimensions. Here, we study chaperone-assisted translocation of flexible polymers in three dimensions using Langevin dynamics. We show that differences in binding mechanisms, more specifically, whether a chaperone can bind to a single site or multiple sites on the polymer, lead to substantial differences in translocation dynamics in three dimensions. We show that the single-binding mode leads to dynamics that is very much like that in the constant-force driven translocation and accordingly mainly determined by tension propagation on the cis side. We obtain β≈1.26 for the exponent for the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length. This fairly low value can be explained by the additional friction due to binding particles. The multiple-site binding leads to translocation the dynamics of which is mainly determined by the trans side. For this process we obtain β≈1.36. This value can be explained by our derivation of β=4/3 for constant-bias translocation, where translocated polymer segments form a globule on the trans side. Our results pave the way for understanding and utilizing chaperone-assisted translocation where variations in microscopic details lead to rich variations in the emerging dynamics. PMID:26871100

  8. Can hunting of translocated nuisance Canada geese reduce local conflicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevinski, R.A.; Malecki, R.A.; Curtis, P.D.

    2006-01-01

    Resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) nest or reside in the temperate latitudes of North America. In past years, translocation-the capture and subsequent release of geese at distant locations-has been used to establish resident goose populations and to reduce nuisance problems. However, with new special hunting seasons designed to target resident Canada geese, we can now evaluate translocation as a management tool when hunting is allowed at release sites. We selected 2 study sites, representative of urban and suburban locations with nuisance resident geese, in central and western New York, USA. In June 2003, we translocated 80 neck-banded adult geese, 14 radiomarked adult females, and 83 juveniles 150 km east and southwest from urban and suburban problem sites in western New York to state-owned Wildlife Management Areas. At these same capture sites, we used 151 neck-banded adult geese, 12 radiomarked females, and 100 juveniles as controls to compare dispersal movements and harvest vulnerability to translocated geese. All observations (n = 45) of translocated radiomarked geese were hunting was permitted. Only 25 of 538 observations (4.6%) of radiomarked geese at control sites were in areas open to hunting. The remainder of observations occurred at nonhunting locations within 10 km of control sites. More translocated adult geese (23.8%) were harvested than control geese (6.6%; ??2 = 72.98, P = 0.0009). More translocated juvenile geese were harvested (22.9%) than juvenile controls (5.0%; ??2 = 72.30, P = 0.0005). Only 7 (8.8%) translocated adult geese returned to the original capture sites during Canada goose hunting seasons. Translocation of adult and juvenile geese in family groups may alleviate nuisance problems at conflict sites through increased harvest, reducing the number of birds returning in subsequent years.

  9. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation—a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios—on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range

  10. Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camparoto, Marjori L.; Ramalho, Adriana T.; Natarajan, Adayapalam T.; Curado, Maria P.; Sakamoto-Hojo, Elza T

    2003-09-29

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to {sup 137}cesium in the Goiania (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro dose-response curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X{sup 2}+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to {sup 137}cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5 Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation.

  11. Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to 137cesium in the Goiania (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro dose-response curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X2+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to 137cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5 Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation

  12. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  13. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  14. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  15. Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gassen, G.; De Jonghe, C.; Nishimura, M.; G. Yu; Kuhn, S; St George-Hyslop, P.; van Broeckhoven, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the in...

  16. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy R. Denison

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aphidicolin (APC-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom chromosomal breakage at the translocation region in all three individuals examined. The APC-inducible fragility at the 14q21q translocation region suggests that this rearrangement was the result of chromosomal mutation at fragile site(s in the progenitor chromosomes, or that this fragility was the result of the fusion of nonfragile progenitor chromosomes.

  17. Mechanism for translocation of fluoroquinolones across lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, O.; Rog, T.; Javanainen, M.;

    2012-01-01

    Classical atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations, constrained free energy calculations, and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are employed to study the diffusive translocation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) across lipid membranes. CPFX is considered here as a representative of the fluoroquinolone...

  18. Translocation of an Incompressible Vesicle through a Pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaei, Hamid R; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2016-07-01

    We have derived the free energy landscape for the translocation of a single vesicle through a narrow pore by accounting for bending and stretching of the vesicle, and the deformation of the vesicle by the pore. Emergence of a free energy barrier for translocation is a general result, and the magnitude of the barrier is calculated in terms of the various material parameters. The extent of the reduction in the barrier by the presence of an external constant force is calculated. Using the Fokker-Planck formalism, we have calculated the average translocation time corresponding to the various free energy landscapes representing different parameter sets. The dependencies of the average translocation time on the strength of the external force, vesicle size, bending and stretching moduli of the vesicle, and radius and length of the pore are derived, and the computed results are discussed. PMID:27089012

  19. Fragility in the 14q21q translocation region

    OpenAIRE

    Stacy R. Denison; Multani, Asha S.; Sen Pathak; Ira F. Greenbaum

    2002-01-01

    Aphidicolin (APC)-induced chromosomal breakage was analyzed for women representing three generations of a single family and carrying a Robertsonian translocation rob(14q21q). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis confirmed the dicentric constitution of the derived chromosome and indicated the absence of beta-satellite signal at the translocation region. Per-individual analysis of metaphases from APC-treated peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures identified significantly nonrandom c...

  20. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-01-01

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the di...

  1. RNase A Does Not Translocate the Alpha-Hemolysin Pore

    OpenAIRE

    Besnik Krasniqi; Lee, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    The application of nanopore sensing utilizing the α-hemolysin pore to probe proteins at single-molecule resolution has expanded rapidly. In some studies protein translocation through the α-hemolysin has been reported. However, there is no direct evidence, as yet, that proteins can translocate the α-hemolysin pore. The biggest challenge to obtaining direct evidence is the lack of a highly sensitive assay to detect very low numbers of protein molecules. Furthermore, if an activity based assay i...

  2. Elongation factor G initiates translocation through a power stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlai; Cui, Xiaonan; Beausang, John F; Zhang, Haibo; Farrell, Ian; Cooperman, Barry S; Goldman, Yale E

    2016-07-01

    During the translocation step of prokaryotic protein synthesis, elongation factor G (EF-G), a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), binds to the ribosomal PRE-translocation (PRE) complex and facilitates movement of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and messenger RNA (mRNA) by one codon. Energy liberated by EF-G's GTPase activity is necessary for EF-G to catalyze rapid and precise translocation. Whether this energy is used mainly to drive movements of the tRNAs and mRNA or to foster EF-G dissociation from the ribosome after translocation has been a long-lasting debate. Free EF-G, not bound to the ribosome, adopts quite different structures in its GTP and GDP forms. Structures of EF-G on the ribosome have been visualized at various intermediate steps along the translocation pathway, using antibiotics and nonhydolyzable GTP analogs to block translocation and to prolong the dwell time of EF-G on the ribosome. However, the structural dynamics of EF-G bound to the ribosome have not yet been described during normal, uninhibited translocation. Here, we report the rotational motions of EF-G domains during normal translocation detected by single-molecule polarized total internal reflection fluorescence (polTIRF) microscopy. Our study shows that EF-G has a small (∼10°) global rotational motion relative to the ribosome after GTP hydrolysis that exerts a force to unlock the ribosome. This is followed by a larger rotation within domain III of EF-G before its dissociation from the ribosome. PMID:27313204

  3. Translocation of gut flora and its role in sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishnavi, C

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial translocation is the invasion of indigenous intestinal bacteria through the gut mucosa to normally sterile tissues and the internal organs. Sometimes instead of bacteria, inflammatory compounds are responsible for clinical symptoms as in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). The difference between sepsis and SIRS is that pathogenic bacteria are isolated from patients with sepsis but not with those of SIRS. Bacterial translocation occurs more frequently in patients with int...

  4. Slowing DNA Translocation in a Nanofluidic Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2016-04-26

    Here, we present an experimental demonstration of slowing DNA translocation across a nanochannel by modulating the channel surface charge through an externally applied gate bias. The experiments were performed on a nanofluidic field-effect transistor, which is a monolithic integrated platform featuring a 50 nm-diameter in-plane alumina nanocapillary whose entire length is surrounded by a gate electrode. The field-effect transistor behavior was validated on the gating of ionic conductance and protein transport. The gating of DNA translocation was subsequently studied by measuring discrete current dips associated with single λ-DNA translocation events under a source-to-drain bias of 1 V. The translocation speeds under various gate bias conditions were extracted by fitting event histograms of the measured translocation time to the first passage time distributions obtained from a simple 1D biased diffusion model. A positive gate bias was observed to slow the translocation of single λ-DNA chains markedly; the translocation speed was reduced by an order of magnitude from 18.4 mm/s obtained under a floating gate down to 1.33 mm/s under a positive gate bias of 9 V. Therefore, a dynamic and flexible regulation of the DNA translocation speed, which is vital for single-molecule sequencing, can be achieved on this device by simply tuning the gate bias. The device is realized in a conventional semiconductor microfabrication process without the requirement of advanced lithography, and can be potentially further developed into a compact electronic single-molecule sequencer. PMID:27019102

  5. Haploinsufficiency of activation-induced deaminase for antibody diversification and chromosome translocations both in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isora V Sernández

    Full Text Available The humoral immune response critically relies on the secondary diversification of antibodies. This diversification takes places through somatic remodelling of the antibody genes by two molecular mechanisms, Class Switch Recombination (CSR and Somatic Hypermutation (SHM. The enzyme Activation Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID initiates both SHM and CSR by deaminating cytosine residues on the DNA of immunoglobulin genes. While crucial for immunity, AID-catalysed deamination is also the triggering event for the generation of lymphomagenic chromosome translocations. To address whether restricting the levels of AID expression in vivo contributes to the regulation of its function, we analysed mice harbouring a single copy of the AID gene (AID(+/-. AID(+/- mice express roughly 50% of normal AID levels, and display a mild hyperplasia, reminiscent of AID deficient mice and humans. Moreover, we found that AID(+/- cells have an impaired competence for CSR and SHM, which indicates that AID gene dose is limiting for its physiologic function. We next evaluated the impact of AID reduction in AID(+/- mice on the generation of chromosome translocations. Our results show that the frequency of AID-promoted c-myc/IgH translocations is reduced in AID(+/- mice, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, AID is haploinsufficient for antibody diversification and chromosome translocations. These findings suggest that limiting the physiologic levels of AID expression can be a regulatory mechanism that ensures an optimal balance between immune proficiency and genome integrity.

  6. Background dose subtraction in personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is proposed to consider the mode of the frequency distribution of the low dose dosemeters from each clinic that uses X rays as the background environmental dose that should be subtracted from the personnel dosimetry to evaluate the doses due to practice. The problems and advantages of this indirect method to estimate the environmental background dose are discussed. The results for 60 towns are presented. (author)

  7. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes (no.21/14) in relation to the history of spontaneous abortion in a family

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi; Fatemeh Baghbani; Iman Namazi; Salmeh Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Background: Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and ...

  8. Complex translocation disrupting TCF4 and altering TCF4 isoform expression segregates as mild autosomal dominant intellectual disability

    OpenAIRE

    Maduro, Valerie; Pusey, Barbara N.; Cherukuri, Praveen F.; Atkins, Paul; du Souich, Christèle; Rupps, Rosemarie; Limbos, Marjolaine; Adams, David R; Bhatt, Samarth S.; Eydoux, Patrice; Links, Amanda E.; Lehman, Anna; Malicdan, May C.; Mason, Christopher E.; Morimoto, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations of TCF4, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) via multiple genetic mechanisms. TCF4 is a complex locus expressing multiple transcripts by alternative splicing and use of multiple promoters. To address the relationship between mutation of these transcripts and phenotype, we report a three-generation family segregating mild intellectual disability with a chromosomal translocation disrupting TCF4. Results Using whole...

  9. Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis Is Associated with Inflammation and Bacterial Translocation in Mice with CCl4-Induced Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Hurtado, Isabel; Santacruz, Arlette; Peiró, Gloria; Zapater, Pedro; Gutiérrez, Ana; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel; Sanz, Yolanda; Francés, Rubén

    2011-01-01

    Background Gut is the major source of endogenous bacteria causing infections in advanced cirrhosis. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been described in cirrhosis and account for an increased bacterial translocation rate. Hypothesis and Aims We hypothesize that microbiota composition may be affected and change along with the induction of experimental cirrhosis, affecting the inflammatory response. Animals and Methods Progressive liver damage was induced in Balb/c mice by weight-controlled ora...

  10. Allopurinol and glutamine attenuate bacterial translocation in chronic portal hypertensive and common bile duct ligated growing rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Schimpl, G; Pesendorfer, P; Steinwender, G; Feierl, G; Ratschek, M; Höllwarth, M E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial infections and septicaemia result in morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and obstructive jaundice. AIM: The aim of this study in rats was to investigate the incidence of bacterial translocation in portal hypertension and obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the effects of allopurinol and glutamine. METHODS: Rats were subjected to sham laparotomy (SL), portal hypertension (PH) by calibrated stenosis of the portal vein, and common bile...

  11. Determination of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method and appartus for determining the level of background radiation in a spectral region where a Raman peak characteristic of a particular substance, in particular diamond, is expected to occur. The method includes the steps of isolating the radiation in a first spectral band, and isolating the radiation in a second spectral band which overlaps the first spectral band at least partially to form an overlapping band in the vicinity of the expected Raman Peak and a least one sideband. At least one sideband value representative of the radiation present in the one or more sidebands is then obtained, and further values, representative of the radiation isolated by any one or more of the other spectral bands, such as the first and second bands, are then used to derive a background value indicative of the level of background radiation present at the position of the expected Raman peak

  12. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  13. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity the spectrum is free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

  14. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  15. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape. PMID:26267280

  16. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  17. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  18. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  19. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  20. Effects of trapidil on intestinal mucosal barrier function and bacterial translocation after intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in an experimental rat model☆

    OpenAIRE

    Colak, Tahsin; Ozturk, Candan; Polat, Ayse; Bagdatoglu,Ozlen; Kanik, Arzu; Turkmenoglu, Ozgur; Aydin, Suha

    2003-01-01

    Background: Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion may be the primary triggers of mucosal barrier impairment, cytokine expression, and bacterial translocation (BT). Trapidil is a phosphodiesterase and platelet-derived growth factor inhibitor that reduces lipid peroxidation and inhibits the production of cytokines.

  1. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis Papel del sobrecrecimiento bacteriano intestinal y de la motilidad intestinal en la traslocación bacteriana en un modelo experimental de cirrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, E.; F. Casafont; Guerra, A.; I. de Benito; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. Objectives: the aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial over...

  2. Nondriven Polymer Translocation Through a Nanopore:Scaling for Translocation Time with Chain Length

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; ZHANG Jing; LIU Hong; SUN Chia-chung

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of the passage for a polymer chain through a nanopore in the absence of any external driving force with Weeks-Chandler-Andersen potential in two-dimensional simulations,in particular,focused our attention on the scaling law of the mean translocation time.We found that the effect of hydrodynamic interactions is the major factor in determining the scaling exponents with increasing pore size.The scaling close to N1+2v was observed when the hydrodynamic interactions were screened in the cases of small pore sizes,while the scaling close to N3v was obtained when the hydrodynamic interactions were present in the cases of large pore sizes.

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  4. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzakis, Nikos; Quiros, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying gra...

  5. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  6. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  7. Background, phenomenology, and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the background to the kinetics of adsorption and desorption after an elementary introduction to the problem of chemisorption in two limiting cases. Other topics discussed include the thermodynamics of adsorption, reaction mechanisms outside surfaces, and a case history of catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Figures show the potential energy barrier as a function of an appropriate reaction coordinate, and bonding of carbon monoxide to platinum metal

  8. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  9. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-07-01

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution. PMID:27394120

  10. Nonabsorbable Antibiotics Reduce Bacterial and Endotoxin Translocation in Hepatectomised Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kakkos

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that septic complications, occurring after major hepatectomies, may be caused by gram negative bacteria, translocating from the gut. We investigated in rats, the effect of extended hepatectomy on the structure and morphology of the intestinal mucosa as well as on the translocation of intestinal bacteria and endotoxins. We also examined the effect of nonabsorbable antibiotics on reducing the intestinal flora and consequently the phenomenon of translocation by administering neomycin sulphate and cefazoline. Hepatectomy was found to increase translocation, while administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics decreased it significantly. In addition, hepatectomy increased the aerobic cecal bacterial population, which normalised in the group receiving antibiotics. Among the histological parameters evaluated, villus height demonstrated a significant reduction after hepatectomy, while the number of villi per cm and the number of mitoses per crypt, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that administration of nonabsorbable antibiotics presents a positive effect on bacterial and endotoxin translocation after extended hepatectomy, and this may be related to reduction of colonic bacterial load as an intraluminal effect of antibiotics.

  11. Obstructed Bile Duct as a Trigger for Microbe's Translocation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To assess the potential mechanisms of bacterial translocation in a murine model of obstructive jaundice. Methods: Adult rats were randomized to be operated on for ligation or sham-ligation of the common bile duct. Bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), liver, spleen, portal blood and systemic circulation and bacterial population levels in the ceca were quantitated after 7 and 14 days. The terminal ilea were histologically examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Bacterial translocation to the MNLs was seen in both 7 (10/17) and 14 (11/18) day ligated animals, but not found in their corresponding controls (both 0/8). No significant difference in the cecal bacterial population levels was found between the ligated groups and their corresponding control groups, also between the two subgroups that were set up within each ligated group according to the presence or absence of bacteria in the MLNs. In the ligated rats, light microscopy demonstrated subepithelial edema in association with infiltration of flammatory cells and, transmission electron microscopy showed that the enterocytes were injured with abnormal microvilli, swollen mitochondria, unclear endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm with bubble degeneration. However, the ilea from the controls appeared normal. Conclusions: Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in rats. The gut mucosal damage rather than the intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a crucial role in bacterial translocation.

  12. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-07-01

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution.

  13. Dose-response relationship for induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey following gamma-irradiation at low dose-rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, I.; Matsuda, Y.; Utsugi, T.; Yamagiwa, J.; Kitazume, M.; Okamoto, M.

    1986-05-01

    The frequency of reciprocal translocations induced by gamma-rays at low dose-rate was examined in the stem-spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) estimated and the dose-response relationship was estimated for induction of translocations at low dose-rate. Results a dose-rate of 0.18 x 10-4 By/min results show that the rate per Gy of translocation induction was estimated to be 0.0016/cell. Comparing this with results obtained in spermatogonia following acute irradiation at a dose-rate of 0.25 Gy/min, the dose-rate reduction factor is estimated to be 1/11.

  14. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    DDAs in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or...... general; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio-cultural...

  15. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George; Scott, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by ...

  16. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  17. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to...... chapter provides important background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality...

  18. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam;

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  19. MYC translocation partner gene determines survival of patients with large B-cell lymphoma with MYC- or double-hit MYC/BCL2 translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Ø; Gang, Anne O; Poulsen, Tim S;

    2014-01-01

    In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) MYC- and MYC/BCL2 double-hit (DH) translocations have been associated with inferior survival. We hypothesised that the negative prognostic impact of MYC translocation was determined by an immunoglobulin MYC translocation partner gene (IG-MYC), as opposed to a non......-immunoglobulin partner gene (nonIG-MYC). In a prospective, unselected cohort of 237 LBCL patients MYC and BCL2 translocations were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with split probes. MYC translocation partner gene was identified by IGH/MYC fusion probes and/or kappa/lambda split probes. Clinical...

  20. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Dieterich

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  1. Multiscale modeling of biopolymer translocation through a nanopore

    CERN Document Server

    Fyta, M G; Kaxiras, E; Succi, S; Fyta, Maria; Melchionna, Simone; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Succi, Sauro

    2007-01-01

    We employ a multiscale approach to model the translocation of biopolymers through nanometer size pores. Our computational scheme combines microscopic Langevin molecular dynamics (MD) with a mesoscopic lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for the solvent dynamics, explicitly taking into account the interactions of the molecule with the surrounding fluid. Both dynamical and statistical aspects of the translocation process were investigated, by simulating polymers of various initial configurations and lengths. For a representative molecule size, we explore the effects of important parameters that enter in the simulation, paying particular attention to the strength of the molecule-solvent coupling and of the external electric field which drives the translocation process. Finally, we explore the connection between the generic polymers modeled in the simulation and DNA, for which interesting recent experimental results are available.

  2. Markers of immunity and bacterial translocation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT), the migration of enteric bacteria to extraintestinal sites, is related to immune stimulation and haemodynamic changes in experimental cirrhosis. These changes may be highly relevant to patients with cirrhosis, where changes in the circulation cause serious complicati......Bacterial translocation (BT), the migration of enteric bacteria to extraintestinal sites, is related to immune stimulation and haemodynamic changes in experimental cirrhosis. These changes may be highly relevant to patients with cirrhosis, where changes in the circulation cause serious......, in 38 patients with ascites, we found no association between bDNA and immunity, in contrast to some previous findings. In the final paper, exploring one possible translocation route, we hypothesized a difference in bDNA levels between the blood from the veins draining the gut on one hand and the...

  3. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.;

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency. In this...... study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after the...... exposure, glyphosate was continuously translocated. Shikimic acid levels were lin-ear correlated with glyphosate levels. After two months, however, glyphosate appeared to have reduced activity. In the greenhouse, multiple applications resulted in higher internal glyphosate concentrations.The time of...

  4. The Backgrounds Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  5. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99mTc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99mTc-labelled E. coli bacteria (99mTs-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99mTs-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99mTs-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial translocation

  6. Electro-acupuncture for STAT3 expression and nuclear translocation in hippocampal tissues of rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Kong; Xiaoling Zeng; Guojie Sun; Shenghong Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been found in recent years that STATS widely distributes in nervous system, including hippocampal CA1-3 region, dentate gyrus and cerebral neocortex, etc. Ischemic brain injury can cause the release of some cytokines and growth factors, while electro-acupuncture may have multi-level, multi-channel and multi-target protective and interventional effects on ischemic brain injury.OBJ ECTIVE: To observe the effects of electro-acupuncture on STAT3 expression and nuclear translocation in hippocampal CA1 region of rat models of brain ischemia/reperfusion.DESIGN: Randomized and controlled observation.SETTING: Staff Room of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Department of Acupuncture and Bone Injury,Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine; Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology.MATERTALS: Seventy-two healthy SD rats, of clean degree and either gender, weighing (200±20) g, were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine. STAT3monoclonal antibody was purchased from Santa Cruz Company, USA, and G-6805 electro-acupuncture instrument was purchased from Shanghai Medical Electronic Instruments Factory.METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the comprehensive laboratory of Department of Acupuncture and Bone Injury, Hubei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine between September 2005 and February 2006.Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: ① control group(n =6): Untouched. ② Sham-operation group (n =18): Artery was isolated, but without inserting thread bolt.③ Model group (n =24): Rat models of local brain ischemia/reperfusion were established with modified suture occlusion. ④Electro-acupuncture group (n =24): Dazhui and bilateral Neiguan points were selected for electro-acupuncture treatment. No. 28acupuncture needle of 3.33 cm was used in the treatment A G-6085 electro-acupuncture instrument with continuous wave, frequency of 120 times/min, intensity of 1 m

  7. The action spectrum in chloroplast translocation in multilayer leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lechowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By measurement of light transmittance through a leaf as criterion of chloroplast translocation, the action spectrum of Ajuga reptans was established. In the spectrum obtained, a correction was introduced for leaf autoabsorption calculated on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law. The action spectrum has two maxima: at λ= 375 nm and λ= 481 nm. The range above 502 nm has no significant effect on chloroplast translocation. Comparison with other objects examined demonstrated that in multilayer leaf cells riboflavin seems also to be a photoreceptor active in this process.

  8. Hard Sphere Diffusion Behaviour of Polymer Translocating through Interacting Pores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation of polymer chain through a small pore from a high concentration side (cis side) to a low concentration side (trans side) is simulated by using Monte Carlo technique. The effect of the polymer-pore interaction on the translocation is studied. We find a special interaction at which the decay of the number of polymer chain, N, at the cis side obeys Fick's law, i.e. N decreases exponentially with time. The behaviour is analogous to the diffusion of hard sphere. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. Serological markers for inflammatory bowel disease in AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupa Kamat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breakdown of the gut mucosal barrier during chronic HIV infection allows translocation of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS from the gut into the circulation. Microbial translocation also occurs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. IBD serological markers are useful in the diagnosis of IBD and to differentiate between Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. Here, we evaluate detection of IBD serological markers in HIV-infected patients with advanced disease and their relationship to HIV disease markers. METHODS: IBD serological markers (ASCA, pANCA, anti-OmpC, and anti-CBir1 were measured by ELISA in plasma from AIDS patients (n = 26 with low CD4 counts (<300 cells/µl and high plasma LPS levels, and results correlated with clinical data. For meta-analysis, relevant data were abstracted from 20 articles. RESULTS: IBD serological markers were detected in approximately 65% of AIDS patients with evidence of microbial translocation. An antibody pattern consistent with IBD was detected in 46%; of these, 75% had a CD-like pattern. Meta-analysis of data from 20 published studies on IBD serological markers in CD, UC, and non-IBD control subjects indicated that IBD serological markers are detected more frequently in AIDS patients than in non-IBD disease controls and healthy controls, but less frequently than in CD patients. There was no association between IBD serological markers and HIV disease markers (plasma viral load and CD4 counts in the study cohort. CONCLUSIONS: IBD serological markers may provide a non-invasive approach to monitor HIV-related inflammatory gut disease. Further studies to investigate their clinical significance in HIV-infected individuals are warranted.

  10. The SWI/SNF protein ATRX co-regulates pseudoautosomal genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Andrew D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudoautosomal regions (PAR1 and PAR2 in eutherians retain homologous regions between the X and Y chromosomes that play a critical role in the obligatory X-Y crossover during male meiosis. Genes that reside in the PAR1 are exceptional in that they are rich in repetitive sequences and undergo a very high rate of recombination. Remarkably, murine PAR1 homologs have translocated to various autosomes, reflecting the complex recombination history during the evolution of the mammalian X chromosome. Results We now report that the SNF2-type chromatin remodeling protein ATRX controls the expression of eutherian ancestral PAR1 genes that have translocated to autosomes in the mouse. In addition, we have identified two potentially novel mouse PAR1 orthologs. Conclusion We propose that the ancestral PAR1 genes share a common epigenetic environment that allows ATRX to control their expression.

  11. Holography for Schrodinger backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica; Taylor, Marika; van Rees, Balt

    2010-01-01

    We discuss holography for Schrodinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in (d+1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrodinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k_v. We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

  12. Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. In the frequency band ∼10-4-2x10-3 Hz, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and ''confusion noise'' from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the central limit theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of LISA data searches: searches for EMRI signals buried in GWDB confusion noise, and searches for massive black hole binary signals buried in (i) GWDB noise, (ii) EMRI noise, and (iii) a sum of EMRI noise and Gaussian noise. Assuming reasonable short-distance cutoffs in the populations of confusion sources (since the very closest and hence strongest sources will be individually resolvable), modifications to the appropriate detection threshold, due to the non-Gaussianity of the confusion noise, turn out to be quite small for realistic cases. The smallness of the correction is partly due to the fact that these three types of sources evolve on quite

  13. Dissection of Axial-Pore Loop Function during Unfolding and Translocation by a AAA+ Proteolytic Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Iosefson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the axial channels of ClpX and related hexameric AAA+ protein-remodeling rings, the pore-1 loops are thought to play important roles in engaging, mechanically unfolding, and translocating protein substrates. How these loops perform these functions and whether they also prevent substrate dissociation to ensure processive degradation by AAA+ proteases are open questions. Using ClpX pore-1-loop variants, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and ensemble assays, we find that the six pore-1 loops function synchronously to grip and unfold protein substrates during a power stroke but are not important in preventing substrate slipping between power strokes. The importance of grip strength is task dependent. ClpX variants with multiple mutant pore-1 loops translocate substrates as well as the wild-type enzyme against a resisting force but show unfolding defects and a higher frequency of substrate release. These problems are magnified for more mechanically stable target proteins, supporting a threshold model of substrate gripping.

  14. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter Ω(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, Ω(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for Ω(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  15. Analysis of the V(D)J recombination efficiency at lymphoid chromosomal translocation breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S C; Kirsch, I R; Lieber, M R

    2001-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations and deletions are among the major events that initiate neoplasia. For lymphoid chromosomal translocations, misrecognition by the RAG (recombination activating gene) complex of V(D)J recombination is one contributing factor that has long been proposed. The chromosomal translocations involving LMO2 (t(11;14)(p13;q11)), Ttg-1 (t(11;14)(p15;q11)), and Hox11 (t(10;14)(q24;q11)) are among the clearest examples in which it appears that a D or J segment has synapsed with an adventitious heptamer/nonamer at a gene outside of one of the antigen receptor loci. The interstitial deletion at 1p32 involving SIL (SCL-interrupting locus)/SCL (stem cell leukemia) is a case involving two non-V(D)J sites that have been suggested to be V(D)J recombination mistakes. Here we have used our human extrachromosomal substrate assay to formally test the hypothesis that these regions are V(D)J recombination misrecognition sites and, more importantly, to quantify their efficiency as V(D)J recombination targets within the cell. We find that the LMO2 fragile site functions as a 12-signal at an efficiency that is only 27-fold lower than that of a consensus 12-signal. The Ttg-1 site functions as a 23-signal at an efficiency 530-fold lower than that of a consensus 23-signal. Hox11 failed to undergo recombination as a 12- or 23-signal and was at least 20,000-fold less efficient than consensus signals. SIL has been predicted to function as a 12-signal and SCL as a 23-signal. However, we find that SIL actually functions as a 23-signal. These results provide a formal demonstration that certain chromosomal fragile sites can serve as RAG complex targets, and they determine whether these sites function as 12- versus 23-signals. These results quantify one of the three major factors that determine the frequency of these translocations in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:11390401

  16. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  17. 8-14 translocation in a Japanese Burkitt's lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto,Kanji; Sato, Jiro; Miyoshi, Isao; Nishihara,Ryuji; Terao, Seiya; Hara, Masamichi; Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-01-01

    Chromosome analysis was performed on cells obtained from the pleural effusion of a Japanese patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. Two modal chromosomal numbers were found: 45 and 46. Five different karyotypes were present, all having a t (8q-;14q+) translocation. This case illustrates that Burkitt's lymphomas of Japanese are no exception to the frequent association of this chromosomal abnormality with Burkitt's lymphomas.

  18. The role of the Philadelphia translocation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H.M. Geurts van Kessel (Ad)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractDuring the last two decades evidence for a close association between the presence of specific chromosomal abnormalities and the occurrence of several types of cancers and leukemias has accumulated. The Philadelphia (Ph 1) translocation, present in about 90% of the patients with chronic m

  19. Ionizing Radiation Induces HMGB1 Cytoplasmic Translocation and Extracellular Release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Wang; Li He; Guoqiang Bao; Xin He; Saijun Fan; Haichao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective A nucleosomal protein,HMGBI,can be secreted by activated immune cells or passively released by dying cells,thereby amplifying rigorous inflammatory responses.In this study we aimed to test the possibility that radiation similarly induces cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation and release.Methods Human skin fibroblast (GM0639) and bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells and rats were exposed to X-ray radiation,and HMGB1 translocation and release were then assessed by immunocytochemistry and immunoassay,respectively.Results At a wide dose range(4.0-12.0 Gy),X-ray radiation induced a dramatic cytoplasmic HMGB1 translocation,and triggered a time-and dose-dependent HMGB1 release both in vitro and in vivo.The radiation-mediated HMGB1 release was also associated with noticeable chromosomal DNA damage and loss of cell viability.Conclusions Radiation induces HMGB1 cytoplasmic translocation and extracellular release through active secretion and passive leakage processes.

  20. Functional nanoparticles translocation into cell and adhesion force curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haisung; Veerapandian, Murugan; Kim, Byung Tae; Yun, Kyusik; Seo, Soo-Won

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the cell translocation of two functional nanoparticles (barium sulfate (BaSO4NPs), europium (III) doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles (Gd2O3@EuNPs)) into A549 cells by Bio-Atomic Force Microscopy (Bio-AFM). Successful cell translocation of these two nanoparticles are ensured from the measurement of changes in the cell surface roughness and interaction (extension), retraction forces from the vertical deflection of tip towards substrate surfaces through force-distance curve slope analysis. Measurement of typical adhesion forces (i.e., extension and retraction) between the tip-substrate (0.0963 and 1.155 nN), tip-A549 cell substrate (0.1177 and 2.468 nN), tip-Gd2O3@EuNPs/A549 substrate (0.0785 and 0.4276 nN) and tip-BaSO4NPs/A549 substrate (0.518 and 6.838 nN) confirms the successful cell translocation of functional nanoparticles into A549 cells. Further the nanoscale resolution of topographical height and 3D images evinces the surface characteristics of normal A549 cells and nanoparticles translocated A549 cells. PMID:23421137

  1. Observing cellulose biosynthesis and membrane translocation in crystallo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jacob L W; McNamara, Joshua T; Fischer, Michael; Rich, Jamie; Chen, Hong-Ming; Withers, Stephen G; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-03-17

    Many biopolymers, including polysaccharides, must be translocated across at least one membrane to reach their site of biological function. Cellulose is a linear glucose polymer synthesized and secreted by a membrane-integrated cellulose synthase. Here, in crystallo enzymology with the catalytically active bacterial cellulose synthase BcsA-BcsB complex reveals structural snapshots of a complete cellulose biosynthesis cycle, from substrate binding to polymer translocation. Substrate- and product-bound structures of BcsA provide the basis for substrate recognition and demonstrate the stepwise elongation of cellulose. Furthermore, the structural snapshots show that BcsA translocates cellulose via a ratcheting mechanism involving a 'finger helix' that contacts the polymer's terminal glucose. Cooperating with BcsA's gating loop, the finger helix moves 'up' and 'down' in response to substrate binding and polymer elongation, respectively, thereby pushing the elongated polymer into BcsA's transmembrane channel. This mechanism is validated experimentally by tethering BcsA's finger helix, which inhibits polymer translocation but not elongation. PMID:26958837

  2. DNA translocating through a carbon nanotube can increase ionic current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Translocation of DNA through a narrow, single-walled carbon nanotube can be accompanied by large increases in ion current, recently observed in contrast to the ion current blockade. We use molecular dynamics simulations to show that large electro-osmotic flow can be turned into a large net current via ion-selective filtering by a DNA molecule inside the carbon nanotube. (paper)

  3. Driven translocation of a polymer: Fluctuations at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Rostiashvii, V.G.; Milchev, A.; Vilgis, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of thermal fluctuations on the translocation dynamics of a polymer chain driven through a narrow pore has been investigated theoretically and by means of extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The theoretical consideration is based on the so-called velocity Langevin (V-Langevin) eq

  4. Movement of micronutrients to plant roots, their uptake and translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional deficiency as related to movement of micronutrients through soil, plant uptake and translocation is reviewed. The type of research required at this stage, including the selection and development of plant species and cultivars which can efficiently extract micronutrients from deficient (and particularly from zinc-deficient) soils is stressed. The usefulness of radioisotopes is considered

  5. Polymer translocation into and out of an ellipsoidal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the translocation of a polymer into and out of an ellipsoidal cavity through a narrow pore. We measure the polymer free energy F as a function of a translocation coordinate, s, defined to be the number of bonds that have entered the cavity. To study polymer insertion, we consider the case of a driving force acting on monomers inside the pore, as well as monomer attraction to the cavity wall. We examine the changes to F(s) upon variation in the shape anisometry and volume of the cavity, the polymer length, and the strength of the interactions driving the insertion. For athermal systems, the free energy functions are analyzed using a scaling approach, where we treat the confined portion of the polymer to be in the semi-dilute regime. The free energy functions are used with the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation to calculate mean translocation times, as well as translocation time distributions. We find that both polymer ejection and insertion are faster for ellipsoidal cavities than for spherical cavities. The results are in qualitative agreement with those of a Langevin dynamics study in the case of ejection but not for insertion. The discrepancy is likely due to out-of-equilibrium conformational behaviour that is not accounted for in the FP approach. PMID:25956116

  6. Genetic counseling in carriers of reciprocal translocations involving two autosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Pourjafari

    2012-01-01

    Couples in which one partner is the carrier of such balanced translocation have increased risks of infertility, recurrent abortion, and delivery of chromosomally abnormal offspring. Genetic counseling of such couples, therefore, presents a unique challenge and should be considered in dealing with such families.

  7. Criteria for minimal model of driven polymer translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, P M; Linna, R P

    2014-01-01

    While the characteristics of the driven translocation for asymptotically long polymers are well understood, this is not the case for finite-sized polymers, which are relevant for real-world experiments and simulation studies. Most notably, the behavior of the exponent $\\alpha$, which describes the scaling of the translocation time with polymer length, when the driving force $f_p$ in the pore is changed, is under debate. By Langevin dynamics simulations of regular and modified translocation models we find that an incomplete model, where the trans side is excluded, gives rise to characteristics that are in stark contradiction with those of the complete model, for which $\\alpha$ increases with $f_p$. Our results suggest that contribution due to fluctuations is important. We construct a minimal model where dynamics is completely excluded to show that close alignment with a full translocation model can be achieved. Our findings set very stringent requirements for a minimal model that is supposed to describe the dr...

  8. Single Molecule Fluorescence Measurements of Ribosomal Translocation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskarin; Cabral, Diana; Liu, Hanqing; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Haibo; Rosenblum, Gabriel; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    We employ single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study structural dynamics over the first two elongation cycles of protein synthesis, using ribosomes containing either Cy3-labeled ribosomal protein L11 and A- or P-site Cy5-labeled tRNA or Cy3 and Cy5 labeled tRNAs. Pre-translocation (PRE) complexes demonstrate fluctuations between classical and hybrid forms, with concerted motions of tRNAs away from L11 and from each other when classical complex converts to hybrid complex. EF-G·GTP binding to both hybrid and classical PRE complexes halts these fluctuations prior to catalyzing translocation to form the post-translocation (POST) complex. EF-G dependent translocation from the classical PRE complex proceeds via transient formation of a short-lived hybrid intermediate. A-site binding of either EF-G to the PRE complex or of aminoacyl-tRNA·EF-Tu ternary complex to the POST complex markedly suppresses ribosome conformational lability. PMID:21549313

  9. Bacterial translocation and immunohistochemical measurement of gut immune function

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, N.; Robertson, J; Morgan, D; Gregg, K; Mitchell, C.; MacFie, J

    2001-01-01

    Aims—The local immune response in the small bowel mucosa might play a role in bacterial translocation (BT). The aim of this study was to quantify immune cells and secretory antibodies in the small bowel mucosa, and relate this to BT as assessed by culture of a mesenteric lymph node.

  10. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  11. Genetical background of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  12. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  13. Chromosome territories, X;Y translocation and Premature Ovarian Failure: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betri Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea occurring before the age of 40 and affecting 1-3% of females. Chromosome anomalies account for 6-8% of POF cases, but only few cases are associated with translocations involving X and Y chromosomes. This study shows the cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a POF patient came to our attention as she developed a left ovary choriocarcinoma at the age of 10 and at 14 years of age she presented secondary amenorrhea with elevated levels of gonadotropins. Results Breakpoint position on X and Y chromosomes was investigated using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH with a panel of specific BAC probes, microsatellite analysis and evaluation of copy number changes and loss of heterozigosity by Affymetrix® GeneChip platform (Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patient's karyotype resulted 46, X, der(Yt(X;Y(q13.1;q11.223. X inactivation study was assessed by RBA banding and showed preferential inactivation of derivative chromosome. The reciprocal spatial disposition of sexual chromosome territories was investigated using whole chromosome painting and centromeres probes: patient's results didn't show a significant difference in comparison to normal controls. Conclusion The peculiar clinical case come to our attention highlighted the complexity of POF aetiology and of the translocation event, even if our results seem to exclude any effect on nuclear organisation. POF phenotype could be partially explained by skewed X chromosome inactivation that influences gene expression.

  14. Regulation of shear-induced nuclear translocation of the Nrf2 transcription factor in endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Chung-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial cells (ECs constantly experience fluid shear stresses generated by blood flow. Laminar flow is known to produce atheroprotective effects on ECs. Nrf2 is a transcription factor that is essential for the antioxidant response element (ARE-mediated induction of genes such as heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1. We previously showed that fluid shear stress increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in ECs. Moreover, oxidants are known to stimulate Nrf2. We thus examined the regulation of Nrf2 in cultured human ECs by shear stress. Results Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to laminar shear stress (12 dyne/cm2 induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which was inhibited by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor, a protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor, and an antioxidant agent N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, but not by other protein kinase inhibitors. Therefore, PI3K, PKC, and ROS are involved in the signaling pathway that leads to the shear-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2. We also found that shear stress increased the ARE-binding activity of Nrf2 and the downstream expression of HO-1. Conclusion Our data suggest that the atheroprotective effect of laminar flow is partially attributed to Nrf2 activation which results in ARE-mediated gene transcriptions, such as HO-1 expression, that are beneficial to the cardiovascular system.

  15. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  16. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  17. Trisomy for 8p21→pter owing to a familial translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Elizabeth F.; Hodgkin, William E

    1983-01-01

    A girl with developmental delay and physical abnormalities was trisomic for the segment 8p21→pter owing to a familial translocation t(8;11). The child's father and paternal grandmother carry the same translocation.

  18. Co- and post-translational translocation through the protein-conducting channel : analogous mechanisms at work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitra, Kakoli; Frank, Joachim; Driessen, Arnold

    2006-01-01

    Many proteins are translocated across, or integrated into, membranes. Both functions are fulfilled by the 'translocon/translocase', which contains a membrane-embedded proteinconducting channel (PCC) and associated soluble factors that drive translocation and insertion reactions using nucleotide trip

  19. Microbial Translocation in HIV Infection is Associated with Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Trøseid, Marius;

    2013-01-01

    Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals....

  20. RNase A does not translocate the alpha-hemolysin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Krasniqi

    Full Text Available The application of nanopore sensing utilizing the α-hemolysin pore to probe proteins at single-molecule resolution has expanded rapidly. In some studies protein translocation through the α-hemolysin has been reported. However, there is no direct evidence, as yet, that proteins can translocate the α-hemolysin pore. The biggest challenge to obtaining direct evidence is the lack of a highly sensitive assay to detect very low numbers of protein molecules. Furthermore, if an activity based assay is applied then the proteins translocating by unfolding should refold back to an active confirmation for the assay technique to work. To overcome these challenges we selected a model enzyme, ribonuclease A, that readily refolds to an active conformation even after unfolding it with denaturants. In addition we have developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based activity assay for ribonuclease A. Initially, ribonuclease A, a protein with a positive net charge and dimensions larger than the smallest diameter of the pore, was subjected to nanopore analysis under different experimental conditions. Surprisingly, although the protein was added to the cis chamber (grounded and a positive potential was applied, the interaction of ribonuclease A with α-hemolysin pore induced small and large blockade events in the presence and the absence of a reducing and/or denaturing agent. Upon measuring the zeta potential, it was found that the protein undergoes a charge reversal under the experimental conditions used for nanopore sensing. From the investigation of the effect of voltage on the interaction of ribonuclease A with the α-hemolysin pore, it was impossible to conclude if the events observed were translocations. However, upon testing for ribonuclease A activity on the trans chamber it was found that ribonuclease A does not translocate the α-hemolysin pore.

  1. RNase A Does Not Translocate the Alpha-Hemolysin Pore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Besnik; Lee, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of nanopore sensing utilizing the α-hemolysin pore to probe proteins at single-molecule resolution has expanded rapidly. In some studies protein translocation through the α-hemolysin has been reported. However, there is no direct evidence, as yet, that proteins can translocate the α-hemolysin pore. The biggest challenge to obtaining direct evidence is the lack of a highly sensitive assay to detect very low numbers of protein molecules. Furthermore, if an activity based assay is applied then the proteins translocating by unfolding should refold back to an active confirmation for the assay technique to work. To overcome these challenges we selected a model enzyme, ribonuclease A, that readily refolds to an active conformation even after unfolding it with denaturants. In addition we have developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based activity assay for ribonuclease A. Initially, ribonuclease A, a protein with a positive net charge and dimensions larger than the smallest diameter of the pore, was subjected to nanopore analysis under different experimental conditions. Surprisingly, although the protein was added to the cis chamber (grounded) and a positive potential was applied, the interaction of ribonuclease A with α-hemolysin pore induced small and large blockade events in the presence and the absence of a reducing and/or denaturing agent. Upon measuring the zeta potential, it was found that the protein undergoes a charge reversal under the experimental conditions used for nanopore sensing. From the investigation of the effect of voltage on the interaction of ribonuclease A with the α-hemolysin pore, it was impossible to conclude if the events observed were translocations. However, upon testing for ribonuclease A activity on the trans chamber it was found that ribonuclease A does not translocate the α-hemolysin pore. PMID:24505349

  2. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state [14C]-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 10C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole

  3. Genome-Wide Translocation Sequencing Reveals Mechanisms of Chromosome Breaks and Rearrangements in B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarle, Roberto; Zhang, Yu; Frock, Richard L.; Lewis, Susanna M.; Molinie, Benoit; Ho, Yu-Jui; Myers, Darienne R; Choi, Vivian W.; Compagno, Mara; Malkin, Daniel J.; Neuberg, Donna; Monti, Stefano; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W.

    2011-01-01

    While chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving fixed I-SceI meganuclease-generated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for Act...

  4. Genetic reporter system for oncogenic Igh–Myc translocations in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Takizawa, M.; Kim, JS; Tessarollo, L; McNeil, N; Waldschmidt, TJ; Casellas, R; Ried, T; Janz, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Myc-deregulating chromosomal T(12;15)(Igh–Myc) translocation, the hallmark mutation of inflammation- and interleukin 6-dependent mouse plasmacytoma (PCT), is the premier model of cancer-associated chromosomal translocations because it is the only translocation in mice that occurs spontaneously (B lymphocyte lineage) and with predictably high incidence (~85% of PCT), and has a direct counterpart in humans: Burkitt lymphoma t(8;14)(q24;q32) translocation. Here, we report on the development ...

  5. Human Lymphoid Translocation Fragile Zones Are Hypomethylated and Have Accessible Chromatin

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Zhengfei; Lieber, Michael R.; Tsai, Albert G.; Pardo, Carolina E.; Müschen, Markus; Kladde, Michael P.; Hsieh, Chih-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of hematopoietic malignancies. CG motifs within translocation fragile zones (typically 20 to 600 bp in size) are prone to chromosomal translocation in lymphomas. Here we demonstrate that the CG motifs in human translocation fragile zones are hypomethylated relative to the adjacent DNA. Using a methyltransferase footprinting assay on isolated nuclei (in vitro), we find that the chromatin at these fragile zones is accessible. We also examined in vivo ac...

  6. ATM Modulates the Loading of Recombination Proteins onto a Chromosomal Translocation Breakpoint Hotspot

    OpenAIRE

    Jiying Sun; Yukako Oma; Masahiko Harata; Kazuteru Kono; Hiroki Shima; Aiko Kinomura; Tsuyoshi Ikura; Hidekazu Suzuki; Shuki Mizutani; Roland Kanaar; Satoshi Tashiro

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, increases the incidence of chromosome translocations. However, how ATM protects cells from chromosome translocations is still unclear. Chromosome translocations involving the MLL gene on 11q23 are the m...

  7. Induction of Chromosomal Translocations in Mouse and Human Cells Using Site-Specific Endonucleases

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, David M.; Brunet, Erika; Jasin, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocal chromosomal translocations are early and essential events in the malignant transformation of several tumor types, yet the precise mechanisms that mediate translocation formation are poorly understood. We review here the development of approaches to induce and recover translocations between two targeted DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mammalian chromosomes. Using mouse cells, we find that nonhomologous end-joining readily mediates translocation formation between two DSBs generate...

  8. Prenatal origin of chromosomal translocations in acute childhood leukemia: Implications and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, C M; Smith, M. T.

    2004-01-01

    We, and others, have demonstrated an in utero origin for translocations associated with childhood leukemia, with latency periods in some cases exceeding 10 years. The mechanism of generation of most of the translocations is thought to be aberrant repair following abortive apoptosis, rather than V(D)J recombination or exposure to topoisomerase II inhibitors. Folate supplementation may prevent some of the chromosome breakage leading to translocation formation. Translocations t(8;21) and t(12;21...

  9. Studies on x-ray induced chromosomal translocations in Anopheles albimanus. II. Laboratory evaluation of sexual competitiveness of translocation males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success of a genetic control program in a sexually reproducing species depends largely on the mating competitiveness of the released individuals. The sexual vigor of male Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes carrying a Y-autosome translocation was evaluated in the laboratory and found to be equal to that of wild type males

  10. Genetic characterization of a reciprocal translocation present in a widely grown barley variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farré, A.; Cuadrado, A.; Lacasa-Benito, I.; Cistué, L.; Schubert, I.; Comadran, J.; Jansen, J.; Romagosa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Artificially induced translocation stocks have been used to physically map the barley genome; however, natural translocations are extremely uncommon in cultivated genotypes. Albacete is a barley variety widely grown in recent decades in Spain and carrying a reciprocal translocation which obviously d

  11. The Use of Double-Monotelodisomics to Identify Translocations in Triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Larsen, J.

    1974-01-01

    By analysing metaphase I of double-monotelodisomic hybrids between two varieties of hexaploid wheat differentiated by reciprocal translocations it is possible to establish reliably the chromosomes involved in each translocation. Also the chromosome parts translocated may be identified. The use of...

  12. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  13. Role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in paclitaxel-induced intestinal barrier breakdown and bacterial translocation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chi; XU Yang-guang; DUAN Xue-ning; LIU Yin-hua; ZHAO Jian-xin; XU Ling; YE Jing-ming

    2011-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy causes breakdown of the intestinal barrier, which may lead to bacterial translocation. Paclitaxel, an anti-tubulin agent, has many side effects; however, its effect on the intestinal barrier is unknown. Previous studies show that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plays an important role in modulating intestinal barrier function, but these studies are not conclusive. Here, we investigated the effects of paclitaxel on the intestinal barrier, and whether G-CSF could prevent paclitaxel-induced bacterial translocation.Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control group, paclitaxel group and paclitaxel + G-CSF group. Intestinal permeability was measured by the urinary excretion rates of lactulose and mannitol administered by gavage. The mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture. Endotoxin levels and white blood cell (WBC) counts were measured and bacterial quantification performed using relative real-time PCR. Jejunum samples were also obtained for histological observation. Intestinal apoptosis was evaluated using a fragmented DNA assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end-labeling staining. One-way analysis of variance and Fisher's exact test were used to compare differences between groups.Results Paclitaxel induced apoptosis in 12.5% of jejunum villus cells, which was reduced to 3.8% by G-CSF treatment. Apoptosis in the control group was 0.6%. Paclitaxel treatment also resulted in villus atrophy, increased intestinal permeability and a reduction in the WBC count. G-CSF treatment resulted in increased villus height and returned WBC counts to normal levels. No bacterial translocation was detected in the control group, whereas 6/8,8/8, and 8/8 rats in the paclitaxel group were culture-positive in the liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, respectively. Bacterial translocation was

  14. Voltage-driven translocation behaviors of IgG molecule through nanopore arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Bing; Sha, Jingjie; Yang, Yue; Hou, Yaozong; Ni, Zhonghua; Chen, Yunfei

    2013-05-01

    Nanopore-based biosensing has attracted more and more interests in the past years, which is also regarded as an emerging field with major impact on bio-analysis and fundamental understanding of nanoscale interactions down to single-molecule level. In this work, the voltage-driven translocation properties of goat antibody to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) are investigated using nanopore arrays in polycarbonate membranes. Obviously, the background ionic currents are modulated by IgG molecules for their physical place-holding effect. However, the detected ionic currents do `not' continuously decrease as conceived; the currents first decrease, then increase, and finally stabilize with increasing IgG concentration. To understand this phenomenon, a simplified model is suggested, and the calculated results contribute to the understanding of the abnormal phenomenon in the actual ionic current changing tendency.

  15. Hydrogen Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role in Gastric Carcinogenesis through Facilitating CagA Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Peek, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed. The quinone reductase inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) was used to specifically inhibit the H2-utilizing respiratory chain of outer membrane-permeabilized bacterial cells; that level of inhibitor also greatly attenuated CagA translocation into AGS cells, indicating the H2-generated transmembrane potential is a contributor to toxin translocation. The Δhyd strain showed a decreased frequency of DNA transformation, suggesting that H. pylori hydrogenase is also involved in energizing the DNA uptake apparatus. In a gerbil model of infection, the ability of the Δhyd strain to induce inflammation was significantly attenuated (at 12 weeks postinoculation), while all of the gerbils infected with the parent strain (7.13) exhibited a high level of inflammation. Gastric cancer developed in 50% of gerbils infected with the wild-type strain 7.13 but in none of the animals infected with the Δhyd strain. By examining the hydrogenase activities from well-defined clinical H. pylori isolates, we observed that strains isolated from cancer patients (n = 6) have a significantly higher hydrogenase (H2/O2) activity than the strains isolated from gastritis patients (n = 6), further supporting an association between H. pylori hydrogenase activity and gastric carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:27531909

  16. The Future of Microwave Background Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kosowsky, A

    2003-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background is now fulfilling its promise of determining the basic cosmological parameters describing our Universe. Future study of the microwave background will mostly be directed towards two basic questions: a complete characterization of the initial perturbations, and probes of the nonlinear evolution of structure in the Universe. The basic scientific issues in both of these areas are reviewed here, along with possibilities for addressing them with further microwave background measurements at higher sensitivities and smaller angular scales. The proposed ACT experiment, which will map 200 square degrees of sky at arcminute resolution and micro-Kelvin sensitivity in three microwave frequency bands, is briefly described as an example of rapidly advancing experimental technique.

  17. Frequency stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Věnceslav František

    Bratislava: Department of Radio and Electronics, FEI STU, 2006 - (Píš, P.; Krajčušková, Z.), I.1-I.9 ISBN 80-227-2388-6. [ Radio elektronika 2006. Conference proceedings. Bratislava (SK), 25.04.2006-26.04.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0852 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : noise * frequency stability * frequency control Subject RIV: JW - Navigation, Links, Detection ; Counter-Measures

  18. Analysis of photosynthate translocation velocity and measurement of weighted average velocity in transporting pathway of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation profile pattern of 14C-photosynthate along the transporting pathway in crops were monitored by pulse-labelling a mature leaf with 14CO2. The progressive spreading of translocation profile pattern along the sheath or stem indicates that the translocation of photosynthate along the sheath or stem proceed with a range of velocities rather than with just a single velocity. The method for measuring the weighted average velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath or stem was established in living crops. The weighted average velocity and the maximum velocity of photosynthate translocation along the sheath in rice and maize were measured actually. (4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  19. Cross-linked SecA dimers are not functional in protein translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Or, Eran; Rapoport, Tom

    2007-01-01

    The ATPase SecA is involved in post-translational protein translocation through the SecY channel across the bacterial inner membrane. SecA is a dimer that can dissociate into monomers with translocation activity. Here, we have addressed whether dissociation of the SecA dimer is required for translocation. We show that a dimer in which the two subunits are cross-linked by disulfide bridges is inactive in protein translocation, translocation ATPase, and binding to a lipid bilayer. In contrast, ...

  20. Translocation of particles and inflammatory responses after exposure to fine particles and nanoparticles in an epithelial airway model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso Claudia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental studies provide evidence that inhaled nanoparticles may translocate over the airspace epithelium and cause increased cellular inflammation. Little is known, however, about the dependence of particle size or material on translocation characteristics, inflammatory response and intracellular localization. Results Using a triple cell co-culture model of the human airway wall composed of epithelial cells, macrophages and dendritic cells we quantified the entering of fine (1 μm and nano-sized (0.078 μm polystyrene particles by laser scanning microscopy. The number distribution of particles within the cell types was significantly different between fine and nano-sized particles suggesting different translocation characteristics. Analysis of the intracellular localization of gold (0.025 μm and titanium dioxide (0.02–0.03 μm nanoparticles by energy filtering transmission electron microscopy showed differences in intracellular localization depending on particle composition. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles were detected as single particles without membranes as well as in membrane-bound agglomerations. Gold nanoparticles were found inside the cells as free particles only. The potential of the different particle types (different sizes and different materials to induce a cellular response was determined by measurements of the tumour necrosis factor-α in the supernatants. We measured a 2–3 fold increase of tumour necrosis factor-α in the supernatants after applying 1 μm polystyrene particles, gold nanoparticles, but not with polystyrene and titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Conclusion Quantitative laser scanning microscopy provided evidence that the translocation and entering characteristics of particles are size-dependent. Energy filtering transmission electron microscopy showed that the intracellular localization of nanoparticles depends on the particle material. Both particle size and material affect the cellular

  1. The uptake and translocation of phosphorus in dendrobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of absorption and translocation of phosphorus in dendrobe were revealed by using 32P. The results indicated that each part of dendrobe could absorb phosphorus, and the highest plant total radioactivity was obtained in the treatment of labelled mature leaf. The plant total 32P radioactivity increased with the root uptake time and reached the highest 96 hours after absorption. With the increasing of days after transplanting, plant dry weight increased steadily and 32P was translocated into young stem and young leaf in which dry weight also increased most quickly. The amounts of phosphorus in 25 degree C and 40 degree C treatments were 2.3 and 2.5 times of that in 10 degree C treatment, respectively. The absorbed phosphorus under intermediate light intensity (2 x 104 Lx) and high light intensity (5 x 104 Lx) increased by 74% and 23% compared with low light intensity (5 x 103 Lx), respectively

  2. Metabolism and translocation of C14-trazine in growing corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movement, translocation and metabolism of C14-atrazine in corn grown under conventional and no-till management was studied in the agro-ecosystem chamber (150x50x100 cm). C14-atrazine, and commercial atrazine which is aatrex-nie-0 were applied at 14 uCi and 128 mg (a.i) per chamber. After growing, the determination of volatilization, degradation in soil, and translocation into other parts of corn plant have been investigated after application in the certain period of time on 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, 30, 45, 65 and 85 days, respectively. The volatilization was highest just after treatment and then became lower as time increased and as well as residues discovered in the soil. Its metabolites were discovered in both soil and air but C14-conjugated atrazine was found in root, stem, and corn leaves

  3. Gut flora and bacterial translocation in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Almeida; Sumedha Galhenage; Jennifer Yu; Jelica Kurtovic; Stephen M Riordan

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that derangement of gut flora is of substantial clinical relevance to patients with cirrhosis. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increased bacterial translocation of gut flora from the intestinal lumen, in particular, predispose to an increased potential for bacterial infection in this group. Recent studies suggest that, in addition to their role in the pathogenesis of overt infective episodes and the clinical consequences of sepsis, gut flora contributes to the pro-inflammatory state of cirrhosis even in the absence of overt infection.Furthermore, manipulation of gut flora to augment the intestinal content of lactic acid-type bacteria at the expense of other gut flora species with more pathogenic potential may favourably influence liver function in cirrhotic patients. Here we review current concepts of the various inter-relationships between gut flora, bacterial translocation, bacterial infection, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and liver function in this group.

  4. The Social Construction of Guangzhou as a Translocal Trading Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guangzhou has become a key destination for sub-Saharan African traders. These traders have established multilocal forms of business organisation and, in so doing, have developed diverse practices to overcome geographical, political and cultural boundaries. This paper focuses on these practices, looking at the ways in which the movements, relations and interactions within these organisational formations are produced, transformed and lived. A close ethnographic examination was made of the livelihoods of 33 African traders from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Through the concept of trans-locality, the organisational formations of these Africans are conceptualised as links between different places on a larger geographical scale; these links then meet on a local scale in the specific place of Guangzhou. Following a relational understanding of spatial constructions in social science, these links are conceptualised as one of the main drivers for the social construction and transformation of the city as a trans-local trading place.

  5. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  6. 8-14 translocation in a Japanese Burkitt's lymphoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto,Kanji

    1980-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome analysis was performed on cells obtained from the pleural effusion of a Japanese patient with Burkitt's lymphoma. Two modal chromosomal numbers were found: 45 and 46. Five different karyotypes were present, all having a t (8q-;14q+ translocation. This case illustrates that Burkitt's lymphomas of Japanese are no exception to the frequent association of this chromosomal abnormality with Burkitt's lymphomas.

  7. Methoxychalcone Inhibitors of Androgen Receptor Translocation and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeong Sang; Kumar, Vineet; Lee, Sunmin; Iwai, Aki; Neckers, Len; Malhotra, Sanjay V.; Trepel, Jane B

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptor activity drives incurable castrate-resistant prostate cancer. All approved antiandrogens inhibit androgen receptor-driven transcription, and in addition the second-generation antiandrogen MDV3100 inhibits ligand-activated androgen receptor nuclear translocation, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report methoxychalcones that lock the heat shock protein 90-androgen receptor complex in the cytoplasm in an androgen-non-responsive state, thus demonstrating a novel chemical scaff...

  8. "Translocal Express" juba täna! / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    27. märtsil algab Kumu Kunstimuuseumis "Public Preparation'i" ("Avalik ettevalmistus") sarja rahvusvaheline seminar "Translocal Express. Golden Age" ("Translokaalne ekspress. Kuldaeg"), kus on kõne all ajalookirjutamise ja kollektiivse mälu roll praegu domineerivas natsionalistlikus diskursuses ja selle käsitlemine kaasaegses kunstis. Seminaril on lähtutud eelkõige kunstnike Martin Krenni (Viin) ja Kristina Normani teoste tutvustamisest

  9. Studying DNA translocation in nanocapillaries using single molecule fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Vivek V; Hernández-Ainsa, Silvia; Bell, Nicholas A W; Keyser, Ulrich F; 10.1063/1.4768929

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous measurements of DNA translocation into glass nanopores using ionic current detection and fluorescent imaging. We verify the correspondence between the passage of a single DNA molecule through the nanopore and the accompanying characteristic ionic current blockage. By tracking the motion of individual DNA molecules in the nanocapillary perpendicular to the optical axis and using a model, we can extract an effective mobility constant for DNA in our geometry under high electric fields.

  10. Evaluating Translocation Gene Fusions by SNP Array Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Liu; Asher Zilberstein; Pascal Pannier; Frederic Fleche; Christopher Arendt; Christoph Lengauer; Chang S Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell genetic alterations are a hallmark of tumor development and progression. Although various technologies have been developed and utilized to identify genetic aberrations, identifying genetic translocations at the chromosomal level is still a challenging task. High density SNP microarrays are useful to measure DNA copy number variation (CNV) across the genome. Utilizing SNP array data of cancer cell lines and patient samples, we evaluated the CNV and copy number breakpoints for seve...

  11. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuga, Hiroki; Kawano, Ryuji; Takinoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Yutaro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs “1” and “0” as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is or is not translocated throug...

  12. Two translocations of chromosome 15q associated with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Nopola-Hemmi, J.; Taipale, M.; Haltia, T.; Lehesjoki, A; Voutilainen, A.; Kere, J.

    2000-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is characterised by difficulties in learning to read. As reading is a complex cognitive process, multiple genes are expected to contribute to the pathogenesis of dyslexia. The genetics of dyslexia has been a target of molecular studies during recent years, but so far no genes have been identified. However, a locus for dyslexia on chromosome 15q21 (DYX1) has been established in previous linkage studies. We have identified two families with balanced translocations involvi...

  13. Spatial behaviour and survival of translocated wild brown hares

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, C.; TAGAND, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fragility of many populations of brown hares in Western Europe is a concern for managers, hunters and naturalists. We took advantage of a locally high density population to use wild individuals to restock areas where the species had disappeared or was close to disappearing. The aim of the project was to assess the evolution of the spatial behaviour after release using radio–tracking. Over 150 wild brown hares were translocated, one third of which were fitted with radio collars. In additio...

  14. Effects of uptake and translocation on herbicide phytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uptake and translocation of 14C labelled acetochlor and EPTC herbicides were followed in experiments with maize (Zea mays L.) and mustard (Sinapis alba L.) in nutrient solutions. Radioactivity data were comparatively evaluated for approaching the origin of the different phytotoxicity of these herbicides to the plants used. Results obtained are in good agreement with the extent and symptoms of herbicide injury on maize and mustard plants grown in acetochlor or EPTC treated sand. (author)

  15. Quarantine lenght and survical of translocated european wild rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Calvete, C.; Angulo, Elena; Estrada, Rosa; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are frequently translocated for hunting and conservation purposes. Quarantining these animals prior to release reduces the risk of releasing rabbits incubating field infec- tions of myxomatosis or viral haemorrhagic disease (RHD), and it provides a way to vaccinate these animals against both diseases. However the optimal quarantine period needed to achieve these goals is not known. We therefore assessed the effects of quarantine l...

  16. Quarantine length and survival of translocated European wild rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Calvete, C.; Angulo, Elena; Estrada, Rosa; Moreno, Sacramento; Villafuerte, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    European wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are frequently translocated for hunting and conservation purposes. Quarantining these animals prior to release reduces the risk of releasing rabbits incubating field infections of myxomatosis or viral haemorrhagic disease (RHD), and it provides a way to vaccinate these animals against both diseases. However the optimal quarantine period needed to achieve these goals is not known. We therefore assessed the effects of quarantine lengths (2, 4, 6, 8 ...

  17. Structural characterization of mRNA-tRNA translocation intermediates

    OpenAIRE

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Liao, Hstau Y.; Schreiner, Eduard; Fu, Jie; Ortiz-Meoz, Rodrigo F.; Schulten, Klaus; Green, Rachel; Frank, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Cryo-EM analysis of a wild-type Escherichia coli pretranslocational sample has revealed the presence of previously unseen intermediate substates of the bacterial ribosome during the first phase of translocation, characterized by intermediate intersubunit rotations, L1 stalk positions, and tRNA configurations. Furthermore, we describe the domain rearrangements in quantitative terms, which has allowed us to characterize the processivity and coordination of the conformational reorganization of t...

  18. Single Nanoparticle Translocation Through Chemically Modified Solid Nanopore

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Shengwei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongwen; Liu, Quanjun

    2016-01-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect single nanoparticle in solution. In the present study, the silicon nitride nanopores were fabricated by focused Ga ion beam (FIB), and the surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to change its surface charge density. The positively charged nanopore surface attracted negatively charged nanoparticles when they were in the vicinity of the nanopore. And, nanoparticle translocation speed was slowed dow...

  19. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Silvestre; Maria Cristina Arias

    2006-01-01

    Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Consid...

  20. Particles translocate from the vagina to the oviducts and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Hall, A.S.; Weller, R.E.; Lepel, E.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    To investigate whether particles deposited in the vagina translocate to the oviducts, 0.3 ml of a 4% bone black suspension was deposited in the posterior vaginal fornix of each of five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during their mid-menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, each animal received 10 units of oxytocin by intramuscular injection. The oviducts of three animals were removed 1 hr after administration of the bone black, while those of the remaining two animals were removed 72 hr after dosing. The removed oviducts were flushed with Hank's solution and then with collagenase solution. The solutions were collected in clean vials and filtered. The filters were examined for bone black particles by light microscopy, as were filters through which solution blanks (negative controls) had been passed. Particles resembling bone black were found on all filters. There were no appreciable differences in the number or shape of these particles between the solution-blank filters and the oviduct-flush filters. The particles on both the solution-blank filters and on the oviduct-flush filters probably originated from environmental contamination by ubiquitous carbon particles. While these results suggested that no translocation took place, translocation could not be ruled out with certainty in the absence of quantitative analyses. A more definitive pilot study was then conducted with two dosed monkeys and one control, using talc labelled by neutron activation to circumvent the problem of environmental contamination. Gamma-Ray analysis of tissue and peritoneal lavage samples for the radionuclides /sup 46/Sc, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 60/Co indicated that no measurable quantities (i.e. greater than 0.5 micrograms) of talc translocated from the deposition site in the vagina to the uterine cavity and beyond.

  1. The pathological effect of bacterial translocation to the Henssge Nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka, Ján

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of measurements of the influence of pathological bacterial translocation on the intestinal wall of the area, measured per recta, and its influence on the course of a Henssge Nomogram. The gram-positive /negative bacteria which influence temperature measurements and the subsequent regressive non-stationary temperature data of biological objects when establishing the moment of death are described in a lucid, synoptic form. Based upon forensic praxis, profession...

  2. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron M. Bell; Robert A. Dieterich

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georg...

  3. Unbalanced 13;18 translocation and Williams syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    COLLEY, A.; Thakker, Y; Ward, H.; Donnai, D

    1992-01-01

    A 2 1/2 year old girl is reported with a de novo 13;18 unbalanced translocation and the facial features of Williams syndrome, subaortic stenosis, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. This case provides two candidate locations for the underlying molecular pathology of this sporadic syndrome. Williams syndrome is associated with intellectual and growth retardation, infantile feeding problems which may be associated with hypercalcaemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, a friendly, loquacious...

  4. Unassisted translocation of large polypeptide domains across phospholipid bilayers

    OpenAIRE

    Brambillasca, Silvia; Yabal, Monica; Makarow, Marja; Borgese, Nica

    2006-01-01

    Although transmembrane proteins generally require membrane-embedded machinery for integration, a few can insert spontaneously into liposomes. Previously, we established that the tail-anchored (TA) protein cytochrome b(5) (b5) can posttranslationally translocate 28 residues downstream to its transmembrane domain (TMD) across protein-free bilayers (Brambillasca, S., M. Yabal, P. Soffientini, S. Stefanovic, M. Makarow, R.S. Hegde, and N. Borgese. 2005. EMBO J. 24:2533–2542). In the present study...

  5. Low translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis to inner organs in mice after pulmonary exposure to commercial biopesticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Krogfelt, Karen A.;

    2010-01-01

    Translocation of viable cells from a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-based biopesticide to inner organs in a mouse model was studied. Mice were exposed to the originally formulated product through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract by intratracheal instillation. Colony forming units (CFU) were...... grown from lungs, caecum, spleen and liver on Bacillus cereus-specific agar (BCSA) after 24 h and finally determined to be biopesticide strain B. t. israelensis by large plasmid profile. No CFU were found in spleen or liver of the control mice or in any aerosol background or material. We have shown...

  6. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.;

    2003-01-01

    revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diff use...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with...

  7. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  8. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  9. Covalently dimerized SecA is functional in protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyzer, Jeanine; van der Sluis, Eli O; Spelbrink, Robin E J; Nijstad, Niels; de Kruijff, Ben; Nouwen, Nico; van der Does, Chris; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2005-10-21

    The ATPase SecA provides the driving force for the transport of secretory proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. SecA exists as a dimer in solution, but the exact oligomeric state of SecA during membrane binding and preprotein translocation is a topic of debate. To study the requirements of oligomeric changes in SecA during protein translocation, a non-dissociable SecA dimer was formed by oxidation of the carboxyl-terminal cysteines. The cross-linked SecA dimer interacts with the SecYEG complex with a similar stoichiometry as non-cross-linked SecA. Cross-linking reversibly disrupts the SecB binding site on SecA. However, in the absence of SecB, the activity of the disulfide-bonded SecA dimer is indistinguishable from wild-type SecA. Moreover, SecYEG binding stabilizes a cold sodium dodecylsulfate-resistant dimeric state of SecA. The results demonstrate that dissociation of the SecA dimer is not an essential feature of the protein translocation reaction. PMID:16115882

  10. Single long-polymer translocation through a long pore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Ke-Jian; Cai Dong-Qing; Zhan Fu-Ru; Wu Li-Jun; Wu Yue-Jin; Yu Zeng-Liang

    2006-01-01

    This paper theoretically studies the free energy and conformational entropy of a long polymer threading a long nanopore (n0/N ≥0.1) on external electric field. The polymer expanded model is built in this paper, that is, a single long polymer chain with N monomers (each of size a) threading a pore with n0 monomers can be regarded as polymer with N + n0 monomers translocating a 2-dimension hole embedded in membrane. A theoretical approach is presented which explicitly takes into account the nucleation theory. Our calculations imply that, the structure of polymer changes more acutely than other situation, while its leading monomer reaches the second vacuum and its end monomer escapes the first vacuum. And it is also shown that the length scale of polymer and pore play a very important role for polymer translocation dynamics. The present model predicts that the translocation time depends on the chemical potential gradient and the property of the solvent on sides of pore to some extent.

  11. Cerium toxicity, uptake and translocation in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue; LIN Yousheng; LIU Dongwu; XU Hengjian; LIU Tao; ZHAO Fengyun

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were cultivated in 0-500 μmol/L of extraneous cerium (Ce) for 7 d to investigate the toxicity,uptake and translocation of rare earth elements (REEs).The results showed that Ce could be largely absorbed by the roots of A.thaliana and translocated to the shoots.But the uptake rates of Ce by the roots were much higher than the translocation rates from roots to shoots.Ultrastructural analysis revealed that Ce was mainly distributed on the cell wall.At higher concentration,Ce could also enter cell,destroy the ultrastructure of cells and disturb the intrinsic balance of nutrient elements of A.thaliana.Addition of Ce (50-500 μmol/L) to the culture medium significantly inhibited the elongation of primary roots,decreased chlorophyll content,rosette diameter and fresh mass of plants.The damage increased with the increase of Ce concentration in culture medium,although primary root elongation,chlorophyll content,and rosette diameter were stimulated by relatively low concentration (0.5 μmol/L) of Ce.Thus,it is speculated that REEs may become a new type contamination if we don't well control the release of REEs into the environment.

  12. Single Nanoparticle Translocation Through Chemically Modified Solid Nanopore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shengwei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongwen; Liu, Quanjun

    2016-12-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect single nanoparticle in solution. In the present study, the silicon nitride nanopores were fabricated by focused Ga ion beam (FIB), and the surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to change its surface charge density. The positively charged nanopore surface attracted negatively charged nanoparticles when they were in the vicinity of the nanopore. And, nanoparticle translocation speed was slowed down to obtain a clear and deterministic signal. Compared with previous studied small nanoparticles, the electrophoretic translocation of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (diameter ~100 nm) was investigated in solution using the Coulter counter principle in which the time-dependent nanopore current was recorded as the nanoparticles were driven across the nanopore. A linear dependence was found between current drop and biased voltage. An exponentially decaying function (t d   ~ e (-v/v0) ) was found between the duration time and biased voltage. The interaction between the amine-functionalized nanopore wall and PS microspheres was discussed while translating PS microspheres. We explored also translocations of PS microspheres through amine-functionalized solid-state nanopores by varying the solution pH (5.4, 7.0, and 10.0) with 0.02 M potassium chloride (KCl). Surface functionalization showed to provide a useful step to fine-tune the surface property, which can selectively transport molecules or particles. This approach is likely to be applied to gene sequencing. PMID:26831688

  13. Controlling polymer translocation and ion transport via charge correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2014-11-01

    We develop a correlation-corrected transport theory in order to predict ionic and polymer transport properties of membrane nanopores under physical conditions where mean-field electrostatics breaks down. The experimentally observed low KCl conductivity of open α-hemolysin pores is quantitatively explained by the presence of surface polarization effects. Upon the penetration of a DNA molecule into the pore, these polarization forces combined with the electroneutrality of DNA sets a lower boundary for the ionic current, explaining the weak salt dependence of blocked pore conductivities at dilute ion concentrations. The addition of multivalent counterions to the solution results in the reversal of the polymer charge and the direction of the electroosmotic flow. With trivalent spermidine or quadrivalent spermine molecules, the charge inversion is strong enough to stop the translocation of the polymer and to reverse its motion. This mechanism can be used efficiently in translocation experiments in order to improve the accuracy of DNA sequencing by minimizing the translocation velocity of the polymer. PMID:25310861

  14. Frequency difference beyond behavioral limen reflected by frequency following response of human auditory Brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qin; Gong, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated whether the frequency-following response (FFR) of the auditory brainstem can represent individual frequency-discrimination ability. Method We measured behavioral frequency-difference limens (FDLs) in normal hearing young adults. Then FFRs were evoked by two pure tones, whose frequency difference was no larger than behavioral FDL. Discrimination of FFRs to individual frequencies was conducted as the neural representation of stimulus frequency differenc...

  15. A jumping Robertsonian translocation; a molecular and cytogenetic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, V.M.; Gross, S.J.; Tharapel, A.T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Lejeune et al. were the first to use the term {open_quotes}translocation sauteuse{close_quotes} or jumping translocation to describe mosaicism due to the presence of multiple structural rearrangements. In this study, we report the cytogenetic and molecular analyses of a patient with mosaicism for two different Robertsonian translocations, both involving chromosome 21. The proband`s karyotype based on lymphocyte cultures is 45,XX,t(21q22q)/46,XX,-21,+i(21q21q) (98%/2%). Chromosome analysis of skin fibroblasts showed 100% of cells with a 45,XX,t(21q22q) complement. A high level of mosaicism was seen in an ovarian biopsy, where 1/3 of cells exhibited the unbalanced cell line with the 21/21 rearrangement. The proband`s pregnancy history is consistent with the high proportion of the 21/21 rearrangement in her ovary. She has had spontaneous abortions and two livebirths, both of whom are affected with Down syndrome [46,XX,-21,+i(21q21q) and 46,XY,-21,+i(21q21q)]. Analysis of cord blood cultures showed that the second child exhibits low level mosaicism for a normal cell line, which further suggests instability of the 21/21 rearrangement. FISH with alphoid probes showed that the 21/21 and 21/22 rearrangements are dicentric and that each long arm segment retains its appropriate centromere. Segregation studies using microsatellite polymorphisms indicated that the 21/21 rearrangement is an isochromosome. The same technique was used to establish that the proband`s rearrangements formed de novo from her mother`s chromosome 21. An uncommon chromosome 22p polymorphism is maternally derived and is present in the proband`s unbalanced cell line. However, this 22 is absent in the balanced 45,XX,t(21q22q) cell line of the proband because it is involved in the translocation. Therefore, we propose a model in which the i(21q) was the progenitor rearrangement and participated in subsequent nonreciprocal rearrangements characteristic of a jumping translocation.

  16. Conflict Bear Translocation: Investigating Population Genetics and Fate of Bear Translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh,; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth ‘conflict bears’ from different sit...

  17. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...... frequency reserve to power systems. The project consists of five work packages, including: Background and perspective Dynamical simulation of chosen concepts Monitoring demand as frequency controlled reserve Strategy and practical implementation Conclusion and evaluation Within the project, the frequency...

  18. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  19. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment

  20. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce Levi CT; Williams Laura E; Burrow Allison A; Wang Yuh-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer...

  1. Sec61β, a subunit of the Sec61 protein translocation channel at the Endoplasmic Reticulum, is involved in the transport of Gurken to the plasma membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelkar Anshuman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein translocation across the membrane of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER is the first step in the biogenesis of secretory and membrane proteins. Proteins enter the ER by the Sec61 translocon, a proteinaceous channel composed of three subunits, α, β and γ. While it is known that Sec61α forms the actual channel, the function of the other two subunits remains to be characterized. Results In the present study we have investigated the function of Sec61β in Drosophila melanogaster. We describe its role in the plasma membrane traffic of Gurken, the ligand for the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF receptor in the oocyte. Germline clones of the mutant allele of Sec61β show normal translocation of Gurken into the ER and transport to the Golgi complex, but further traffic to the plasma membrane is impeded. The defect in plasma membrane traffic due to absence of Sec61β is specific for Gurken and is not due to a general trafficking defect. Conclusion Based on our study we conclude that Sec61β, which is part of the ER protein translocation channel affects a post-ER step during Gurken trafficking to the plasma membrane. We propose an additional role of Sec61β beyond protein translocation into the ER.

  2. Stable Translocation Intermediates Jam Global Protein Export in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites and Link the PTEX Component EXP2 with Translocation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesén-Ramírez, Paolo; Reinsch, Ferdinand; Blancke Soares, Alexandra; Bergmann, Bärbel; Ullrich, Ann-Katrin; Tenzer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Protein export is central for the survival and virulence of intracellular P. falciparum blood stage parasites. To reach the host cell, exported proteins cross the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and the parasite-enclosing parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), a process that requires unfolding, suggestive of protein translocation. Components of a proposed translocon at the PVM termed PTEX are essential in this phase of export but translocation activity has not been shown for the complex and questions have been raised about its proposed membrane pore component EXP2 for which no functional data is available in P. falciparum. It is also unclear how PTEX mediates trafficking of both, soluble as well as transmembrane proteins. Taking advantage of conditionally foldable domains, we here dissected the translocation events in the parasite periphery, showing that two successive translocation steps are needed for the export of transmembrane proteins, one at the PPM and one at the PVM. Our data provide evidence that, depending on the length of the C-terminus of the exported substrate, these steps occur by transient interaction of the PPM and PVM translocon, similar to the situation for protein transport across the mitochondrial membranes. Remarkably, we obtained constructs of exported proteins that remained arrested in the process of being translocated across the PVM. This clogged the translocation pore, prevented the export of all types of exported proteins and, as a result, inhibited parasite growth. The substrates stuck in translocation were found in a complex with the proposed PTEX membrane pore component EXP2, suggesting a role of this protein in translocation. These data for the first time provide evidence for EXP2 to be part of a translocating entity, suggesting that PTEX has translocation activity and provide a mechanistic framework for the transport of soluble as well as transmembrane proteins from the parasite boundary into the host cell. PMID:27168322

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  4. Serotonin transporter (SERT and translocator protein (TSPO expression in the obese ob/ob mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini Ferruccio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ever growing body of evidences is emerging concerning metabolism hormones, neurotransmitters or stress-related biomarkers as effective modulators of eating behavior and body weight in mammals. The present study sought at examining the density and affinity of two proteins related to neurotransmission and cell metabolism, the serotonin transporter SERT and the cholesterol import-benzodiazepine site TSPO (translocator protein, in a rodent leptin-lacking mutant, the obese ob/ob mouse. Binding studies were thus carried out in brain or peripheral tissues, blood platelets (SERT and kidneys (TSPO, of ob/ob and WT mice supplied with a standard diet, using the selective radiochemical ligands [3H]-paroxetine and [3H]-PK11195. Results We observed comparable SERT number or affinity in brain and platelets of ob/ob and WT mice, whilst a significantly higher [3H]-PK11195 density was reported in the brain of ob/ob animals. TSPO binding parameters were similar in the kidneys of all tested mice. By [3H]-PK11195 autoradiography of coronal hypothalamic-hippocampal sections, an increased TSPO signal was detected in the dentate gyrus (hippocampus and choroids plexus of ob/ob mice, without appreciable changes in the cortex or hypothalamic-thalamic regions. Conclusions These findings show that TSPO expression is up-regulated in cerebral regions of ob/ob leptin-deficient mice, suggesting a role of the translocator protein in leptin-dependent CNS trophism and metabolism. Unchanged SERT in mutant mice is discussed herein in the context of previous literature as the forerunner to a deeper biochemical investigation.

  5. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  6. Induction of transposon TN1 translocation under the action of different mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration of ampicillin transposon Tn1 under normal conditions in Escherichia coli cells proceeds with low frequency (10-4 transpositions for cell). The low transposition frequency is conditioned by the transposition repression, realized by the gene-repressor in transposon structure and, probably, by other regulating genes of the bacterium-host. E. coli cell treatment by physical and chemical mutagens resulted in induction of translocation of ampicillin transposon Tn1 from plasmid RP4 into other replicons. Mitomycin C and ultraviolet radiation produced stronger inducing effect as compared to nitroso-guanidine (NG). The effect of the given mutagens on transposition Tn1 correlated with their activating capacity with respect to inducible SOS-functions of E coli. The mutation of rec A didn't influence on spontaneous Tn1 transposition, but blocked completely the induction of transposition process under mutagen effect. The relationship of inducible transposition with SOS-functions in E. coli cells, controlled by recA and lexA genes, as well as the possible role of the process in genetic microorganism variability are discussed in the paper

  7. Nonparametric Inference for the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Genovese, C R; Nichol, R C; Arjunwadkar, M; Wasserman, L; Genovese, Christopher R.; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Arjunwadkar, Mihir; Wasserman, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), which permeates the entire Universe, is the radiation left over from just 380,000 years after the Big Bang. On very large scales, the CMB radiation field is smooth and isotropic, but the existence of structure in the Universe - stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies - suggests that the field should fluctuate on smaller scales. Recent observations, from the Cosmic Microwave Background Explorer to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Project, have strikingly confirmed this prediction. CMB fluctuations provide clues to the Universe's structure and composition shortly after the Big Bang that are critical for testing cosmological models. For example, CMB data can be used to determine what portion of the Universe is composed of ordinary matter versus the mysterious dark matter and dark energy. To this end, cosmologists usually summarize the fluctuations by the power spectrum, which gives the variance as a function of angular frequency. The spectrum's shape, and in particular the ...

  8. Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE): Emergency support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, R.; Mattson, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Mission will measure the diffuse radiation from the universe in the wavelength band 1 micron to 9.6 mm. The band includes the 3 K cosmic background radiation, the known relic of the primeval cosmic explosion. The COBE satellite will be launched from the Western Space and Missile Center (EWSMC) via a Delta launch vehicle into a circular parking orbit of about 300 km. COBE will be placed into a 900-km altitude circular orbit. Coverage will be provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN) for COBE emergencies that would prevent communications via the normal channels of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Emergency support will be provided by the DSN 26-m subnetwork. Information is given in tabular form for DSN network support, frequency assignments, telemetry, and command.

  9. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Kroum Gherardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum is a crystaline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to the use of alum particles emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF lesion detected in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue/syndrome. MMF revealed an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells in presumably susceptible individuals, stressing the previous fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytozed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. The understanding of basic mechanisms of particle biopersistence and brain translocation represents a major health challenge, since it could help to define susceptibility factors to develop chronic neurotoxic damage. Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced rupture of phagolysosomal membranes. Macrophages that continuously perceive foreign particles in their cytosol will likely reiterate, with variable interindividual efficiency, a dedicated form of autophagy (xenophagy until they dispose of alien materials. Successful compartmentalization of particles within double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with repaired and re-acidified lysosomes will expose alum to lysosomal acidic pH, the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV, that obeys to CCL2 signaling the major inflammatory monocyte

  10. 青藏高原冬、春季沙尘暴频次时空分布特征及其环流背景%Spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and circulation background of sandstorm occurrence frequency in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in winter and spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟诗薇; 伍永秋; 夏冬冬; 潘婕

    2012-01-01

    Based on the daily data of sandstorm events from 29 meteorological observation stations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1961 to 2002 and the reanalysis data of 200hPa height of European Center of Medium Range Weather Forecast,the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics and variation of sandstorm occurrence frequency in winter and spring were analyzed,the circulation background in sandstorm anomalous years were also discussed.The results show that,sandstorm events mainly occur in the Ali Plateau,the Qaidam Basin,the source of the three rivers and the middle reaches of the Yarlungzangbo River from December to next May,and its occurrence frequency present a significant decreasing trend from 1961 to 2002.The high incidence areas of sandstorm gradually shift from south to Qiangtang Plateau and Tarim Basin in the north with seasons change.In both winter and spring of strong sandstorm years,the distribution of 200 hPa height field tends to be smoother compared with normal years when zonal westerly wind is enhanced,and the energy transmission to the ground is increased;while in weak sandstorm years,it shows the opposite situation.%利用1961-2002年青藏高原29个气象台站的沙尘天气资料,分析了冬、春季沙尘暴频次的时空分布和变化,并结合欧洲中心再分析资料的200 hPa高度场数据,分析了冬、春季沙尘暴异常年份对应的环流特征。结果表明:青藏高原的沙尘暴主要集中发生在12月至次年5月,1961-2002年间其发生频次呈显著减少的趋势;阿里高原、柴达木盆地、三江源区和雅鲁藏布江中游地区为沙尘暴的高发区域;沙尘暴高发中心随季节的推移由藏南逐渐北移至羌塘高原及塔里木盆地;冬、春两季200 hPa高度场在沙尘暴强年均表现出纬向西风气流增强,传输到地面的能量增加,利于沙尘暴天气的形成,而在沙尘暴弱年均表现为经向环流增强,阻碍了能量的向下传输,不利于大风天气的形成。

  11. Modeling the mechanochemistry of the ϕ29 DNA translocation motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carrasco, R.; Fiasconaro, A.; Falo, F.; Sancho, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    We present a study of the DNA translocation of the bacteriophage ϕ29 packaging molecular motor. From the available experimental information we present a model system based on a stochastic flashing potential, which reproduces the experimental observations such as detailed trajectories, steps and substeps, spatial correlation, and velocity. Moreover, the model allows the evaluation of the power and efficiency of this motor. We have found that the maximum power regime does not correspond with that of the maximum efficiency. This information can stimulate further experiments.

  12. The effect of traffic volume on translocated small mammal movement

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, Rachelle; Derrane, Sarah; Bender, Darren; Fahrig, Lenore

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) were capable of crossing roads with varying levels of traffic volume. We live-trapped small mammals in 24 “home” patches. We uniquely marked and translocated 197 white-footed mice and 115 eastern chipmunks to nearby forest patches. Recaptured animals were recorded as successful returns. Forty five (22.8%) of the mice and 22 (19.1%) of the chipmunks returned to their home patches within six ...

  13. Single Molecule Fluorescence Measurements of Ribosomal Translocation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskarin; Cabral, Diana; Liu, Hanqing; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Haibo; Rosenblum, Gabriel; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    We employ single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study structural dynamics over the first two elongation cycles of protein synthesis, using ribosomes containing either Cy3-labeled ribosomal protein L11 and A- or P-site Cy5-labeled tRNA or Cy3 and Cy5 labeled tRNAs. Pre-translocation (PRE) complexes demonstrate fluctuations between classical and hybrid forms, with concerted motions of tRNAs away from L11 and from each other when classical complex converts to hybrid ...

  14. Induction of site-specific chromosomal translocations in embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Junfeng; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Xingliang; Chen, Xi; Huang, Guanyi; Li, Fengsheng; Wang, Ruizhe; Wu, Nancy; Yan, Youzhen; Tong, Chang; Srivastava, Sankalp; Wang, Yue; Liu, Houqi; Ying, Qi-Long

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation is the most common form of chromosomal abnormality and is often associated with congenital genetic disorders, infertility, and cancers. The lack of cellular and animal models for chromosomal translocations, however, has hampered our ability to understand the underlying disease mechanisms and to develop new therapies. Here, we show that site-specific chromosomal translocations can be generated in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via CRISPR/Cas9. Mouse ESCs carrying translocated chromosomes can be isolated and expanded to establish stable cell lines. Furthermore, chimeric mice can be generated by injecting these mESCs into host blastocysts. The establishment of ESC-based cellular and animal models of chromosomal translocation by CRISPR/Cas9 provides a powerful platform for understanding the effect of chromosomal translocation and for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26898344

  15. Salt dependence of DNA translocation dynamics through silicon nanopores detected by ultraviolet excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shintaro; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Tsukahara, Mutsumi; Esashika, Keiko; Saiki, Toshiharu

    2016-04-01

    DNA translocation through nanopores was observed using ultraviolet excitation to investigate the effect of salt concentration and counterion species on the translocation speed. The translocation of 9.6-kbp DNA molecules was measured in an aqueous solvent containing KCl, NaCl, or LiCl. An increase in the KCl concentration from 0.5 to 2 M increased the DNA translocation time. Maintaining the salt concentration at 1.0 M but replacing KCl with NaCl or LiCl also increased the translocation time. These results suggest that the effective charge on the DNA changed due to the binding of counterions, decreasing the DNA electrophoretic mobility. Significant correlation was observed between the translocation time and the dwell time in the observation volume (time needed to move out of the observation volume), and a possible explanation for this observation is provided.

  16. Conformation-dependent translocation of a star polymer through a nanochannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Liu, Jiannan; Xiao, Mengying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2014-01-01

    The translocation process of star polymers through a nanochannel is investigated by dissipative particle dynamics simulations. The translocation process is strongly influenced by the star arm arrangement as the polymer enters the channel, and a scaling relation between the translocation time τ and the total number of beads Ntot is obtained. Qualitative agreements are found with predictions of the nucleation and growth model for linear block co-polymer translocation. In the intermediate stage where the center of the star polymer is at the channel entrance, the translocation time is found to have power law-dependence on the number of arms outside the channel and very weakly dependent on the number of arms in the channel. Increasing the total number of star arms also increases the star translocation time. PMID:25332744

  17. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  18. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Moisio, Jaakko E; Linna, Riku P

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We measure tension of the polymer segment on the {\\it cis} side of the pore in the course of translocations simulated using stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multi-particle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. Hydrodynamics speeds up translocation in the good solvent, whereas it has a minimal effect on polymer translocation in the bad solvent. Under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread ...

  19. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  20. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  1. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  2. Chromosomal translocation involving the beta T cell receptor gene in acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    DNA spanning a t(7;19) chromosomal translocation breakpoint was isolated from the human T cell line SUP-T7 established from an acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the point of crossover on chromosome 7 occurred immediately adjacent to joining segment J beta 1.1 within the TCR-beta gene, suggesting that this translocation resulted from an error in TCR gene rearrangement. On chromosome 19, the translocation occurred within a previously uncharacterized transcri...

  3. Induction of site-specific chromosomal translocations in embryonic stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9

    OpenAIRE

    Junfeng Jiang; Li Zhang; Xingliang Zhou; Xi Chen; Guanyi Huang; Fengsheng Li; Ruizhe Wang; Nancy Wu; Youzhen Yan; Chang Tong; Sankalp Srivastava; Yue Wang; Houqi Liu; Qi-Long Ying

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation is the most common form of chromosomal abnormality and is often associated with congenital genetic disorders, infertility, and cancers. The lack of cellular and animal models for chromosomal translocations, however, has hampered our ability to understand the underlying disease mechanisms and to develop new therapies. Here, we show that site-specific chromosomal translocations can be generated in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) via CRISPR/Cas9. Mouse ESCs carrying ...

  4. Post-Release Dispersal in Animal Translocations: Social Attraction and the “Vacuum Effect”

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Baptiste Mihoub; Alexandre Robert; Pascaline Le Gouar; François Sarrazin

    2011-01-01

    Animal translocations are human-induced colonizations that can represent opportunities to contribute to the knowledge on the behavioral and demographic processes involved in the establishment of animal populations. Habitat selection behaviors, such as social cueing, have strong implications on dispersal and affect the establishment success of translocations. Using modeling simulations with a two-population network model (a translocated population and a remnant population), we investigated the...

  5. Translocation of bacterial NOD2 agonist and its link with inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Monsel, Antoine; Bertrand, Michèle,; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Coriat, Pierre; Adib-Conquy, Minou

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The gut is often considered as the motor of critical illness through bacterial translocation, which amplifies the inflammatory response and alters the immune status. However, systemic bacterial translocation was rarely proven and endotoxin measurement only reflects translocation of Gram-negative-derived products. The process could be more frequently identified if peptidoglycan, derived from both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, was measured. Methods We developed a new to...

  6. Translocation of particles deposited in the respiratory system: a systematic review and statistical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nakane, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter poses consistent risks for respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The translocation of inhaled particles is one hypothesis that could explain such systemic effects. The objectives of this study were to conduct a systematic review of previous reports on particle translocation from the respiratory system and to discuss factors important for translocation. A PubMed search was conducted in August 2011 for the period...

  7. The Use of Animal Models to Study Bacterial Translocation During Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Infection of pancreatic necrosis with intestinal flora is accepted to be a main predictor of outcome during severe acute pancreatitis. Bacterial translocation is the process whereby luminal bacteria migrate to extraintestinal sites. Animal models were proven indispensable in detecting three major aspects of bacterial translocation: small bowel bacterial overgrowth, mucosal barrier failure, and disturbed immune responses. Despite the progress made in the knowledge of bacterial translocation, t...

  8. Orally administered bovine lactoferrin inhibits bacterial translocation in mice fed bovine milk.

    OpenAIRE

    Teraguchi, S.; Shin, K.; Ogata, T; Kingaku, M; Kaino, A; Miyauchi, H; Fukuwatari, Y; Shimamura, S

    1995-01-01

    Feeding of bovine milk to mice induced a high incidence of bacterial translocation from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the bacteria involved were mainly members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Supplementation of the milk diet with bovine lactoferrin or a pepsin-generated hydrolysate of bovine lactoferrin resulted in significant suppression of bacterial translocation. Our findings suggest that this ability of lactoferrin to inhibit bacterial translocation may be due to its...

  9. The use of animal models to study bacterial translocation during acute pancreatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnen, L.P. van; Blom, M.; Timmerman, H; Visser, M. R.; Gooszen, H.G.; Akkermans, L M A

    2007-01-01

    Infection of pancreatic necrosis with intestinal flora is accepted to be a main predictor of outcome during severe acute pancreatitis. Bacterial translocation is the process whereby luminal bacteria migrate to extraintestinal sites. Animal models were proven indispensable in detecting three major aspects of bacterial translocation: small bowel bacterial overgrowth, mucosal barrier failure, and disturbed immune responses. Despite the progress made in the knowledge of bacterial translocation, t...

  10. Synergistic effects of hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas and antibiotic ionophores upon calcium translocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Couturier, E.; Malaisse, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    1 Hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas, such as tolbutamide and gliclazide, provoke the translocation of calcium from an aqueous medium into or across a hydrophobic region. The combined effect of sulphonylureas and antibiotic ionophores upon such a process was investigated. 2 The magnitude of the sulphonylurea-induced translocation of calcium was more marked in the presence than in the absence of A23187. Gliclazide and tolbutamide also enhanced, although less markedly, X537A-mediated calcium transloc...

  11. Translocation of a Polymer through a Nanopore across a Viscosity Gradient

    OpenAIRE

    de Haan, Hendrick W.; Slater, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The translocation of a polymer through a pore in a membrane separating fluids of different viscosities is studied via several computational approaches. Starting with the polymer halfway, we find that as a viscosity difference across the pore is introduced, translocation will predominately occur towards one side of the membrane. These results suggest an intrinsic pumping mechanism for translocation across cell walls which could arise whenever the fluid across the membrane is inhomogeneous. Som...

  12. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  13. Home range and movements of male translocated problem tigers in Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Dolly Priatna; Yanto Santosa; Lilik B. Prasetyo; Kartono, Agus P.

    2012-01-01

    The ranging behaviour of translocated problem tigers is poorly understood. The demand for releasing problem tigers back to the wild increases following the increasing the number of problem tigers that needs to be rescued in Sumatra in the last decade. In this study we estimate the home range size and obtain information on daily range of four translocated problem tigers, as well as discussing some potential factors determining the size of home range and their movement. We translocated four ad...

  14. Bacterial protein translocation requires only one copy of the SecY complex in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunyong; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of proteins across the plasma membrane in bacteria requires a channel formed from the SecY complex, which cooperates with either a translating ribosome in cotranslational translocation or the SecA ATPase in post-translational translocation. Whether translocation requires oligomers of the SecY complex is an important but controversial issue: it determines channel size, how the permeation of small molecules is prevented, and how the channel interacts with the ribosome and SecA. He...

  15. Cre Reporter System To Monitor the Translocation of Type III Secreted Proteins into Host Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, Gabriel; Hofreuter, Dirk; Galán, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Central to the study of type III secretion systems is the availability of reporter systems to monitor bacterial protein translocation into host cells. We report here the development of a bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase-based system to monitor the translocation of bacterial proteins into mammalian cells. Bacteriophage P1 Cre recombinase fused to the secretion and translocation signals of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium of the type III secreted protein SopE was secreted in a type III s...

  16. Bacterial protein translocation: kinetic and thermodynamic role of ATP and the protonmotive force

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The energetic mechanism of preprotein export in Escherichia coli has been a source of controversy for many years. In vitro studies of translocation reactions that use purified soluble and membrane components have now clarified the main features of this mechanism. Translocation occurs through consecutive steps which each have distinct energy requirements. Initiation of translocation requires ATP and the SecA protein. Most of the further steps can be driven by the protonmotive force (Δp).

  17. Relationship between cecal population levels of indigenous bacteria and translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, E K; Berg, R D

    1983-01-01

    Translocation is defined as the passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and other organs. The extent of translocation of certain indigenous, oxygen-tolerant bacteria from the cecum to the MLN, spleen, liver, kidney, and peritoneal cavity were determined in diassociated or triassociated gnotobiotic mice. Minimal bacterial translocation occurred to the spleen, liver, kidney, or peritoneal cavity. However, most bacterial strains readily tran...

  18. Dose-response relationship for X-ray-induced reciprocal translocations in stem-cell spermatogonia of the rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in stem-cell spermatogonia of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) was studied after testicular X-irradiation of mature males (50, 100 and 200 rad) or whole-body irradiation of young males (200, and 300 rad). After the recovery of the germinal epithelium, cytogenetic analysis was carried out on spermatocytes descended from irradiated spermatogonia. Preparations of C-banded diakinesis-metaphase I were screened for translocation configurations. The frequencies of aberrations obtained were 0% at 0 rad, 0.36% at 50 rad, 0.86% at 100 rad, 0.99% at 200 rad and 0.68% at 300 rad, suggesting a humped dose-response relationship. There was no evidence for the contribution of a quadratic component to the yield in the lower dose range. A comparison of these results with those obtained for other mammals by a number of investigators shows that the frequencies of translocations in the rhesus monkey are much lower than those published for most other mammalian species. (orig.)

  19. Translocation of cesium in plants after foliar deposition - Experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The translocation of cesium from the foliage to the edible parts as function of the time period between deposition and harvest has been determined for cereals, potatoes, green beans and carrots. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The maximum of the cesium translocation is 40 to 50 and 70 to 90 days before harvest for cereals and potatoes respectively. For green beans a maximum was observed after deposition 15 days before harvest; 2. The variations of the translocation factors are less if the translocation is normalized to the yield; 3. The translocation factors are in good agreement with those of other investigators. The agreement between the experimental series is better for a normalization of the translocation factor on the yield; 4. For cereals and potatoes the translocation can be described with gaussian functions which are consistent with the physiological development of cereals and potatoes. Although the approach in ECOSYS tends to over predict slightly the translocation for barley and potatoes there is a good overall agreement between the experiments and this model; 5. According to the investigations available the translocation of cesium can be predicted within a factor of 3 for cereals and a factor of 4 for potatoes. Sources of the uncertainties besides the biological variability and the inherent experimental error are differences in the development of the plants due to weather conditions, farm management and plant diseases. (9 refs., 5 figs.)

  20. Pore-polymer interaction reveals non-universality in forced polymer translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Lehtola, V V; Linna, R P

    2010-01-01

    We present a numerical study of forced polymer translocation by using two separate pore models. Both of them have been extensively used in previous forced translocation studies. We show that variations in the pore model affect the forced translocation characteristics significantly in the biologically relevant pore force, i.e. driving force, range. Details of the model are shown to change even the obtained scaling relations, which is a strong indication of strongly out-of-equilibrium dynamics in the computational studies which have not yet succeeded in addressing the characteristics of the forced translocation for biopolymers at realistic length scale.

  1. Can Characteristics of Reciprocal Translocations Predict the Chance of Transferable Embryos in PGD Cycles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsbeth Dul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Translocation carriers have an increased risk of miscarriage or the birth of a child with congenital anomalies. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is performed in translocation carriers to select for balanced embryos and, thus, increase the chance of an ongoing pregnancy. However, a common experience is that reciprocal translocation carriers produce a high percentage of unbalanced embryos, which cannot be transferred. Therefore, the pregnancy rates in PGD in this patient group are low. In a cohort of 85 reciprocal translocation carriers undergoing PGD we have searched for cytogenetic characteristics of the translocations that can predict the percentage of balanced embryos. Using shape algorithms, the most likely segregation mode per translocation was determined. Shape algorithm, breakpoint location, and relative chromosome segment sizes proved not to be independent predictors of the percentage of balanced embryos. The ratio of the relative sizes of the translocated segments of both translocation chromosomes can give some insight into the chance of transferable embryos: Very asymmetrical translocations have a higher risk of unbalanced products (p = 0.048. Counseling of the couples on the pros and cons of all their reproductive options remains very important.

  2. Protein translocation without specific quality control in a computational model of the Tat system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) system transports folded proteins of various sizes across both bacterial and plant thylakoid membranes. The membrane-associated TatA protein is an essential component of the Tat translocon, and a broad distribution of different sized TatA-clusters is observed in bacterial membranes. We assume that the size dynamics of TatA clusters are affected by substrate binding, unbinding, and translocation to associated TatBC clusters, where clusters with bound translocation substrates favour growth and those without associated substrates favour shrinkage. With a stochastic model of substrate binding and cluster dynamics, we numerically determine the TatA cluster size distribution. We include a proportion of targeted but non-translocatable (NT) substrates, with the simplifying hypothesis that the substrate translocatability does not directly affect cluster dynamical rate constants or substrate binding or unbinding rates. This amounts to a translocation model without specific quality control. Nevertheless, NT substrates will remain associated with TatA clusters until unbound and so will affect cluster sizes and translocation rates. We find that the number of larger TatA clusters depends on the NT fraction f. The translocation rate can be optimized by tuning the rate of spontaneous substrate unbinding, ΓU. We present an analytically solvable three-state model of substrate translocation without cluster size dynamics that follows our computed translocation rates, and that is consistent with in vitro Tat-translocation data in the presence of NT substrates. (paper)

  3. Protein kinase A antagonist inhibits β-catenin nuclear translocation, c-Myc and COX-2 expression and tumor promotion in ApcMin/+ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudvik Kristoffer W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC protein is part of the destruction complex controlling proteosomal degradation of β-catenin and limiting its nuclear translocation, which is thought to play a gate-keeping role in colorectal cancer. The destruction complex is inhibited by Wnt-Frz and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 - PI-3 kinase pathways. Recent reports show that PGE2-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin by protein kinase A (PKA increases nuclear translocation indicating two mechanisms of action of PGE2 on β-catenin homeostasis. Findings Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice that spontaneously develop intestinal adenomas with a PKA antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS selectively targeting only the latter pathway reduced tumor load, but not the number of adenomas. Immunohistochemical characterization of intestines from treated and control animals revealed that expression of β-catenin, β-catenin nuclear translocation and expression of the β-catenin target genes c-Myc and COX-2 were significantly down-regulated upon Rp-8-Br-cAMPS treatment. Parallel experiments in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 revealed that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS blocked PGE2-induced β-catenin phosphorylation and c-Myc upregulation. Conclusion Based on our findings we suggest that PGE2 act through PKA to promote β-catenin nuclear translocation and tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo, indicating that the direct regulatory effect of PKA on β-catenin nuclear translocation is operative in intestinal cancer.

  4. BCR translocation to derivative chromosome 2: a new case of chronic myeloid leukemia with a complex variant translocation and Philadelphia chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Achkar, Walid; Wafa, Abdulsamad; ALMEDANI, SUHER

    2010-01-01

    The well-known typical fusion gene BCR/ABL is observed in connection with a complex translocation event in 5–8% of cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The present study described an exceptional CML case with complex chromosomal aberrations not previously observed. Aberrations included a translocated BCR to the derivative chromosome 2 [der(2)] that also involved a four-chromosome translocation, implying chromosomal regions 1p32 and 2q21, besides 9q34 and 22q11.2, which were characterized ...

  5. pH sensing by intracellular Salmonella induces effector translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiu-Jun; McGourty, Kieran; Liu, Mei; Unsworth, Kate E; Holden, David W

    2010-05-21

    Salmonella enterica is an important intracellular bacterial pathogen of humans and animals. It replicates within host-cell vacuoles by delivering virulence (effector) proteins through a vacuolar membrane pore made by the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (T3SS). T3SS assembly follows vacuole acidification, but when bacteria are grown at low pH, effector secretion is negligible. We found that effector secretion was activated at low pH from mutant strains lacking a complex of SPI-2-encoded proteins SsaM, SpiC, and SsaL. Exposure of wild-type bacteria to pH 7.2 after growth at pH 5.0 caused dissociation and degradation of SsaM/SpiC/SsaL complexes and effector secretion. In infected cells, loss of the pH 7.2 signal through acidification of host-cell cytosol prevented complex degradation and effector translocation. Thus, intravacuolar Salmonella senses host cytosolic pH, resulting in the degradation of regulatory complex proteins and effector translocation. PMID:20395475

  6. Deconvoluting chain heterogeneity from driven translocation through a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Aniket

    2015-02-01

    We study translocation dynamics of a driven compressible semi-flexible chain consisting of alternate blocks of stiff (S) and flexible (F) segments of size m and n, respectively, for different chain length N in two dimensions (2D). The free parameters in the model are the bending rigidity κb which controls the three-body interaction term, the elastic constant kF in the FENE (bond) potential between successive monomers, as well as the segmental lengths m and n and the repeat unit p (N=m_pn_p) and the solvent viscosity γ. We demonstrate that due to the change in entropic barrier and the inhomogeneous viscous drag on the chain backbone a variety of scenarios are possible, amply manifested in the waiting time distribution of the translocating chain. This information can be deconvoluted to extract the mechanical properties of the chain at various length scales and thus can be used to nanopore based methods to probe bio-molecules, such as DNA, RNA and proteins.

  7. Molecular determinants of nucleolar translocation of RNA helicase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAH-box family of DNA/RNA helicases involved in multiple cellular processes and the life cycles of many viruses. The subcellular localization of RHA is dynamic despite its steady-state concentration in the nucleoplasm. We have previously shown that it shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by virtue of a bidirectional nuclear transport domain (NTD) located in its carboxyl terminus. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants for its translocation within the nucleus and, more specifically, its redistribution from the nucleoplasm to nucleolus or the perinucleolar region. We found that low temperature treatment, transcription inhibition or replication of hepatitis C virus caused the intranuclear redistribution of the protein, suggesting that RHA shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm and becomes trapped in the nucleolus or the perinucleolar region upon blockade of transport to the nucleoplasm. Both the NTD and ATPase activity were essential for RHA's transport to the nucleolus or perinucleolar region. One of the double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD II) was also required for this nucleolar translocation (NoT) phenotype. RNA interference studies revealed that RHA is essential for survival of cultured hepatoma cells and the ATPase activity appears to be important for this critical role

  8. Microarray analysis of unbalanced translocation in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Yang, Jing; Chen, Yuanyuan; Bao, Liming; Cheng, Qian

    2013-06-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by deletions involving chromosome region 4p16.3, which is characterized by growth delay, mild-to-severe mental retardation, hypotonia, facial dysmorphisms and shows extensive phenotypic variability include feeding difficulties, epilepsy and congenital anomalies. Variation in the size of the deletion involving chromosome region 4p16.3 may explain the clinical variation. However, previous studies indicate that duplication for another chromosome region due to an unbalanced translocation elucidate approximately 40-45% WHS patients. Therefore, we used whole genomic cytogenetics array to analyze the entire genome at a significantly higher resolution over conventional cytogenetics to characterize the exact subtelomeric aberration region of one patient with developmental delay and several facial characteristics reminiscent Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Here we report that our patient had 3.7 Mb deletion at the 4p16.2 and 6.8 Mb duplication at 8p23.1 resulted from the unbalanced translocations der(4)t(4;8)(p16.2;p23.1). We confirmed that our patient with monosomy 4p16.2 which is consistent with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and trisomy 8p23.1. The combination of the 4p deletion with 8p partial trisomy explains the complex phenotype presented by our patient. PMID:23782367

  9. Single-molecule fluorescence measurements of ribosomal translocation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunlai; Stevens, Benjamin; Kaur, Jaskarin; Cabral, Diana; Liu, Hanqing; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Haibo; Rosenblum, Gabriel; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E; Cooperman, Barry S

    2011-05-01

    We employ single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to study structural dynamics over the first two elongation cycles of protein synthesis, using ribosomes containing either Cy3-labeled ribosomal protein L11 and A- or P-site Cy5-labeled tRNA or Cy3- and Cy5-labeled tRNAs. Pretranslocation (PRE) complexes demonstrate fluctuations between classical and hybrid forms, with concerted motions of tRNAs away from L11 and from each other when classical complex converts to hybrid complex. EF-G⋅GTP binding to both hybrid and classical PRE complexes halts these fluctuations prior to catalyzing translocation to form the posttranslocation (POST) complex. EF-G dependent translocation from the classical PRE complex proceeds via transient formation of a short-lived hybrid intermediate. A-site binding of either EF-G to the PRE complex or of aminoacyl-tRNA⋅EF-Tu ternary complex to the POST complex markedly suppresses ribosome conformational lability. PMID:21549313

  10. Enhanced Muscular Dystrophy from Loss of Dysferlin Is Accompanied by Impaired Annexin A6 Translocation after Sarcolemmal Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonbreun, Alexis R; Allen, Madison V; Warner, James L; Barefield, David Y; Krishnan, Swathi; Swanson, Kaitlin E; Earley, Judy U; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2016-06-01

    Dysferlin is a membrane-associated protein implicated in membrane resealing; loss of dysferlin leads to muscular dystrophy. We examined the same loss-of-function Dysf mutation in two different mouse strains, 129T2/SvEmsJ (Dysf(129)) and C57BL/6J (Dysf(B6)). Although there are many genetic differences between these two strains, we focused on polymorphisms in Anxa6 because these variants were previously associated with modifying a pathologically distinct form of muscular dystrophy and increased the production of a truncated annexin A6 protein. Dysferlin deficiency in the C57BL/6J background was associated with increased Evan's Blue dye uptake into muscle and increased serum creatine kinase compared to the 129T2/SvEmsJ background. In the C57BL/6J background, dysferlin loss was associated with enhanced pathologic severity, characterized by decreased mean fiber cross-sectional area, increased internalized nuclei, and increased fibrosis, compared to that in Dysf(129) mice. Macrophage infiltrate was also increased in Dysf(B6) muscle. High-resolution imaging of live myofibers demonstrated that fibers from Dysf(B6) mice displayed reduced translocation of full-length annexin A6 to the site of laser-induced sarcolemmal disruption compared to Dysf(129) myofibers, and impaired translocation of annexin A6 associated with impaired resealing of the sarcolemma. These results provide one mechanism by which the C57BL/6J background intensifies dysferlinopathy, giving rise to a more severe form of muscular dystrophy in the Dysf(B6) mouse model through increased membrane leak and inflammation. PMID:27070822

  11. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the first translocation of reindeer Rangifer tarandus from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic Ocean. Reindeer were introduced from Norway to the subantarctic island of South Georgia on three occasions in the early 1900s by Norwegian whalers, and today they exist as two discrete herds, numbering approximately 2600 individuals in total. Because of concerns over the impact on native vegetation, the long-term eradication of reindeer from South Georgia has recently been proposed. A translocation of reindeer to the Falkland Islands was undertaken in 2001 by the Falkland Island Government with two objectives: (1 to preserve the genetic resources of at least one of the South Georgia herds; and (2 to facilitate the diversification of the agricultural sector of the Falkland Islands by establishing a commercial reindeer herd. Techniques developed and used in North America for the successful relocation of large numbers of calves were adopted for the translocation. A total of 59 calves (26 females and 33 males were successfully translocated from South Georgia to the Falklands Islands in 2001, and subsequently produced their first offspring in 2003. Good husbandry practices and an understanding of biology and behaviour are essential for the successful translocation of reindeer.Flytting av rein fra Sør-Georgia til FalklandsøyeneAbstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Artikkelen beskriver den første overføring av rein Rangifer tarandus fra Sør-Georgia til Falklandsøyene i søratlanteren. Tamrein fra Norge ble flyttet til den subarktiske øya Sør-Georgia ved tre anledninger i perioden 1911 til 1925 i forbindelse med den norske hvalfangsten der. I dag består bestanden av rundt regnet 2600 dyr fordelt på to geografisk atskilte flokker. Av hensyn til den naturlige vegetasjonen på øya er det forslag om å på sikt utrydde reinbestanden på øya. Regjeringen på Falklandsøyene foretok en første overføring av

  12. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    tetracycline). A range of natural plasmids was used as targets for the translocation of resistance. Plasmids that acquired resistance from the DT104 chromosome were segregated by conjugation into Escherichia coli K12. Plasmids R751, R388, and RP4::Tn7 acquired several combinations of resistance determinant......Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104, 961368, a veterinary field isolate that encodes a chromosomal cluster of resistance genes as well as two integrons, was used to study the mobility of resistance cassettes (aadA2 and pse-1) and nonintegron-associated resistance determinants (chloramphenicol and...... (including single cassettes) at frequencies comparable with transposition. RP4 and pOG660 did not acquire any determinants from DT104. Phenotypic and PCR-based analysis of all the transconjugants that were translocated-both cassettes and more complex combinations of determinants-was carried out to...

  13. Microwave Frequency Polarizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vien The; Mirel, Paul; Kogut, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the fabrication and analysis of microwave frequency polarizing grids. The grids are designed to measure polarization from the cosmic microwave background. It is effective in the range of 500 to 1500 micron wavelength. It is cryogenic compatible and highly robust to high load impacts. Each grid is fabricated using an array of different assembly processes which vary in the types of tension mechanisms to the shape and size of the grids. We provide a comprehensive study on the analysis of the grids' wire heights, diameters, and spacing.

  14. Generalized Background-Field Method

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Y J

    1997-01-01

    The graphical method discussed previously can be used to create new gauges not reachable by the path-integral formalism. By this means a new gauge is designed for more efficient two-loop QCD calculations. It is related to but simpler than the ordinary background-field gauge, in that even the triple-gluon vertices for internal lines contain only four terms, not the usual six. This reduction simplifies the calculation inspite of the necessity to include other vertices for compensation. Like the ordinary background-field gauge, this generalized background-field gauge also preserves gauge invariance of the external particles. As a check of the result and an illustration for the reduction in labour, an explicit calculation of the two-loop QCD 45% of computation compared to the ordinary background-field gauge.

  15. The Cosmic Background Radiation, 1997

    CERN Document Server

    Smoot, G F; Smoot, George; Scott, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    We summarise the current status of cosmic microwave background spectrum and anisotropy measurements, and their theoretical interpretation. This is the update of the mini-review for the 1997 web-version of the Review of Particle Properties.

  16. Geometrodynamics on a background spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, P P; Papadopoulos, Philippos; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation of the initial value problem for the Einstein equations is at the heart of obtaining interesting new solutions using numerical relativity and still very much under theoretical and applied scrutiny. We develop a specialised background geometry approach, for systems where there is non-trivial a priori knowledge about the spacetime under study. The background three-geometry and associated connection are used to express the ADM evolution equations in terms of physical non-linear deviations from that background. Expressing the equations in first order form leads naturally to a system closely linked to the Einstein-Christoffel system, introduced by Anderson and York, and sharing its hyperbolicity properties. The background metric approach can drastically alter the source structure of the equations, and we present an argument as to why this is likely to be numerically advantageous.

  17. QED_2 in Curved Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Amit

    1996-01-01

    Here we discuss the two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time, especially in the background of some black holes. We first show the existence of some new quantum mechanical solution which has interesting properties. Then for some special black holes we discuss the fermion-black hole scattering problem. The issue of confinement is intimately connected with these solutions and we also comment on this in this background. Finally, the entanglement entropy and the Hawking radiati...

  18. Backgrounds in AFP Detector Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yicong

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detectors aim to measure protons that are scattered in the ATLAS interaction point under very small angles ($90-160 \\mu rad$). The diffractive protons detected by the AFP may be accompanied by beam halo. This report presents an estimation of the beam halo backgrounds in the AFP using low pile-up data, and position distributions of the backgrounds in the AFP.

  19. The Supernova Relic Neutrino Background

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplinghat, M.; Steigman, G.; Walker, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    An upper bound to the supernova relic neutrino background from all past Type II supernovae is obtained using observations of the Universal metal enrichment history. We show that an unambiguous detection of these relic neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande detector is unlikely. We also analyze the event rate in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (where coincident neutrons from anti-nu_e + D --> n + n + e+ might enhance background rejection), and arrive at the same conclusion. If the relic neutrino f...

  20. TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram; Zhong, Minghao; Reuter, Victor E; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-06-01

    Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to

  1. Improvements to background level of the low background HPGe setup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low background HPGe counting setup has been installed at TIFR. The detector, shielded with low activity Pb and Cu shield, has been extensively used for material screening for the TIN. TIN detector (The INdia-based TIN detector). It is proposed to use this setup for the search of rare decay processes like double beta decay (DBD) to the excited states of the daughter nuclei where T1/2 > 1018 years. To enhance the sensitivity of measurement, the background levels of the detector has been further improved by an addition of an active cosmic muon veto system in the FPGA based DAQ system

  2. Very Special Relativity as a background field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ilderton, Anton

    2016-01-01

    We consider violation of Lorentz invariance in QED induced by a very high frequency background wave. An effective theory is obtained by averaging observables over the rapid field oscillations. This preserves Ward identities and restores translation invariance below the high frequency scale, but only partial Lorentz invariance: we show that the effective theory is C-invariant SIM(2)-QED in Very Special Relativity. Averaging generates the nonlocal terms familiar from SIM(2) theories, while the short-distance behaviour of the background field fermion propagator generates the infinite number of higher-order vertices of SIM(2)-QED.

  3. A Tat ménage à trois--The role of Bacillus subtilis TatAc in twin-arginine protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosens, Vivianne J; De-San-Eustaquio-Campillo, Alba; Carballido-López, Rut; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2015-10-01

    The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) is a protein transport system that moves fully folded and cofactor-containing proteins across membranes of bacteria, archaea and thylakoids. The minimal Tat pathway is composed of two subunits, TatA and TatC. In some organisms TatA has been duplicated and evolved to form a third specialized subunit, TatB. The Bacillus subtilis genome encodes two TatC subunits (TatCd and TatCy) and three TatA subunits (TatAd, TatAy and TatAc). These subunits combine to form two parallel minimal pathways, TatAy-TatCy and TatAd-TatCd. The purpose and role of the third TatA component, TatAc, has remained ambiguous. In this study we examined the translocation of two natively expressed TatAy-TatCy-dependent substrates, EfeB and QcrA, in various Tat-deficient genetic backgrounds. More specifically, we examined the ability of different mutated TatAy subunits to complement for the absence of wild-type TatAy. We further detailed a graded growth phenotype associated with the functional translocation of EfeB. We found that in various instances where specific amino acid substitutions were made in TatAy, a definite TatAc-associated growth phenotype occurred in genetic backgrounds lacking TatAc. Altogether, our findings show that TatAy and TatAc interact and that this TatAy-TatAc interaction, although not essential, supports the translocation of the Tat substrate EfeB when TatAy function is compromised. This implies that the third TatA-like protein in B. subtilis could represent an intermediate evolutionary step in TatA-TatB specialization. PMID:26239117

  4. Development and Identification of Triticum aestivum L.-Thinopyrum bessarabicum L(o)ve Chromosome Translocations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Li-fang; QI Zeng-jun; CHEN Pei-du; FENG Yi-gao; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    With ass7istance of chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization(GISH)combined with meiotic analysis,five germplasms with homozygous wheat-Th. Bessarabicum chromosome translocations were developed and identified among BC1F5 progenies of the cross between T. Aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and Chinese Spring-Th. Bessarabicum amphiploid. These lines included Tj01 and Tj02(2n=44)containing a pair of wheat-Th. Bessarabicum translocation chromosomes besides a pair of added Th. Bessarabicum chromosomes,Tj03(2n=44)with a pair of added interspecific translocation chromosomes,Tj04(2n=44)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides an added pair of Th. Bessarabicum chromosome arms and Tj05(2n=46)containing a pair of interspecific translocation chromosomes besides two pairs of added intact alien chromosomes. The breakpoints of all the translocations were found to be not around centromere. Meanwhile,all the lines showed normal plant growth,development and fertility,while the translocation chromosomes transmitted regularly. The obtained translocations might be of use for transferring elite genes from Th. Bessarabicum into wheat.

  5. Molecular and classical cytogenetic analyses demonstrate an apomorphic reciprocal chromosomal translocation in Gorilla gorilla

    OpenAIRE

    Stanyon, Roscoe; Wienberg, Johannes; Romagno, D; F. Bigoni; Jauch, Anna; Cremer, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The existence of an apomorphic reciprocal chromosomal translocation in the gorilla lineage has been asserted or denied by various cytogeneticists. We employed a new molecular cytogenetic strategy (chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization) combined with high-resolution banding, replication sequence analysis, and fluorochrome staining to demonstrate that a reciprocal translocation between ancestral chromosomes homologous to human chromosome 5 and 17 has indeed occurred.

  6. Molecular characterization of translocation (6;9) in acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. von Lindern (Marieke)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSpecific chromosomal translocations are one of the defects associated with leukemia. Isolation and characterization of genes affected by these translocations may give insight into the processes of both leukemogenesis and normal hematopoiesis. When the experiments described in this thesis

  7. Balanced translocation (14;20) in a mentally handicapped child with cystinuria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sharland, M.; Jones, M.; Bain, M.; Chalmers, R; Hammond, J; Patton, M A

    1992-01-01

    A mentally handicapped 3 year old child with cystinuria is presented. Routine chromosomal analysis showed an apparently balanced de novo translocation in the child with breakpoints 14q22 and 20p13. Family studies suggested that the child is a type I/type II compound heterozygote for cystinuria. This translocation may indicate a possible locus for the gene for cystinuria.

  8. Reciprocal translocation 14q;21q in a patient with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, W G; Kennaugh, J M; Kugler, J P; Wyandt, H E

    1983-01-01

    A patient with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome was found to have an apparently balanced de novo translocation 14q; 21q. The relationship between this uncommon translocation and the patient's phenotype is unclear. Although most patients with the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome have normal chromosomes, the possibility of aetiological heterogeneity, including some rare chromosomal abnormalities, cannot be dismissed.

  9. CHROMOSOMAL SUBLOCALIZATION OF THE 2 13 TRANSLOCATION BREAKPOINT IN ALVEOLAR RHABDOMYOSARCOMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SHAPIRO, DN; VALENTINE, MB; SUBLETT, JE; SINCLAIR, AE; TEREBA, AM; SCHEFFER, H; BUYS, CHCM; LOOK, AT

    1992-01-01

    A characteristic balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation [t(2;13)(q35;q14)] has been identified in more than 50% of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. As the first step in characterization of the genes involved in this translocation, we constructed somatic cell hybrids that retained either the deriva

  10. X monosomy and balanced Robertsonian translocation in a girl with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lourenço da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of X monosomy associated with a maternally inherited t(13;14 Robertsonian translocation in a girl with Turner syndrome. The girl's X chromosome was demonstrated to be maternally inherited, ruling out the hypothesis that the translocation exerted an interchromosomal effect on the origin of the monosomy. Chromosomes 13 and 14 showed biparental inheritance.

  11. Familial chromosome translocation t(3;18)(p21;p11).

    OpenAIRE

    Buchinger, G; Wettstein, A; Metze, H

    1981-01-01

    A familial translocation t(3;18)(p21;p11) was observed in a newborn male. He had multiple malformations resulting from partial trisomy 3 and partial monosomy 18. The mother, maternal uncle, and maternal grandmother were found to be balanced translocation carriers. A daughter of the maternal uncle with similar malformations probably had the same unbalanced karyotype as the proband.

  12. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Iso-Flux Tension Propagation Theory of Driven Polymer Translocation: The Role of Initial Configurations

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Ikonen, Timo; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of pore-driven polymer translocation by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Using the tension propagation theory within the constant flux approximation we derive an explicit equation of motion for the tension front. From this we derive a scaling relation for the average translocation time $\\tau$, which captures the asymptotic result $\\tau \\propto N_0^{1+\

  14. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuga, Hiroki; Kawano, Ryuji; Takinoue, Masahiro; Tsuji, Yutaro; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND) operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26890568

  15. Structural characterization of mRNA-tRNA translocation intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirrezabala, Xabier; Liao, Hstau Y; Schreiner, Eduard; Fu, Jie; Ortiz-Meoz, Rodrigo F; Schulten, Klaus; Green, Rachel; Frank, Joachim

    2012-04-17

    Cryo-EM analysis of a wild-type Escherichia coli pretranslocational sample has revealed the presence of previously unseen intermediate substates of the bacterial ribosome during the first phase of translocation, characterized by intermediate intersubunit rotations, L1 stalk positions, and tRNA configurations. Furthermore, we describe the domain rearrangements in quantitative terms, which has allowed us to characterize the processivity and coordination of the conformational reorganization of the ribosome, along with the associated changes in tRNA ribosome-binding configuration. The results are consistent with the view of the ribosome as a molecular machine employing Brownian motion to reach a functionally productive state via a series of substates with incremental changes in conformation. PMID:22467828

  16. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  17. Periodic forces trigger knot untying during translocation of knotted proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Proteins need to be unfolded when translocated through the pores in mitochondrial and other cellular membranes. Knotted proteins, however, might get stuck during this process, jamming the pore, since the diameter of the pore is smaller than the size of maximally tightened knot. The jamming probability dramatically increases as the magnitude of the driving force exceeds a critical value, Fc. In this numerical study, we show that for deep knots Fc lies below the force range over which molecular import motors operate, which suggest that in these cases the knots will tighten and block the pores. Next, we show how such topological traps might be prevented by using a pulling protocol of a repetitive, on-off character. Such a repetitive pulling is biologically relevant, since the mitochondrial import motor, like other molecular motors transforms chemical energy into directed motions via nucleotide-hydrolysis-mediated conformational changes, which are cyclic in character.

  18. Opposite translocation of long and short oligomers through a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getfert, Sebastian; Töws, Thomas; Reimann, Peter

    2013-06-01

    We consider elongated cylindrical particles, modeling, e.g., DNA fragments or nanorods, while they translocate under the action of an externally applied voltage through a solid state nanopore. Particular emphasis is put on the concomitant potential energy landscape encountered by the particle on its passage through the pore due to the complex interplay of various electrohydrodynamic effects beyond the realm of small Debye lengths. We find that the net potential energy difference across the membrane may be of opposite sign for short and long particles of equal diameters and charge densities (e.g., oligomers). Thermal noise thus leads to biased diffusion through the pore in opposite directions. By means of an additional membrane gate electrode it is even possible to control the specific particle length at which this transport inversion occurs.

  19. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. ► An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. ► Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. ► OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CLuptake) of L-[3H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CLuptake of [14C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CLuptake of L-[3H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4–1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p uptake of [14C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[3H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly via the contraction-induced translocation of its specific transporter OCTN2 to the plasma membrane.

  20. Clomazone dissipation,adsorption and translocation in four paddy topsoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lian-fang; LI Guo-xue; YANG Ren-bin; GUO Zheng-yuan; LIAO Xiao-yong

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory experiments about the dissipation, adsorption and translocation in four paddy topsoils were conducted in this paper. From the results it can be concluded as follows: the dissipation rate of clomazone differed greatly in different paddy soil derived from different parent materials. The half-lives for clomazone degradation in paddy soils ranged from 5.7 to 22.0 d. The order of clomazone dissipation rate was reddish yellow paddy soil >alluvial sandy paddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil > purple sandy paddy soil. Clomazone sorption quantity was significantly correlated with organic carbon ( R2 = 0.62) and clay content ( R2 = 0.67) in the tested paddy soils.Positive correlation was found between apparent Kd value and cation exchange content(CEC). The consequences for the adsorption of different soils were purple sandy paddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil > reddish yellow paddy soil > alluvial sandy paddy soil. Under the simulated rainfall of 200 mm through four different unsaturated soil lysimeters over 24 h, clomazone was readily to be leached into lower surface soil and there was about 2.6%-4.2%of applied clomazone leached out of 20 cm cultivated soil layer. Translocation experiments showed that the order of clomazone leaching ability was: alluvial sandy paddy soil > reddish yellow paddy soil > yellow clayey paddy soil >purple sandy paddy soil. Simple regression results manifested that factors like CEC, organic carbon, clay, and adsorption rate constant had been negatively correlated with the percentage of clomazone loss from soil lysimeters.

  1. Gold nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation and translocation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive use of nano-sized particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems after various routes of exposure needs to be investigated using well-characterized NP. We report here on the generation of gold-NP (Au-NP) aerosols for inhalation studies with the spark ignition technique, and their characterization in terms of chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area, and on interaction with lung tissues and lung cells after 1 h inhalation by mice. The originally generated agglomerated Au-NP were converted into compact spherical Au-NP by thermal annealing at 600 °C, providing particles of similar mass, but different size and specific surface area. Since there are currently no translocation data available on inhaled Au-NP in the 10–50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation in rodents. For anticipated in vivo systemic translocation and dosimetry analyses, radiolabeled Au-NP were created by proton irradiating the gold electrodes of the spark generator, thus forming gamma ray emitting 195Au with 186 days half-life, allowing long-term biokinetic studies. The dissolution rate of 195Au from the NP was below detection limits. The highly concentrated, polydisperse Au-NP aerosol (1–2 × 107 NP/cm3) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation and number concentration. After collection on filters particles can be re-suspended and used for instillation or ingestion studies.

  2. Resolution of ion translocating proteolipid subclasses active in bacterial calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of calcium hydroxyapatite occurs on membrane surfaces via interaction of calcium, inorganic phosphate, phospholipids, calcifiable proteolipids, and ion flux to and from the nucleating site. Recently, this laboratory reported that proteolipids from the calcifying bacterium, Bacterionema matruchotti, act as an ionophore when reconstituted into bacteriorhodopsin-proteoliposomes. This ionophoric activity is blocked by [14C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ([14C]DCCD). SDS-PAGE shows that [14C]DCCD binds to a single band of Mr 8500. To determine whether proteins other than the [14C]DCCD-binding protein are involved, we examined the function of proteolipid species extracted by solvents of differing polarity. Proteolipids were isolated independently from chloroform:methanol (2:1) and chloroform:methanol:HCl (200:100:1) extracts of the bacteria by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and were electrophoresed on 12.5% acrylamide gels. The chloroform:methanol extract contained a major hand at Mr 10,000 that was not present in gels of proteolipid isolated by acidified solvent. Proteolipids extracted in chloroform:methanol:HCl included a broad band at Mr 8500, which co-migrated with the [14C] DCCD-binding protein. The rate and extent of proton translocation were not altered when either proteolipid extract was added individually to bacteriorhodopsin proteoliposomes. However, when proteolipids isolated from the chloroform:methanol and chloroform:methanol:HCl extracts were combined, the rate and extent of translocation were increased. These data demonstrate that at least two proteolipid proteins are necessary for ionophoric activity, the Mr 10,000 protein isolated by chloroform:methanol 2:1 and the [14C]DCCD-binding protein requiring acidified solvent for extraction

  3. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  4. The isotropic radio background revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emi...

  5. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  6. Population-based survey of cancer risks in chromosome 3 translocation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, Emma R; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Cruger, Dorthe G;

    2010-01-01

    Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is genetically heterogeneous and may be associated with germline mutations in a number of genes. Twelve different constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3 have also been described in association with inherited RCC. In some families the lifetime risk...... of RCC in chromosome 3 translocation carriers has been estimated to be more than 80%; however the cancer risks in patients with chromosome 3 translocations not ascertained because of a family history of RCC are not well defined. We report a retrospective population-based study using Danish national...... cytogenetic and cancer registries to clarify tumor risks associated with constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3. We identified 222 (105 females, 117 males) individuals with a constitutional chromosome 3 translocation and compared their cancer risks to those of the Danish population. None of the...

  7. Numerical simulation of conformational variability in biopolymer translocation through wide nanopores

    CERN Document Server

    Fyta, Maria; Bernaschi, Massimo; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Succi, Sauro

    2009-01-01

    Numerical results on the translocation of long biopolymers through mid-sized and wide pores are presented. The simulations are based on a novel methodology which couples molecular motion to a mesoscopic fluid solvent. Thousands of events of long polymers (up to 8000 monomers) are monitored as they pass through nanopores. Comparison between the different pore sizes shows that wide pores can host a larger number of multiple biopolymer segments, as compared to smaller pores. The simulations provide clear evidence of folding quantization in the translocation process as the biopolymers undertake multi-folded configurations, characterized by a well-defined integer number of folds. Accordingly, the translocation time is no longer represented by a single-exponent power law dependence on the length, as it is the case for single-file translocation through narrow pores. The folding quantization increases with the biopolymer length, while the rate of translocated beads at each time step is linearly correlated to the numb...

  8. Hydrodynamic correlations in the translocation of biopolymer through a nanopore: theory and multiscale simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Fyta, Maria; Succi, Sauro; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the process of biopolymer translocation through a narrow pore using a multiscale approach which explicitly accounts for the hydrodynamic interactions of the molecule with the surrounding solvent. The simulations confirm that the coupling of the correlated molecular motion to hydrodynamics results in significant acceleration of the translocation process. Based on these results, we construct a phenomenological model which incorporates the statistical and dynamical features of the translocation process and predicts a power law dependence of the translocation time on the polymer length with an exponent $\\alpha$ $\\approx 1.2$. The actual value of the exponent from the simulations is $\\alpha = 1.28 \\pm 0.01$, which is in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of DNA translocation through a nanopore, and is not sensitive to the choice of parameters in the simulation. The mechanism behind the emergence of such a robust exponent is related to the interplay between the longitudinal and transv...

  9. A correlative study on the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of investigations on the correlation between the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mouse and rhesus monkey is described. In the mouse the induction of reciprocal translocations in bone-marrow cells was compared with that in spermatogonia (as scored in the descending spermatocytes). In the rhesus monkey frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in spermatogonia and peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied. Furthermore the effect of multigeneration irradiation (69 generations with 200 rads X-rays) on the sensitivity for translocation induction in spermatogonia of male mice was studied. Frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and chromosomal deletions in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of 5 different types of mice were determined following in vitro irradiation with doses of 100 and/or 200 rad X-rays. To obtain more insight into the processes underlying translocation induction in spermatogonia of the mouse, fractionation experiments were conducted

  10. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  11. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  12. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  13. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  14. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  15. KDM6B Elicits Cell Apoptosis by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of FOXO1 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer and the cause of most cancer-related deaths. The molecular mechanisms that are involved in NSCLC development are currently not well understood. Accumulating evidence shows that histone demethylases play important roles in the regulation of pathological developmental processes in many diseases, including various types of cancers. Methods: Mitochondrial membrane potential assays, migration and invasion assays, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and western blot analysis were used in this research. Results: We found that overexpression of KDM6B, a demethylase that acts on histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27, inhibited cell growth by initiating mitochondria-dependent apoptosis and by attenuating the invasion-metastasis cascade in NSCLC cells. Moreover, our results showed that KDM6B directly interacted with FOXO1 and that overexpression of KDM6B promoted nuclear accumulation of FOXO1. The effects of KDM6B on cell apoptosis and metastasis were weakened by knockdown of FOXO1 expression. On the contrary, knocking down expression of KDM6B inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted cell growth by mitigating the nuclear translocation of FOXO1 in NSCLC cells. Conclusions: These findings suggest that KDM6B may act in a pro-apoptotic role in NSCLC by causing the nuclear translocation of FOXO1.

  16. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J G; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  17. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.;

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  18. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper

  19. Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone improves intestinal barrier function and alleviates bacterial translocation in stressed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁连安; 黎介寿; 李幼生; 刘放南; 谭力

    2004-01-01

    Background Damage to the gut barrier often occurs during critical illnesses. In such cases, it is very important to alleviate impairment of the intestinal barrier and protect intestinal barrier function. This study investigated the protective effect of growth hormone on intestinal barrier function in rats under stress.Methods This study consisted of prospective, randomized, and controlled animal experiments. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats served as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) models and were divided into three groups: TPN group, sepsis (Sep) group, and growth hormone (GH) group. Another 8 rats served as normal controls. Each group received different stress stimuli. Rats were fed for 7 days, and samples were taken for examination 24 hours after garaging with dual saccharides. Results The architecture of the small intestinal mucosa in the Sep group showed the most severe damage among all groups. Nitric oxide levels in blood plasma and immunoglobulin A levels in the intestinal mucosa of the GH group were significantly lower than in the Sep group (P<0.02). There were no significant changes in CD3 counts and in the CD4/CD8 ratio between the four groups. Dual sugar tests and bacteriological examinations revealed that intestinal permeability and rate of bacterial translocation in the GH group were lower than in the Sep group (P<0.01, respectively).Conclusion Prophylactic treatment with growth hormone can alleviate damage to intestinal barrier function caused by trauma and endotoxemia in rats under stress.

  20. A model of oncogenic rearrangements: differences between chromosomal translocation mechanisms and simple double-strand break repair

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstock, David M.; Elliott, Beth; Jasin, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent reciprocal translocations are present in many hematologic and mesenchymal malignancies. Because significant sequence homology is absent from translocation breakpoint junctions, non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathways of DNA repair are presumed to catalyze their formation. We developed translocation reporters for use in mammalian cells from which NHEJ events can be selected after precise chromosomal breakage. Translocations were efficiently recovered with these reporters using mou...

  1. Background independent quantization and wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We apply a type of background independent 'polymer' quantization to a free scalar field in a flat spacetime. Using semiclassical states, we find an effective wave equation that is both nonlinear and Lorentz invariance violating. We solve this equation perturbatively for several cases of physical interest, and show that polymer corrections to solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation depend on the amplitude of the field. This leads to an effective dispersion relation that depends on the amplitude, frequency, and shape of the wave packet, and is hence distinct from other modified dispersion relations found in the literature. We also demonstrate that polymer effects tend to accumulate with time for plane-symmetric waveforms. We conclude by discussing the possibility of measuring deviations from the Klein-Gordon equation in particle accelerators or astrophysical observations.

  2. Physics of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), especially of its frequency spectrum and its anisotropies, both in temperature and in polarization, have played a key role in the development of modern cosmology and our understanding of the very early universe. We review the underlying physics of the CMB and how the primordial temperature and polarization anisotropies were imprinted. Possibilities for distinguishing competing cosmological models are emphasized. The current status of CMB experiments and experimental techniques with an emphasis toward future observations, particularly in polarization, is reviewed. The physics of foreground emissions, especially of polarized dust, is discussed in detail, since this area is likely to become crucial for measurements of the B modes of the CMB polarization at ever greater sensitivity.

  3. The Cosmic Microwave Background Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper given at the Strasbourg NATO school on the CMB and cosmology reports the contents of four hours of lectures on the CMB spectrum, potential distortions, and implications. It was followed by 6 hours of lectures on CMB anisotropy. This paper reviews the observations and theoretical implications for the CMB frequency spectrum - both for the monopole (essentially total power) and the dipole and higher order anisotropies including the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect.

  4. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David J.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Collar, Nigel J.; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional g

  5. Destriping Cosmic Microwave Background Polarimeter data

    CERN Document Server

    Zonca, Andrea; Meinhold, Peter; Lubin, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Destriping is a well-established technique for removing low-frequency correlated noise from Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) survey data. In this paper we present a destriping algorithm tailored to data from a polarimeter, i.e. an instrument where each channel independently measures the polarization of the input signal. We also describe a fully parallel implementation in Python released as Open Source software and analyze its results and performance on simulated datasets, both the design case of signal and correlated noise, and also with the addition of other systematic effects. Finally we apply the algorithm to 30 days of 40 GHz polarized microwave data gathered from the B-Machine experiment, developed at UCSB. The B-Machine data and destriped maps are publicly available. The purpose is the development of a scalable software tool to be applied to the upcoming 12 months of temperature and polarization data from LATTE (Low frequency All sky TemperaTure Experiment) at 8 GHz and to even larger datasets.

  6. Background Subtraction Based on Three-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Wang, Jinkuan; Cai, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Background subtraction without a separate training phase has become a critical task, because a sufficiently long and clean training sequence is usually unavailable, and people generally thirst for immediate detection results from the first frame of a video. Without a training phase, we propose a background subtraction method based on three-dimensional (3D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Static backgrounds with few variations along the time axis are characterized by intensity temporal consistency in the 3D space-time domain and, hence, correspond to low-frequency components in the 3D frequency domain. Enlightened by this, we eliminate low-frequency components that correspond to static backgrounds using the 3D DWT in order to extract moving objects. Owing to the multiscale analysis property of the 3D DWT, the elimination of low-frequency components in sub-bands of the 3D DWT is equivalent to performing a pyramidal 3D filter. This 3D filter brings advantages to our method in reserving the inner parts of detected objects and reducing the ringing around object boundaries. Moreover, we make use of wavelet shrinkage to remove disturbance of intensity temporal consistency and introduce an adaptive threshold based on the entropy of the histogram to obtain optimal detection results. Experimental results show that our method works effectively in situations lacking training opportunities and outperforms several popular techniques. PMID:27043570

  7. The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background

    CERN Document Server

    Beacom, John F

    2010-01-01

    The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) is the weak glow of MeV neutrinos and antineutrinos from distant core-collapse supernovae. The DSNB has not been detected yet, but the Super-Kamiokande (SK) 2003 upper limit on the electron antineutrino flux is close to predictions, now quite precise, based on astrophysical data. If SK is modified with dissolved gadolinium to reduce detector backgrounds and increase the energy range for analysis, then it should detect the DSNB at a rate of a few events per year, providing a new probe of supernova neutrino emission and the cosmic core-collapse rate. If the DSNB is not detected, then new physics will be required. Neutrino astronomy, while uniquely powerful, has proven extremely difficult -- only the Sun and the nearby Supernova 1987A have been detected to date -- so the promise of detecting new sources soon is exciting indeed.

  8. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Juárez-Aubry, María Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. Thi...

  9. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  10. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  11. Inadequate clearance of translocated bacterial products in HIV-infected humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Hofer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial translocation from the gut and subsequent immune activation are hallmarks of HIV infection and are thought to determine disease progression. Intestinal barrier integrity is impaired early in acute retroviral infection, but levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a marker of bacterial translocation, increase only later. We examined humanized mice infected with HIV to determine if disruption of the intestinal barrier alone is responsible for elevated levels of LPS and if bacterial translocation increases immune activation. Treating uninfected mice with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS induced bacterial translocation, but did not result in elevated plasma LPS levels. DSS-induced translocation provoked LPS elevation only when phagocytic cells were depleted with clodronate liposomes (clodrolip. Macrophages of DSS-treated, HIV-negative mice phagocytosed more LPS ex vivo than those of control mice. In HIV-infected mice, however, LPS phagocytosis was insufficient to clear the translocated LPS. These conditions allowed higher levels of plasma LPS and CD8+ cell activation, which were associated with lower CD4+/CD8+ cell ratios and higher viral loads. LPS levels reflect both intestinal barrier and LPS clearance. Macrophages are essential in controlling systemic bacterial translocation, and this function might be hindered in chronic HIV infection.

  12. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl β-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure [35S]pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components

  13. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  14. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Labus, Peter; Slade, Zoë H

    2016-01-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to be power law. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrisation independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either over-constrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  15. A case of bilateral renal cell carcinoma associated with long-term dialysis showing false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 as Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki-Arakawa, Aiko; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Mitani, Keiko; Fukumura, Yuki; Nagashima, Yoji; Argani, Pedrum; Yao, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Renal carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations/transcription factor 3 (TFE3) gene fusion (Xp11 translocation RCC) are a rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma. A middle-aged Japanese man, who had a medical history of dialysis for more than 12 years, had bilateral renal cancers with a background of acquired cystic disease of the kidney and remarkable deposition of calcium oxalate in the tumorous area. The right renal tumor showed papillary architecture of clear cells with diffuse and strong immunoreactivity for TFE3 and focal and weak positivity for cathepsin K, suggesting a possibility of Xp11 translocation RCC. However, RT-PCR failed to detect any type of the reported fusion genes involving TFE3. Thus, the sample was sent for a TFE3 break-apart FISH assay in a renal tumor consultation service, which reported no evidence of TFE3 gene rearrangement. The right renal tumor was finally diagnosed as papillary renal cell carcinoma with cystic change. We report here a case of bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a patient undergoing long-term dialysis, which showed false-positive immunoreactivity for TFE3 immunostaining. Titration of TFE3 immunohistochemical staining (IHC) should be performed and cross-referenced with the FISH or RT-PCR results to avoid the misinterpretation of TFE3 IHC results. PMID:24228124

  16. A voltage-gated pore for translocation of tRNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koley, Sandip; Adhya, Samit, E-mail: nilugrandson@gmail.com

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •A tRNA translocating complex was assembled from purified proteins. •The complex translocates tRNA at a membrane potential of ∼60 mV. •Translocation requires Cys and His residues in the Fe–S center of RIC6 subunit. -- Abstract: Very little is known about how nucleic acids are translocated across membranes. The multi-subunit RNA Import Complex (RIC) from mitochondria of the kinetoplastid protozoon Leishmania tropica induces translocation of tRNAs across artificial or natural membranes, but the nature of the translocation pore remains unknown. We show that subunits RIC6 and RIC9 assemble on the membrane in presence of subunit RIC4A to form complex R3. Atomic Force Microscopy of R3 revealed particles with an asymmetric surface groove of ∼20 nm rim diameter and ∼1 nm depth. R3 induced translocation of tRNA into liposomes when the pH of the medium was lowered to ∼6 in the absence of ATP. R3-mediated tRNA translocation could also be induced at neutral pH by a K{sup +} diffusion potential with an optimum of 60–70 mV. Point mutations in the Cys{sub 2}–His{sub 2} Fe-binding motif of RIC6, which is homologous to the respiratory Complex III Fe–S protein, abrogated import induced by low pH but not by K{sup +} diffusion potential. These results indicate that the R3 complex forms a pore that is gated by a proton-generated membrane potential and that the Fe–S binding region of RIC6 has a role in proton translocation. The tRNA import complex of L. tropica thus contains a novel macromolecular channel distinct from the mitochondrial protein import pore that is apparently involved in tRNA import in some species.

  17. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  18. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  19. Effects of smoking on chromosomes compared with those of radiation in a high-background radiation area and of environmental mutagenic factors in a large city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking is the most influential factor among the environmental mutagens to increase cancer incidence. In order to know how environmental mutagens affect the induction of translocations caused by smoking we analyzed the translocations in the lymphocytes of smokers and nonsmokers in a large city, Beijing, and compared them with those reported by us in a high background radiation area (HBRA) and in its control area (CA), remote villages, in the south of China. This paper is the review of our reported studies performed under China-Japan collaborative study on HBRA in China conducted by Prof. Tsutomu Sugahara, Japan, and Prof. Luxin Wei, China. (author)

  20. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Premature ovarian failure in a woman with a balanced 15;21 translocation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgari Zahra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A case of premature ovarian failure with concomitant findings of Robertsonian translocation between 15 and 21 chromosomes is reported here. The aforementioned karyotypic aberration has not been reported in the context of premature ovarian failure to date. Case presentation We present a case of premature ovarian failure in a 27-year-old infertile Kurdish Iranian woman with a Robertsonian 15;21 translocation. Conclusions The diagnosis of premature ovarian failure of unknown etiology, but with karyotypic evidence of a balanced autosomal translocation, suggests the possible role of autosomal genes in the pathogenesis of ovarian follicular attrition.

  2. Nonequilibrium dynamics of an exactly solvable Ising-like model and protein translocation

    CERN Document Server

    Pelizzola, A

    2013-01-01

    Using an Ising-like model of protein mechanical unfolding, we introduce a diffusive dynamics on its exactly known free energy profile, reducing the nonequilibrium dynamics of the model to a biased random walk. As an illustration, the model is then applied to the protein translocation phenomenon, taking inspiration from a recent experiment on the green fluorescent protein pulled by a molecular motor. The average translocation time is evaluated exactly, and the analysis of single trajectories shows that translocation proceeds through an intermediate state, similar to that observed in the experiment.

  3. Quantifying the role of chaperones in protein translocation by computational modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore eAssenza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular chaperone Hsp70 plays a central role in the import of cytoplasmic proteins into organelles,driving their translocation by binding them from the organellar interior. Starting from the experimentally-determined structure of the E. coli Hsp70, we computed, by means of molecular simulations,the effective free-energy profile for substrate translocation uponchaperone binding. We then used the resulting free energy to quantitatively characterize the kinetics of the import process, whose comparison with unassisted translocation highlights the essential role played by Hsp70 in importing cytoplasmic proteins.

  4. Effects of nucleotides on ATP-dependent protein translocation into Escherichia coli membrane vesicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, L.; Tai, P C

    1986-01-01

    We have shown previously that Escherichia coli can translocate the same protein either co- or posttranslationally and that ATP hydrolysis is essential for the posttranslational translocation of the precursors of alkaline phosphatase and OmpA protein into inverted E. coli membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent protein translocation has now been further characterized. In the absence of exogenous Mg2+, dATP, formycin A-5'-triphosphate, ATP-alpha-S, and N1-oxide-ATP could replace ATP, but many other nu...

  5. Interrupted Catalysis: The EF4 (LepA) Effect on Back Translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hanqing; Pan, Dongli; Pech, Markus; Cooperman, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    EF4, though similar structurally to the translocase EF-G, promotes back translocation of tRNAs on the ribosome, and is important for bacterial growth under certain conditions. Here, using a coordinated set of in vitro kinetic measures, including changes in the puromycin reactivity of peptidyl tRNA and in the fluorescence of labeled tRNAs and mRNA, we elucidate the kinetic mechanism of EF4-catalyzed back translocation and determine the effects of the translocation inhibitors spectinomycin and ...

  6. Searching for a Stochastic Background of Gravitational Waves with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, R; Agresti, J; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Amin, R; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Ashley, M; Aston, S; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Ballmer, S; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barton, M A; Bayer, K; Belczynski, K; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P; Bhawal, B; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Black, E; Blackburn, K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brooks, A; Brown, D A; Bullington, A; Bunkowski, A; Buonanno, A; Burman, R; Busby, D; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K; Cantley, C A; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Casey, M M; Cepeda, C; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Chin, D; Chin, E; Chow, J; Christensen, N; Cokelaer, T; Colacino, C N; Coldwell, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T; Coward, D; Coyne, D; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Crooks, D R M; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cutler, C; Dalrymple, J; D'Ambrosio, E; Danzmann, K; Davies, G; De Vine, G; De Bra, D; Degallaix, J; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S V; Di Credico, A; Dickson, J; Diederichs, G; Dietz, A; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Dumas, J C; Dupuis, R J; Ehrens, P; Elliffe, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Fan, Y; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Franzen, K Y; Frey, R E; Fricke, T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L; González, G; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, J; Gretarsson, A M; Grimmett, D; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grünewald, S; Günther, M; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Hardham, C; Harms, J; Harry, G; Harstad, E; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hindman, N; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Hoang, P; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Howell, E; Hoyland, D; Hua, W; Huttner, S; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Itoh, Y; Ivanov, A; Jackrel, D; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, Peter Ignaz Paul; Kalogera, V; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, A; Kim, C; King, P; Klimenko, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Lam, P K; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lee, B; Lei, M; Leonhardt, V; Leonor, I; Libbrecht, K; Lindquist, P; Lockerbie, N A; Lormand, M; Lubinski, M; Luck, H; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Malec, M; Mandic, V; Marka, S; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McKenzie, K; McNabb, J W C; Meier, T; Melissinos, A C; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messaritaki, E; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Mikhailov, E; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Mohanty, S; Moreno, G; Mossavi, K; Mow Lowry, C; Moylan, A; Mudge, D; Müller, G; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Mukherjee, S; Munch, J; Murray, P; Myers, E; Myers, J; Newton, G; Numata, K; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Pitkin, M; Plissi, M V; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F; Rabeling, D; Radkins, H; Rahkola, R; Rakhmanov, M; Rawlins, K; Ray-Majumder, S; Re, V; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ribichini, L; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, D I; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Roddy, S; Rodríguez, A; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J; Route, R; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Samidi, M; Sanchodela-Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Schediwy, S; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, S M; Seader, S E; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Shawhan, P; Sheard, B; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B; Slutsky, J; Smith, J; Smith, M R; Sneddon, P; Somiya, K; Speake, C; Spjeld, O; Strain, K A; Strom, D M; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T; Sun, K; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Tanner, D B; Tarallo, M; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Tyler, W; Ugolini, D W; Ungarelli, C; Vahlbruch, H; Vallisneri, M; Varvella, M; Vass, S; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J; Veitch, P; Vigeland, S; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R; Watts, K; Webber, D; Weidner, A; Weinstein, A; Weiss, R; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitbeck, D M; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wise, S; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Woods, D; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Yunes, N; Zanolin, M; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N P; Zucker, M; Zur Mühlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2006-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has performed the fourth science run, S4, with significantly improved interferometer sensitivities with respect to previous runs. Using data acquired during this science run, we place a limit on the amplitude of a stochastic background of gravitational waves. For a frequency independent spectrum, the new limit is $\\Omega_{\\rm GW} < 6.5 \\times 10^{-5}$. This is currently the most sensitive result in the frequency range 51-150 Hz, with a factor of 13 improvement over the previous LIGO result. We discuss complementarity of the new result with other constraints on a stochastic background of gravitational waves, and we investigate implications of the new result for different models of this background.

  7. Component Separation of a Isotropic Gravitational Wave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Parida, Abhishek; Jhingan, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) is expected in the universe from the superposition of a large number of unresolved astrophysical sources and phenomena in the early universe. Each component of the background (e.g., from primordial metric perturbations, binary neutron stars, milli-second pulsars etc.) has its own spectral shape. Many ongoing experiments aim to probe GWB at a variety of frequency bands. In the last two decades, using data from ground-based laser interferometric gravitational wave (GW) observatories, upper limits on GWB were placed in the frequency range of ~50-1000 Hz, considering one spectral shape at a time. However, one strong component can significantly enhance the estimated strength of another component. Hence, estimation of the amplitudes of the components with different spectral shapes should be done jointly. Here we propose a method for "component separation" of a statistically isotropic background, that can, for the first time, jointly estimate the amplitudes of many components an...

  8. Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons: a theoretical appraisal

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic backgrounds or relic gravitons, if ever detected, will constitute a prima facie evidence of physical processes taking place during the earliest stages of the evolution of the plasma. The essentials of the stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons are hereby introduced and reviewed. The pivotal observables customarily employed to infer the properties of the relic gravitons are discussed both in the framework of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm as well as in neighboring contexts. The complementarity between experiments measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (such as, for instance, WMAP, Capmap, Quad, Cbi, just to mention a few) and wide band interferometers (e.g. Virgo, Ligo, Geo, Tama) is emphasized. While the analysis of the microwave sky strongly constrains the low-frequency tail of the relic graviton spectrum, wide-band detectors are sensitive to much higher frequencies where the spectral energy density depends chiefly upon the (poorly known) rate of post-inflationary expansion.

  9. Movilidad y desarrollo translocal en la Nicaragua (semi-rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Steel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre los vínculos entre la movilidad y el desarrollo, explorando el concepto de desarrollo translocal. Basado en trabajo de campo en los municipios de Matiguás y Muy Muy, éste analiza cómo la movilidad da forma a las estrategias de vida de los hogares (semi-rurales en Nicaragua, y explora cómo los diferentes miembros de un hogar utilizan la movilidad física como una estrategia de vida. Argumenta que los habitantes de áreas (semi-rurales consideran distintos tipos de movimientos como estrategias importantes para establecer enlaces entre personas y lugares, y para alcanzar un mejor bienestar en su comunidad natal. Al mismo tiempo muestra cómo la movilidad se forma en una arena de poder, lo que afecta su potencial. De esta manera, este artículo contribuye a un entendimiento dinámico y multidimensional de cómo los procesos de desarrollo dan forma a – y son formados por – la movilidad y la interconectividad.

  10. Markers of bacterial translocation in end-stage liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Bamias, Giorgos

    2015-09-18

    Bacterial translocation (BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence. BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT. PMID:26380651

  11. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species

  12. Cadmium uptake, translocation and tolerance in the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis halleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F J; Jiang, R F; Dunham, S J; McGrath, S P

    2006-01-01

    Arabidopsis halleri is a well-known zinc (Zn) hyperaccumulator, but its status as a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator is less certain. Here, we investigated whether A. halleri can hyperaccumulate Cd and whether Cd is transported via the Zn pathway. Growth and Cd and Zn uptake were determined in hydroponic experiments with different Cd and Zn concentrations. Short-term uptake and root-to-shoot transport were measured with radioactive 109Cd and 65Zn labelling. A. halleri accumulated > 1000 mg Cd kg(-1) in shoot dry weight at external Cd concentrations >or= 5 microm, but the short-term uptake rate of 109Cd was much lower than that of 65Zn. Zinc inhibited short-term 109Cd uptake kinetics and root-to-shoot translocation, as well as long-term Cd accumulation in shoots. Uptake of 109Cd and 65Zn were up-regulated, respectively, by low iron (Fe) or Zn status. A. halleri was much less tolerant to Cd than to Zn. We conclude that A. halleri is able to hyperaccumulate Cd partly, at least, through the Zn pathway, but the mechanisms responsible for cellular Zn tolerance cannot detoxify Cd effectively. PMID:17096791

  13. Disrupting Dimerization Translocates Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase to Peroxisomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W Nelson

    Full Text Available The epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET neutralizing enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH is a neuronal enzyme, which has been localized in both the cytosol and peroxisomes. The molecular basis for its dual localization remains unclear as sEH contains a functional peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS. Recently, a missense polymorphism was identified in human sEH (R287Q that enhances its peroxisomal localization. This same polymorphism has also been shown to generate weaker sEH homo-dimers. Taken together, these observations suggest that dimerization may mask the sEH PTS and prevent peroxisome translocation. In the current study, we test the hypothesis that dimerization is a key regulator of sEH subcellular localization. Specifically, we altered the dimerization state of sEH by introducing substitutions in amino acids responsible for the dimer-stabilizing salt-bridge. Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP fusions of each of mutants were co-transfected into mouse primary cultured cortical neurons together with a PTS-linked red fluorescent protein to constitutively label peroxisomes. Labeled neurons were analyzed using confocal microscopy and co-localization of sEH with peroxisomes was quantified using Pearson's correlation coefficient. We find that dimer-competent sEH constructs preferentially localize to the cytosol, whereas constructs with weakened or disrupted dimerization were preferentially targeted to peroxisomes. We conclude that the sEH dimerization status is a key regulator of its peroxisomal localization.

  14. Increased RhoA translocation in aorta of diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping TANG; Ikuyo KUSAKA; Amber R MASSEY; Shadon ROLLINS; John H ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyze RhoA expression and activation in the aorta of diabetic rats. Methods: Male SD rats (n=70) were divided into 2 groups: the diabetic group and the control group. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The Rats were studied 3 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Western blotting was used to measure the expression and activation of Rho. Results: Heart rate was measured 24 h/d; it decreased by 58±13 beats/min in the diabetic rats. Isometric tension showed that the contraction of diabetic aorta was significantly reduced compared with that of control aorta when stimulated by KCl and serotonin. The relaxation of the diabetic aorta was reduced when stimulated by acetylcholine. An enhanced RhoA translocation in the aortic tissues of diabetic rats was determined by a 90% increase in membrane-bound RhoA, indicating that the activation of RhoA is markedly increased in the diabetic aorta. Conclusion: Our data suggest that upregulated RhoA could be involved in the vascular dysfunction of diabetic rats.

  15. The Mitochondrial Translocator Protein and Arrhythmogenesis in Ischemic Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas J. Motloch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of multiple cardiovascular disorders, including ischemic heart disease. Although mitochondria are well recognized for their role in energy production and cell death, mechanisms by which they control excitation-contraction coupling, excitability, and arrhythmias are less clear. The translocator protein (TSPO is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein that is expressed in multiple organ systems. The abundant expression of TSPO in macrophages has been leveraged to image the immune response of the heart to inflammatory processes. More recently, the recognition of TSPO as a regulator of energy-dissipating mitochondrial pathways has extended its utility from a diagnostic marker of inflammation to a therapeutic target influencing diverse pathophysiological processes. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging role of TSPO in ischemic heart disease. We highlight the importance of TSPO in the regenerative process of reactive oxygen species (ROS induced ROS release through its effects on the inner membrane anion channel (IMAC and the permeability transition pore (PTP. We discuss evidence implicating TSPO in arrhythmogenesis in the settings of acute ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction.

  16. Intestinal transit and bacterial translocation in obstructive pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, F G; Haley-Russell, D; Muncy, D M

    1995-08-01

    Pancreatic infection from gut-derived bacteria has emerged as the major cause of death in necrotizing pancreatitis. Bacterial overgrowth of indigenous enteric organisms as a consequence of guts stasis (ileus) represents a potential initial event in this process. The present study was designed to examine the interrelationships between intestinal transit, enteric bacteriology, and the translocation of bacteria from the gut lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes and splanchnic viscera during experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Male rats underwent pancreaticobiliary duct ligation (PBDL) or sham surgery and were sacrificed after 24, 48, or 96 hr. Severity of pancreatitis was assessed with histology, tissue water content, and amylase and lipase levels. Intestinal transit was measured with fluorescent tracers. Blood, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), splanchnic organs, and gut luminal contents were subjected to bacteriologic analysis. PBDL was followed by biochemical and histologic evidence of progressive pancreatic injury at each time interval. Enteric bacteria within the gut and in adjacent MLNs increased as intestinal transit decreased after PBDL-induced pancreatic inflammation. Surprisingly, all parameters returned to control levels by 96 hr in spite of progression of pancreatic inflammation. PMID:7648983

  17. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  18. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  19. SIRT1 interacts with and protects glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from nuclear translocation: Implications for cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyun-Yoo [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Seon Rang; Shen, Yan-Nan; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Myung-Haing [Laboratory of Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon, E-mail: joonkim@korea.ac.kr [Laboratory of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kee-Ho, E-mail: khlee@kirams.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 serves to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, preventing GAPDH nuclear translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When SIRT1 is depleted, GAPDH translocation occurs even in the absence of stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, SIRT1 interacts with GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 prevents irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 presence rather than activity is essential for inhibiting GAPDH translocation. -- Abstract: Upon apoptotic stimulation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytosolic enzyme normally active in glycolysis, translocates into the nucleus and activates an apoptotic cascade therein. In the present work, we show that SIRT1 prevents nuclear translocation of GAPDH via interaction with GAPDH. SIRT1 depletion triggered nuclear translocation of cytosolic GAPDH even in the absence of apoptotic stress. Such translocation was not, however, observed when SIRT1 enzymatic activity was inhibited, indicating that SIRT1 protein per se, rather than the deacetylase activity of the protein, is required to inhibit GAPDH translocation. Upon irradiation, SIRT1 prevented irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH, accompanied by interaction of SIRT1 and GAPDH. Thus, SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. This serves as a mechanism whereby SIRT1 regulates cell survival upon induction of apoptotic stress by means that include irradiation.

  20. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  1. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10(exp -7), where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  2. Immunopathogenic Background of Pars Planitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna; Węgrzyn, Agnieszka; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2016-04-01

    Pars planitis is defined as an intermediate uveitis of unknown background of systemic disease with characteristic formations such as vitreous snowballs, snowbanks and changes in peripheral retina. The incidence of pars planitis varies 2.4-15.4 % of the uveitis patients. The pathogenesis of the disease is to be determined in future. Clinical and histopathological findings suggest an autoimmune etiology, most likely as a reaction to endogenous antigen of unknown source, with T cells predominant in both vitreous and pars plana infiltrations. T cells subsets play an important role as a memory-effector peripheral cell. Snowbanks are formed as an effect of post inflammatory glial proliferation of fibrous astrocytes. There is also a genetic predisposition for pars planitis by human leukocyte antigen and several other genes. A coexistence of multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis has been described in numerous studies. Epiretinal membrane, cataract, cystoid macular edema, retinal detachment, retinal vasculitis, neovascularization, vitreous peripheral traction, peripheral hole formation, vitreous hemorrhage, disc edema are common complications observed in pars planitis. There is a need to expand the knowledge of the pathogenic and immunologic background of the pars planitis to create an accurate pharmacological treatment. PMID:26438050

  3. 小麦-黑麦1BL/1RS 易位染色体和外源染色体在两个三属杂种中的减数分裂行为%Meiotic Behavior of 1BL/1RS Translocation Chromosome and Alien Chromosome in Two Tri-genera Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义文; 李振声; 贾旭

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of wheat-rye translocation chromosome and alien chromosome including Thinopyrum and Haynaldia chromosome at meiosis was investigated in two hybrids by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Misdivision of translocation chromosome at anaphase Ⅰ and rye chromatin micronucleus at tetrad stage were observed. A plant with one normal 1BL/1RS translocation chromosome and one 1BL/1RS translocation chromosome deleted about 1/3 of rye chromosome arm in length was identified. One plant with wheat-Thinopyrum non-Robertson translocation chromosome was also detected in the F2 population of Yi4212×Yi4095. That could be the results of unequal misdivision of wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocation chromosome and Thinopyrum chromosome during meiosis. No interaction between translocation chromosome and alien chromosome at meiosis was supported by the data of the distribution frequencies of translocation chromosome and Thinopyrum or Haynaldia chromosome in the progeny of two hybrids. The results may be useful to cultivate new germplasms with different length of rye 1R short arm and wheat-alien non-Robertson translocation lines under wheat background.%利用荧光原位杂交技术分析了两个小麦-外源种杂种花粉母细胞中1BL/1RS 小麦-黑麦易位染色体和外源染色体包括中间偃麦草(Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey)、簇毛麦(Haynaldia villosa (L.) Schur)染色体的减数分裂行为. 我们首次发现:在减数分裂后期, 1BL/1RS 小麦-黑麦易位染色体发生错分裂,形成两个易位染色单体. 这种错分裂导致易位染色单体在末期Ⅰ分配到两个正在形成的细胞核内,错分裂的易位染色单体进一步形成微核,并在四分体期观察到黑麦的微核出现.从贵农22×遗4095 的F2代植株中检测到一个2n=41的植株,其含有一对1BL/1RS 小麦-黑麦易位染色体,核型分析表明,其中一条黑麦染色体臂比另一条的黑麦染色体臂短1/3左右.在遗4212

  4. The N-terminal region of the 37-kDa translocated fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A aborts translocation by promoting its own export after microsomal membrane insertion.

    OpenAIRE

    Theuer, C P; Buchner, J; Fitzgerald, D; Pastan, I

    1993-01-01

    The 37-kDa C-terminal fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE; termed PE37 and composed of aa 280-613 of PE) translocates to the cell cytosol to cause cell death. PE37 requires a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention sequence to be cytotoxic, indicating that the toxin may translocate to the cytosol from the endoplasmic reticulum. We show here that the N-terminal region of nascent PE37 can be inserted into the membrane of canine pancreatic microsomes by the preprocecropin signal sequence b...

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of two patients with recurrent miscarriages and X-autosome translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha R Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To report two patients with recurrent miscarriages and unique reciprocal X-autosomal translocation. Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed using G-banding and Molecular cytogenetic analysis by Fluorescence in situ hybridization to confirm the breakpoint regions. Results: The chromosomal analysis of the two cases revealed a karyotype of 46,X,t(X;22(p11.21;q13.3 in the first patient and 46,X,t(X;2(q22;q13 in second patient. Both the cases were confirmed by using whole chromosome paint probes. Conclusions: This is the rare report of X-autosomal translocations with unique breakpoint regions and their association with recurrent miscarriages. The translocation breakpoint in case 2 on Xq22 and on Xp11.21 in case 1 might be a risk factor for recurrent miscarriages. Here the impact of the X-autosomal translocations is discussed.

  6. ATM modulates the loading of recombination proteins onto a chromosomal translocation breakpoint hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Sun (Jiying); Y. Oma (Yukako); M. Harata (Masahiko); K. Kono (Kazuteru); H. Shima (Hiroki); A. Kinomura (Aiko); T. Ikura (Tsuyoshi); H. Suzuki (Hidekazu); S. Mizutani (Shuki); R. Kanaar (Roland); S. Tashiro (Satoshi)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChromosome translocations induced by DNA damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation and certain chemotherapies, alter genetic information resulting in malignant transformation. Abrogation or loss of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein, a DNA damage signaling regulator, incre

  7. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  8. Involvement of chromosome X in primary cytogenetic change in human neoplasia: nonrandom translocation in synovial sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turc-Carel, C.; Cin, P.D.; Limon, J.; Rao, U.; Li, F.P.; Corson, J.M.; Zimmerman, R.; Parry, D.M.; Cowan, J.M.; Sandberg, A.A.

    1987-04-01

    A translocation that involves chromosome X (band p11.2) and chromosome 18 (band q11.2) was observed in short-term in vitro cultures of cells from five synovial sarcomas and one malignant fibrous histiocytoma. In four of these tumors, the translocation t(X;18)(p11.2;q11.2) was reciprocal. The two other tumors had complex translocations: t(X;18;21)(p11.2;q11.2;p13) and t(X;15;18)(p11.2;q23;q11.2). A translocation between chromosomes X and 18 was not detected in other histological types of soft tissue sarcoma. The X;18 rearrangement appears to characterize the synovial sarcoma and is the first description of a primary, nonrandom change in the sex chromosome of a human solid tumor.

  9. A Balanced Reciprocal Translocation Case in Family with a History of Recurrent Abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Balkan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we are presenting the results of cytogenetic analysis and molecular cytogenetic analysis of the couple and their family, who were referred to our genetic diagnostic laboratory with two abortions in their reproductive history. We found a normal karyotype (46,XX in female, and balanced reciprocal translocation [46,XY,t(3;18(p25;p11.3] in the male. To determine the parental origin of translocation, we examined the individuals of the family, and we found that the translocation: [46,XY,t(3;18(p25;p11.3] is paternally inherited. We concluded that the abortions in the history of this carrier family might be due to the unbalanced distribution of translocation, during gamete formation, prenatal diagnosis recommended for their further pregnancies.

  10. Wnt signaling induces transcription, spatial proximity, and translocation of fusion gene partners in human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Giorgia D; Vargas, Macarena F; Medina, Matías A; León, Pablo; Necuñir, David; Elorza, Alvaro A; Gutiérrez, Soraya E; Moon, Randall T; Loyola, Alejandra; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a wide variety of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies. A recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia is the reciprocal translocation t(8;21) that fuses RUNX1 and ETO genes. We report here that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases the expression of ETO and RUNX1 genes in human hematopoietic progenitors. We found that β-catenin is rapidly recruited into RNA polymerase II transcription factories (RNAPII-Ser5) and that ETO and RUNX1 genes are brought into close spatial proximity upon Wnt3a induction. Notably, long-term treatment of cells with Wnt3a induces the generation a frequent RUNX1-ETO translocation event. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces transcription and translocation of RUNX1 and ETO fusion gene partners, opening a novel window to understand the onset/development of leukemia. PMID:26333776

  11. Crystal Structures of EF-G-Ribosome Complexes Trapped in Intermediate States of Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie; Lancaster, Laura; Donohue, John Paul; Noller, Harry F. [UCSC

    2013-11-12

    Translocation of messenger and transfer RNA (mRNA and tRNA) through the ribosome is a crucial step in protein synthesis, whose mechanism is not yet understood. The crystal structures of three Thermus ribosome-tRNA-mRNA–EF-G complexes trapped with β,γ-imidoguanosine 5'-triphosphate (GDPNP) or fusidic acid reveal conformational changes occurring during intermediate states of translocation, including large-scale rotation of the 30S subunit head and body. In all complexes, the tRNA acceptor ends occupy the 50S subunit E site, while their anticodon stem loops move with the head of the 30S subunit to positions between the P and E sites, forming chimeric intermediate states. Two universally conserved bases of 16S ribosomal RNA that intercalate between bases of the mRNA may act as “pawls” of a translocational ratchet. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of ribosomal translocation.

  12. A single recruitment maneuver in ventilated critically ill children can translocate pulmonary cytokines into the circulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, F.J.; Vaneker, M.; Pickkers, P.; Neeleman, C.; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Recruitment maneuvers (RMs) are advocated to prevent pulmonary collapse during low tidal volume ventilation and improve oxygenation. However, convincing clinical evidence for improved outcome is lacking. Recent experimental studies demonstrate that RMs translocate pulmonary inflammator

  13. Features of Turner's and DiGeorge's syndromes in a child with an X;22 translocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. R.; Leite, R P; Areias, A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the clinical and cytogenetic findings in an infant who presented with the features of both Turner's and DiGeorge's syndromes associated with a unique translocation between chromosomes X and 22.

  14. Characterization of uptake and translocation of radioactive herbicides in a parasitic-host system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake and translocation of [14C]-propyzamide applied to the sunflower seed by coating or soaking, of [14C]-imazapyr and [14C]-glyphosate both applied at post emergence, were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) parasitising or not by nodding broom rape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Sunflower seed absorbed 9.8 and 3.4% of [14C]-propyzamide applied by coating or soaking, respectively, and less than 1% was translocated to the nodding broom rape. In sunflower plants infested and not infested with nodding broom rape, nearly 90% of [14C]-imazapyr was absorbed and 26% was translocated to the parasitic weed. Uptake of [14C]-glyphosate was similar (50%) for infested or not infested sunflower plants and only the 6% was translocated to the nodding broom rape

  15. Effects of glutamine and curcumin on bacterial translocation in jaundiced rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karatepe, Oguzhan; Acet, Ersin; Battal, Muharrem; Adas, Gokhan; Kemik, Ahu; Altiok, Merih; Kamali, Gulcin; Koculu, Safiye; Catay, Atahan; Kamali, Sedat; Karahan, Servet

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of curcumin on bacterial translocation and oxidative damage in an obstructive jaundice model and compare the results to glutamine, an agent known to be effective and clinically used.

  16. Kinesin-1 Translocation along Human Breast Cancer Cell Microtubules in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Jun, Yonggun

    2015-03-01

    A principle approach to better understand intra-cellular microtubule based transport is to study such it in vitro. Such in vitro examinations have predominantly used microtubules polymerized from bovine brain tubulin, but motor function can also in principle be affected by the specific tubulin isotypes present in different cells. The human breast cancer cells carry different beta tubulin isotype distribution. However, it is entirely unknown whether transport along the microtubules is different in these cells. In this work we have characterized, for the first time, the translocation specifications of kinesin-1 along human breast cancer cell microtubules polymerized in vitro. We found that as compared with the translocation along bovine brain microtubules, kinesin-1 shows a fifty percent shorter processive run length and slightly slower velocity under similar experimental conditions. These first time results support the regulatory role of tubulin isotypes in regards to motor protein translocations, and quantify the translocation specifications of kinesin-1 along microtubules of human breast cancer cells.

  17. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  18. Auditory intensity processing: Effect of MRI background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angenstein, Nicole; Stadler, Jörg; Brechmann, André

    2016-03-01

    Studies on active auditory intensity discrimination in humans showed equivocal results regarding the lateralization of processing. Whereas experiments with a moderate background found evidence for right lateralized processing of intensity, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies with background scanner noise suggest more left lateralized processing. With the present fMRI study, we compared the task dependent lateralization of intensity processing between a conventional continuous echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with a loud background scanner noise and a fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence with a soft background scanner noise. To determine the lateralization of the processing, we employed the contralateral noise procedure. Linearly frequency modulated (FM) tones were presented monaurally with and without contralateral noise. During both the EPI and the FLASH measurement, the left auditory cortex was more strongly involved than the right auditory cortex while participants categorized the intensity of FM tones. This was shown by a strong effect of the additional contralateral noise on the activity in the left auditory cortex. This means a massive reduction in background scanner noise still leads to a significant left lateralized effect. This suggests that the reversed lateralization in fMRI studies with loud background noise in contrast to studies with softer background cannot be fully explained by the MRI background noise. PMID:26778471

  19. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  20. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew L Farnsworth; Dickson, Brett G.; Zachmann, Luke J.; Hegeman, Ericka E.; Cangelosi, Amanda R.; Jackson, Thomas G.; Amanda F Scheib

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and co...