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Sample records for background translocation frequencies

  1. Measurement of background translocation frequencies in individuals with clones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, Marcelle J. [California State Univ. (CalState), Hayward, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In the leukemia case the unseparated B and T lymphocytes had a high translocation frequency even after 0.0014, respectively. After purging all clones from the data, the translocation frequencies for Bio 8 and Bio 23 were 0.00750.0014 and 0.0073 metaphases were scored for chromosomal aberrations,, specifically reciprocal translocations, using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Metaphase spreads were used from two healthy, unexposed individuals (not exposed to radiation, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) and one early B- precursor acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) patient (metaphase spreads from both separated T lymphocytes and unseparated B and T lymphocytes were scored). All three individuals had an abnormally high translocation frequency. The high translocation frequencies resulted from clonal expansion of specific translocated chromosomes. I show in this thesis that by purging (discounting or removing) clones from the data of unexposed individuals, one can obtain true background translocation frequencies. In two cases, Bio 8 and Bio 23, the measured translocation frequency for chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 was 0.0124 purging all of the clones from the data. This high translocation frequency may be due to a low frequency of some clones and may not be recognized. The separated T lymphocytes had a higher translocation frequency than expected.

  2. Translocation frequency of double-stranded DNA through a solid-state nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas A. W.; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Keyser, Ulrich F.

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that measure changes in ionic current as charged polymers such as DNA pass through. Here, we present comprehensive experiments on the length, voltage, and salt dependence of the frequency of double-stranded DNA translocations through conical quartz nanopores with mean opening diameter 15 nm. We observe an entropic barrier-limited, length-dependent translocation frequency at 4M LiCl salt concentration and a drift-dominated, length-independent translocation frequency at 1M KCl salt concentration. These observations are described by a unifying convection-diffusion equation, which includes the contribution of an entropic barrier for polymer entry. PMID:26986356

  3. Modulation of the Object/Background Interaction by Spatial Frequency

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    Yanju Ren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images, functional isolation hypothesis and interactive hypothesis were proposed. Based on previous studies, the present study investigated the role of spatial frequency in the relationship between object and background perception in the natural scene images. In three experiments, participants reported the object, background, or both after seeing each picture for 500 ms followed by a mask. The authors found that (a backgrounds were identified more accurately when they contained a consistent rather than an inconsistent object, independently of spatial frequency; (b objects were identified more accurately in a consistent than an inconsistent background under the condition of low spatial frequencies but not high spatial frequencies; (c spatial frequency modulation remained when both objects and backgrounds were reported simultaneously. The authors conclude that object/background interaction is partially dependent on spatial frequency.

  4. The effect of wheat-rye translocation 1BL.1RS in a different quality genetic background on biological traits in wheat

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    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 139 varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., predominantly Serbian winter wheat varieties originated in the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, has been examined for presence of 1BL/1RS wheat-rye translocation. Two genotype groups consisted of varieties possessing and lacking the translocation have been compared. Stem rust, leaf rust, powdery mildew as well as, winter hardiness were studied. The influence of 1BL/1RS translocation was also studied in a light of wheat seed storage protein (glutenin and gliadin genetic background composition. Genotypes having the translocation appeared to be more tolerant to stem rust, and leaf rust, but more susceptible to powdery mildew. These effects were slightly modified depending on the examined genetic background, but the effect of the rye 1RS translocated chromosome arm was the main cause for the observed differences.

  5. Real-time background suppression during frequency domain lifetime measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Petr; Maliwal, Badri P; Lakowicz, Joseph R; Maliwal, Baldri P

    2002-10-01

    We describe real time background suppression of autofluorescence from biological samples during frequency domain or phase modulation measurements of intensity decays. For these measurements the samples were excited with a train of light pulses with widths below 1 ps. The detector was gated off for a short time period of 10 to 40 ns during and shortly after the excitation pulse. The reference signal needed for the frequency domain measurement was provided by a long-lifetime reference fluorophore which continues to emit following the off-gating pulse. Both the sample and the reference were measured under identical optical and electronic conditions avoiding the need for correction of the photomultiplier tube signal for the gating sequence. We demonstrate frequency domain background suppression using a mixture of short- and long-lifetime probes and for a long-lifetime probe in human plasma with significant autofluorescence.

  6. A space-frequency analysis of MEG background processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijma, Fetsje; de Munck, Jan C

    2008-11-15

    In MEG source localization the estimated source parameters will be more reliable when the spatiotemporal covariance of the noise and background activity is taken into account. Since this covariance is in general too large to estimate based on the data and to invert efficiently, different parametrizations have been proposed in the literature. These models can be seen as special cases of the general decomposition of the covariance into a sum of Kronecker products of spatial matrices X(n) and temporal matrices T(n) (Van Loan, 2000). In this study we investigate the assumption of the matrices T(n) being Toeplitz. If so, the covariance matrix in the space-frequency domain will have an approximate block-diagonal structure, facilitating inversion, which is a prerequisite for source localization. In this study we address the question whether the Toeplitz approximation is valid for data sets obtained in visual evoked field, auditory evoked field, somatosensory evoked field experiments and data sets containing spontaneous activity. It turns out that on average 87% is in the block-diagonal of the sample covariance, which is close to the values obtained for real Toeplitz matrices T(n). This implies that the space-frequency domain is very interesting for source localization since the major part of the entire covariance can be incorporated in that domain straightforwardly. Finally, the two major processes in the background activity are characterized in terms of their spatial and frequency patterns, yielding a focal and a non-focal pattern in 8 of 10 data sets analyzed in this study. The focal pattern represents the alpha frequency at parieto-occipital areas, whereas the non-focal pattern is more widespread both in space and in frequency.

  7. Evaluating changes in stable chromosomal translocation frequency in patients receiving radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jeffrey Y.C.; Wang Jianyi; Liu An; Odom-Maryon, Tamara; Shively, John E.; Raubitschek, Andrew A.; Williams, Lawrence E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The lack of any consistent correlation between radioimmunotherapy (RIT) dose and observed hematologic toxicity has made it difficult to validate RIT radiation dose estimates to marrow. Stable chromosomal translocations (SCT) which result after radiation exposure may be a biologic parameter that more closely correlates with RIT radiation dose. Increases in the frequency of SCT are observed after radiation exposure and are highly correlated with absorbed radiation dose. SCT are cumulative after multiple radiation doses and conserved through an extended number of cell divisions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether increases in SCT frequency were detectable in peripheral lymphocytes after RIT and whether the magnitude of these increases correlated with estimated radiation dose to marrow and whole body. Methods and Materials: Patients entered in a Phase I dose escalation therapy trial each received 1-3 intravenous cycles of the radiolabeled anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) monoclonal antibody, 90 Y-chimeric T84.66. Five mCi of 111 In-chimeric T84.66 was co-administered for imaging and biodistribution purposes. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to the start of therapy and 5-6 weeks after each therapy cycle. Peripheral lymphocytes were harvested after 72 hours of phytohemagglutinin stimulation and metaphase spreads prepared. Spreads were then stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using commercially available chromosome paint probes to chromosomes 3 and 4. Approximately 1000 spreads were evaluated for each chromosome sample. Red marrow radiation doses were estimated using the AAPM algorithm and blood clearance curves. Results: Eighteen patients were studied, each receiving at least one cycle of therapy ranging from 5-22 mCi/m 2 . Three patients received 2 cycles and two patients received 3 cycles of therapy. Cumulative estimated marrow doses ranged from 9.2 to 310 cGy. Increases in SCT frequencies were observed after

  8. ROUTINE DIAGNOSTIC X-RAY EXAMINATIONS AND INCREASED FREQUENCY OF CHROMOSOME TRANSLOCATIONS AMONG U. S. RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGISTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Bhatti, Parveen; Preston, Dale L.; Doody, Michele Morin; Kampa, Diane; Alexander, Bruce H.; Petibone, Dayton; Yong, Lee C.; Edwards, Alan A.; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. population has nearly one radiographic examination per person per year and concern about cancer risks associated with medical radiation has increased. Radiologic technologists were surveyed to determine whether their personal cumulative exposure to diagnostic x-rays was associated with increased frequencies of chromosome translocations, an established radiation biomarker and possible intermediary suggesting increased cancer risk. Within a large cohort of U. S. radiologic technologists, 150 provided a blood sample for whole chromosome painting and were interviewed about past x-ray examinations. The number and types of examinations reported were converted to a red bone marrow (RBM) dose score with units that approximated 1 mGy. The relationship between dose score and chromosome translocation frequency was assessed using Poisson regression. The estimated mean cumulative RBM radiation dose score was 49 (range 0 – 303). After adjustment for age, translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing RBM dose score with an estimate of 0.004 translocations per 100 cell equivalents per score unit (95% confidence interval 0.002 to 0.007; P < 0.001). Removing extreme values or adjustment for gender, cigarette smoking, occupational radiation dose, allowing practice x-rays while training, work with radioisotopes, and radiotherapy for benign conditions did not affect the estimate. Cumulative radiation exposure from routine x-ray examinations was associated independently with increased chromosome damage, suggesting the possibility of elevated long-term health risks, including cancer. The slope estimate was consistent with expectation based on cytogenetic experience and atomic bomb survivor data. PMID:18974125

  9. Frequency of reciprocal translocations as a function of gamma-ray dose in acute spermatogonial irradiation of the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyglenov, A.; Benova, D.; Baev, I.; Karadzhov, A.

    1981-01-01

    Adult rabbit males were given acute gamma-ray exposures at dose levels of 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, or 5.0 Gy. The reciprocal translocations arisen at the premeiotic cytogenetic techniques at a 5 month postradiation. The findings indicated that increasing the dose up to 3.0 Gy resulted in a rise of translocation yields, while 5.0 Gy doses produced an abrupt fall. For the dose range studied, dose-response data were best described by a linear-quadratic equation. Based on the evidence of peak translocation yields obtained with 3.0 Gy exposures, rabbit spermatogonia were characterized as being more sensitive to radiation cell killing, as compared to mouse spermatogonia, where maximum translocation yields are reportedly observed at 6 to 8 Gy doses. As opposed to this, genetic radiosensitivity of spermatogonia proved lower in the rabbit than in the mouse. (A.B.)

  10. C-MYC and BCL2 translocation frequency in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: A study of 97 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Bahar; Salim, Ozan; Akkaya, Hampar; Ozcan, Mualla; Yucel, Orhan Kemal; Erdem, Ramazan; Iltar, Utku; Undar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with marked biologic heterogeneity. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements have been reported in a proportion of DLBCLs, where they may be associated with an adverse clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of MYC and BCL2 translocations in DLBCL and assess the prognostic impact in DLBCL patients. In the present study, we evaluated the expression patterns of CD 10, BCL6, and MUM 1 by immunohistochemistry in 121 cases with DLBCL in tissue microarray (TMA): 62 cases in germinal center B-cells (GCBs); and 59 cases in activated B-cells (ABCs) of which 60 were females and 61 were males. MYC and BCL2 rearrangements were investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on TMAs in 97 DLBCLs. MYC rearrangements were observed in 11 of 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features, including age, sex, and nodal/extranodal disease. MYC rearrangement was associated with significantly worse overall survival (P 97 cases. There was no association with other clinical features including age and sex. BCL2 rearrangement had a worse outcome (P 97 cases with the age of  53 (female), 53, 63 years old, respectively, died in 24, 18, and 35 months after the diagnosis. Two cases had primary nodal and one case primary extranodal presentations. All these patients had stage IV disease. We concluded that C-MYC and BCL2 may contribute to aggressive transformation, and more mechanism-based therapy should be explored. Targeted therapies involving these rearrangements and its associated pathways may change the fate of DLBCLs. Analysis of MYC gene rearrangement along with BCL2 is critical in the identification of high-risk patients with poor prognosis.

  11. Theta frequency background tunes transmission but not summation of spiking responses.

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    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Hippocampal neurons are known to fire as a function of frequency and phase of spontaneous network rhythms, associated with the animal's behaviour. This dependence is believed to give rise to precise rate and temporal codes. However, it is not well understood how these periodic membrane potential fluctuations affect the integration of synaptic inputs. Here we used sinusoidal current injection to the soma of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat brain slice to simulate background oscillations in the physiologically relevant theta and gamma frequency range. We used a detailed compartmental model to show that somatic current injection gave comparable results to more physiological synaptically driven theta rhythms incorporating excitatory input in the dendrites, and inhibitory input near the soma. We systematically varied the phase of synaptic inputs with respect to this background, and recorded changes in response and summation properties of CA1 neurons using whole-cell patch recordings. The response of the cell was dependent on both the phase of synaptic inputs and frequency of the background input. The probability of the cell spiking for a given synaptic input was up to 40% greater during the depolarized phases between 30-135 degrees of theta frequency current injection. Summation gain on the other hand, was not affected either by the background frequency or the phasic afferent inputs. This flat summation gain, coupled with the enhanced spiking probability during depolarized phases of the theta cycle, resulted in enhanced transmission of summed inputs during the same phase window of 30-135 degrees. Overall, our study suggests that although oscillations provide windows of opportunity to selectively boost transmission and EPSP size, summation of synaptic inputs remains unaffected during membrane oscillations.

  12. Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations

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    Katie Haggerty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous incidents of aspen decline have been recorded in North America over the past half century, and incidents of very rapid mortality of aspen clones have been observed in Colorado since 2004. The radio frequency (RF environment of the earth has undergone major changes in the past two centuries due to the development and use of electricity in power and communications applications, and the anthropogenic RF background continues to increase in intensity and complexity. This study suggests that the RF background may have strong adverse effects on growth rate and fall anthocyanin production in aspen, and may be an underlying factor in aspen decline.

  13. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Elena; Gamba, Marco; Perez-Gil, Monica; Martin, Vidal Martel; Giacoma, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL) of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  14. Dolphins adjust species-specific frequency parameters to compensate for increasing background noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papale

    Full Text Available An increase in ocean noise levels could interfere with acoustic communication of marine mammals. In this study we explored the effects of anthropogenic and natural noise on the acoustic properties of a dolphin communication signal, the whistle. A towed array with four elements was used to record environmental background noise and whistles of short-beaked common-, Atlantic spotted- and striped-dolphins in the Canaries archipelago. Four frequency parameters were measured from each whistle, while Sound Pressure Levels (SPL of the background noise were measured at the central frequencies of seven one-third octave bands, from 5 to 20 kHz. Results show that dolphins increase the whistles' frequency parameters with lower variability in the presence of anthropogenic noise, and increase the end frequency of their whistles when confronted with increasing natural noise. This study provides the first evidence that the synergy among SPLs has a role in shaping the whistles' structure of these three species, with respect to both natural and anthropogenic noise.

  15. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant

  16. A measurement of the low frequency spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    As part of a larger effort to measure the spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) at low frequencies, the intensity of the CBR has been measured at a frequency of 1.410 GHz. The measurement was made by comparing the power received from the sky with the power received from a specially designed cooled calibration target with known properties. Sources of radiation other than the CBR were then identified and subtracted to calculate the antenna temperature of the CBR at 1.410 GHz. The instrument used to measure the CBR was a total-power microwave radiometer with a 25 MHz bandwidth centered at 1.410 GHz. The radiometer had a noise temperature of 80 K, and sufficient data were taken that radiometer noise did not contribute significantly to the total measurement error. The sources of error were predominantly systematic in nature, and the largest error was due to uncertainty in the reflection characteristics of the cold-load calibrator. Identification and subtraction of signals from the Galaxy (0.7 K) and the Earth's atmosphere (0.8 K) were also significant parts of the data reduction and error analysis. The brightness temperature of the Cosmic Background Radiation at 1.410 GHz is 222. +- 0.55 Kelvin. The spectrum of the CBR, as determined by this measurement and other published results, is consistent with a blackbody spectrum of temperature 2.741 +- 0.016. Constraints on the amount by which the CBR spectrum deviates from Planck spectrum are used to place limits on energy releases early in the history of the universe. 55 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs

  17. Efficient induction of Wheat-agropyron cristatum 6P translocation lines and GISH detection.

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    Liqiang Song

    Full Text Available The narrow genetic background restricts wheat yield and quality improvement. The wild relatives of wheat are the huge gene pools for wheat improvement and can broaden its genetic basis. Production of wheat-alien translocation lines can transfer alien genes to wheat. So it is important to develop an efficient method to induce wheat-alien chromosome translocation. Agropyroncristatum (P genome carries many potential genes beneficial to disease resistance, stress tolerance and high yield. Chromosome 6P possesses the desirable genes exhibiting good agronomic traits, such as high grain number per spike, powdery mildew resistance and stress tolerance. In this study, the wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition was used as bridge material to produce wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines induced by (60Co-γirradiation. The results of genomic in situ hybridization showed that 216 plants contained alien chromosome translocation among 571 self-pollinated progenies. The frequency of translocation was 37.83%, much higher than previous reports. Moreover, various alien translocation types were identified. The analysis of M2 showed that 62.5% of intergeneric translocation lines grew normally without losing the translocated chromosomes. The paper reported a high efficient technical method for inducing alien translocation between wheat and Agropyroncristatum. Additionally, these translocation lines will be valuable for not only basic research on genetic balance, interaction and expression of different chromosome segments of wheat and alien species, but also wheat breeding programs to utilize superior agronomic traits and good compensation effect from alien chromosomes.

  18. A comparative analysis of molecular genetic and conventional cytogenetic detection of diagnostically important translocations in more than 400 cases of acute leukemia, highlighting the frequency of false-negative conventional cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rebecca L; Naghashpour, Mojdeh; Watt, Christopher D; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Bagg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we correlated the results of concurrent molecular and cytogenetic detection of entity-defining translocations in adults with acute leukemia to determine the frequency of cryptic translocations missed by conventional cytogenetics (CC) and of recurrent, prognostically relevant translocations not detectable by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (MRP). During a 5.5-year period, 442 diagnostic acute leukemia specimens were submitted for MRP-based detection of 7 common recurrent translocations: t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), t(9;22), t(12;21), t(4;11), and t(1;19), with a detection rate of 15.2% (67/442). CC was performed in 330 (74.7%) of 442 cases. In 7 of these 330 cases, CC missed the translocation detected by MRP. In 50 additional cases, CC revealed 1 of the MRP-detectable translocations (all were also MRP positive), yielding a false-negative rate of 12% (7/57) for the CC assay. The remaining 140 of 190 cases with clonal cytogenetic changes harbored abnormalities that were not targeted by the MRP assay, including 8 that define specific acute myeloid leukemia entities. This study revealed the frequent occurrence of false-negative, entity-defining CC analysis and highlighted the complementary nature of MRP and CC approaches in detecting genetic abnormalities in acute leukemia.

  19. Unbound motion on a Schwarzschild background: Practical approaches to frequency domain computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Seth

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational perturbations due to a point particle moving on a static black hole background are naturally described in Regge-Wheeler gauge. The first-order field equations reduce to a single master wave equation for each radiative mode. The master function satisfying this wave equation is a linear combination of the metric perturbation amplitudes with a source term arising from the stress-energy tensor of the point particle. The original master functions were found by Regge and Wheeler (odd parity) and Zerilli (even parity). Subsequent work by Moncrief and then Cunningham, Price and Moncrief introduced new master variables which allow time domain reconstruction of the metric perturbation amplitudes. Here, I explore the relationship between these different functions and develop a general procedure for deriving new higher-order master functions from ones already known. The benefit of higher-order functions is that their source terms always converge faster at large distance than their lower-order counterparts. This makes for a dramatic improvement in both the speed and accuracy of frequency domain codes when analyzing unbound motion.

  20. Phase unwrapping algorithm based on multi-frequency fringe projection and fringe background for fringe projection profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Zhao, Hong; Gu, Feifei; Ma, Yueyang

    2015-01-01

    A phase unwrapping algorithm specially designed for the phase-shifting fringe projection profilometry (FPP) is proposed. It combines a revised dual-frequency fringe projectionalgorithm and a proposed fringe background based quality guided phase unwrapping algorithm (FB-QGPUA). Phase demodulated from the high-frequency fringe patterns is partially unwrapped by that demodulated from the low-frequency ones. Then FB-QGPUA is adopted to further unwrap the partially unwrapped phase. Influences of the phase error on the measurement are researched. Strategy to select the fringe pitch is given. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is very robust and efficient. (paper)

  1. International study of factors affecting human chromosome translocations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigurdson, A.J.; Ha, M.; Hauptmann, M.; Bhatti, P.; Šrám, Radim; Beskid, Olena; Tawn, E.J.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Lindholm, C.; Nakano, M.; Kodama, Y.; Nakamura, N.; Vorobtsova, I.; Oestreicher, U.; Stephan, G.; Yong, L.C.; Bauchinger, M.; Schmid, E.; Chung, H.W.; Darroudi, F.; Roy, L.; Voisin, P.; Barquinero, J.F.; Livingston, G.; Blakey, D.; Hayata, I.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Ch.; Benett, L.M.; Littlefield, L.G.; Edwards, A.A.; Kleinerman, R.A.; Tucker, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 652, č. 2 (2008), s. 112-121 ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA MŽP SL/740/5/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosome translocations * FISH * Background frequency Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.363, year: 2008

  2. Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Kari B.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Crawford, Michael H.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Boca, Simina M.; Conrad, Donald F.; Tito, Raul Y.; Osipova, Ludmilla P.; Tarskaia, Larissa A.; Zhadanov, Sergey I.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Smith, David G.; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat allele were identical by descent and that the geographic distribution of this allele had not been influenced by natural selection. To invest...

  3. Spectroscopic measurement of high-frequency electric fields in the interaction of explosive debris plasma with magnetized background plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, A. S., E-mail: AntonBondarenko@ymail.com; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The collision-less transfer of momentum and energy from explosive debris plasma to magnetized background plasma is a salient feature of various astrophysical and space environments. While much theoretical and computational work has investigated collision-less coupling mechanisms and relevant parameters, an experimental validation of the results demands the measurement of the complex, collective electric fields associated with debris-background plasma interaction. Emission spectroscopy offers a non-interfering diagnostic of electric fields via the Stark effect. A unique experiment at the University of California, Los Angeles, that combines the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility has investigated the marginally super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via emission spectroscopy. Spectral profiles of the He II 468.6 nm line measured at the maximum extent of the diamagnetic cavity are observed to intensify, broaden, and develop equally spaced modulations in response to the explosive C debris, indicative of an energetic electron population and strong oscillatory electric fields. The profiles are analyzed via time-dependent Stark effect models corresponding to single-mode and multi-mode monochromatic (single frequency) electric fields, yielding temporally resolved magnitudes and frequencies. The proximity of the measured frequencies to the expected electron plasma frequency suggests the development of the electron beam-plasma instability, and a simple saturation model demonstrates that the measured magnitudes are feasible provided that a sufficiently fast electron population is generated during C debris–He background interaction. Potential sources of the fast electrons, which likely correspond to collision-less coupling mechanisms, are briefly considered.

  4. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  5. Hawkes process model with a time-dependent background rate and its application to high-frequency financial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, Takahiro; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2017-07-01

    A Hawkes process model with a time-varying background rate is developed for analyzing the high-frequency financial data. In our model, the logarithm of the background rate is modeled by a linear model with a relatively large number of variable-width basis functions, and the parameters are estimated by a Bayesian method. Our model can capture not only the slow time variation, such as in the intraday seasonality, but also the rapid one, which follows a macroeconomic news announcement. By analyzing the tick data of the Nikkei 225 mini, we find that (i) our model is better fitted to the data than the Hawkes models with a constant background rate or a slowly varying background rate, which have been commonly used in the field of quantitative finance; (ii) the improvement in the goodness-of-fit to the data by our model is significant especially for sessions where considerable fluctuation of the background rate is present; and (iii) our model is statistically consistent with the data. The branching ratio, which quantifies the level of the endogeneity of markets, estimated by our model is 0.41, suggesting the relative importance of exogenous factors in the market dynamics. We also demonstrate that it is critically important to appropriately model the time-dependent background rate for the branching ratio estimation.

  6. Frequency filtering to suppress background noise in fingerprint evidence: quantifying the fidelity of digitally enhanced fingerprint images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jacqueline A; Hietpas, Jack

    2014-09-01

    Fingerprint evidence can benefit in image quality if transformed using digital image processing techniques. This is especially true when considering prints that cannot be easily lifted (such as those deposited on porous paper substrates), or when the mechanism of lifting does not effectively reduce background interferences. In these instances, frequency filtering is one type of mathematical transformation that can serve to increase image clarity and the ability to extract minutiae relevant to pairwise comparisons. To quantify the impact of frequency filtering on image quality, high quality and low quality (noisy) prints were collected. The high quality prints served as exemplars that were compared to the low quality prints both pre- and post-filtering. The resulting pairwise match scores indicate that: (1) frequency filtering has a low probability of creating false positive associations, (2) 90% of the post-filtered images result in a normalized gain in match score, (3) frequency filtering doubled the probability of obtaining match scores greater than 30% (for the automated algorithm employed in this study), and (4) filtering can double the probability of obtaining 10 or more matching minutiae when comparing same source prints. Overall, the research indicates a reasonable and quantifiable payoff in increased clarity, matching minutiae and pairwise similarity for post-filtered images when compared to known-match exemplars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Musicians do not benefit from differences in fundamental frequency when listening to speech in competing speech backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Whiteford, Kelly L.; Oxenham, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies disagree on whether musicians have an advantage over non-musicians in understanding speech in noise. However, it has been suggested that musicians may be able to use diferences in fundamental frequency (F0) to better understand target speech in the presence of interfering talkers....... Here we studied a relatively large (N=60) cohort of young adults, equally divided between nonmusicians and highly trained musicians, to test whether the musicians were better able to understand speech either in noise or in a two-talker competing speech masker. The target speech and competing speech...... that musical training leads to improved speech intelligibility in complex speech or noise backgrounds....

  8. An Analytical Solution for Signal Background and Signal to background Ratio for a Low Frequency Active Sonar in a Pekerisch Waveguide Satisfying Lambert's Rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.; Harrison, C.H.; Zampolli, M.

    2011-01-01

    Previously published equations for the time dependence of the echo and reverberation in a Pekeris waveguide are combined with an expression derived for surface-generated noise. These closed form solutions are applied to the calculation of signal to reverberation ratio and signal to total background

  9. Long-distance translocations to create a second millerbird population and reduce extinction risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly Freifeld,; Sheldon Plentovich,; Chris Farmer,; Charles Kohley,; Peter Luscomb,; Work, Thierry M.; Daniel Tsukayama,; George Wallace,; Mark MacDonald,; Sheila Conant,

    2016-01-01

    Translocation is a conservation tool used with increasing frequency to create additional populations of threatened species. In addition to following established general guidelines for translocations, detailed planning to account for unique circumstances and intensive post-release monitoring to document outcomes and guide management are essential components of these projects. Recent translocation of the critically endangered Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi) provides an example of this planning and monitoring. The Nihoa millerbird is a passerine bird endemic to Nihoa Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The closely related, ecologically similar Laysan millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris) went extinct on Laysan Island in the early 20th century when the island was denuded by introduced rabbits. To reduce extinction risk, we translocated 50 adult Nihoa millerbirds more than 1000 km by sea to Laysan, which has recovered substantially in the past century and has ample habitat and a rich prey-base for millerbirds. Following five years of intensive background research and planning, including development of husbandry techniques, fundraising, and regulatory compliance, translocations occurred in 2011 and 2012. Of 11 females in each cohort, 8 (2011 cohort) and 11 (2012 cohort) produced at least one brood of fledglings during their first year on Laysan. At the conclusion of monitoring in September 2014, 37 of the translocated birds were known to survive, and the population was estimated at 164 birds. The reintroduction of millerbirds to Laysan represents a milestone in the island's ongoing restoration.

  10. Production and identification of wheat - Agropyron cristatum (1.4P) alien translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Hua; Luan, Yang; Wang, Jing-Chang; Wang, Xiao-Guang; Su, Jun-Ji; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Yang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Ai-Nong; Li, Li-Hui

    2010-06-01

    The P genome of Agropyron Gaertn., a wild relative of wheat, contains an abundance of desirable genes that can be utilized as genetic resources to improve wheat. In this study, wheat - Aegilops cylindrica Host gametocidal chromosome 2C addition lines were crossed with wheat - Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. disomic addition line accession II-21 with alien recombinant chromosome (1.4)P. We successfully induced wheat - A. cristatum alien chromosomal translocations for the first time. The frequency of translocation in the progeny was 3.75%, which was detected by molecular markers and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). The translocation chromosomes were identified by dual-color GISH /fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The P genomic DNA was used as probe to detect the (1.4)P chromosome fragment, and pHvG39, pAs1, or pSc119.2 repeated sequences were used as probes to identify wheat translocated chromosomes. The results showed that six types of translocations were identified in the three wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines, including the whole arm or terminal portion of a (1.4)P chromosome. The (1.4)P chromosome fragments were translocated to wheat chromosomes 1B, 2B, 5B, and 3D. The breakpoints were located at the centromeres of 1B and 2B, the pericentric locations of 5BS, and the terminals of 5BL and 3DS. In addition, we obtained 12 addition-deletion lines that contained alien A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P in wheat background. All of these wheat - A. cristatum alien translocation lines and addition-deletion lines would be valuable for identifying A. cristatum chromosome (1.4)P-related genes and providing genetic resources and new germplasm accessions for the genetic improvement of wheat. The specific molecular markers of A. cristatum (1.4)P chromosome have been developed and used to track the (1.4)P chromatin.

  11. Mode of ATM-dependent suppression of chromosome translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Motohiro, E-mail: motoyama@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Suzuki, Keiji; Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yamashita, Shunichi [Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We addressed how ATM suppresses frequency of chromosome translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses translocation frequency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ATM and DNA-PKcs function in a common pathway to suppress translocation. -- Abstract: It is well documented that deficiency in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein leads to elevated frequency of chromosome translocation, however, it remains poorly understood how ATM suppresses translocation frequency. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism of ATM-dependent suppression of translocation frequency. To know frequency of translocation events in a whole genome at once, we performed centromere/telomere FISH and scored dicentric chromosomes, because dicentric and translocation occur with equal frequency and by identical mechanism. By centromere/telomere FISH analysis, we confirmed that chemical inhibition or RNAi-mediated knockdown of ATM causes 2 to 2.5-fold increase in dicentric frequency at first mitosis after 2 Gy of gamma-irradiation in G0/G1. The FISH analysis revealed that ATM/p53-dependent G1 checkpoint suppresses dicentric frequency, since RNAi-mediated knockdown of p53 elevated dicentric frequency by 1.5-fold. We found ATM also suppresses dicentric occurrence independently of its checkpoint role, as ATM inhibitor showed additional effect on dicentric frequency in the context of p53 depletion and Chk1/2 inactivation. Epistasis analysis using chemical inhibitors revealed that ATM kinase functions in the same pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to suppress dicentric frequency. From the results in the present study, we conclude that ATM minimizes translocation frequency through its commitment to G1 checkpoint and DNA double-strand break repair pathway that requires kinase activity of DNA-PKcs.

  12. Distortion of the activation energy of high temperature internal friction background due to temperature dependence frequency variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambri, O.; Povolo, F.; Molinas, B.

    1991-01-01

    In this work, a study is made of how the variation of frequency with temperature affects an activation enthalpy. This effect is usually neglected, but in some cases like Cu-Au or Zry-4 (an alloy of nuclear interest base or Zr alloyed with Sn, Fe and Cr) such variation can rise up to as much as 16%/4/ and 37%/5/. (Author) [es

  13. Contribution of low-frequency harmonics to Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and six-talker babble background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Azimi, Behnam; Bhandary, Moulesh; Hu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate Mandarin Chinese tone identification in quiet and multi-talker babble conditions for normal-hearing listeners. Tone identification was measured with speech stimuli and stimuli with low and/or high harmonics that were embedded in three Mandarin vowels with two fundamental frequencies. There were six types of stimuli: all harmonics (All), low harmonics (Low), high harmonics (High), and the first (H1), second (H2), and third (H3) harmonic. Results showed that, for quiet conditions, individual harmonics carried frequency contour information well enough for tone identification with high accuracy; however, in noisy conditions, tone identification with individual low harmonics (e.g., H1, H2, and H3) was significantly lower than that with the Low, High, and All harmonics. Moreover, tone identification with individual harmonics in noise was lower for a low F0 than for a high F0, and was also dependent on vowel category. Tone identification with individual low-frequency harmonics was accounted for by local signal-to-noise ratios, indicating that audibility of harmonics in noise may play a primary role in tone identification.

  14. Further studies on the possible relationship between radiation-induced reciprocal translocations and intrinsic radiosensitivity of human tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virsik-Peuckert, P.; Rave-Fraenk, M.; Schmidberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    Background and purpose. The aim of the present study was to estimate yields of radiation-induced translocations in surviving cells of several human tumor cell lines and in normal diploid human fibroblasts, and to compare these yields with corresponding intrinsic radiosensitivities determined by standard colony-formation assay. Material and methods. The yields of radiation-induced reciprocal translocations were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 were 'painted' with fluorescent hybridization probes for whole chromosomes. Translocation yields and cell survival were determined for different doses up to 6 Gy of 200 kV X-rays. Results. We observed a higher frequency of reciprocal translocations in the radiosensitive cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-436 than in the radioresistant cells CaSki, WiDr, A549 and normal skin fibroblasts. For primary squamous cell carcinoma cells, ZMK-1, an intermediate radiosensitivity and an intermediate translocation yield were observed. The dose-dependence of translocation yields involving chromosomes no. 1 or no. 4 varied in different cell lines: it was linear or linear with a plateau at higher doses. Conclusions. A comparison of the data obtained with chromosomes no. 1 and no. 4 in the investigated cell types, indicates that intrinsic radiosensitivity of different tumor cells observed at the survival level, is correlated with different translocation yields, respectively. This correlation was observed for all cell types investigated, independent of the number of copies of the painted chromosome per cell or the radiation dose. However, for low doses (under 1 Gy), the yields of translocations determined for the individual chromosomes seem to be too low for a discrimination between radioresistant or radiosensitive cells

  15. High-frequency background modulation fringe patterns based on a fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model for 3D surface-shape measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinran; Kofman, Jonathan

    2017-07-10

    A new fringe projection method for surface-shape measurement was developed using four high-frequency phase-shifted background modulation fringe patterns. The pattern frequency is determined using a new fringe-wavelength geometry-constraint model that allows only two corresponding-point candidates in the measurement volume. The correct corresponding point is selected with high reliability using a binary pattern computed from intensity background encoded in the fringe patterns. Equations of geometry-constraint parameters permit parameter calculation prior to measurement, thus reducing measurement computational cost. Experiments demonstrated the ability of the method to perform 3D shape measurement for a surface with geometric discontinuity, and for spatially isolated objects.

  16. High relative frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: qat and tobacco chewing as its aetiological background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawair, Faleh A; Al-Mutwakel, Ammar; Al-Eryani, Kamal; Al-Surhy, Ameera; Maruyama, Satoshi; Cheng, Jun; Al-Sharabi, Ali; Saku, Takashi

    2007-06-01

    To study the association of qat chewing with the occurrence of oral cancer, the frequency of oral cancer among whole body cancers and the patients' histories of tobacco consumption and qat chewing were examined in Yemen where qat chewing has been most popular. All primary malignant tumors listed in the surgical pathology files at Al-Thawra Hospital, University of Sana'a, in the year 2004 were analyzed, and the patients' histories of tobacco consumption and qat chewing were examined. A total of 649 cases of primary malignant tumors (348, 53.6% males and 301, 46.4% females) were extracted. Oral cancer was the most frequent body cancer in both males (17.2%) and females (19.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequent oral cancer (84%), and the tongue (42%), gingiva (23%) and buccal mucosa (20%) were the most common sites. Among the 119 patients with oral cancer, information on chewing habits and smoking was obtained in 92 patients (77.3%). There were 70 tobacco chewers (76.1%), 55 qat chewers (59.8%), and 22 smokers (23.9%). Simultaneous chewing of tobacco and qat was found in 48 cases (52.2%). The present survey has disclosed for the first time that oral SCC is the most frequent cancer in this study area in Yemen, and that the high relative frequency of oral SCC may be related to the habits of chewing tobacco and qat.

  17. FREQUENCY OF DETACHED CARDIAC DRUGS PRESCRIBING IN PATIENTS OF DIFFERENT CLASSES QRS COMPLEX DURATION ON THE PERMANENT PACING BACKGROUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shanina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of beta-blockers, amiodarone, antiplatelet agents (acetylsalicylic acid, anticoagulants (warfarin, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, diuretics and angiotensin II receptor antagonists prescribing was determined in 114 patients (56 – women, 58 – men with permanent pacemakers in VVI/VVIR (40 patients, DDD/DDDR (26 patient, cardiac resynchronization therapy (14 patients and separate group was made up of 34 patients with sinus sick syndrome in DDD/DDDR pacing mode in 3 QRS complex duration classes: 1 – under 119 ms (normal, 2 – 120-149 ms (elongate and more than 150 ms (significantly elongate. The patients’ average age was 69 ± 7 years. The results showed that the same groups of drugs are being prescribed as in patients with pacemakers as in patients without them. More frequent prescribing of beta-blockers was associated with prevention of the development of possible device-induced arrhythmias and chronic heart failure. More rare appointment acetylsalicylic acid and statins was associated with the lack of attention to therapeutic support. Frequency of prescribing most of used drugs in patients with implanted pacemaker increases with QRS complex duration class.

  18. Does the exposure of children in the UK to background residential power-frequency magnetic fields differ from that of the whole population?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Background power-frequency magnetic fields in homes in the UK vary with the category of accommodation. The categories considered, in ascending order of average field, are detached, semidetached and terraced houses and flats. Because children occupy a different distribution of accommodation compared with the population as a whole, they will on average be exposed to a different background field. Using data on fields from a survey of two hundred people and on distribution of accommodation types from national statistics, it is estimated that this effect leads to children being exposed to background fields which are lower than those experienced by the population as a whole, 54.2 nT, by an average of 0.7 ± 0.6 nT, a difference which is barely significant. (Author)

  19. Simulations of Polymer Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-07-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze -- i.e., translocate -- themselves through the pores. DNA, RNA and proteins are such naturally occuring long molecules in a variety of biological processes. Understandably, the process of translocation has been an active topic of current research: not only because it is a cornerstone of many biological processes, but also due to its relevance for practical applications. Translocation is a complicated process in living organisms -- the presence of chaperone molecules, pH, chemical potential gradients, and assisting molecular motors strongly influence its dynamics. Consequently, the translocation process has been empirically studied in great variety in biological literature. Study of translocation as a biophysical process is more recent. Herein, the polymer is simplified to a sequentially connected string of N monomers as it passes through a narrow pore on a membrane. The quantities of interest are the typical time scale for the polymer to leave a confining cell (the ``escape of a polymer from a vesicle'' time scale), and the typical time scale the polymer spends in the pore (the ``dwell'' time scale) as a function of N and other parameters like membrane thickness, membrane adsorption, electrochemical potential gradient, etc. Our research is focused on computer simulations of translocation. Since our main interest is in the scaling properties, we use a highly simplified description of the translocation process. The polymer is described as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and its dynamics consists of single-monomer jumps from one lattice site to another neighboring one. Since we have a very efficient program to simulate such polymer dynamics, which we decribe in Chapter 2, we can perform long

  20. The mutation frequency of Drosophila melanogaster populations living under conditions of increased background radiation due to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainullin, V.G.; Rakin, A.O.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Myasnyankina, E.N.; Generalova, M.V.

    1992-01-01

    One of the problems facing the program in the wake of the Chernobyl accident is the estimation of genetic damage to plants and animals. Special attention was directed to studying the influence of radioactive pollutants at the accident site by means of an appropriate test system, using standard genetic subjects. The present study describes such investigations. Levels of persistent genetic damage in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster found in the vicinity of the Chernobyl accident site were examined from August 1986-September 1989. Evidence is presented which indicates a relationship between the levels of radioactive pollution resulting from the Chernobyl accident and increasing genetic damage to exposed populations. The possible reasons for the decrease of mutation frequency observed in 1988 and 1989 are also discussed. Furthermore, evidence is presented which suggests that radiosensitive Drosophila mutants may be particularly sensitive indicators of radioactive pollution. (author). 16 refs.; 6 figs

  1. Problem-elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithiviraj Fernando

    Full Text Available Human-elephant conflict (HEC threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus. Translocating "problem-elephants" is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals.

  2. Oncogene Translocations and NHL

    Science.gov (United States)

    A colloboration with several large population-based cohorts to determine whether the prevalence or level of t14;18 is associated with risk of NHL and to investigate the clonal relationship between translocation-bearing cells and subsequent tumors

  3. The Effect of Aging and the High-Frequency Auditory Threshold on Speech-Evoked Mismatch Negativity in a Noisy Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junming; Chen, Suijun; Zheng, Yiqing; Ou, Yongkang

    2016-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been widely used to study the function of central auditory processing in the elderly. However, current research has not yet considered the effect of noise and high-frequency hearing threshold on MMN in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging and high-frequency hearing loss on speech-related MMN in noisy backgrounds. Additionally, the possible mechanisms of central auditory processing dysfunction in the elderly were investigated. Fifty people aged 61-80 (70 ± 5.8) years were recruited for this study. They were divided into a 61- to 70-year-old group and a 71- to 80-year-old group. Fifty younger adults aged 21-40 (31 ± 5.3) years were recruited as healthy controls. Pure-tone hearing thresholds were recorded. A speech discrimination score (SDS) and a speech-evoked MMN under white noise with a bandwidth from 125 to 8,000 Hz background condition were recorded. The relationships between SDS and MMN latency and amplitude were analyzed. The effects of age and binaural 2,000-, 4,000- and 8,000-Hz pure-tone hearing thresholds on MMN latency and amplitude were analyzed. We found that the hearing thresholds of 2,000, 4,000 and 8,000 Hz in the 61- to 70-year-old and 71- to 80-year-old groups were higher than those in the control group. The SDS in a noisy background in the 61- to 70-year-old and 71- to 80-year-old groups were lower than those in the control group. Speech-evoked MMN latency was longer in the 61- to 70-year-old and in the 71- to 80-year-old groups than in the control group (215.8 ± 14.2 ms). SDS and speech-evoked MMN latency were negatively correlated. Age and speech-evoked MMN latency were positively correlated, as were the binaural 4,000- to 8,000-Hz pure-tone hearing thresholds and speech-evoked MMN. This study suggests that in elderly subjects, the function of preattentive central auditory processing changes. Additionally, increasing age and high-frequency hearing thresholds create a synergy in

  4. Possibility of application of low-frequency piezothromboelastografy method for the evaluation of haemostatic potential of blood in coronary bypass surgery on the background of long aspirinotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Fanaskova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the hemostatic system on the aspirin therapy background using the VerifyNow Aspirin test, as well as examining platelet aggregation and low-frequency piezothromboelastography in patients with coronary artery disease during coronary artery bypass grafting.Materials and methods. 100 people with coronary artery disease who were taking aspirin (75–100 mg daily for more than 1 year were examined. The study was performed in the perioperative period of coronary bypass surgery without aspirin withdrawal. Evaluation of hemostasis was performed by the VerifyNow Aspirin тest (USA, platelet aggregation (Нelena Laboratories AggRAMTM, Britain and the low-frequency piezothromboelastography (ARP-01M “Mednord”, Russia.Results. Patients included in the study were sensitive to aspirin when under long-term administration of a drug: indicator test was VerifyNow ARU 496,9 ± 21,3%, the platelet aggregation to ADP and adrenaline was reduced by 46% and 52%, respectively. In the early postoperative period platelet aggregation of ADP decreased by 73,2%, collagen – 75,9%, and adrenaline – 82,64% in comparison with the control group.Perioperative hemorrhagic complications in the study group were not observed. Reduction of platelet aggregation after aspirin therapy was accompanied by an increase in thrombin activity of the blood, which allows for evaluation of the method of low-frequency piezothromboelastography (LPTEG. In the early postoperative period, the results of LPTEG, thrombin potential, and anticoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of blood were partially normalized without reaching the level of the control group.Conclusion. For the evaluation of hemostasis under aspirin therapy it is advisable to apply the low-frequency piezothromboelastography, which in contrast to the VerifyNow test and traditional platelet aggregation, allows one to reveal a degree of impairment in thrombin blood activity and to conduct an integrative assessment on all

  5. [PCR detection of relevant translocations in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Ramos-Cervantes, María Teresa; Rosel-Pech, Cecilia; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina

    2016-01-01

    In Mexico, leukemia represents the most common type of cancer in the population under 15 years old with a high incidence rate when compared with developed countries. The etiology of leukemia may be unknown, however different factors are involve such as chromosomal translocations. The aim of this work is to detect the molecular alterations: TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL minor and E2A-PBX1 in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 91 bone marrow samples were collected from pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia from january 2012 to march 2013 at the Pediatric Hematology Service, Hospital General "Gaudencio González Garza". Translocations detected (TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL minor and E2A-PBX1) using real time PCR, SYBR Green (Qiagen, Alameda, CA). 91 samples were processed, the detected frequencies for each translocation were: TEL-AML1 (7.21%), E2A-PBX1 (5.15%). The MLL-AF4 and the BCR-ABL minor translocations were not detected in this study. The frequencies shown in this study are consistent with the data shown in the literature, where TEL-AML1 is the most common translocation found in pediatric patients. It is of relevance to mention that E2A-PBX1 is found in a high frequency in developing countries when compared with developed countries.

  6. Monocyte Activation, but not Microbial Translocation, Is Independently Associated With Markers of Endovascular Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving cART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin K; Manner, Ingjerd W; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microbial translocation has been suggested as a driver of cardiovascular disease in HIV infection. We hypothesized that microbial translocation and the resulting monocyte activation would be associated with markers of endovascular dysfunction. METHODS: In 60 HIV-infected patients...

  7. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  8. Continuous time-resolved regional methane leak detection with on-line background estimation using a novel combination of dual frequency comb laser spectroscopy and atmospheric inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, C. B.; Coburn, S.; Wright, R.; Baumann, E.; Cossel, K.; Sweeney, C.; Ghosh, S.; Newbury, N.; Prasad, K.; Coddington, I.; Rieker, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in natural gas extraction technology have led to increased US production and transport activity, and as a consequence, an increased need for monitoring of methane leaks. Current leak detection methods provide time snapshots, and not continuous, time-varying estimates of emissions. Most approaches also require specific atmospheric conditions, operators, or the use of a tracer gas, requiring site access. Given known intermittency in fugitive methane emissions, continuous monitoring is a critical need for emissions mitigation. We present a novel leak detection method that employs dual frequency comb spectrometry to offer continuous, autonomous, leak detection and quantification over square-km scale areas. The spectrometer is situated in a field of natural gas pads, and a series of retroreflectors around the field direct light back to a detector. The laser light spans 1620-1680 nm with 0.002 nm line spacing, measuring thousands of individual absorption features from multiple species. The result is high-stability trace gas (here CH4, CO2, and H2O) measurements over long (1 km+) open paths through the atmosphere. Measurements are used in an atmospheric inversion to estimate the time variability of emissions at each location of interest. Importantly, the measurement framework and inversion solve explicitly for background concentrations, which vary rapidly in fields of active oil and gas production. We present the results of controlled-leak field tests in rural Colorado. We demonstrate the ability to locate and size a leak located 1 km away from the spectrometer and varying in strength from 1.5 to 7.7 g/min, resulting in mean atmospheric enhancements of 20 ppb. The inversion correctly identifies when the leak turned on and off over a 24-hour period, and determines the mean leak strength to within 10% of the true controlled rate. We further demonstrate the ability of the system to correctly locate and size the start and end of simultaneous 2.7 to 4.8 g/min leaks

  9. Centromere structure and function analysis in wheat-rye translocation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yalin; Su, Handong; Guo, Xianrui; Han, Fangpu

    2017-07-01

    1RS.1BL translocations are centric translocations formed by misdivision and have been used extensively in wheat breeding. However, the role that the centromere plays in the formation of 1RS.1BL translocations is still unclear. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied to detect the fine structures of the centromeres in 130 1RS.1BL translocation cultivars. Immuno-FISH, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR and RT-PCR were used to investigate the functions of the hybrid centromeres in 1RS.1BL translocations. New 1R translocations with different centromere structures were created by misdivision and pollen irradiation to elucidate the role that the centromere plays in the formation of 1RS.1BL translocations. We found that all of the 1RS.1BL translocations detected contained hybrid centromeres and that wheat-derived CENH3 bound to both the wheat and rye centromeres in the 1RS.1BL translocation chromosomes. Moreover, a rye centromere-specific retrotransposon was actively transcribed in 1RS.1BL translocations. The frequencies of new 1RS hybrid centromere translocations and group-1 chromosome translocations were higher during 1R misdivision. Our study demonstrates the hybrid nature of the centromere in 1RS.1BL translocations. New 1R translocations with different centromere structures were created to help understand the fusion centromere used for wheat breeding and for use as breeding material for the improvement of wheat. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Occupational exposure to pesticides and occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 among farmers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara’a M. Qaqish

    Full Text Available Background: An increased incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL has been reported in farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. In these individuals, an increased prevalence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18(q32;q21, one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL, has been detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This translocation juxtaposes the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus (IGH leading to overexpression of BCL2. This causes an increase in cell survival, paving the way for malignant transformation. Aim of the study: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 and occupational exposure to pesticides among a group of Jordanian farmers. Methods: A total of 192 male subjects including 96 agricultural workers and 96 control subjects participated in this study. BCL2-IGH t(14;18 fusions were detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeting the major breakpoint region (MBR. Results: We found that occupational exposure to pesticides in open-field farming and insecticide used on animals increased the frequency of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18. Farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides and insecticide were 13.5 times more likely to harbor t(14;18. 63.5% (61 of 96 of farmers compared to 11.5% (11 of 96 of controls carried the translocation (odds ratio: 13.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 6.3–28.6. We ruled out the influence of possible confounding factors such as age, duration of sun exposure, alcohol intake, smoking, and use of personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pesticides increased the frequency of chromosomal translocation in the 14q32 region. Accordingly, the presented data agrees with previous suggestions from the literature that pesticides might be involved in the development of NHL through the t(14;18 pathway. Keywords

  11. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alexander A. Dolskiy

    2017-12-01

    Dec 1, 2017 ... Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ... Chromosome 13. Chromosome 14. Intellectual disability. a b s t r a c t. Background: The Robertsonian translocations inherited from parents with a normal ..... expression in lymphocyte of trisomy 21 babies/children: in vivo evaluation.

  12. Live birth from a patient with a three-way balanced translocation t(5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Three-way balanced translocations are unusual and can lead to infertility as well as abnormal embryos. In this case report, we describe a couple who experienced repeated miscarriages as a result of the male partner being a carrier of a three-way translocation t(5;8;12). Objectives: Array comparative genomic ...

  13. Centrifugally driven microfluidic disc for detection of chromosomal translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøgger, Anna Line; Kwasny, Dorota; Bosco, Filippo G.

    2012-01-01

    and prognosis of patients. In this work we demonstrate a novel, centrifugally-driven microfluidic system for controlled manipulation of oligonucleotides and subsequent detection of chromosomal translocations. The device is fabricated in the form of a disc with capillary burst microvalves employed to control...... and detection chambers. The burst frequencies of the two capillary burst microvalves are separated by 180 rpm enabling precise control of hybridization in each of the chambers. The DNA probes targeting a translocation are immobilized directly on PMMA by a UV-activated procedure, which is compatible...

  14. Preliminary investigation of the roles of military background and posttraumatic stress symptoms in frequency and recidivism of intimate partner violence perpetration among court-referred men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Tim; Wray, Alisha M; Rielage, Jennifer Klosterman

    2014-04-01

    Significant rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration have been identified among men with military backgrounds. Research indicates posttraumatic stress symptoms place military men at increased risk for IPV perpetration, but may be negatively associated with IPV among nonmilitary samples. However, no previous studies have directly compared court-referred IPV offenders with and without military experience, which may have clinical implications if posttraumatic stress symptoms are differentially associated with IPV perpetration across these two samples. Twenty court-referred IPV offenders with military background were demographically matched with 40 court-referred IPV offenders without military background. As anticipated, self- and partner-report of physically assaultive acts and injurious acts during baseline assessment showed significantly greater physical assault and injury perpetrated by offenders with military background. However, 1-year follow-up data on convictions indicated a significantly lower rate of recidivism among offenders with military background than among nonmilitary offenders. As hypothesized, symptoms of posttraumatic stress at intake showed a significant positive correlation with IPV perpetration among offenders with military background; however, this relationship showed a negative correlation among offenders without military background. Clinical implications are discussed including treatment avenues, such as Veterans Courts and other incarceration diversion programs, which may be particularly appropriate for offenders with military backgrounds.

  15. Electochemical detection of chromosome translocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2014-01-01

    impedance spectroscopy was selected as the sensing method on a microfabricated chip with array of 12 electrode sets. Two independent chips (Chip1 and Chip2) were used for targeting the chromosomal fragments involved in the translocation. Each chip was differentially functionalized with DNA probes matching......Cytogenetics is a study of the cell structure with a main focus on chromosomes content and their structure. Chromosome abnormalities, such as translocations may cause various genetic disorders and heametological malignancies. Chromosome translocations are structural rearrangements of two...... chromosomes that results in formation of derivative chromosomes with a mixed DNA sequence. The method currently used for their detection is Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization, which requires a use of expensive, fluorescently labeled probes that target the derivative chromosomes. We present here a double...

  16. Three-dimensional genome architecture influences partner selection for chromosomal translocations in human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Engreitz

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are frequent features of cancer genomes that contribute to disease progression. These rearrangements result from formation and illegitimate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, a process that requires spatial colocalization of chromosomal breakpoints. The "contact first" hypothesis suggests that translocation partners colocalize in the nuclei of normal cells, prior to rearrangement. It is unclear, however, the extent to which spatial interactions based on three-dimensional genome architecture contribute to chromosomal rearrangements in human disease. Here we intersect Hi-C maps of three-dimensional chromosome conformation with collections of 1,533 chromosomal translocations from cancer and germline genomes. We show that many translocation-prone pairs of regions genome-wide, including the cancer translocation partners BCR-ABL and MYC-IGH, display elevated Hi-C contact frequencies in normal human cells. Considering tissue specificity, we find that translocation breakpoints reported in human hematologic malignancies have higher Hi-C contact frequencies in lymphoid cells than those reported in sarcomas and epithelial tumors. However, translocations from multiple tissue types show significant correlation with Hi-C contact frequencies, suggesting that both tissue-specific and universal features of chromatin structure contribute to chromosomal alterations. Our results demonstrate that three-dimensional genome architecture shapes the landscape of rearrangements directly observed in human disease and establish Hi-C as a key method for dissecting these effects.

  17. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, UnED Angra dos Reis, Angra dos Reis, 23953-030, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-10-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  18. Markovian description of unbiased polymer translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, Felipe; Moriconi, L.

    2012-01-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations which provide compelling evidence in favor of a general Markovian framework for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. Our statistical analysis consists of careful evaluations of (i) two-point correlation functions of the translocation coordinate and (ii) the empirical probabilities of complete polymer translocation (taken as a function of the initial number of monomers on a given side of the membrane). We find good agreement with predictions derived from the Markov chain approach recently addressed in the literature by the present authors. -- Highlights: ► We investigate unbiased polymer translocation through membrane pores. ► Large statistical ensembles have been produced with the help of cloud computing resources. ► We evaluate the two-point correlation function of the translocation coordinate. ► We evaluate empirical probabilities for complete polymer translocation. ► Unbiased polymer translocation is described as a Markov stochastic process.

  19. Dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junfang; Wang, Yilin; Luo, Kaifu

    2015-02-28

    Polymer translocation through nanopore has potential technological applications for DNA sequencing, where one challenge problem is to slow down translocation speed. Inspired by experimental findings that kinked nanopores exhibit a large reduction in translocation velocity compared with their straight counterparts, we investigate the dynamics of polymer translocation through kinked nanopores in two dimensions under an applied external field. With increasing the tortuosity of an array of nanopores, our analytical results show that the translocation probability decreases. Langevin dynamics simulation results support this prediction and further indicate that with increasing the tortuosity, translocation time shows a slow increase followed by a rapid increase after a critical tortuosity. This behavior demonstrates that kinked nanopores can effectively reduce translocation speed. These results are interpreted by the roles of the tortuosity for decreasing the effective nanopore diameter, increasing effective nanopore length, and greatly increasing the DNA-pore friction.

  20. Chromosome 4q;10q translocations; Comparison with different ethnic populations and FSHD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Cheng

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the weakness of facial, shoulder-girdle and upper arm muscles. Most patients with FSHD have fewer numbers of tandem repeated 3.3-kb KpnI units on chromosome 4q35. Chromosome 10q26 contains highly homologous KpnI repeats, and inter-chromosomal translocation has been reported. Methods To clarify the influence on the deletion of the repeats, we surveyed three different ethnic populations and FSHD patients using the BglII/BlnI dosage test. Results The frequency of translocation in 153 Japanese, 124 Korean, 114 Chinese healthy individuals and 56 Japanese 4q35-FSHD patients were 27.5%, 29.8%, 19.3%, and 32.1%, respectively. The ratio of '4 on 10' (trisomy and quatrosomy of chromosome 4 was higher than that of '10 on 4' (nullsomy and monosomy of chromosome 4 in all populations. Conclusions The inter-chromosomal exchange was frequently observed in all four populations we examined, and no significant difference was observed between healthy and diseased groups.

  1. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  2. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main...... concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  3. Disease dynamics during wildlife translocations: disruptions to the host population and potential consequences for transmission in desert tortoise contact networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Christina M.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Walde, Andrew D.; Esque, Todd C.; Emblidge, Patrick G.; Sah, Pratha; Bansal, S.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife managers consider animal translocation a means of increasing the viability of a local population. However, augmentation may disrupt existing resident disease dynamics and initiate an outbreak that would effectively offset any advantages the translocation may have achieved. This paper examines fundamental concepts of disease ecology and identifies the conditions that will increase the likelihood of a disease outbreak following translocation. We highlight the importance of susceptibility to infection, population size and population connectivity – a characteristic likely affected by translocation but not often considered in risk assessments – in estimating outbreak risk due to translocation. We then explore these features in a species of conservation concern often translocated in the presence of infectious disease, the Mojave Desert tortoise, and use data from experimental tortoise translocations to detect changes in population connectivity that may influence pathogen transmission. Preliminary analyses comparing contact networks inferred from spatial data at control and translocation plots and infection simulation results through these networks suggest increased outbreak risk following translocation due to dispersal-driven changes in contact frequency and network structure. We outline future research goals to test these concepts and aid managers in designing effective risk assessment and intervention strategies that will improve translocation success.

  4. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  5. Balanced Reciprocal Translocations Detected at Amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Balanced reciprocal translocations detected at amniocentesis may be associated with fetal anomalies in cases of concomitant aneuploidy, de novo X-autosome translocation or de novo CCR. Genetic counseling of a de novo simple reciprocal translocation at amniocentesis remains difficult because approximately one-fourth of the parents opt for termination of the pregnancy, and detailed ultrasonography and array comparative genomic hybridization are helpful for parental counseling under such circumstances.

  6. Translocations affecting human immunoglobulin heavy chain locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyar I. V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Translocations involving human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH locus are implicated in different leukaemias and lymphomas, including multiple myeloma, mantle cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma. We have analysed published data and identified eleven breakpoint cluster regions (bcr related to these cancers within the IgH locus. These ~1 kbp bcrs are specific for one or several types of blood cancer. Our findings could help devise PCR-based assays to detect cancer-related translocations, to identify the mechanisms of translocations and to help in the research of potential translocation partners of the immunoglobulin locus at different stages of B-cell differentiation.

  7. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  8. Effects of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency of 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentrations under conditions of different types of stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichuk, V F; Tsymbal, A A

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effect of terahertz radiation at atmospheric oxygen frequency 129 GHz on blood nitrite concentration in different types of experimental stress against the background of administration of nonselective inhibitor of constitutive NO-synthases. Normalizing effects of radiation on blood nitrite dynamics in animals with acute stress was shown after 15-min exposure and in animals with chronic stress after 30-min exposure. No positive effect of terahertz radiation was observed on altered blood nitrite concentration in male rats after preliminary administration of nonselective constitutive NO-synthase isoform inhibitor L-NAME.

  9. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 1. (a–i) Putative novel genes created by the breakpoints. Translocation chromosomes are shown with the translocated segment indicated in red and the untranslocated segments in black or blue. Purple arrows indicate whether the chromosome is a donor (arrow pointing up) or a recipient (arrow ...

  10. Periarrest intestinal bacterial translocation and resuscitation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkias, Athanasios; Scheetz, Marc H; Gulati, Anil; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2016-02-01

    During the periarrest period, intestinal ischemia may result in barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation, which has clear mechanistic links to inflammation and cascade stimulation, especially in patients who are treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Despite optimal management, periarrest bacterial translocation may worsen the outcome of cardiac arrest victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by us...

  12. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    †Dedicated to the memory of our colleague T Bhavani Prasanna. Abbreviations used: Dp, duplication; Df, deficiency; ITs, insertional translocations; LG, lineage group; OR, Oak Ridge; ORFs, open reading frames; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTs, quasiterminal translocations; RIP, repeat-induced point mutation.

  13. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Qing

    Full Text Available Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  14. A de novo case of floating chromosomal polymorphisms by translocation in Quasipaa boulengeri (Anura, Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Liyan; Xia, Yun; Zheng, Yuchi; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-01-01

    Very few natural polymorphisms involving interchromosomal reciprocal translocations are known in amphibians even in vertebrates. In this study, thirty three populations, including 471 individuals of the spiny frog Quasipaa boulengeri, were karyotypically examined using Giemsa stain or FISH. Five different karyomorphs were observed. The observed heteromorphism was autosomal but not sex-related, as the same heteromorphic chromosomes were found both in males and females. Our results indicated that the variant karyotypes resulted from a mutual interchange occurring between chromosomes 1 and 6. The occurrence of a nearly whole-arm translocation between chromosome no. 1 and no. 6 gave rise to a high frequency of alternate segregation and probably resulted in the maintenance of the translocation polymorphisms in a few populations. The translocation polymorphism is explained by different frequencies of segregation modes of the translocation heterozygote during meiosis. Theoretically, nine karyomorphs should be investigated, however, four expected karyotypes were not found. The absent karyomorphs may result from recessive lethal mutations, position effects, duplications and deficiencies. The phylogenetic inference proved that all populations of Q. boulengeri grouped into a monophyletic clade. The mutual translocation likely evolved just once in this species and the dispersal of the one karyomorph (type IV) can explain the chromosomal variations among populations.

  15. Narrow-band emission with 0.5 to 3.5 Hz varying frequency in the background of the main phase of the 17 March 2013 magnetic storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the analysis of an unusually long narrow-band emission in the Pc1 range with increasing carrier frequency. The event was observed against the background of the main phase of a strong magnetic storm caused by arrival of a high-speed solar wind stream with a shock wave in the stream head and a long interval of negative vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field. Emission of approximately 9-hour duration had a local character, appearing only at three stations located in the range of geographical longitude λ=100–130 E and magnetic shells L=2.2–3.4. The signal carrier frequency grew in a stepped mode from 0.5 to 3.5 Hz. We propose an emission interpretation based on the standard model of the generation of ion cyclotron waves in the magnetosphere due to the resonant wave-particle interaction with ion fluxes of moderate energies. We suppose that a continuous shift of the generation region, located in the outer area of the plasmasphere, to smaller L-shell is able to explain both the phenomenon locality and the range of the frequency increase. A narrow emission frequency band is associated with the formation of nose-like structures in the energy spectrum of ion fluxes penetrating from the geomagnetic tail into the magnetosphere. We offer a possible scenario of the processes leading to the generation of the observed emission. The scenario contains specific values of the generation region position, plasma density, magnetic field, and resonant proton energies. We discuss morphological differences of the emissions considered from known types of geomagnetic pulsations, and reasons for the occurrence of this unusual event.

  16. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  17. Alignment of threat, effort, and perceived success in North American conservation translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brichieri-Colombi, Typhenn A; Moehrenschlager, Axel

    2016-12-01

    The use of conservation translocations to mitigate human effects on biodiversity is increasing, but how these efforts are allocated remains unclear. Based on a comprehensive literature review and online author survey, we sought to determine the goals of translocation efforts, whether they focus on species and regions with high threat and likelihood of perceived success, and how success might be improved. We systematically searched the ISI Web of Knowledge and Academic Search Complete databases to determine the species and regions of conservation translocations and found 1863 articles on conservation translocations in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean published from 1974 to 2013. We questioned 330 relevant authors to determine the motivation for translocations, how translocations were evaluated, and obstacles encountered. Conservation translocations in North America were geographically widespread (in 21 countries), increased in frequency over time for all animal classes (from 1 in 1974 to 84 in 2013), and included 279 different species. Reintroductions and reinforcements were more common in the United States than in Canada and Mexico, Central America, or the Caribbean, and their prevalence was correlated with the number of species at risk at national and state or provincial levels. Translocated species had a higher threat status at state and provincial levels than globally (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categorization), suggesting that translocations may have been motivated by regional priorities rather than global risk. Our survey of authors was consistent with these results; most translocations were requested, supported, or funded by government agencies and downlisting species at national or state or provincial levels was the main goal. Nonetheless, downlisting was the least reported measure of success, whereas survival and reproduction of translocated individuals were the most reported. Reported barriers

  18. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival) among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness. PMID:21284886

  19. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penedo M Cecilia T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Results Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Conclusions Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness.

  20. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.; Van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate

  1. Carbon and nitrogen translocation between seagrass ramets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marbà, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Mateo, M.A.; Duarte, C.M.; Maas, Y.E.M.; Terrados, J.; Gacia, E.

    2002-01-01

    The spatial scale and the magnitude of carbon and nitrogen translocation was examined in 5 tropical (Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila stipulacea, Halodule uninervis, Thalassodendron ciliatum, Thalassia hemprichii) and 3 temperate (Cymodocea nodosa, Posidonia oceanica, Zostera noltii) seagrass species

  2. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S.

    1984-01-01

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  3. Unraveling the Dynamics of Ribosome Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin; Tsai, Albert; O’Leary, Seán E.; Petrov, Alexey; Puglisi, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation is one of the key events in translation, requiring large-scale conformational changes in the ribosome, movements of two transfer RNAs (tRNAs) across a distance of more than 20 Å, and the coupled movement of the messenger RNA (mRNA) by one codon, completing one cycle of peptide-chain elongation. Translocation is catalyzed by elongation factor G (EF-G in bacteria), which hydrolyzes GTP in the process. However, how the conformational rearrangements of the ribosome actually drive the movements of the tRNAs and how EF-G GTP hydrolysis plays a role in this process are still unclear. Fluorescence methods, both single-molecule and bulk, have provided a dynamic view of translocation, allowing us to follow the different conformational changes of the ribosome in real-time. The application of electron microscopy has revealed new conformational intermediates during translocation and important structural rearrangements in the ribosome that drive tRNA movement, while computational approaches have added quantitative views of the translational pathway. These recent advances shed light on the process of translocation, providing insight on how to resolve the different descriptions of translocation in the current literature. PMID:23142574

  4. Counting and dynamic studies of the small unilamellar phospholipid vesicle translocation with single conical glass nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lizhen; He, Haili; Jin, Yongdong

    2015-01-06

    Phospholipid vesicles are ubiquitous cellular organelles that perform vital functions including materials transport and information transmission and have found promising biomedical applications. Although the transmembrane translocation (via nanopores) of phospholipid vesicles, especially small unilamellar phospholipid vesicles (SUVs), is recognized to be very important for these processes and applications, the details and dynamics remain not very clear. Herein, we use single conical glass nanopores as a model platform to systematically investigate the translocation dynamics of SUVs (∼50-60 nm in diameter) through small nanopores with orifice diameters ranging from ∼14 to 72 nm. Dynamic translocation of individual SUVs one by one through the nanopores was clearly observed and was analyzed by the occurrence of periodic oscillation in ionic current blockage signal under a negatively applied voltage. Translocation behaviors of the SUVs, in terms of magnitude and duration of ionic current blockage signal, varied and can be modulated by changing nanopore size, solution pH, vesicle concentration, applied voltage, and inner surface charge properties of the nanopores. The translocation rate of the SUVs through an ∼72 nm nanopore is typically on a time scale of a few seconds (per SUV translocation event) and found nonlinearly proportional to the concentration of the SUVs. Moreover, the electrophoretic force has been verified as a main force to drive the SUVs through the nanopore since there is a nearly linear relationship between the current blockage frequency of SUVs translocation and the applied bias potentials ranging from -0.6 to -1 V. The findings provide fundamental insights into the translocation and interactions of SUVs with nanopores, and the reported nanopore platform may find potential useful bioapplications in single-cell and single-vesicle studies.

  5. Wildlife translocation: the conservation implications of pathogen exposure and genetic heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E; Penedo, M Cecilia T; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-02-01

    A key challenge for conservation biologists is to determine the most appropriate demographic and genetic management strategies for wildlife populations threatened by disease. We explored this topic by examining whether genetic background and previous pathogen exposure influenced survival of translocated animals when captive-bred and free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were used to re-establish a population that had been extirpated in the San Andres Mountains in New Mexico, USA. Although the free-ranging source population had significantly higher multi-locus heterozygosity at 30 microsatellite loci than the captive bred animals, neither source population nor genetic background significantly influenced survival or cause of death. The presence of antibodies to a respiratory virus known to cause pneumonia was associated with increased survival, but there was no correlation between genetic heterozygosity and the presence of antibodies to this virus. Although genetic theory predicts otherwise, increased heterozygosity was not associated with increased fitness (survival) among translocated animals. While heterosis or genetic rescue effects may occur in F1 and later generations as the two source populations interbreed, we conclude that previous pathogen exposure was a more important marker than genetic heterozygosity for predicting survival of translocated animals. Every wildlife translocation is an experiment, and whenever possible, translocations should be designed and evaluated to test hypotheses that will further improve our understanding of how pathogen exposure and genetic variability influence fitness.

  6. Molecular studies of free and translocation trisomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Lefort, G. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty cases of trisomy 13 were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra chromosome. Six cases had translocation trisomy: two de novo rob(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;14q), one paternally derived rob(13q;14q), two de novo t(13q;13q), and one mosaic de novo t(13q;13q)r(13). Eighteen of nineteen informative patients were consistant with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in any of the three t(13q;13q) cases indicate that all were most likely isochromosomes of post-meiotic origin. In addition, two free trisomy cases were compatible with a somatic origin. Two mosaic free trisomy-13 cases, however, were both consistent with a maternal meiotic origin. The patient with a paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13;14) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. One balanced (non-trisomic) case with a non-mosaic 45,-13,-13,+t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologs, as has been found for all homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. It is therefore also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. We cannot therefore infer anything about the origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the two cases with de novo t(13q;14q) plus a maternally derived trisomy 13.

  7. Post-induction residual disease in translocation t(12;21)-positive childhood ALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyfarth, Jeanette; Madsen, Hans O; Nyvold, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: t(12;21)(p1 3;q22), the most frequent chromosomal translocation found in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), occurs in approximately 25% of B-lineage ALL cases and has been claimed to carry a good prognosis. PROCEDURE: As part of the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology...

  8. Robertsonian translocation 13/14 associated with rRNA genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Robertsonian translocations inherited from parents with a normal phenotype are often discovered through children with pathogenesis. The exact causes of pathologies in children with clinical manifestations are often unknown and vary greatly in the reported cases: uniparental disomy, de novo ...

  9. Imperceptible effect of radiation based on stable type chromosome aberrations accumulated in the lymphocytes of residents in the high background radiation area in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Wang Chunyan; Chen Deqing; Wei Luxin; Morishima, Hiroshige; Yuan Yongling; Sugahara, Tsutomu

    2003-01-01

    Cytogenetic investigation of stable type aberrations (translocations) was performed with our improved methods in 6 children and 15 elderly persons in a high background radiation area (HBRA) in China, and in 8 children and 11 elderly persons in a control area. The total numbers of cells analyzed in elderly persons were 68,297 in HBRA and 35,378 in controls and in children were 45,535 in HBRA and 56,198 in controls. On average 5138 cells per subject were analyzed. The variation in the frequencies of translocations per 1000 cells was small in children while it was large in elderly persons. No significant difference was found in the frequencies between HBRA and control (P>0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). On the other hand, correlation between age and translocation frequencies was significant at the 1% level (r s =0.658 with 37DF, Spearman rank correlation test). The contribution of an elevated level of natural radiation in HBRA in China to the induction of stable type chromosome aberrations does not have a significant effect compared with the contribution of chemical mutagens and/or metabolic factors. The present study suggests that the probability of the risk of causing malignant and/or congenital diseases by the increased amount of radiation is imperceptible in HBRA where the level of natural radiation is 3 to 5 times higher than that in the control area. (author)

  10. Metabolic model of central carbon and energy metabolisms of growing Arabidopsis thaliana in relation to sucrose translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Medvedeva, Irina; Orlov, Yury; Akberdin, Ilya; Krebs, Olga; Schulze, Waltraud X.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sucrose translocation between plant tissues is crucial for growth, development and reproduction of plants. Systemic analysis of these metabolic and underlying regulatory processes allow a detailed understanding of carbon distribution within the plant and the formation of associated phenotypic traits. Sucrose translocation from ?source? tissues (e.g. mesophyll) to ?sink? tissues (e.g. root) is tightly bound to the proton gradient across the membranes. The plant sucrose transporters ...

  11. Translocation pathways for inhaled asbestos fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantegazza F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss the translocation of inhaled asbestos fibers based on pulmonary and pleuro-pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics. Fibers can pass the alveolar barrier and reach the lung interstitium via the paracellular route down a mass water flow due to combined osmotic (active Na+ absorption and hydraulic (interstitial pressure is subatmospheric pressure gradient. Fibers can be dragged from the lung interstitium by pulmonary lymph flow (primary translocation wherefrom they can reach the blood stream and subsequently distribute to the whole body (secondary translocation. Primary translocation across the visceral pleura and towards pulmonary capillaries may also occur if the asbestos-induced lung inflammation increases pulmonary interstitial pressure so as to reverse the trans-mesothelial and trans-endothelial pressure gradients. Secondary translocation to the pleural space may occur via the physiological route of pleural fluid formation across the parietal pleura; fibers accumulation in parietal pleura stomata (black spots reflects the role of parietal lymphatics in draining pleural fluid. Asbestos fibers are found in all organs of subjects either occupationally exposed or not exposed to asbestos. Fibers concentration correlates with specific conditions of interstitial fluid dynamics, in line with the notion that in all organs microvascular filtration occurs from capillaries to the extravascular spaces. Concentration is high in the kidney (reflecting high perfusion pressure and flow and in the liver (reflecting high microvascular permeability while it is relatively low in the brain (due to low permeability of blood-brain barrier. Ultrafine fibers (length

  12. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Kodama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Ohtaki, K.; Lucas, J.N.; Gray, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  13. Streptococcus pyogenes translocates across an epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a β-hemolytic organism responsible for a wide variety of human diseases that commonly occur as self-limiting purulent diseases of the pharynx and skin. Although the occurrence of invasive infections by S. pyogenes is rare, mortality rates remain high even with progressive medical therapy. As a prerequisite for causing the severe invasive disease, S. pyogenes must invade underlying sterile tissues by translocating across the epithelial barrier. In this study, streptolysin S and SpeB were identified as the novel factors that facilitate bacterial translocation via degradation of intercellular junctions. Furthermore, we found that S. pyogenes exploits host plasminogen for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. Here, I would like to show our study on bacterial translocation across the epithelial barrier through paracellular route.

  14. Hyaluronan synthase mediates dye translocation across liposomal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Andria P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyaluronan (HA is made at the plasma membrane and secreted into the extracellular medium or matrix by phospolipid-dependent hyaluronan synthase (HAS, which is active as a monomer. Since the mechanism by which HA is translocated across membranes is still unresolved, we assessed the presence of an intraprotein pore within HAS by adding purified Streptococcus equisimilis HAS (SeHAS to liposomes preloaded with the fluorophore Cascade Blue (CB. Results CB translocation (efflux was not observed with mock-purified material from empty vector control E. coli membranes, but was induced by SeHAS, purified from membranes, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. CB efflux was eliminated or greatly reduced when purified SeHAS was first treated under conditions that inhibit enzyme activity: heating, oxidization or cysteine modification with N-ethylmaleimide. Reduced CB efflux also occurred with SeHAS K48E or K48F mutants, in which alteration of K48 within membrane domain 2 causes decreased activity and HA product size. The above results used liposomes containing bovine cardiolipin (BCL. An earlier study testing many synthetic lipids found that the best activating lipid for SeHAS is tetraoleoyl cardiolipin (TO-CL and that, in contrast, tetramyristoyl cardiolipin (TM-CL is an inactivating lipid (Weigel et al, J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36542, 2006. Consistent with the effects of these CL species on SeHAS activity, CB efflux was more than 2-fold greater in liposomes made with TO-CL compared to TM-CL. Conclusions The results indicate the presence of an intraprotein pore in HAS and support a model in which HA is translocated to the exterior by HAS itself.

  15. Down syndrome and the high background radiation areas of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaikrishan, G.; Ramachandran, E.N.; Karuppasamy, C.V.; Sudheer, K.R.; Andrews, V.J.; Soren, D.C.; Anil Kumar, V.; Koya, P.K.M.; Cheriyan, V.D.; Seshadri, M.

    2010-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy-21 is a complex human clinical entity compromising several functional, structural and developmental features with wide variation in expression levels. The diagnosis is confirmed in majority of the cases by an extra dose of chromosome 21 by cytogenetics and occasionally it may be due to either chromosomal translocation or mosaicism (different cell lines in the same individual). The extra chromosome 21 is usually formed by non-disjunction during meiosis and is the most common numerical chromosomal anomaly compatible with life, as chromosome 21 is one of the smallest with relatively fewer genes most of which are reckoned to be non lethal. Though exact causative factors and pathogenesis is not fully understood, a rise in maternal age at conception coupled with deleterious environmental influence on an ageing ovum is a recognized risk factor. The de novo nature of trisomy-21 and its relatively higher frequency makes it a reliable indicator to assess the role of chronic high background radiation in inducing germ line mutation and congenital malformation. Many other relatively common congenital malformations with multifactorial origin may not have this de novo property and associating its incidence with the prevailing natural background radiation become more complex. In vitro studies have shown association between high intensity radiation and genetics effects but such a relationship so far was not established between DS and radiation

  16. Non-equilibrium effects in chaperone-assisted translocation of a stiff polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji Abdolvahab, Rouhollah

    2018-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted biopolymer translocation is the main model proposed for translocation in vivo. A dynamical Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the translocation of a stiff homopolymer through a nanopore driven by chaperones. Chaperones are proteins that bind to the polymer near the wall and prevent its backsliding through Cis side. The important parameters include binding energy, size and the local concentration of the chaperones. The profile of these local concentrations, build up the chaperones distribution. Here we investigate the effects of binding energy, size and the exponential distribution of chaperones in their equilibration in each step of the polymer translocation needed for stable translocation time. The simulation results show that in case of chaperones with the size of a monomer (λ = 1) and/or positive effective binding energy and/or uniform distribution, the chaperones binding equilibration rate/frequency is less than 5 times per monomer. However, in some special cases in the exponential distribution of chaperones with size λ > 1 and negative effective binding energy the equilibration rate will diverge to more than 20 times per monomer. We show that this non-equilibrium effect results in supper diffusion, seen before. Moreover, we confirm the equilibration process theoretically.

  17. A recurrent translocation is mediated by homologous recombination between HERV-H elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermetz Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome rearrangements are caused by many mutational mechanisms; of these, recurrent rearrangements can be particularly informative for teasing apart DNA sequence-specific factors. Some recurrent translocations are mediated by homologous recombination between large blocks of segmental duplications on different chromosomes. Here we describe a recurrent unbalanced translocation casued by recombination between shorter homologous regions on chromosomes 4 and 18 in two unrelated children with intellectual disability. Results Array CGH resolved the breakpoints of the 6.97-Megabase (Mb loss of 18q and the 7.30-Mb gain of 4q. Sequencing across the translocation breakpoints revealed that both translocations occurred between 92%-identical human endogenous retrovirus (HERV elements in the same orientation on chromosomes 4 and 18. In addition, we find sequence variation in the chromosome 4 HERV that makes one allele more like the chromosome 18 HERV. Conclusions Homologous recombination between HERVs on the same chromosome is known to cause chromosome deletions, but this is the first report of interchromosomal HERV-HERV recombination leading to a translocation. It is possible that normal sequence variation in substrates of non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR affects the alignment of recombining segments and influences the propensity to chromosome rearrangement.

  18. Case Report: Extrauterine Translocated Contraceptive Device: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common presenting symptom was inability to feel the device's string (in three patients). Four of the patients presented within one month of the insertion. Three of the five translocated intraperitoneal devices were recovered by laparotomy and the forth by laparoscopy. The fifth patient, pregnant, defaulted with the ...

  19. 11C-methionine translocation in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Hiromi; Bughio, Naimatullah; Shigeta Ishioka, Noriko

    2000-01-01

    11 C-methionine was supplied to barley plants through a single leaf or via the roots and real time 11 C movement was monitored using a PETIS (positron emitting tracer imaging system). In Fe-deficient plants, 11 C-methionine was translocated from the tip of the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center' at the basal part of the shoot and then retranslocated to all the chlorotic leaves, while a negligible amount was retranslocated to the roots. In Fe-sufficient plants, methionine was translocated from the absorbing leaf to the discrimination center and then only to the newest leaf on the main shoot. A negligible amount was also retranslocated to the roots. Although, in Fe-sufficient plants, methionine translocation was observed from absorbing roots to shoots, in Fe-deficient plants, only a little amount was translocated from roots to shoots. In conclusion, methionine from the upper portion of a plant is not used as a precursor of mugineic acid under Fe-deficiency conditions. (author)

  20. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  1. Translocations used to generate chromosome segment duplications ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    generating translocations; ... are summarized in table 1. 2.3 Overview of the method used to define the breakpoint junction sequences .... showed linkage with the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) in LG VL but not to markers on LG VL or LG V ...

  2. Gamma-rays induced reciprocal translocations in Nigella damascena L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Aditi; Datta, Animesh K.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma irradiations (5 kR, 10 kR and 20 kR) of Nigella damascena L. (cultivated variety Miss Jekyl) seeds (with moisture content 13.33%) induced 3 translocation heterozygotes (P-I from 5 kR, P-38 from 5 kR and P- 73 from 20 kR). These exhibited the formation of either a ring or a chain of 4 chromosomes in 30.7% to 68.1% meiocytes. Predominance of rings or equal proportion of rings and chains occurred in translocation heterozygotes P-38 and in P-I and P-73 respectively. The rings showed preponderance of adjacent orientation and the chains demonstrated frequent alternate orientation. Though pollen fertility was 16.5%, 24.8% and 17.1% in P-I, P-38 and P-73 respectively, frequency of viable pollen grains was nil in P-38 and P-73 and it was 5.2% in P-I. Seed sterility was complete in P-38 and P-73 but P-I yielded 2.11% filled seeds per capsule on selfing and 2.56% seeds/capsule on cross pollination. (author)

  3. Simultaneous localization of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes in interphase nuclei by 3D-FISH: MLL translocation revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jian-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haematological cancer is characterised by chromosomal translocation (e.g. MLL translocation in acute leukaemia and two models have been proposed to explain the origins of recurrent reciprocal translocation. The first, established from pairs of translocated genes (such as BCR and ABL, considers the spatial proximity of loci in interphase nuclei (static "contact first" model. The second model is based on the dynamics of double strand break ends during repair processes (dynamic "breakage first" model. Since the MLL gene involved in 11q23 translocation has more than 40 partners, the study of the relative positions of the MLL gene with both the most frequent partner gene (AF4 and a less frequent partner gene (ENL, should elucidate the MLL translocation mechanism. Methods Using triple labeling 3D FISH experiments, we have determined the relative positions of MLL, AF4 and ENL genes, in two lymphoblastic and two myeloid human cell lines. Results In all cell lines, the ENL gene is significantly closer to the MLL gene than the AF4 gene (with P value loci would indicate a greater probability of the occurrence of t(11;19(q23;p13.3 compared to t(4;11(q21;q23. However this is in contradiction to the epidemiology of 11q23 translocation. Conclusion The simultaneous multi-probe hybridization in 3D-FISH is a new approach in addressing the correlation between spatial proximity and occurrence of translocation. Our observations are not consistent with the static "contact first" model of translocation. The recently proposed dynamic "breakage first" model offers an attractive alternative explanation.

  4. Nanopore arrays in a silicon membrane for parallel single-molecule detection: DNA translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao; Schmidt, Torsten; Jemt, Anders; Sahlén, Pelin; Sychugov, Ilya; Lundeberg, Joakim; Linnros, Jan

    2015-08-07

    Optical nanopore sensing offers great potential in single-molecule detection, genotyping, or DNA sequencing for high-throughput applications. However, one of the bottle-necks for fluorophore-based biomolecule sensing is the lack of an optically optimized membrane with a large array of nanopores, which has large pore-to-pore distance, small variation in pore size and low background photoluminescence (PL). Here, we demonstrate parallel detection of single-fluorophore-labeled DNA strands (450 bps) translocating through an array of silicon nanopores that fulfills the above-mentioned requirements for optical sensing. The nanopore array was fabricated using electron beam lithography and anisotropic etching followed by electrochemical etching resulting in pore diameters down to ∼7 nm. The DNA translocation measurements were performed in a conventional wide-field microscope tailored for effective background PL control. The individual nanopore diameter was found to have a substantial effect on the translocation velocity, where smaller openings slow the translocation enough for the event to be clearly detectable in the fluorescence. Our results demonstrate that a uniform silicon nanopore array combined with wide-field optical detection is a promising alternative with which to realize massively-parallel single-molecule detection.

  5. Physical insights into the blood-brain barrier translocation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Panagiotis E.; Müller, Erich A.; Craster, Richard V.; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-08-01

    The number of individuals suffering from diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) is growing with an aging population. While candidate drugs for many of these diseases are available, most of these pharmaceutical agents cannot reach the brain rendering most of the drug therapies that target the CNS inefficient. The reason is the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a complex and dynamic interface that controls the influx and efflux of substances through a number of different translocation mechanisms. Here, we present these mechanisms providing, also, the necessary background related to the morphology and various characteristics of the BBB. Moreover, we discuss various numerical and simulation approaches used to study the BBB, and possible future directions based on multi-scale methods. We anticipate that this review will motivate multi-disciplinary research on the BBB aiming at the design of effective drug therapies.

  6. Reciprocal translocation of small numbers of inbred individuals rescues immunogenetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Sutton, Jolene T; Heber, Sol; Briskie, James V; Jamieson, Ian G; Robertson, Bruce C

    2017-05-01

    Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the New Zealand South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: Toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. We found that the relatively small number of migrants (seven and ten per island) effectively brought the characteristic TLR gene diversity of each source population into the recipient population. However, when migrants transmitted TLR alleles that were already present at high frequency in the recipient population, it was possible for offspring of mixed heritage to have decreased gene diversity compared to recipient population diversity prior to translocation. In contrast to TLRs, we did not observe substantial changes in MHC allelic diversity following translocation, with limited evidence of a decrease in differentiation, perhaps because most MHC alleles were observed at both sites prior to the translocation. Overall, we conclude that small numbers of migrants may successfully restore the diversity of immunogenetic loci with few alleles, but that translocating larger numbers of animals would provide additional opportunity for the genetic rescue of highly polymorphic immunity regions, such as the MHC, even when the source population is inbred. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, M A; Kale, I T; Cöl, C; Tekeli, A; Tanik, A; Köksoy, C

    1999-01-01

    Significant bacterial translocation was demonstrated following experimental biliary obstruction, however very little is known about the importance and the prevalence of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundice patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the concept of gut-origin sepsis in obstructive jaundiced patients and its clinical importance. Twenty-one patients requiring laparotomy for obstructive jaundice (group I) and thirty patients operated on electively mainly for chronic cholecystitis (group II) were studied. Peritoneal swab, mesenteric lymph node, portal venous blood, liver wedge biopsy and bile were sampled for culture immediately after opening the peritoneum. Additionally, peripheral blood samples were taken pre- and post-operatively from all patients. Post-operatively, patients were monitored for infectious complications. The mean serum bilirubin concentration, gamma glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase levels in jaundiced patients before therapeutic intervention were significantly higher than in control patients. Five patients demonstrated bacterial translocation in group I (24%), whereas only one did so in group II (3.5%, p jaundice significantly promotes bacterial translocation in humans, however, its clinical importance has yet to be defined.

  8. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Florian J; Stratford, Ken J; van Vuuren, Rudolf J

    2014-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars). Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23), and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6). One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%), followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4%) of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown) with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7%) were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0%) with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC) and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  9. Financial costs of large carnivore translocations--accounting for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian J Weise

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflict continues to present a major conservation challenge around the world. Translocation of large carnivores is widely implemented but remains strongly debated, in part because of a lack of cost transparency. We report detailed translocation costs for three large carnivore species in Namibia and across different translocation scenarios. We consider the effect of various parameters and factors on costs and translocation success. Total translocation cost for 30 individuals in 22 events was $80,681 (US Dollars. Median translocation cost per individual was $2,393, and $2,669 per event. Median cost per cheetah was $2,760 (n = 23, and $2,108 per leopard (n = 6. One hyaena was translocated at a cost of $1,672. Tracking technology was the single biggest cost element (56%, followed by captive holding and feeding. Soft releases, prolonged captivity and orphaned individuals also increased case-specific costs. A substantial proportion (65.4% of the total translocation cost was successfully recovered from public interest groups. Less than half the translocations were confirmed successes (44.4%, 3 unknown with a strong species bias. Four leopards (66.7% were successfully translocated but only eight of the 20 cheetahs (40.0% with known outcome met these strict criteria. None of the five habituated cheetahs was translocated successfully, nor was the hyaena. We introduce the concept of Individual Conservation Cost (ICC and define it as the cost of one successfully translocated individual adjusted by costs of unsuccessful events of the same species. The median ICC for cheetah was $6,898 and $3,140 for leopard. Translocations are costly, but we demonstrate that they are not inherently more expensive than other strategies currently employed in non-lethal carnivore conflict management. We conclude that translocation should be one available option for conserving large carnivores, but needs to be critically evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  10. Can epigenetic control explain pronounced within plant heterogeneity of meiosis in a translocation trisome of Secale L.?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybenga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Meiotic metaphase I configuration frequencies were determined in different tillers of genetically related plants of rye (Secale cereale L.) heterozygous for reciprocal translocation T248W (between chromosome arms 1RS and 6RS) and with an additional (telocentric) arm 1RS. Seventeen different

  11. Reciprocal translocations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae formed by nonhomologous end joining.

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xin; Gabriel, Abram

    2004-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations are common in cancer cells, but their creation is poorly understood. We have developed an assay system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to study reciprocal translocation formation in the absence of homology. We induce two specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) simultaneously on separate chromosomes with HO endonuclease and analyze the subsequent chromosomal rearrangements among surviving cells. Under these conditions, reciprocal translocations via nonhomologous end joining ...

  12. Metallic oxide nanoparticle translocation across the human bronchial epithelial barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Isabelle; Naudin, Grégoire; Boland, Sonja; Mornet, Stéphane; Contremoulins, Vincent; Beugnon, Karine; Martinon, Laurent; Lambert, Olivier; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2015-03-14

    Inhalation is the most frequent route of unintentional exposure to nanoparticles (NPs). Our aim was to quantify the translocation of different metallic NPs across human bronchial epithelial cells and to determine the factors influencing this translocation. Calu-3 cells forming a tight epithelial barrier when grown on a porous membrane in a two compartment chamber were exposed to fluorescently labelled NPs to quantify the NP translocation. NP translocation and uptake by cells were also studied by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Translocation was characterized according to NP size (16, 50, or 100 nm), surface charge (negative or positive SiO2), composition (SiO2 or TiO2), presence of proteins or phospholipids and in an inflammatory context. Our results showed that NPs can translocate through the Calu-3 monolayer whatever their composition (SiO2 or TiO2), but this translocation was increased for the smallest and negatively charged NPs. Translocation was not associated with an alteration of the integrity of the epithelial monolayer, suggesting a transcytosis of the internalized NPs. By modifying the NP corona, the ability of NPs to cross the epithelial barrier differed depending on their intrinsic properties, making positively charged NPs more prone to translocate. NP translocation can be amplified by using agents known to open tight junctions and to allow paracellular passage. NP translocation was also modulated when mimicking an inflammatory context frequently found in the lungs, altering the epithelial integrity and inducing transient tight junction opening. This in vitro evaluation of NP translocation could be extended to other inhaled NPs to predict their biodistribution.

  13. DNA Translocation in Nanometer Thick Silicon Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A; Puster, Matthew; Nicolaï, Adrien; Meunier, Vincent; Drndić, Marija

    2015-06-23

    Solid-state nanopores are single-molecule sensors that detect changes in ionic conductance (ΔG) when individual molecules pass through them. Producing high signal-to-noise ratio for the measurement of molecular structure in applications such as DNA sequencing requires low noise and large ΔG. The latter is achieved by reducing the nanopore diameter and membrane thickness. While the minimum diameter is limited by the molecule size, the membrane thickness is constrained by material properties. We use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the theoretical thickness limit of amorphous Si membranes to be ∼1 nm, and we designed an electron-irradiation-based thinning method to reach that limit and drill nanopores in the thinned regions. Double-stranded DNA translocations through these nanopores (down to 1.4 nm in thickness and 2.5 nm in diameter) provide the intrinsic ionic conductance detection limit in Si-based nanopores. In this regime, where the access resistance is comparable to the nanopore resistance, we observe the appearance of two conductance levels during molecule translocation. Considering the overall performance of Si-based nanopores, our work highlights their potential as a leading material for sequencing applications.

  14. Another reptile translocation to a national park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Branch

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available On 4 May 1988 a sub-adult (50 mm snout-vent length, 42 mm tail Jones' girdled lizard Cordylus tropidosternum jonesi was collected in a pile of wood being off-loaded at the new restcamp in the Karoo National Park, Beaufort West. The wood had been transported by lorry from the Kruger National Park. The specimen is deposited in the herpetological collection of the Port Elizabeth Museum (PEM R 4584. Jones' girdled lizard is a small, arboreal cordylid that shelters under tree bark and in hollow logs. It is common and widely-distributed in the Kruger National Park (Pienaar, Haacke & Jacobsen 1983, The Reptiles of the Kruger National Park, 3rd edition. Pretoria: National Parks Board and adjacent lowveld, being replaced in northern Zimbabwe and East Africa by the nominate race. Hewitt & Power (1913, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 3: 147-176, 1913 reported a similar translocation of the species to Kimberley in association with timber brought to the diamond mining camps. One of us noted recently the ease and danger of the unwitting spread of commensal reptile species into conservation areas (Branch 1978, Koedoe 30: 165, and this is confirmed by this additional example. We recommend that should similar shipments of wood be considered essential, then they be fumigated to prevent the translocation of other alien organisms that may potentially have more dangerous consequences.

  15. Longing Itineraries: Building the Translocal Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo López Angel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration has reshaped social practices, the sense of belonging has been rethought, and the membership is renegotiated and contended; this is why strategies for their sustainability have been generated. The translocal community operates through multilocated relationships that reveal the ways in which migrants are adapting to the new demands of the community. We emphasize the emotional impulse of nostalgia as one of the vehicles of sustainability for the community. The community is redefined and understood in a set of socio-cultural relationships its members generate, and where the locality is not central, but the connection. A new dimension of the social community space is not just the community gathered in a specific place, but also that agreements, commitments, and acknowledgments are exhibited and settled in the cyberspace; this cyberspace gives cohesion and brings a dynamic element to preserve the community, despite the fact that it is even less concrete than the spatial notion of territory. Facebook, YouTube and a blog are the web platforms of the virtual space where "neighbors, compatriots and citizens" (categories of ascription from the migration get together, where there is a reproduction of social practices (even the most ancient and fundamental ones, to give a new dimension to a translocal, multilocated and ciberlocated community.

  16. Chromosomal Translocations: Chicken or Egg? | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many tumor cells have abnormal chromosomes. Some of these abnormalities are caused by chromosomal translocations, which occur when two chromosomes break and incorrectly rejoin, resulting in an exchange of genetic material. Translocations can activate oncogenes, silence tumor suppressor genes, or result in the creation of completely new fusion gene products. While there is little doubt that chromosomal translocations can contribute to cancer, there is an active "chicken and the egg" discussion about the role translocations and other chromosomal abnormalities play—do they actually cause cancer or merely occur because of other changes within the cancer cell.  

  17. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.; Levanon, D.; Hadar, Y.; Chet, I.

    1995-01-01

    Amir, R., Levanon, D., Hadar, Y., and Chet, I. 1995. Factors affecting translocation and sclerotial formation in Morchella esculenta. Experimental Mycology 19, 61-70. Morchella esculenta was grown on square split plates, forming sclerotia on one side and mycelium on the other. After the fungus ceased to colonize and before sclerotial initials appeared, [ 14 C]3-O-methyl glucose was added to the edge of the plate on the mycelial side. The effect of various activities in the mycelium (source) and sclerotia (sink) on sclerotial formation and translocation were examined using inhibitors and water potential changes of the media. Sodium azide or cycloheximide applied separately to both sides inhibited both sclerotial formation and translocation, showing that processes in the source and sink depend on metabolic activities as well as protein synthesis. The use of nikkomycin inhibited sclerotial formation, without affecting translocation to the sclerotia. Since the hyphal tips swelled and burst, the translocated compounds were lost to the media. In a strain defective in sclerotial formation, used as a control, no translocation took place, showing that there is a connection between sclerotial formation and translocation. Reversal of the water potential gradient between the two media (lower on the mycelial side), reduced the formation of sclerotia and translocation to them. Translocation to Morchella sclerotia takes place via turgor driven mass flow, but is nevertheless affected by activities in both the source and the sink. (author)

  18. Label Free Chromosome Translocation Detection with Silicon nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Frøhling, Kasper Bayer

    HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method is a Fluore......HROMOSOME translocation, which is a rearrangement of arms between two chromosomes, is a major group of chromosome abnormalities leading to cancer. As a result, two derivative chromosomes with sequences coming from both chromosomes are formed. The current translocation detection method...

  19. Diagnostic X-ray examinations and increased chromosome translocations: evidence from three studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Parveen; Yong, Lee C; Doody, Michele M; Preston, Dale L; Kampa, Diane M; Ramsey, Marilyn J; Ward, Elizabeth M; Edwards, Alan A; Ron, Elaine; Tucker, James D; Sigurdson, Alice J

    2010-11-01

    Controversy regarding potential health risks from increased use of medical diagnostic radiologic examinations has come to public attention. We evaluated whether chromosome damage, specifically translocations, which are a potentially intermediate biomarker for cancer risk, was increased after exposure to diagnostic X-rays, with particular interest in the ionizing radiation dose-response below the level of approximately 50 mGy. Chromosome translocation frequency data from three separately conducted occupational studies of ionizing radiation were pooled together. Studies 1 and 2 included 79 and 150 medical radiologic technologists, respectively, and study 3 included 83 airline pilots and 50 university faculty members (total = 155 women and 207 men; mean age = 62 years, range 34-90). Information on personal history of radiographic examinations was collected from a detailed questionnaire. We computed a cumulative red bone marrow (RBM) dose score based on the numbers and types of X-ray examinations reported with 1 unit approximating 1 mGy. Poisson regression analyses were adjusted for age and laboratory method. Mean RBM dose scores were 49, 42, and 11 for Studies 1-3, respectively (overall mean = 33.5, range 0-303). Translocation frequencies significantly increased with increasing dose score (P X-ray examinations, including dose scores of approximately 50 and lower, suggesting the possibility of long-term adverse health effects.

  20. Translocation of cell-penetrating peptides into Candida fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zifan; Karlsson, Amy J

    2017-09-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small peptides capable of crossing cellular membranes while carrying molecular cargo. Although they have been widely studied for their ability to translocate nucleic acids, small molecules, and proteins into mammalian cells, studies of their interaction with fungal cells are limited. In this work, we evaluated the translocation of eleven fluorescently labeled peptides into the important human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and C. glabrata and explored the mechanisms of translocation. Seven of these peptides (cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, MAP, SynB, (KFF) 3 K, and MPG) exhibited substantial translocation (>80% of cells) into both species in a concentration-dependent manner, and an additional peptide (TP-10) exhibiting strong translocation into only C. glabrata. Vacuoles were involved in translocation and intracellular trafficking of the peptides in the fungal cells and, for some peptides, escape from the vacuoles and localization in the cytosol were correlated to toxicity toward the fungal cells. Endocytosis was involved in the translocation of cecropin B, MAP, SynB, MPG, (KFF) 3 K, and TP-10, and cecropin B, penetratin, pVEC, and MAP caused membrane permeabilization during translocation. These results indicate the involvement of multiple translocation mechanisms for some CPPs. Although high levels of translocation were typically associated with toxicity of the peptides toward the fungal cells, SynB was translocated efficiently into Candida cells at concentrations that led to minimal toxicity. Our work highlights the potential of CPPs in delivering antifungal molecules and other bioactive cargo to Candida pathogens. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  1. Rapid Development and Characterization of Chromosome Specific Translocation Line of Thinopyrum elongatum with Improved Dough Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The protein content and its type are principal factors affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum end product quality. Among the wheat proteins, glutenin proteins, especially, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS are major determinants of processing quality. Wheat and its primary gene pool have limited variation in terms of HMW-GS alleles. Wild relatives of wheat are an important source of genetic variation. For improvement of wheat processing quality its wild relative Thinopyrum elongatum with significant potential was utilized. An attempt was made to replace Th. elongatum chromosome long arm (1EL carrying HMW-GS genes related to high dough strength with chromosome 1AL of wheat with least or negative effect on dough strength while retaining the chromosomes 1DL and 1BL with a positive effect on bread making quality. To create chromosome specific translocation line [1EL(1AS], double monosomic of chromosomes 1E and 1A were created and further crossed with different cultivars and homoeologous pairing suppressor mutant line PhI. The primary selection was based upon glutenin and gliadin protein profiles, followed by sequential genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH. These steps significantly reduced time, efforts, and economic cost in the generation of translocation line. In order to assess the effect of translocation on wheat quality, background recovery was carried out by backcrossing with recurrent parent for several generations and then selfing while selecting in each generation. Good recovery of parent background indicated the development of almost near isogenic line (NIL. Morphologically also translocation line was similar to recipient cultivar N61 that was further confirmed by seed storage protein profiles, RP-HPLC and scanning electron microscopy. The processing quality characteristics of translocation line (BC4F6 indicated significant improvement in the gluten performance index (GPI, dough mixing

  2. Xanthurenic acid translocates proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins into mitochondria and impairs mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hess Otto M

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xanthurenic acid is an endogenous molecule produced by tryptophan degradation, produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Its accumulation can be observed in aging-related diseases, e.g. senile cataract and infectious disease. We previously reported that xanthurenic acid provokes apoptosis, and now present a study of the response of mitochondria to xanthurenic acid. Results Xanthurenic acid at 10 or 20 μM in culture media of human aortic smooth muscle cells induces translocation of the proteins Bax, Bak, Bclxs, and Bad into mitochondria. In 20 μM xanthurenic acid, Bax is also translocated to the nucleus. In isolated mitochondria xanthurenic acid leads to Bax and Bclxs oligomerization, accumulation of Ca2+, and increased oxygen consumption. Conclusion Xanthurenic acid interacts directly with Bcl-2 family proteins, inducing mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis and impairing mitochondrial functions.

  3. An Updated View of Translocator Protein (TSPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzio Denora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Decades of study on the role of mitochondria in living cells have evidenced the importance of the 18 kDa mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO, first discovered in the 1977 as an alternative binding site for the benzodiazepine diazepam in the kidneys. This protein participates in a variety of cellular functions, including cholesterol transport, steroid hormone synthesis, mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition pore opening, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. Thus, TSPO has become an extremely attractive subcellular target for the early detection of disease states that involve the overexpression of this protein and the selective mitochondrial drug delivery. This special issue was programmed with the aim of summarizing the latest findings about the role of TSPO in eukaryotic cells and as a potential subcellular target of diagnostics or therapeutics. A total of 9 papers have been accepted for publication in this issue, in particular, 2 reviews and 7 primary data manuscripts, overall describing the main advances in this field.

  4. Reciprocal translocations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): pattern of transmission, detection of multiple interchanges and their independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a diploid crop having 2n = 14 chromosomes. Four different plant types, heterozygous for reciprocal translocation (RT), RT-1, RT-2, RT-3, and RT-4 showing pollen semisterility, were isolated in induced mutant population of three varieties of grass pea. Transmission rate of these 4 translocations was studied in advanced selfed and intercrossed progenies, whereas multiple chromosomal interchanges were detected by the pattern of chromosomal ring formation at meiosis I in the F(1) progeny of RTxRT. RT transmitted at an average of 48.89% in selfed progeny and along with normal plants, RT and translocation homozygotes produced some trisomic plants in the segregation progeny. RT-3 showing maximum frequency (68.20%) of zig-zag or alternate chromosome orientation exhibited highest transmission (55.20%). Presence of a ring of 6 or 2 rings of 4 chromosomes in F(1) double heterozygotes obtained from RTxRT suggested involvement of one common chromosome in translocations of RT-1, RT-2, and RT-4 but a different one in common between RT-2 and RT-3. No common chromosome, however, was shared by RT-3 and RT-4. Thus, 5 out of 7 chromosomes are involved in the present RTs, and one of the translocated chromosomes in RT-1 line was always associated with nucleolar organizing region.

  5. Adsorption-driven translocation of polymer chain into nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang; Neimark, Alexander V.

    2012-06-01

    The polymer translocation into nanopores is generally facilitated by external driving forces, such as electric or hydrodynamic fields, to compensate for entropic restrictions imposed by the confinement. We investigate the dynamics of translocation driven by polymer adsorption to the confining walls that is relevant to chromatographic separation of macromolecules. By using the self-consistent field theory, we study the passage of a chain trough a small opening from cis to trans compartments of spherical shape with adsorption potential applied in the trans compartment. The chain transfer is modeled as the Fokker-Plank diffusion along the free energy landscape of the translocation pass represented as a sum of the free energies of cis and trans parts of the chain tethered to the pore opening. We investigate how the chain length, the size of trans compartment, the magnitude of adsorption potential, and the extent of excluded volume interactions affect the translocation time and its distribution. Interplay of these factors brings about a variety of different translocation regimes. We show that excluded volume interactions within a certain range of adsorption potentials can cause a local minimum on the free energy landscape, which is absent for ideal chains. The adsorption potential always leads to the decrease of the free energy barrier, increasing the probability of successful translocation. However, the translocation time depends non-monotonically of the magnitude of adsorption potential. Our calculations predict the existence of the critical magnitude of adsorption potential, which separates favorable and unfavorable regimes of translocation.

  6. Cadmium uptake and translocation in seedlings of near isogenic lines of durum wheat that differ in grain cadmium accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Gregory J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cadmium (Cd concentrations in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum grain grown in North American prairie soils often exceed proposed international trade standards. To understand the physiological processes responsible for elevated Cd accumulation in shoots and grain, Cd uptake and translocation were studied in seedlings of a pair of near-isogenic durum wheat lines, high and low for Cd accumulation in grain. Results In short-term studies (109Cd-labelled nutrient solutions, there were no differences between lines in time- or concentration-dependent 109Cd accumulation by roots. In contrast, rates of 109Cd translocation from roots to shoots following longer exposure (48–60 h were 1.8-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating line, despite equal whole-plant 109Cd accumulation in the lines. Over the same period, the 109Cd concentration in root-pressure xylem exudates was 1.7 to 1.9-fold higher in the high Cd-accumulating line. There were no differences between the lines in 65Zn accumulation or partitioning that could account for the difference between lines in 109Cd translocation. Conclusion These results suggest that restricted root-to-shoot Cd translocation may limit Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain by directly controlling Cd translocation from roots during grain filling, or by controlling the size of shoot Cd pools that can be remobilised to the grain.

  7. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Translocation events in a single-walled carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Jin; Lindsay, Stuart [Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Liu Hao [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Pang Pei; Cao Di, E-mail: jinhe@asu.ed [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2010-11-17

    Translocation of DNA oligomers through a single-walled carbon nanotube was demonstrated recently. Translocation events are accompanied by giant current pulses, the origin of which remains obscure. Here, we show that the introduction of a nucleotide, guanosine triphosphate, alone into the input reservoir of a carbon nanotube nanofluidic device also gives giant current pulses. Taken together with data on oligomer translocation, these new results suggest that the pulse width has a nonlinear, power-law dependence on the number of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. We have also measured the time for the onset of DNA translocation pulses after bias reversal, finding that the time for the onset of translocation is directly proportional to the period of the bias reversal.

  9. Translocation events in a single-walled carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jin; Lindsay, Stuart; Liu Hao; Pang Pei; Cao Di

    2010-01-01

    Translocation of DNA oligomers through a single-walled carbon nanotube was demonstrated recently. Translocation events are accompanied by giant current pulses, the origin of which remains obscure. Here, we show that the introduction of a nucleotide, guanosine triphosphate, alone into the input reservoir of a carbon nanotube nanofluidic device also gives giant current pulses. Taken together with data on oligomer translocation, these new results suggest that the pulse width has a nonlinear, power-law dependence on the number of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. We have also measured the time for the onset of DNA translocation pulses after bias reversal, finding that the time for the onset of translocation is directly proportional to the period of the bias reversal.

  10. Multistep Current Signal in Protein Translocation through Graphene Nanopores

    KAUST Repository

    Bonome, Emma Letizia

    2015-05-07

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In nanopore sensing experiments, the properties of molecules are probed by the variation of ionic currents flowing through the nanopore. In this context, the electronic properties and the single-layer thickness of graphene constitute a major advantage for molecule characterization. Here we analyze the translocation pathway of the thioredoxin protein across a graphene nanopore, and the related ionic currents, by integrating two nonequilibrium molecular dynamics methods with a bioinformatic structural analysis. To obtain a qualitative picture of the translocation process and to identify salient features we performed unsupervised structural clustering on translocation conformations. This allowed us to identify some specific and robust translocation intermediates, characterized by significantly different ionic current flows. We found that the ion current strictly anticorrelates with the amount of pore occupancy by thioredoxin residues, providing a putative explanation of the multilevel current scenario observed in recently published translocation experiments.

  11. Mechanisms underlying stage-1 TRPL channel translocation in Drosophila photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh-Ha Lieu

    Full Text Available TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere, TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels.We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content.Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in the rhabdomere.

  12. Micro-Evolution in Grasshoppers Mediated by Polymorphic Robertsonian Translocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Pablo C.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on grasshoppers that are polymorphic for Robertsonian translocations because in these organisms the clarity of meiotic figures allows the study of both chiasma distribution and the orientation of trivalents and multivalents in metaphase I. Only five species of such grasshoppers were found in the literature, and all of them were from the New World: Oedaleonotus enigma (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), Leptysma argentina Bruner, Dichroplus pratensis Bruner, Sinipta dalmani Stål, and Cornops aquaticum Bruner. A general feature of these species (except O. enigma) is that fusion carriers suffer a marked reduction of proximal and interstitial (with respect to the centromere) chiasma frequency; this fact, along with the reduction in the number of linkage groups with the consequent loss of independent segregation, produces a marked decrease of recombination in fusion carriers. This reduction in recombination has led to the conclusion that Robertsonian polymorphic grasshopper species share some properties with inversion polymorphic species of Drosophila, such as the central-marginal pattern (marginal populations are monomorphic, central populations are highly polymorphic). This pattern might be present in D. pratensis, which is certainly the most complex Robertsonian polymorphism system in the present study. However, L. argentina and C. aquaticum do not display this pattern. This issue is open to further research. Since C. aquaticum is soon to be released in South Africa as a biological control, the latitudinal pattern found in South America may repeat there. This experiment's outcome is open and deserves to be followed. PMID:23909914

  13. Dose-response relationship for translocation induction in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-ray-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobari, Izuo; Matsuda, Yoichi; Xiaohung, Gu; Yamagiwa, Junju; Utsugi, Toyoko; Kitazume, Masayuki; Okamoto, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    The induction of reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) by chronic γ-irradiation was examined. The frequencies of translocation per cell were 0.15% at 0.3 Gy, 0.27% at 1.0 Gy and 0.33% at 1.5 Gy. The dose-response relationship for translocation yield was a linear one with a regression coefficient (b) of 0.16 · 10 -2 . When the slope (b) of the regression line was compared with that at a high dose rate (0.25 Gy/min, b = 1.79 · 10 -2 , it was clear that the induction rate of translocations after chronic γ-irradiation was only about one-tenth of that after high-dose-rate irradiation. Thus, there was evidence for a pronounced dose-rate effect in the crab-eating monkey. (author). 27 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Frequency and anatomical distribution of magnetic resonance imaging features in sacroiliac joints of young athletes: Exploring "background noise" towards a data-driven definition of sacroiliitis in early spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Ulrich; Jurik, Anne Grethe; Zejden, Anna; Larsen, Ejnar; Jørgensen, Steen Hylgaard; Rufibach, Kaspar; Schioldan, Christian; Schmidt-Olsen, Søren

    2018-02-12

    Low grade bone marrow edema (BME) was reported in the sacroiliac joints (SIJ) of 25% of healthy individuals and mechanical back pain patients, challenging the imaging discrimination from early spondyloarthritis (SpA). It is unknown whether stress injury in competition sports may trigger BME. We explored frequency and anatomical distribution of SIJ MRI lesions in recreational and elite athletes. After pre-test calibration, semicoronal SIJ MRI scans of 20 recreational runners (RR) before/after running and 22 elite ice-hockey players (IP) were assessed by 3 blinded readers for BME and structural lesions using an SIJ quadrant-based module. Scans of TNF-treated SpA patients served to mask readers. Readers recorded subjects meeting the ASAS definition for active sacroiliitis. Descriptive analysis comprised frequency of SIJ quadrants with BME/structural lesions and their distribution in 8 anatomical SIJ regions: upper/lower ilium and sacrum, subdivided in anterior/posterior slices, as concordantly recorded by ≥2/3 readers. The proportions in RR/IP fulfilling the ASAS definition concordantly by ≥2/3 readers were 30-35%/41%. The mean number (SD) of SIJ quadrants showing BME was 3.1 (4.2)/3.1 (4.5) in RR before/after running, and 3.6 (3.0) in IP. The posterior lower ilium was the single most affected SIJ region, followed by the anterior upper sacrum. Erosion was virtually absent. In recreational and elite athletes, BME showed on average in 3-4 SIJ quadrants, meeting the ASAS definition in 30%-41%. The posterior lower ilium was the single most affected SIJ region. These findings in athletes help refine data-driven thresholds for defining sacroiliitis in early SpA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimizing the cost of translocation failure with decision-tree models that predict species' behavioral response in translocation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil; Bull, C Michael

    2015-08-01

    The high number of failures is one reason why translocation is often not recommended. Considering how behavior changes during translocations may improve translocation success. To derive decision-tree models for species' translocation, we used data on the short-term responses of an endangered Australian skink in 5 simulated translocations with different release conditions. We used 4 different decision-tree algorithms (decision tree, decision-tree parallel, decision stump, and random forest) with 4 different criteria (gain ratio, information gain, gini index, and accuracy) to investigate how environmental and behavioral parameters may affect the success of a translocation. We assumed behavioral changes that increased dispersal away from a release site would reduce translocation success. The trees became more complex when we included all behavioral parameters as attributes, but these trees yielded more detailed information about why and how dispersal occurred. According to these complex trees, there were positive associations between some behavioral parameters, such as fight and dispersal, that showed there was a higher chance, for example, of dispersal among lizards that fought than among those that did not fight. Decision trees based on parameters related to release conditions were easier to understand and could be used by managers to make translocation decisions under different circumstances. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Embelin-Induced Phosphatidylserine Translocation in the Erythrocyte Cell Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Bouguerra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The antihelminthic, contraceptive, anti-inflammatory and anticancer phytochemical embelin is at least in part effective against malignancy by inducing suicidal death or apoptosis of tumor cells. Erythrocytes are similarly able to enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Signaling of eryptosis includes increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, ceramide formation, oxidative stress as well as activation of p38 kinase and protein kinase C (PKC. The present study tested, whether and how embelin induces eryptosis. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, ceramide abundance utilizing specific antibodies and reactive oxygen species (ROS from 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA fluorescence. Results: A 48 hours exposure of human erythrocytes to embelin (≥25 µM significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells and hemolysis. Embelin did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i. The effect of embelin on annexin-V-binding was not blunted by removal of extracellular Ca2+, by p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 (2 µM or by PKC inhibitor staurosporine (1 µM. Embelin did, however, significantly increase the ceramide abundance. Conclusions: Embelin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect involving ceramide formation.

  17. Absence of t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Matera, Serena; Fago, Lucrezia; Arrabito, Giorgio; Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Libra, Massimo; Loreto, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to pesticides represents a potential health risk for the general population and for agricultural workers in particular. Some researchers observed that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with risk of non‑Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q32;q21) is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL. The aim of this study was to detect the effects of pesticides on t(14;18) chromosome translocation in agricultural workers after short-term exposure. Fifty-two workers occupationally exposed to pesticides (fungicides and insecticides) and 52 non-exposed were recruited. The farm workers were on average exposed to pesticides for ~3.7 h a day for 5 years. The frequency of BCL2-IGH t(14;18) translocation in workers occupationally exposed to pesticides was 10% (5 of 52) vs. 8% (4 of 52) in the control group. Overall, these data suggest that no significant association between occupational exposure to pesticides and an increased frequency of the chromosomal translocation BCL2-IGH t(14;18) in farmers was observed. However, further studies with a higher number of subjects exposed to pesticides are necessary to confirm this observation.

  18. Does translocation influence physiological stress in the desert tortoise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, K.K.; Nussear, K.E.; Esque, T.C.; Barber, A.M.; Vittum, K.M.; Medica, P.A.; Tracy, C.R.; Hunter, K.W.

    2012-01-01

    Wildlife translocation is increasingly used to mitigate disturbances to animals or habitat due to human activities, yet little is known about the extent to which translocating animals causes stress. To understand the relationship between physiological stress and translocation, we conducted a multiyear study (2007–2009) using a population of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) near Fort Irwin, California. Blood samples were collected from adult tortoises in three treatment groups (resident, translocated and control) for 1 year prior to and 2 years after translocation. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay for plasma total corticosterone (CORT), a glucocorticoid hormone commonly associated with stress responses in reptiles. CORT values were analyzed in relation to potential covariates (animal sex, date, behavior, treatment, handling time, air temperature, home-range size, precipitation and annual plant production) among seasons and years. CORT values in males were higher than in females, and values for both varied monthly throughout the activity season and among years. Year and sex were strong predictors of CORT, and translocation explained little in terms of CORT. Based on these results, we conclude that translocation does not elicit a physiological stress response in desert tortoises.

  19. Forced Translocation of Polymer through Nanopore: Deterministic Model and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqian; Panyukov, Sergey; Liao, Qi; Rubinstein, Michael

    2012-02-01

    We propose a new theoretical model of forced translocation of a polymer chain through a nanopore. We assume that DNA translocation at high fields proceeds too fast for the chain to relax, and thus the chain unravels loop by loop in an almost deterministic way. So the distribution of translocation times of a given monomer is controlled by the initial conformation of the chain (the distribution of its loops). Our model predicts the translocation time of each monomer as an explicit function of initial polymer conformation. We refer to this concept as ``fingerprinting''. The width of the translocation time distribution is determined by the loop distribution in initial conformation as well as by the thermal fluctuations of the polymer chain during the translocation process. We show that the conformational broadening δt of translocation times of m-th monomer δtm^1.5 is stronger than the thermal broadening δtm^1.25 The predictions of our deterministic model were verified by extensive molecular dynamics simulations

  20. Slowing down DNA translocation using magnetic and optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hongbo; Wu, Shanshan; Ryul Park, Sang; Potter, Andrew; Ling, X. S.

    2006-03-01

    Electric-field driven DNA translocation through nanopores can be exploited for DNA sequencing and other applications. However, the DNA translocation under normal patch-clamp-type measurement is too fast to allow detailed measurements of individual or few nucleotides. We propose a concept to slow down the DNA translocation through the nanopore by using magnetic (or optical) tweezers. The 3' end of a single-strand DNA can be attached to a streptavidin-coated magnetic bead through a single biotin molecule. During DNA translocation, the 5' end of DNA will be electrophoretically drawn through the nanopore to the trans side while the 3' end of DNA stays in the cis side with the magnetic bead. A set of permanent magnets or electric coils can be used to generate a magnetic field gradient large enough to pull the bead, hence the DNA out of the nanopore. The net force on the magnetic bead will determine this back-translocation speed. By carefully tuning the magnetic field gradient and the voltage bias on the nanopore, one can make the back-translocation much slower than the conventional forward-translocation in which case the DNA is driven only by the electric force. We will report our experimental design as well as the preliminary results.

  1. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimura Takaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C, translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC, which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 % and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %. The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P  Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand and a novel signal for HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation induce gastric cancer growth, whereas HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation independently plays a critical role in gastric cancer invasion. The present study demonstrated that HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation might be crucial in gastric cancer invasion. HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation may offer a prognostic marker and a new molecular target for gastric cancer therapy.

  2. Translocation of threatened plants as a conservation measure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Ren, Hai; Liu, Qiang; Wen, XiangYing; Maunder, Michael; Gao, JiangYun

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the current status of plant conservation translocation efforts in China, a topic poorly reported in recent scientific literature. We identified 222 conservation translocation cases involving 154 species, of these 87 were Chinese endemic species and 101 (78%) were listed as threatened on the Chinese Species Red List. We categorized the life form of each species and, when possible, determined for each case the translocation type, propagule source, propagule type, and survival and reproductive parameters. A surprisingly large proportion (26%) of the conservation translocations in China were conservation introductions, largely implemented in response to large-scale habitat destruction caused by the Three-Gorge Dam and another hydropower project. Documentation and management of the translocations varied greatly. Less than half the cases had plant survival records. Statistical analyses showed that survival percentages were significantly correlated with plant life form and the type of planting materials. Thirty percent of the cases had records on whether or not individuals flowered or fruited. Results of information theoretic model selection indicated that plant life form, translocation type, propagule type, propagule source, and time since planting significantly influenced the likelihood of flowering and fruiting on the project level. We suggest that the scientific-based application of species conservation translocations should be promoted as part of a commitment to species recovery management. In addition, we recommend that the common practice of within and out of range introductions in nature reserves to be regulated more carefully due to its potential ecological risks. We recommend the establishment of a national office and database to coordinate conservation translocations in China. Our review effort is timely considering the need for a comprehensive national guideline for the newly announced nation-wide conservation program on species with extremely

  3. Infertile spermatozoa in a human carrier of robertsonian translocation 14;22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Capitani, Serena; Collodel, Giulia; Estenoz, Mariela; Gambera, Laura; Piomboni, Paola

    2002-11-01

    To present the ultrastructural, functional, and chromosomal analyses of spermatozoa from an infertile man with normal phenotype and chromosomal translocation 14;22. Case report. Regional Reference Center for Male Infertility in Siena, Italy. A 36-year-old man with primary infertility for 3 years and his parents. Family history and lymphocytic karyotypes, physical and hormonal assays, and semen analysis. Morphological sperm evaluation was performed by light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy; chromosomal constitution was examined by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The penetration ability of spermatozoa was checked by the hamster test. The spermatozoa of the patient showed unusual ultrastructural defects. The nuclei were large, spheroidal, and generally uncondensed; the acrosomes were frequently absent or reduced; and the axonemes were often devoid of dynein arms or central singlet tubules. These characteristics are related to immaturity. The lymphocytic karyotype revealed a robertsonian translocation 14;22 in the sterile patient and his mother. FISH sperm analysis demonstrated a high frequency of diploidy for the chromosome 18,XY. The hamster penetration test gave negative results. The unusual structural sperm immaturity is associated with the translocation 14;22. This chromosomal anomaly may therefore negatively influence the spermatogenesis; an interchromosomal effect on meiosis segregation is also suggested.

  4. Absorption and translocation of phosphorus-32 in guava leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, William

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus is easily absorbed by the leaves and translocated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the absorption and translocation of P by guava leaves, with time. When a solution containing 2% MAP and specific activity 0.15 μCi/ml was applied. MAP labelled with 32 P was applied in the 3 rd pair of leaves. These and other leaves, roots and stem were collected separately and analyzed accordingly. The results showed that 20 days after application 12% of the applied P was absorbed by the guava leaves. The translocation of P started immediately after its absorption reaching 20% 2fter 20 days. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs

  5. Pseudomonas fluorescens alters epithelial permeability and translocates across Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madi Amar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas fluorescens has long been considered as a psychrotrophic microorganism. Recently, we have shown that clinical strains of P. fluorescens (biovar 1 are able to adapt at a growth temperature of 37°C or above and induce a specific inflammatory response. Interestingly, a highly specific antigen of P. fluorescens, I2, is detected in the serum of patients with Crohn's disease but the possible role of this bacterium in the disease has not yet been explored. In the present study, we examined the ability of a psychrotrophic and a clinical strain of P. fluorescens to modulate the permeability of a Caco-2/TC7 intestinal epithelial model, reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, invade the target cells and translocate across the epithelium. The behaviour of these two strains was compared to that of the well known opportunistic pathogen P. aeruginosa PAO1. Results Both strains of P. fluorescens were found to decrease the transepithelial resistance (TER of Caco-2/TC7 differentiated monolayers. This was associated with an increase in paracellular permeability and F-actin microfilaments rearrangements. Moreover, the invasion and translocation tests demonstrated that the two strains used in this study can invade and translocate across the differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. Conclusions The present work shows for the first time, that P. fluorescens is able to alter the intestinal epithelial barrier function by disorganizing the F-actin microfilament network. Moreover, we reveal that independently of their origins, the two P. fluorescens strains can translocate across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers by using the transcellular pathway. These findings could, at least in part, explain the presence of the P. fluorescens specific I2 antigen in the serum of patients with Crohn's disease.

  6. MYC translocation partner gene determines survival of patients with large B-cell lymphoma with MYC- or double-hit MYC/BCL2 translocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Ø; Gang, Anne O; Poulsen, Tim S

    2014-01-01

    In large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) MYC- and MYC/BCL2 double-hit (DH) translocations have been associated with inferior survival. We hypothesised that the negative prognostic impact of MYC translocation was determined by an immunoglobulin MYC translocation partner gene (IG-MYC), as opposed to a non......-immunoglobulin partner gene (nonIG-MYC). In a prospective, unselected cohort of 237 LBCL patients MYC and BCL2 translocations were identified by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) with split probes. MYC translocation partner gene was identified by IGH/MYC fusion probes and/or kappa/lambda split probes. Clinical...... data were collected from patient files. MYC translocation was identified in 28/225 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 12/24 patients. DH translocation was identified in 23/228 patients. IG-MYC translocation partner gene was identified in 9/19 DH patients. Neither MYC-nor DH...

  7. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A.

    1993-01-01

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author)

  8. 40 CFR 798.5460 - Rodent heritable translocation assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manifests as balanced reciprocal translocations in progeny descended from parental males treated with... significance desired. (B) (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment and...

  9. DNA translocations through solid-state plasmonic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Francesca; Verschueren, Daniel; Klein, Misha; Dekker, Cees; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2014-12-10

    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations.

  10. DNA-graphene interactions during translocation through nanogaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral N Patel

    Full Text Available We study how double-stranded DNA translocates through graphene nanogaps. Nanogaps are fabricated with a novel capillary-force induced graphene nanogap formation technique. DNA translocation signatures for nanogaps are qualitatively different from those obtained with circular nanopores, owing to the distinct shape of the gaps discussed here. Translocation time and conductance values vary by ∼ 100%, which we suggest are caused by local gap width variations. We also observe exponentially relaxing current traces. We suggest that slow relaxation of the graphene membrane following DNA translocation may be responsible. We conclude that DNA-graphene interactions are important, and need to be considered for graphene-nanogap based devices. This work further opens up new avenues for direct read of single molecule activitities, and possibly sequencing.

  11. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easther, Richard; Giblin Jr, John T; Lim, Eugene A; Park, Wan-Il; Stewart, Ewan D

    2008-01-01

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation—a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios—on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range

  12. Slowing DNA Translocation in a Nanofluidic Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Yobas, Levent

    2016-04-26

    Here, we present an experimental demonstration of slowing DNA translocation across a nanochannel by modulating the channel surface charge through an externally applied gate bias. The experiments were performed on a nanofluidic field-effect transistor, which is a monolithic integrated platform featuring a 50 nm-diameter in-plane alumina nanocapillary whose entire length is surrounded by a gate electrode. The field-effect transistor behavior was validated on the gating of ionic conductance and protein transport. The gating of DNA translocation was subsequently studied by measuring discrete current dips associated with single λ-DNA translocation events under a source-to-drain bias of 1 V. The translocation speeds under various gate bias conditions were extracted by fitting event histograms of the measured translocation time to the first passage time distributions obtained from a simple 1D biased diffusion model. A positive gate bias was observed to slow the translocation of single λ-DNA chains markedly; the translocation speed was reduced by an order of magnitude from 18.4 mm/s obtained under a floating gate down to 1.33 mm/s under a positive gate bias of 9 V. Therefore, a dynamic and flexible regulation of the DNA translocation speed, which is vital for single-molecule sequencing, can be achieved on this device by simply tuning the gate bias. The device is realized in a conventional semiconductor microfabrication process without the requirement of advanced lithography, and can be potentially further developed into a compact electronic single-molecule sequencer.

  13. Mechanism of RNA Translocation by a Viral Packaging Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Lisal, Jiri

    2006-01-01

    Molecular motors are proteins that convert chemical energy into mechanical work. The viral packaging ATPase P4 is a hexameric molecular motor that translocates RNA into preformed viral capsids. P4 belongs to the ubiquitous class of hexameric helicases. Although its structure is known, the mechanism of RNA translocation remains elusive. Here we present a detailed kinetic study of nucleotide binding, hydrolysis, and product release by P4. We propose a stochastic-sequential cooperative model to ...

  14. Electrically facilitated translocation of protein through solid nanopore

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Lingzhi; Liu, Hang; Zhao, Wenyuan; Wang, Lei; Hou, Chuanrong; Liu, Quanjun; Lu, Zuhong

    2014-01-01

    Nanopores have been proven as versatile single-molecule sensors for individual unlabeled biopolymer detection and characterization. In the present work, a relative large nanopore with a diameter of about 60 nm has been used to detect protein translocation driven by a series of applied voltages. Compared with previous studied small nanopores, a distinct profile of protein translocation through a larger nanopore has been characterized. First, a higher threshold voltage is required to drive prot...

  15. Molecular studies of translocations and trisomy involving chromosome 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Dutly, F.; Schinzel, A.A. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1996-01-11

    Twenty-four cases of trisomy 13 and one case with disomy 13, but a de novo dic(13,13)(p12p12) chromosome, were examined with molecular markers to determine the origin of the extra (or rearranged) chromosome. Twenty-one of 23 informative patients were consistent with a maternal origin of the extra chromosome. Lack of a third allele at any locus in both paternal origin cases indicate a somatic duplication of the paternal chromosome occurred. Five cases had translocation trisomy. The patient with a paternal rob(13q14q) had a maternal meiotic origin of the trisomy; thus, the paternal inheritance of the translocation chromosome was purely coincidental. Since there is not a significantly increased risk for unbalanced offspring of a t(13q14q) carrier and most trisomies are maternal in origin, this result should not be surprising; however, it illustrates that one cannot infer the origin of translocation trisomy based on parental origin of the translocation. Lack of a third allele at any locus in one of the three t(13q13q) cases indicates that it was most likely an isochromosome of postmeiotic origin, whereas the other two cases showed evidence of recombination. One balanced (nontrisomic) case with a nonmosaic 45, -13, -13, +t(13;13) karyotype was also investigated and was determined to be a somatic Robertsonian translocation between the maternal and paternal homologues, as has been found for all balanced homologous Robertsonian translocations so far investigated. Thus, it is also incorrect to assume in de novo translocation cases that the two involved chromosomes are even from the same parent. Despite a maternal origin of the trisomy, we cannot therefore infer anything about the parental origin of the chromosomes 13 and 14 involved in the translocation in the de novo t(13q14q) case nor for the two t(13;13) chromosomes showing a meiotic origin of the trisomy. 30 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. A Mathematical Model of Black Rhino Translocation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipo Aldila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A deterministic mathematical model of the black rhino population in South Africa will be discussed. The model is constructed by dividing the black rhino population into multiple patches. The impact of human intervention on different translocation strategies is incorporated into the model. It is shown that, when implemented correctly, translocation can accelerate the growth rate of the total black rhino population. Equilibrium points are shown with their local stability criteria.

  17. Carbon translocation in zooanthaellae-coelenterate symbioses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    When host and algal triglycerides synthesized in the symbiotic sea anemone Condylactis gigantea during light and dark incubations in 14 C-bicarbonate and 14 C-acetate were deacylated, more then 80% of the radioactivity was found in the fatty acid moiety. In contrast, triglycerides isolated from zooxanthellae and host incubated in 14 C-glycerol in the dark were found to have more then 95% of their radioactivity in the glycerol moiety. During 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light, radioactivity in the fatty acid moiety of zooxanthellae triglyceride fatty acid moiety stayed below 5% during 14 C-glycerol incubations in the light. These results show neither the zooxanthellae nor host can rapidly convert glycerol to fatty acid. Radioactivity from 14 C-glycerol that does eventually appear in host lipid may have been respired to 14 CO 2 then photosynthetically fixed by the zooxanthellae and synthesized into lipid fatty acid. The isolated zooxanthellae of C. gigantea contained 3.62 +/- 0.33 mM glycerol, which was 26x the 0.141 +/- 0.02 mM found in the coelenterate tissue. Aposymbiotic coelenterate tissue contained 0.169 +/- 0.05 mM glycerol. The metabolic inhibitors, sodium cyanide, aminooxyacetic acid and cerulenin were used to try and uncouple the production of glycerol by the zooxanthellae from its utilization by the coelenterate host. 10 -5 M NaCN increased the ratio of cross photosynthesis to respiration in both intact tentacles and isolated zooxanthellae, increased translocation from 17.7 +/- 3.5% of total fixed carbon in controls to 43.5 +/- 5.79%, and doubled the amount of photosynthetically fixed carbon accumulating in the coelenterate host over that in controls

  18. Direct observation of DNA translocation influenced by electrically gated nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Genki; Moriya, Hiroki; Tsukahira, Kenta; Yano, Satoshi; Mitsui, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    One of remarkable recent developments in the solid state nanopore based DNA analysis is adding the ability to control electric potential near nanopore as a gate electrode by patterning metal in or on nanopore. In this approach, better control of DNA translocations for example, slowing down the translocation speed might be expected. We have fabricated insulator-metal-insulator nanopores of rather large 100 nm pore in diameter. The 100 nm diameter pores allow us to observe the translocation of lambda-DNA molecules directly by means of fluorescence microscopy without heavy clogging of the DNA molecules into the pores. By controlling ?gate voltage? on metal relative to the cis and trans voltages, the translocation rates of DNA are able to change. Interestingly, applying pulse voltage to the gate metal near 100 ms to reverse the direction of the electric field near the cis side of nanopore reverses the direction of the DNA translocation instantaneously. This in fact provides us a new way to repeat translocation of the same DNA molecule. Furthermore, repeating the pulse tends to clear off the clogged DNA molecules in nanopore. We will present more details of these phenomena caused by the gate voltages.

  19. Improvement of the agronomic traits of a wheat-barley centric fusion by introgressing the 3HS.3BL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkösi, Edina; Farkas, András; Aranyi, Nikolett Réka; Hoffmann, Borbála; Tóth, Viola; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-11-01

    The 3HS.3BL spontaneous Robertsonian translocation obtained from the progenies of wheat-barley (Chinese Spring × Betzes) hybrids backcrossed with wheat line Mv9kr1 was transferred into the modern Martonvásár wheat cultivar Mv Bodri. The translocation was identified with molecular cytogenetic methods. The inheritance of the translocation was traced using genomic in situ hybridization. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using barley subtelomeric (HvT01) and centromere-specific [(AGGGAG)4] repetitive DNA probes confirmed that the complete barley chromosome arm was involved in the Robertsonian translocation. The wheat-specific repetitive DNA probes identified the presence of the whole wheat genome, except the short arm of the 3B chromosome. Genotypes homozygous for the centric fusion were selected, after which morphological analysis was performed on the plants and the yield components were measured in the field during two consecutive vegetative seasons. The introgression of the 3HS.3BL translocation into the modern wheat cultivar Mv Bodri significantly reduced the plant height due to the incorporation of the dwarfing allele RhtD1b. The presence of the 3HS.3BL translocation in the Mv9kr1 and Mv Bodri wheat background improved tillering and seeds per plant productivity in field experiments carried out in Martonvásár and Keszthely, Hungary.

  20. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  1. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam

    2015-01-01

    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  2. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh

    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  3. Fusion of the NUP98 gene with the LEDGF/p52 gene defines a recurrent acute myeloid leukemia translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mario

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NUP98 gene is involved in multiple rearrangements in haematological malignancy. The leukemic cells in an acute myeloid leukemia (AML patient with a t(9;11(p22;p15 were recently shown to have a fusion between the NUP98 gene and the LEDGF gene but it was not demonstrated that this fusion was recurrent in other leukaemia patients with the same translocation. Results We used RT-PCR to analyse the leukemic cells from an AML patient who presented with a cytogenetically identical translocation as the sole chromosomal abnormality. A NUP98-LEDGF fusion transcript was observed and confirmed by sequencing. The reciprocal transcript was also observed. The fusion transcript was not detectable during remission and recurred at relapse. The breakpoints in the NUP98 and LEDGF genes were different to those previously reported. The NUP98 breakpoint occurs in the intron between exons 8 and 9. It is the most 5' breakpoint reported in a translocation involving the NUP98 gene. All of the LEDGF gene is included in the fusion except for exon 1 which codes for the first 24 amino terminal amino acids. Conclusions Our results show that fusion of the NUP98 and LEDGF genes is a new recurrent translocation in AML.

  4. High-speed detection of DNA translocation in nanopipettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraccari, Raquel L.; Ciccarella, Pietro; Bahrami, Azadeh; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Albrecht, Tim

    2016-03-01

    We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface.We present a high-speed electrical detection scheme based on a custom-designed CMOS amplifier which allows the analysis of DNA translocation in glass nanopipettes on a microsecond timescale. Translocation of different DNA lengths in KCl electrolyte provides a scaling factor of the DNA translocation time equal to p = 1.22, which is different from values observed previously with nanopipettes in LiCl electrolyte or with nanopores. Based on a theoretical model involving electrophoresis, hydrodynamics and surface friction, we show that the experimentally observed range of p-values may be the result of, or at least be affected by DNA adsorption and friction between the DNA and the substrate surface. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Gel electrophoresis confirming lengths and purity of DNA samples, comparison between Axopatch 200B and custom-built setup, comprehensive low-noise amplifier characterization, representative I-V curves of nanopipettes used, typical scatter plots of τ vs. peak amplitude for the four LDNA's used, table of most probable τ values, a comparison between different fitting models for the DNA translocation time distribution, further details on the stochastic numerical simulation of the scaling statistics and the derivation of the extended

  5. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  6. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  7. On tune deafness (dysmelodia): frequency, development, genetics and musical background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmus, H; Fry, D B

    1980-05-01

    With the aid of the Distorted Tunes Test a group of British adults could be established whose melodic aptitude was below a certain level and whom we called tune deaf. They are only a fraction of those popularly called tone deaf. The Distorted Tunes Test is only slightly correlated with pitch discrimination, short term tonal memory or number memory. In children ability to pass the Distorted Tunes Test develops at greatly varying speeds and to a varying degree, reaching stability in adolescence. Tune deafness has a familial distribution and segregates in a way suggesting an autosomal dominant trait with imperfect penetrance. Some degree of positive assortative mating has been established. Some people, unfamiliar with the British melodies which form the basis of the test, pass it. This indicates the existence of a partly innate and partly acquired competence to judge what is acceptable and what is not, within the tradition of Western popular or classical music. This seems to indicate the existence of some deep structure of tonality, comparable with Chomsky's deep language structure. Asians who have not been much exposed to this kind of music find the task very difficult.

  8. Breakpoint mapping and haplotype analysis of translocation t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) in two apparently independent families with vascular phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Tiia Maria; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Pöyhönen, Minna

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of serious congenital anomaly for de novo balanced translocations is estimated to be at least 6%. We identified two apparently independent families with a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) as an outcome of a "Systematic Survey of Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Finns...

  9. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  10. Electrostatics of polymer translocation events in electrolyte solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-07-07

    We develop an analytical theory that accounts for the image and surface charge interactions between a charged dielectric membrane and a DNA molecule translocating through the membrane. Translocation events through neutral carbon-based membranes are driven by a competition between the repulsive DNA-image-charge interactions and the attractive coupling between the DNA segments on the trans and the cis sides of the membrane. The latter effect is induced by the reduction of the coupling by the dielectric membrane. In strong salt solutions where the repulsive image-charge effects dominate the attractive trans-cis coupling, the DNA molecule encounters a translocation barrier of ≈10 kBT. In dilute electrolytes, the trans-cis coupling takes over image-charge forces and the membrane becomes a metastable attraction point that can trap translocating polymers over long time intervals. This mechanism can be used in translocation experiments in order to control DNA motion by tuning the salt concentration of the solution.

  11. A somatic origin of homologous Robertsonian translocations and isochromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W.P.; Bernasconi, F.; Schinzel, A.A. (Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)); Basaran, S.; Yueksel-Apak, M. (Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey)); Neri, G. (Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)); Serville, F. (Hopital d' Enfants Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)); Balicek, P.; Haluza, R. (Univ. Hospital of Hradeck Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)); Farah, L.M.S. (Escuola Paulista de Medicina, Sao Paulo (Brazil)) (and others)

    1994-02-01

    One t(14q 14q), three t(15q 15q), two t(21q21q), and two t(22q22q) nonmosaic, apparently balanced, de novo Robertsonian translocation cases were investigated with polymorphic markers to establish the origin of the translocated chromosomes. Four cases had results indicative of an isochromosome: one t(14q14q) case with mild mental retardation and maternal uniparental disomy (UPD) for chromosome 14, one t(15q15q) case with the Prader-Willi syndrome and UPD(15), a phenotypically normal carrier of t(22q22q) with maternal UPD(22), and a phenotypically normal t(21q21q) case of paternal UPD(21). All UPD cases showed complete homozygosity throughout the involved chromosome, which is supportive of a postmeiotic origin. In the remaining four cases, maternal and paternal inheritance of the involved chromosome was found, which unambiguously implies a somatic origin. One t(15q15q) female had a child with a ring chromosome 15, which was also of probable postmeiotic origin as recombination between grandparental haplotypes had occurred prior to ring formation. UPD might be expected to result from de novo Robertsonian translocations of meiotic origin; however, all de novo homologous translocation cases, so far reported, with UPD of chromosomes 14, 15, 21, or 22 have been isochromosomes. These data provide the first direct evidence that nonmosaic Robertsonian translocations, as well as isochromosomes, are commonly the result of a mitotic exchange. 75 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  13. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper al...

  14. Translocation of polymers into crowded media with dynamic attractive nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei-Ping; Ren, Qing-Bao; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2015-07-01

    The translocation of polymers through a small pore into crowded media with dynamic attractive nanoparticles is simulated. Results show that the nanoparticles at the trans side can affect the translocation by influencing the free-energy landscape and the diffusion of polymers. Thus the translocation time τ is dependent on the polymer-nanoparticle attraction strength ɛ and the mobility of nanoparticles V. We observe a power-law relation of τ with V, but the exponent is dependent on ɛ and nanoparticle concentration. In addition, we find that the effect of attractive dynamic nanoparticles on the dynamics of polymers is dependent on the time scale. At a short time scale, subnormal diffusion is observed at strong attraction and the diffusion is slowed down by the dynamic nanoparticles. However, the diffusion of polymers is normal at a long time scale and the diffusion constant increases with the increase in V.

  15. Translocation techniques used to establish pen farmed Alaskan reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Dieterich

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Small herds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus frequently have been needed to be established in fenced holding pens for research or commercial reasons in Alaska and other areas. Native ranges of reindeer in Alaska were not on road systems, and the diet of the native reindeer had to be changed when they were translocated to small pens. Economics of transportation and feeding played an important role in the feasibility of translocation. Gathering and holding of reindeer for shipment, transport methods, adjustment of free-ranging reindeer to confinement, and a new diet were primary considerations to insure survival. Minimal psychologic stress of short duration, thermoregulation, and physical comfort were extremely important in carrying out a successful translocation. Receiving facilities, feed, and personnel were equally important. A minimum of one month was required to adjust reindeer to confinement and diet change.

  16. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  17. The action spectrum in chloroplast translocation in multilayer leaf cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lechowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By measurement of light transmittance through a leaf as criterion of chloroplast translocation, the action spectrum of Ajuga reptans was established. In the spectrum obtained, a correction was introduced for leaf autoabsorption calculated on the basis of the Beer-Lambert law. The action spectrum has two maxima: at λ= 375 nm and λ= 481 nm. The range above 502 nm has no significant effect on chloroplast translocation. Comparison with other objects examined demonstrated that in multilayer leaf cells riboflavin seems also to be a photoreceptor active in this process.

  18. Free energy evaluation in polymer translocation via Jarzynski equality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondaini, Felipe, E-mail: fmondaini@if.ufrj.br [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Petrópolis, 25.620-003, RJ (Brazil); Moriconi, L., E-mail: moriconi@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68528, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-01

    We perform, with the help of cloud computing resources, extensive Langevin simulations, which provide free energy estimates for unbiased three-dimensional polymer translocation. We employ the Jarzynski equality in its rigorous setting, to compute the variation of the free energy in single monomer translocation events. In our three-dimensional Langevin simulations, the excluded-volume and van der Waals interactions between beads (monomers and membrane atoms) are modeled through a repulsive Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and consecutive monomers are subject to the Finite-Extension Nonlinear Elastic (FENE) potential. Analysing data for polymers with different lengths, the free energy profile is noted to have interesting finite-size scaling properties.

  19. Role of non-equilibrium conformations on driven polymer translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, H H; Muthukumar, M

    2018-01-14

    One of the major theoretical methods in understanding polymer translocation through a nanopore is the Fokker-Planck formalism based on the assumption of quasi-equilibrium of polymer conformations. The criterion for applicability of the quasi-equilibrium approximation for polymer translocation is that the average translocation time per Kuhn segment, ⟨τ⟩/N K , is longer than the relaxation time τ 0 of the polymer. Toward an understanding of conditions that would satisfy this criterion, we have performed coarse-grained three dimensional Langevin dynamics and multi-particle collision dynamics simulations. We have studied the role of initial conformations of a polyelectrolyte chain (which were artificially generated with a flow field) on the kinetics of its translocation across a nanopore under the action of an externally applied transmembrane voltage V (in the absence of the initial flow field). Stretched (out-of-equilibrium) polyelectrolyte chain conformations are deliberately and systematically generated and used as initial conformations in translocation simulations. Independent simulations are performed to study the relaxation behavior of these stretched chains, and a comparison is made between the relaxation time scale and the mean translocation time (⟨τ⟩). For such artificially stretched initial states, ⟨τ⟩/N K equilibrium approximation. Nevertheless, we observe a scaling of ⟨τ⟩ ∼ 1/V over the entire range of chain stretching studied, in agreement with the predictions of the Fokker-Planck model. On the other hand, for realistic situations where the initial artificially imposed flow field is absent, a comparison of experimental data reported in the literature with the theory of polyelectrolyte dynamics reveals that the Zimm relaxation time (τ Zimm ) is shorter than the mean translocation time for several polymers including single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double stranded DNA (dsDNA), and synthetic polymers. Even when these data are rescaled

  20. "Understanding Adam" multiple reciprocal translocations: complex case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Carie E; Lu, Xianglan; Kim, Young Mi; Li, Shibo; Pineda, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case review of a newborn diagnosed with a complex chromosomal rearrangement, as demonstrated through a painted chromosomal analysis. This infant presented with multiple dysmorphology including cutis aplasia, multiple ocular malformations, bilateral cleft lip and palate, and postnatal hydrocephaly. A chromosomal analysis revealed multiple-ways, balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 8, and 9. This case study provides a unique opportunity to, in retrospect, trace each malformation exploring the pathophysiology, etiology, and correlating origin with chromosomal variation. Careful review of this case, enhanced by the visually augmented representation of each translocation, will increase understanding of chromosomal anomalies and their implications in embryological development and clinical presentation.

  1. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  2. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to organisations...... background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality/value: This chapter takes a look...

  3. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  4. Comprehensive postmortem analyses of intestinal microbiota changes and bacterial translocation in human flora associated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postmortem microbiological examinations are performed in forensic and medical pathology for defining uncertain causes of deaths and for screening of deceased tissue donors. Interpretation of bacteriological data, however, is hampered by false-positive results due to agonal spread of microorganisms, postmortem bacterial translocation, and environmental contamination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a kinetic survey of naturally occurring postmortem gut flora changes in the small and large intestines of conventional and gnotobiotic mice associated with a human microbiota (hfa applying cultural and molecular methods. Sacrificed mice were kept under ambient conditions for up to 72 hours postmortem. Intestinal microbiota changes were most pronounced in the ileal lumen where enterobacteria and enterococci increased by 3-5 orders of magnitude in conventional and hfa mice. Interestingly, comparable intestinal overgrowth was shown in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation in mice and men. In hfa mice, ileal overgrowth with enterococci and enterobacteria started 3 and 24 hours postmortem, respectively. Strikingly, intestinal bacteria translocated to extra-intestinal compartments such as mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and cardiac blood as early as 5 min after death. Furthermore, intestinal tissue destruction was characterized by increased numbers of apoptotic cells and neutrophils within 3 hours postmortem, whereas counts of proliferative cells as well as T- and B-lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells decreased between 3 and 12 hours postmortem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that kinetics of ileal overgrowth with enterobacteria and enterococci in hfa mice can be used as an indicator for compromized intestinal functionality and for more precisely defining the time point of death under defined ambient conditions. The rapid translocation of intestinal bacteria starting within a few minutes after death will help

  5. Bacterial translocation in rats nonfunctioning diverted distal colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Francisco Edilson Leite; Brandt, Carlos Teixeira; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; de Oliveira, Ariano José Freitas; Jerônimo, Selma Maria; de Brito, Helena Marques Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether the alterations of the diverted colon segment mucosa, evidenced in fecal colitis, would be able to alter Bacterial Translocation (BT). Sixty-two Wistar male rats ranging from 220 to 320 grams of weight, were divided in two groups: A (Colostomy) and B (Control), with 31 animals each one. In group A, all animals underwent end colostomy, one stoma, in ascending colon; and in the 70th POD was injected in five rats, by rectal route diverted segment - 2 ml of a 0.9% saline solution in animals (A1 subgroup); in eight it was inoculated, by rectal route, 2 ml of a solution containing Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (American Type Culture Collection), in a concentration of 10(8) Colony Forming Unit for milliliters (CFU/ml) - A2 Subgroup; in ten animals the same solution of E. coli was inoculated, in a concentration of 10(11) CFU/ml (A3 Subgroup); and in eight it was collected part of the mucus found in the diverted distal colonic segment for neutral sugars and total proteins dosage (A4 subgroup). The animals from the group B underwent the same procedures of group A, but with differences in the colostomy confection. In rats from subgroups A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, and B3 2 ml of blood were aspirated from the heart, and fragments from mesenteric lymphatic nodule, liver, spleen, lung and kidney taken for microbiological analysis, after their death. This analysis consisted of evidencing the presence of E. coli ATCC 25922 CFU. Mann-Whitney and ANOVA Tests were applied as analytic techniques for association of variables. The occurrence of BT was evidenced only in those animals in which inoculated concentration of E. coli ATCC 25922, reached levels of 10(11)CFU/ml, i.e. in Subgroups A3 and B3, although, being significantly greater (80%) in those animals without colostomy (subgroup B3) when compared to the ones with colostomy (20%) from the subgroup A3 (P subgroup A3, as in B3. Blood culture was considered positive in 60% of the animals from subgroup B3 and in 10% of

  6. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasullo, Michael [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)]. E-mail: mfasullo@ordwayresearch.org; St Amour, Courtney [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States); Zeng Li [Ordway Research Institute, 150 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12209 (United States)

    2005-10-15

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MAT{alpha} inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-{delta}5' and his3-{delta}3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MAT{alpha} genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-{delta}3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent.

  7. Enhanced stimulation of chromosomal translocations and sister chromatid exchanges by either HO-induced double-strand breaks or ionizing radiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yku70 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasullo, Michael; St Amour, Courtney; Zeng Li

    2005-01-01

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair occurs by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expression of both MAT a and MATα inhibits NHEJ and facilitates DSB-initiated HR. We previously observed that DSB-initiated recombination between two his3 fragments, his3-Δ5' and his3-Δ3'::HOcs is enhanced in haploids and diploids expressing both MAT a and MATα genes, regardless of the position or orientation of the his3 fragments. Herein, we measured frequencies of DNA damage-associated translocations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in yku70 haploid mutants, defective in NHEJ. Translocation and SCE frequencies were measured in strains containing the same his3 fragments after DSBs were made directly at trp1::his3-Δ3'::HOcs. Wild type and yku70 cells were also exposed to ionizing radiation and radiomimetic agents methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), phleomycin, and 4-nitroquinolone-1-oxide (4-NQO). Frequencies of X-ray-associated and DSB-initiated translocations were five-fold higher in yku70 mutants compared to wild type; however, frequencies of phleomycin-associated translocations were lower in the yku70 haploid mutant. Frequencies of DSB-initiated SCEs were 1.8-fold higher in the yku70 mutant, compared to wild type. Thus, DSB-initiated HR between repeated sequences on non-homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids occurs at higher frequencies in yku70 haploid mutants; however, higher frequencies of DNA damage-associated HR in yku70 mutants depend on the DNA damaging agent

  8. DNA translocating through a carbon nanotube can increase ionic current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstić, Predrag S; He Jin; Gyarfas, Brett; Lindsay, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Translocation of DNA through a narrow, single-walled carbon nanotube can be accompanied by large increases in ion current, recently observed in contrast to the ion current blockade. We use molecular dynamics simulations to show that large electro-osmotic flow can be turned into a large net current via ion-selective filtering by a DNA molecule inside the carbon nanotube. (paper)

  9. Selective bowel decontamination results in gram-positive translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R J; Smith, S D; Rowe, M I

    1990-05-01

    Colonization by enteric gram-negative bacteria with subsequent translocation is believed to be a major mechanism for infection in the critically ill patient. Selective bowel decontamination (SBD) has been used to control gram-negative infections by eliminating these potentially pathogenic bacteria while preserving anaerobic and other less pathogenic organisms. Infection with gram-positive organisms and anaerobes in two multivisceral transplant patients during SBD led us to investigate the effect of SBD on gut colonization and translocation. Twenty-four rats received enteral polymixin E, tobramycin, amphotericin B, and parenteral cefotaxime for 7 days (PTA + CEF); 23 received parenteral cefotaxime alone (CEF), 19 received the enteral antibiotics alone (PTA), 21 controls received no antibiotics. Cecal homogenates, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), liver, and spleen were cultured. Only 8% of the PTA + CEF group had gram-negative bacteria in cecal culture vs 52% CEF, 84% PTA, and 100% in controls. Log Enterococcal colony counts were higher in the PTA + CEF group (8.0 + 0.9) vs controls (5.4 + 0.4) P less than 0.01. Translocation of Enterococcus to the MLN was significantly increased in the PTA + CEF group (67%) vs controls (0%) P less than 0.01. SBD effectively eliminates gram-negative organisms from the gut in the rat model. Overgrowth and translocation of Enterococcus suggests that infection with gram-positive organisms may be a limitation of SBD.

  10. The human minisatellite consensus at breakpoints of oncogene translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krowczynska, A.; Krontiris, T.G. (New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, MA (United States) Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA (United States)); Rudders, R.A. (New England Medical Center Hospitals, Boston, MA (United States))

    1990-03-11

    A reexamination of human minisatellite (hypervariable) regions following the cloning and sequencing of the new minisatellite, VTR1. 1, revealed that many of these structures possessed a strongly conserved copy of the chi-like octamer, GC(A/T)GG(A/T)GG. In oncogene translocations apparently created by aberrant VDJ recombinase activity, this VTR octamer was often found within a few bases of the breakpoint. Three bcl2 rearrangements which occurred within 2 bp of one another were located precisely adjacent to this consensus; it defined the 5{prime} border of that oncogene's major breakpoint cluster. Several c-myc translocations also occurred within 2 bp of this sequence. While the appearance of a chi-like element in polymorphic minisatellite sequences is consistent with a role promoting either recombination or replication slippage, the existence of such elements at sites of somatic translocations suggests chi function in site-specific recombination, perhaps as a subsidiary recognition signal in immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. The authors discuss the implications of these observations for mechanisms by which oncogene translocations and minisatellite sequences are generated.

  11. Resource Control: A Translocation Of The Scramble For Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adopting a theoretical framework successfully adapted from the biological and medical sciences, namely; translocation analysis, the paper traces the ancestry of the present resource control problem to the scramble, first, and then, the use of fiscal and revenue allocation commissions during the colonial era, and the ...

  12. Evaluation of cadmium bioaccumulation and translocation by Hopea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parisa

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... species selected as phytoremediator, three indicators were used namely, bioconcentration factor (BCF, the metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil), translocation factor (TF, the metal concentration ratio of plant shoots to ... centration of Cd in soil ranges from 0.01 to 2.0 mg kg-1; however, in urban and ...

  13. Concentration Polarization in Translocation of DNA through Nanopores and Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, S.; Dubsky, P.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we provide a theory to show that high-field electrokinetic translocation of DNA through nanopores or nanochannels causes large transient variations of the ionic concentrations in front and at the back of the DNA due to concentration polarization (CP). The CP causes strong local

  14. Introduction: translocal development, development corridors and development chains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.; Westen, A.C.M. van

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction to this Special Issue of International Development Planning Review. It uses the concepts of translocal development, development corridors and development chains to secure a better grasp of what development means in the context of globalisation and how ‘local

  15. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  16. Black Rhino Translocations within Africa | Knight | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responsibility for the conservation of the critically endangered Black Rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis, lies within Africa. This species is managed at the subspecies level and we document nine international translocation case studies involving South Africa since 1962 aimed at re-establishing or boosting populations ...

  17. Bladder calculus resulting from an intravesical translocation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although perforation of the uterus by an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) is commonly encountered, intravesical translocation and secondary calculus formation is a very rare complication.We report a case of a 60-year old multiparous woman in whom an intrauterine contraceptive Copper-T device inserted 12 years ...

  18. Translocation of radioactive paraquat in some veld grasses | TD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two pot experiments radioactive paraquat was applied to certain important veld grasses (Experiment I-Aristida junciformis, Themeda triandra, Elyonuris argenteus, Andropogon filifolius, Eragrostis curvula; Experiment II-A. junciformis, E. argenteus) to determine the extent of translocation at a young stage of growth with ...

  19. 1,3-Butadiene, CML and the t(9:22) translocation: A reality check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Richard J; Carter, Elizabeth W; Nicklas, Janice A; Vacek, Pamela M; Walker, Vernon E

    2015-11-05

    Epidemiological studies of 1,3-butadiene have suggest that exposures to humans are associated with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). CML has a well-documented association with ionizing radiation, but reports of associations with chemical exposures have been questioned. Ionizing radiation is capable of inducing the requisite CML-associated t(9:22) translocation (Philadelphia chromosome) in appropriate cells in vitro but, thus far, chemicals have not shown this capacity. We have proposed that 1,3-butadiene metabolites be so tested as a reality check on the epidemiological reports. In order to conduct reliable testing in this regard, it is essential that a positive control for induction be available. We have used ionizing radiation to develop such a control. Results described here demonstrate that this agent does in fact induce pathogenic t(9:22) translocations in a human myeloid cell line in vitro, but does so at low frequencies. Conditions that will be required for studies of 1,3-butadiene are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissection of Axial-Pore Loop Function during Unfolding and Translocation by a AAA+ Proteolytic Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohad Iosefson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the axial channels of ClpX and related hexameric AAA+ protein-remodeling rings, the pore-1 loops are thought to play important roles in engaging, mechanically unfolding, and translocating protein substrates. How these loops perform these functions and whether they also prevent substrate dissociation to ensure processive degradation by AAA+ proteases are open questions. Using ClpX pore-1-loop variants, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and ensemble assays, we find that the six pore-1 loops function synchronously to grip and unfold protein substrates during a power stroke but are not important in preventing substrate slipping between power strokes. The importance of grip strength is task dependent. ClpX variants with multiple mutant pore-1 loops translocate substrates as well as the wild-type enzyme against a resisting force but show unfolding defects and a higher frequency of substrate release. These problems are magnified for more mechanically stable target proteins, supporting a threshold model of substrate gripping.

  1. Pump cavitation background noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.

    1976-01-01

    Cavitation is defined as the growth and collapse of cavities associated with the change in pressure in contrast to the case of boiling where change in temperature is the dominating factor. It is commonly accepted that cavitation inception occurs when the minimum pressure in a system reaches the vapor pressure corresponding to the local temperatures of the liquid. The foregoing statement is, in fact, another way of defining incipient boiling which is usually defined as the condition where the temperature reaches the saturation temperature corresponding to the system pressure. Therefore, there is no difference between cavitation and boiling since both are associated with the growth and collapse of bubbles in a liquid. Cavitation noise may not be avoidable for an LMFBR primary pump under normal operating conditions, and will be present as background during boiling detection by acoustic methods

  2. Transcuticular translocation of radionuclides on plant leaf surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Tadakazu; Ambe, Shizuko; Yamaguchi, Isamu [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    The cuticle covering all the outermost surfaces of the aerial parts of plants could play a selective role in uptake and translocation of radionuclides from air into plants. In this study, we investigated the transcuticular uptake and translocation behavior via water droplets of various radionuclides in red clover, orchard grass, Japanese radish and mung bean. Ten {mu}l of an aqueous solution of the multitracer generated from Au was applied to the upper surface of the 2nd leaf of the plants at the 5th leaf stage. The plants were then grown for 14 days at 25degC and 70% RH under illumination of artificial solar lights. The transcuticular uptake and translocation throughout the plant were periodically assayed by determining the radioactivity in the surface residue, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site, the leaf area outside the applied site, the other aerial parts and the root of the plant, using an HPGe detector. The applied radionuclides were absorbed into, in turn, the cuticle layer beneath the applied site and then translocated through the cuticle to the inner tissue and eventually to the other aerial parts and finally to the roots, of the plant. The distribution and accumulation in the plant seems to depend upon the characteristics of each radionuclide and plant species. Ca{sup *} and Te{sup *} tended to remain on leaf surfaces without being absorbed into the cuticle. On the other hand, Sc{sup *}, Co{sup *}, Zn{sup *}, Se{sup *}, Rb{sup *}, and Eu{sup *} were easily absorbed and translocated to every part of the plant including the root. The other radionuclides such as Be{sup *}, Mn{sup *}, Sr{sup *}, Y{sup *}, Ba{sup *}, Ce{sup *}, Pm{sup *}, Gd{sup *}, Hf{sup *}, Yb{sup *}, Lu{sup *}, Os{sup *}, Ir{sup *}, and Pt{sup *} remained in the region close to the site of their application. The above results possibly indicate the existence of mechanisms common to these plants for selective transcuticular uptake and translocation of radionuclides within plant

  3. Chromosome territories, X;Y translocation and Premature Ovarian Failure: is there a relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betri Enrico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF is a secondary hypergonadotrophic amenorrhea occurring before the age of 40 and affecting 1-3% of females. Chromosome anomalies account for 6-8% of POF cases, but only few cases are associated with translocations involving X and Y chromosomes. This study shows the cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a POF patient came to our attention as she developed a left ovary choriocarcinoma at the age of 10 and at 14 years of age she presented secondary amenorrhea with elevated levels of gonadotropins. Results Breakpoint position on X and Y chromosomes was investigated using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridisation (FISH with a panel of specific BAC probes, microsatellite analysis and evaluation of copy number changes and loss of heterozigosity by Affymetrix® GeneChip platform (Santa Clara, CA, USA. Patient's karyotype resulted 46, X, der(Yt(X;Y(q13.1;q11.223. X inactivation study was assessed by RBA banding and showed preferential inactivation of derivative chromosome. The reciprocal spatial disposition of sexual chromosome territories was investigated using whole chromosome painting and centromeres probes: patient's results didn't show a significant difference in comparison to normal controls. Conclusion The peculiar clinical case come to our attention highlighted the complexity of POF aetiology and of the translocation event, even if our results seem to exclude any effect on nuclear organisation. POF phenotype could be partially explained by skewed X chromosome inactivation that influences gene expression.

  4. Combined Effects of Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and Glutamine on Bacterial Translocation in Obstructive Jaundiced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Rahmi Hatipoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bacterial Translocation is believed to be an important factor on mortality and morbidity in Obstructive Jaundiced. Aims: We investigated the probable or estimated positive effects of tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which has antibacterial and regulatory effects on intestinal flora, together with glutamine on BT in an experimental obstructive jaundiced rat model. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Forty adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study. Animals were randomised and divided into five groups of eight each: sham (Sh; control (common bile duct ligation, CBDL; and supplementation groups administered tauroursodeoxycholic acid (CBDL+T, glutamine (CBDL+G, or tauroursodeoxycholic acid plus glutamine (CBDL+TG. Blood and liver, spleen, MLN, and ileal samples were taken via laparotomy under sterile conditions for investigation of bacterial translocation and intestinal mucosal integrity and hepatic function tests on the tenth postoperative day. Results: There were statistically significant differences in BT rates in all samples except the spleen of the CBDL+TG group compared with the CBDL group (p=0.041, p=0.026, and p=0.041, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to protect hepatic functions besides maintaining intestinal mucosal integrity in the active struggle against BT occurring in obstructive jaundice. The positive effect on intestinal mucosal integrity can be increased if glutamine is used with tauroursodeoxycholic acid, which also has hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory features.

  5. MiT family translocation renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argani, Pedram

    2015-03-01

    The MiT subfamily of transcription factors includes TFE3, TFEB, TFC, and MiTF. Gene fusions involving two of these transcription factors have been identified in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The Xp11 translocation RCCs were first officially recognized in the 2004 WHO renal tumor classification, and harbor gene fusions involving TFE3. The t(6;11) RCCs harbor a specific Alpha-TFEB gene fusion and were first officially recognized in the 2013 International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia. These two subtypes of translocation RCC have many similarities. Both were initially described in and disproportionately involve young patients, though adult translocation RCC may overall outnumber pediatric cases. Both often have unusual and distinctive morphologies; the Xp11 translocation RCCs frequently have clear cells with papillary architecture and abundant psammomatous bodies, while the t(6;11) RCCs frequently have a biphasic appearance with both large and small epithelioid cells and nodules of basement membrane material. However, the morphology of these two neoplasms can overlap, with one mimicking the other. Both of these RCCs underexpress epithelial immunohistochemical markers like cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) relative to most other RCCs. Unlike other RCCs, both frequently express the cysteine protease cathepsin k and often express melanocytic markers like HMB45 and Melan A. Finally, TFE3 and TFEB have overlapping functional activity as these two transcription factors frequently heterodimerize and bind to the same targets. Therefore, on the basis of clinical, morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic similarities, the 2013 ISUP Vancouver classification of renal neoplasia grouped these two neoplasms together under the heading of "MiT family translocation RCC." This review summarizes our current knowledge of these recently described RCCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. RNase A does not translocate the alpha-hemolysin pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Krasniqi

    Full Text Available The application of nanopore sensing utilizing the α-hemolysin pore to probe proteins at single-molecule resolution has expanded rapidly. In some studies protein translocation through the α-hemolysin has been reported. However, there is no direct evidence, as yet, that proteins can translocate the α-hemolysin pore. The biggest challenge to obtaining direct evidence is the lack of a highly sensitive assay to detect very low numbers of protein molecules. Furthermore, if an activity based assay is applied then the proteins translocating by unfolding should refold back to an active confirmation for the assay technique to work. To overcome these challenges we selected a model enzyme, ribonuclease A, that readily refolds to an active conformation even after unfolding it with denaturants. In addition we have developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based activity assay for ribonuclease A. Initially, ribonuclease A, a protein with a positive net charge and dimensions larger than the smallest diameter of the pore, was subjected to nanopore analysis under different experimental conditions. Surprisingly, although the protein was added to the cis chamber (grounded and a positive potential was applied, the interaction of ribonuclease A with α-hemolysin pore induced small and large blockade events in the presence and the absence of a reducing and/or denaturing agent. Upon measuring the zeta potential, it was found that the protein undergoes a charge reversal under the experimental conditions used for nanopore sensing. From the investigation of the effect of voltage on the interaction of ribonuclease A with the α-hemolysin pore, it was impossible to conclude if the events observed were translocations. However, upon testing for ribonuclease A activity on the trans chamber it was found that ribonuclease A does not translocate the α-hemolysin pore.

  7. Biosecurity for Translocations: Cirl Bunting (Emberiza cirlus), Fisher's Estuarine Moth (Gortyna borelii lunata), Short-Haired Bumblebee (Bombus subterraneus) and Pool Frog (Pelophylax lessonae) Translocations as Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan-Higgins, R J; Masters, N; Sainsbury, A W

    2017-03-01

    Exposure to parasites in conservation translocations increases the risks to recipient and translocated populations from disease, and therefore there has been interest in implementing biosecurity methods. Using four case examples we described how biosecurity was applied in practical translocation scenarios prior to and during a translocation and also post-release. We implemented biosecurity, including quarantine barriers, at specific points in the translocation pathway where hazards, identified by the disease risk analysis, had the potential to induce disease. Evidence that biosecurity protected translocated and recipient populations, included an absence of mortality associated with high-risk non-native parasites, a reduction in mortality associated with endemic parasites, the absence of high-risk pathogenic parasites, or associated diseases, at the destination; and the apparent absence of diseases in closely related species at the destination site. The biosecurity protocols did not alter the level or duration of translocated species confinement and therefore probably did not act as a stressor. There is a monetary cost involved in biosecurity but the epidemiological evidence suggests that conservation translocation managers should carefully consider its use. Breakdowns in quarantine have occurred in human hospitals despite considerable investment and training for health professionals, and we therefore judge that there is a need for training in the objectives and maintenance of quarantine barriers in conservation translocations. Biosecurity protocols for conservation translocations should be continually updated in response to findings from disease risk analysis and post-release disease surveillance and we recommend further studies to evaluate their effectiveness.

  8. Atlas of alien and translocated indigenous aquatic animals in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Moor, IJ

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This report serves as an introduction to the problem of alien and translocated aquatic animals in southern Africa is given followed by checklists of the different species which have been introduced into or translocated within the subcontinent...

  9. Nuclear translocation of the cytoplasmic domain of HB-EGF induces gastric cancer invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) yields soluble HB-EGF, which is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand, and a carboxy-terminal fragment of HB-EGF (HB-EGF-CTF) after ectodomain shedding. We previously reported that HB-EGF-CTF and unshed proHB-EGF which has the cytoplasmic domain of proHB-EGF (HB-EGF-C), translocate from the plasma membrane to the nucleus and regulate cell cycle after shedding stimuli. However, the significance of nuclear exported HB-EGF-C in human gastric cancer is unclear. Methods We investigated the relationship between intracellular localization of HB-EGF-C and clinical outcome in 96 gastric cancer patients treated with gastrectomy. Moreover, we established stable gastric cancer cell lines overexpressing wild-type HB-EGF (wt-HB-EGF) and mutated HB-EGF (HB-EGF-mC), which prevented HB-EGF-C nuclear translocation after shedding. Cell motility between these 2 gastric cancer cell lines was investigated using a transwell invasion assay and a wound healing assay. Results Of the 96 gastric cancer cases, HB-EGF-C immunoreactivity was detected in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in 19 cases (19.8 %) and in the cytoplasm only in 25 cases (26.0 %). The nuclear immunoreactivity of HB-EGF-C was significantly increased in stage pT3/4 tumors compared with pT1/2 tumors (T1/2 vs. T3/4: 11.1 % vs. 36.4 %, P HB-EGF- and HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells significantly increased compared with control cells, but the growth of HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells was significantly decreased compared with wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells. Gastric cancer cell invasion obviously increased in wt-HB-EGF-expressing cells, but invasion in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells showed a slight increase compared with control cells. Moreover, wt-HB-EGF overexpression increased the effectiveness of wound healing, but had no significant effect in HB-EGF-mC-expressing cells. Conclusions Both the function of HB-EGF as an EGFR ligand

  10. Microbial Translocation in HIV Infection is Associated with Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Risk of Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Pedersen, Maria; Trøseid, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals.......Microbial translocation has been suggested to be a driver of immune activation and inflammation. We hypothesized that microbial translocation may be related to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and the risk of coronary heart disease in HIV-infected individuals....

  11. The incidence and anatomic site specificity of chromosomal translocations in primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remstein, Ellen D; Dogan, Ahmet; Einerson, Richard R; Paternoster, Sarah F; Fink, Stephanie R; Law, Mark; Dewald, Gordon W; Kurtin, Paul J

    2006-12-01

    Several balanced translocations have been identified in extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) but there are few data regarding their frequency in different anatomic sites or the frequency of translocations involving BCL6 or kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chain genes (IGK or IGL), particularly in patients from geographic regions other than Europe and Japan. One hundred thirty-three paraffin-embedded North American primary MALT lymphoma specimens from diverse anatomic sites were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes for API2-MALT1, IGH-MALT1, IGH-BCL10, IGH-FOXP1, IGH, +/- centromeres 3, 7, 12, and 18, and a subset (n=74) were analyzed using FISH probes for IGK, IGL, and BCL6. Translocations were mutually exclusive and were detected in 26% of cases (17% API2-MALT1, 5% IGH-MALT1, 3% IGH-unknown translocation partner, and 1% IGH-BCL10). Aneuploidy was associated with IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 but only rarely with API2-MALT1. There was striking site specificity, with API2-MALT1 showing a marked predilection for lung and intestine, and IGH-MALT1 and IGH-BCL10 occurring almost exclusively in lung. Twenty-three percent of translocation-negative primary MALT lymphomas from diverse sites showed complete/partial trisomy 18. No MALT lymphomas with translocations involving IGK, IGL, BCL6, or FOXP1 were identified. This FISH panel detected cytogenetic abnormalities in half of all MALT lymphomas, and translocations arose preferentially in MALT lymphomas of the lung and gastrointestinal tract. Differences in incidence and anatomic site specificity of translocations between North American and non-North American cases may reflect geographic variability of infectious or other etiologic factors.

  12. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  13. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  14. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. It is generally accepted that, when no chromosomal rearrangements are involved, man

  15. Protein translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane in cold-adapted organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römisch, Karin; Collie, Nicola; Soto, Nelyn; Logue, James; Lindsay, Margaret; Scheper, Wiep; Cheng, Chi-Hing C.

    2003-01-01

    Secretory proteins enter the secretory pathway by translocation across the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) via a channel formed primarily by the Sec61 protein. Protein translocation is highly temperature dependent in mesophilic organisms. We asked whether the protein translocation

  16. Translocation as a conservation tool for Agassiz's desert tortoises: Survivorship, reproduction, and movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Nussear; C. R. Tracy; P. A. Medica; D. S. Wilson; R. W. Marlow; P. S. Corn

    2012-01-01

    We translocated 120 Agassiz's desert tortoises to 5 sites in Nevada and Utah to evaluate the effects of translocation on tortoise survivorship, reproduction, and habitat use. Translocation sites included several elevations, and extended to sites with vegetation assemblages not typically associated with desert tortoises in order to explore the possibility of moving...

  17. The Use of Double-Monotelodisomics to Identify Translocations in Triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Larsen, J.

    1974-01-01

    By analysing metaphase I of double-monotelodisomic hybrids between two varieties of hexaploid wheat differentiated by reciprocal translocations it is possible to establish reliably the chromosomes involved in each translocation. Also the chromosome parts translocated may be identified. The use...

  18. 40 CFR 798.5955 - Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... drosophila melanogaster. 798.5955 Section 798.5955 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....5955 Heritable translocation test in drosophila melanogaster. (a) Purpose. The heritable translocation test in Drosophila measures the induction of chromosomal translocations in germ cells of insects...

  19. Dek-can rearrangement in translocation (6;9)(p23;q34)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soekarman, D.; von Lindern, M.; van der Plas, D. C.; Selleri, L.; Bartram, C. R.; Martiat, P.; Culligan, D.; Padua, R. A.; Hasper-Voogt, K. P.; Hagemeijer, A.

    1992-01-01

    The translocation (6;9)(p23;q34) is mainly found in specific subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The diagnosis of this translocation is not easy since the cytogenetic change is quite subtle. The two genes involved in this translocation were recently isolated

  20. [Genetic background of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, István; Lakatos, Péter

    2003-07-27

    Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease in bone mass as well as a deterioration of the bone architecture resulting in an increased risk of fracture. The disease is multifactorial, and it depends on environmental and genetic factors. Twin studies have shown that genetic factors account for 60-80% of the variance in bone mineral density, the best predictor of the risk of osteoporosis. There are different approaches to identify these genetic factors. Linkage studies in human and experimental animals have defined multiple loci that regulate bone mass but most of the genes responsible for this effect remain to be defined. The 11q12-13 locus was the first that was linked to bone mineral density of the young female and special bone diseases like high bone mass syndrome and osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. Both diseases appear to be in association with LDL receptor-related protein 5 gene mutation. The effect of LDL receptor-related protein 5 on bone metabolism had not been known only genetic methods suggested it. The effect of LRP5 in osteoporosis pathogenesis requires more investigation. Association and linkage studies have been performed in order to identify candidate genes in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Vitamin D receptor gene was the first candidate, however its effect is controversial. Other candidates, such as insulin like growth factor, interleukin-6, estrogen receptor alpha, transforming growth factor beta show no or small effect on bone mineral density or fracture frequency. To date only Sp1 polymorphism of collagen gene seems to have a consistent effect on bone fragility. The improved understanding of osteoporosis genetics should lead to better diagnosis of this disease and new treatment and prevention strategies.

  1. Entropic effects in formation of chromosome territories: towards understanding of radiation-induced gene translocation frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia; Durante, Marco; Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Ciesla, Michal

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of structural organization of biological target, such as geometry of an inter-phase chromosome, is an essential prerequisite for gaining deeper insight into relationship between radiation track structure and radiation-induced biological damage [1]. In particular, coupling of biophysical models aimed to describe architecture of chromosomes and their positioning in a cell nucleus [2-4] with models of local distribution of ionizations caused by passing projectiles, are expected to result in more accurate estimates of aberration induction caused by radiation. There is abundant experimental evidence indicating that arrangements of chromosomes in eukaryotic cell nucleus is non-random and has been evolutionary conserved in specific cell types. Moreover, the radial position of a given chromosome territory (CT) within the cell nucleus has been shown to correlate with its size and gene density. Usually it is assumed that chromosomal geometry and positioning result from the action of specific forces acting locally, such as hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, Van der Waals or hydrophobic interactions operating between nucleosomes and within their interiors. However, it is both desirable and instructive to learn to what extend organization of inter-phase chromosomes is affected by nonspecific entropic forces. In this study we report results of a coarse-grained analysis of a chromatin structure modeled by two distinct approaches. In the first method, we adhere to purely statistical analysis of chromatin packing within a chromosome territory. On the basis of the polymer theory, the chromatin fiber of diameter 30nm is approximated by a chain of spheres, each corresponding to about 30 kbp. Random positioning of the center of the domain is repeated for 1000 spherical nuclei. Configuration of the domain is determined by a random packing of a polymer (a string of identical beads) in estimated fraction of space occupied by a chromosome of a given length and mass. The degree of condensation of the chromatin fiber is modeled by changing length of the string: e.g. loosening of the structure is achieved by distributing the chromosome mass into a higher number of smaller beads and tighter configuration corresponds to a lower number of fragments (balls) with a bigger radius. Additionally, for each configuration, a degree of possible overlapping between domains is assumed. This procedure effectively intensifies loosening/tightening of the chromosome structure by changing the radial dimension of the domain while keeping a constant volume of the polymer chain. Such a positioning model is confronted with a minimalistic molecular dynamics model [5] on a similar structure, in which a chain of beads becomes connected by entropic spring energy and subjected to thermal fluctuations. Comparison of both Monte Carlo models allows to discuss variability of possible configurations as observed in static and dynamic models of chromosome territories along with the effect of compaction and relative arrangements of territorial polymer structures. Acknowledgements: Project is operated within the Foundation for Polish Science International Ph.D. Projects Programme co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund covering, under the agreement no. MPD/2009/6, the Jagiellonian University International Ph.D. Studies in Physics of Complex Systems. References: [1] F. Ballarini, M. Biaggi, and A. Ottolenghi, Radiation Protection Dosimetry 99, 175 (2002). [2] M. Nicodemi and A. Prisco, Biophysical Journal 96, 2168 (2009). [3] P. Cook and D. Marenduzzo, Journal of Cell Biology 186, 825 (2009). [4] M. Tark-Dame, R. van Driel, and D. Heermann, Journal of Cell Science 124, 839 (2011). [5] W. Swope, H. Andersen, P. Berens, and K. Wilson, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 637 (1982).

  2. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    In perennial crops like coffee, glyphosate drift exposure can occur multiple times during its commercial life span. Due to limited glyphosate degradation in higher plants, a potential accumulation of glyphosate could lead to increased biological effects with increased exposure frequency...... of application, however, was more important regarding biological effects than the number of applications both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the field, berry yield, the most important biological response variable, was reduced 26% by the first out of four sequential applications of glyphosate at 64 g a....... In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...

  3. Silibinin induces apoptosis via calpain-dependent AIF nuclear translocation in U87MG human glioma cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Yong K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silibinin, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid, has been reported to induce cell death in various cancer cell types. However, the molecular mechanism is not clearly defined. Our previous study showed that silibinin induces glioma cell death and its effect was effectively prevented by calpain inhibitor. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine the role of calpain in the silibinin-induced glioma cell death. Methods U87MG cells were grown on well tissue culture plates and cell viability was measured by MTT assay. ROS generation and △ψm were estimated using the fluorescence dyes. PKC activation and Bax expression were measured by Western blot analysis. AIF nuclear translocation was determined by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Results Silibinin induced activation of calpain, which was blocked by EGTA and the calpain inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-CHO. Silibinin caused ROS generation and its effect was inhibited by calpain inhibitor, the general PKC inhibitor GF 109203X, the specific PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin, and catalase. Silibinin-induce cell death was blocked by calpain inhibitor and PKC inhibitors. Silibinin-induced PKCδ activation and disruption of △ψm were prevented by the calpain inhibitor. Silibinin induced AIF nuclear translocation and its effect was prevented by calpain inhibitor. Transfection of vector expressing microRNA of AIF prevented the silibinin-induced cell death. Conclusions Silibinin induces apoptotic cell death through a calpain-dependent mechanism involving PKC, ROS, and AIF nuclear translocation in U87MG human glioma cells.

  4. Frequency standards

    CERN Document Server

    Riehle, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    Of all measurement units, frequency is the one that may be determined with the highest degree of accuracy. It equally allows precise measurements of other physical and technical quantities, whenever they can be measured in terms of frequency.This volume covers the central methods and techniques relevant for frequency standards developed in physics, electronics, quantum electronics, and statistics. After a review of the basic principles, the book looks at the realisation of commonly used components. It then continues with the description and characterisation of important frequency standards

  5. Molecular analysis of DiGeorge Syndrome-related translocation breakpoints in 22q11.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chieffo, C.; Barnoski, B.L.; Emanuel, B.S. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    22q11 demonstrates a high frequency of disease-specific rearrangements. Several of the rearrangements are associated with developmental abnormalities such as DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS), Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS), Cat Eye Syndrome (CES) and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome. DGS and VCFS involve deletions of 22q11.2 resulting from unbalanced translocations or microdeletions. In contrast, CES and Supernumerary der(22)t(11;22) Syndrome result from duplications of this region via inter- or intra- chromosomal exchange. Although the molecular mechanism giving rise to these rearrangements has yet to be elucidated, the presence of known 22q11 repetitive elements are likely to be involved. GM5878 is a 46,XY,t(10;22) cell line from a balanced translocation carrier father of an unbalanced DGS patient. GM0980 is a cell line from a patient with features of DGS/VCFS with an unbalanced karyotype. Using FISH cosmids, we have localized these translocation breakpoints near pH160b (D22S66) which maps to the center of the DiGeorge chromosomal region (DGCR). To further localize the breakpoint of GM5878, overlapping cosmids spanning this region were used as probes for FISH. Use of additional overlapping cosmids allowed the sublocalization of the breakpoint to a 10kb region. A 4.8 kb BglII fragment predicted to cross the breakpoint was isolated. When this fragment was used as a probe to normal and GM5878 DNA, novel bands were detected in GM5878 DNA digested with EcoRI and BglII. Similar analysis of the GM0980 breakpoint is being pursued. Full molecular characterization of these translocations is in progress using inverse PCR to clone the junctional fragments for sequencing. Detailed analysis of the region may reveal molecular features which make this a rearrangement prone area of the genome and help elucidate its relationship to human cytogenetic disease.

  6. Balanced reciprocal translocation 5,18: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Savad

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: A balanced reciprocal translocation carrier is phenotypically normal, but during meiosis І, carrier chromosomes cant pair normally and form quadrivalant instead of bivalant that depend on type of their segregation (alternate, adjacent 1, adjacent 2,3:1,4:0, produce gametes that are chromosomally unbalanced which can result in early fetus abortion. Considering the number of abnormal gametes, the most effective way to help couples with this problem seems to be PGD 24sure, since it can identify reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation and allows concurrent screening of all chromosomes for aneuploidy. Another technique that can be compared with PGD 24sure is fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, but it has several technical limitations such as it is expensive and complexity, in addition it has only few probes (for chromosomes 21, 13, 18, X, Y so sometimes necessary to create patient specific protocols.

  7. The Social Construction of Guangzhou as a Translocal Trading Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Guangzhou has become a key destination for sub-Saharan African traders. These traders have established multilocal forms of business organisation and, in so doing, have developed diverse practices to overcome geographical, political and cultural boundaries. This paper focuses on these practices, looking at the ways in which the movements, relations and interactions within these organisational formations are produced, transformed and lived. A close ethnographic examination was made of the livelihoods of 33 African traders from 13 sub-Saharan African countries. Through the concept of trans-locality, the organisational formations of these Africans are conceptualised as links between different places on a larger geographical scale; these links then meet on a local scale in the specific place of Guangzhou. Following a relational understanding of spatial constructions in social science, these links are conceptualised as one of the main drivers for the social construction and transformation of the city as a trans-local trading place.

  8. Slowing down DNA translocation by a nanofiber meshed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Xie, Wanyi; Tian, Enling; Ren, Yiwei; Zhu, Jifeng; Deng, Yunsheng; He, Shixuan; Liang, Liyuan; Wang, Yunjiao; Zhou, Daming; Wang, Deqiang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the weak interaction between DNA molecules and the inner surface of nanopores, DNA translocation is very fast, just leaving a short current drop without sufficient information to recognise the nucleotide sequence in the strand. In this paper, we propose a nanopore-nanofiber mesh hybridized structure to decelerate DNA translocation speed. Experimental results reveal that due to hydrophobic interaction between the DNA fragments and the nanofibers, the DNA moving speed can be retarded to two orders of magnitude slower. Furthermore, according to theory simulations, the additional fiber layer will reduce the electric field in the channel but elongate the capture region at the pore orifice, which will be helpful for increasing the capture rate and extending the DNA dwelling time in the meanwhile.

  9. A strategy for generation and balancing of autosome: Y chromosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sonal S; Cheong, Han; Meller, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method for generation and maintenance of translocations that move large autosomal segments onto the Y chromosome. Using this strategy we produced ( 2;Y) translocations that relocate between 1.5 and 4.8 Mb of the 2nd chromosome.. All translocations were easily balanced over a male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) mutant chromosome. Both halves of the translocation carry visible markers, as well as P-element ends that enable molecular confirmation. Halves of these translocations can be separated to produce offspring with duplications and with lethal second chromosome deficiencies . Such large deficiencies are otherwise tedious to generate and maintain.

  10. Mechanism for translocation of fluoroquinolones across lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramariuc, O.; Rog, T.; Javanainen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Classical atom-scale molecular dynamics simulations, constrained free energy calculations, and quantum mechanical (QM) calculations are employed to study the diffusive translocation of ciprofloxacin (CPFX) across lipid membranes. CPFX is considered here as a representative of the fluoroquinolone...... antibiotics class. Neutral and zwitterionic CPFX coexist at physiological pH, with the latter being predominant. Simulations reveal that only the neutral form permeates the bilayer, and it does so through a novel mechanism that involves dissolution of concerted stacks of zwitterionic ciprofloxacins...

  11. Two translocations of chromosome 15q associated with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Nopola-Hemmi, J.; Taipale, M.; Haltia, T.; Lehesjoki, A.; Voutilainen, A.; Kere, J.

    2000-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is characterised by difficulties in learning to read. As reading is a complex cognitive process, multiple genes are expected to contribute to the pathogenesis of dyslexia. The genetics of dyslexia has been a target of molecular studies during recent years, but so far no genes have been identified. However, a locus for dyslexia on chromosome 15q21 (DYX1) has been established in previous linkage studies. We have identified two families with balanced translocations involvi...

  12. A nanopore-nanofiber mesh biosensor to control DNA translocation

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Allison; Hersey, Joseph S.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Meller, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores show promise as single-molecule sensors for biomedical applications, but to increase their resolution and efficiency analyte molecules must remain longer in the nanopore sensing volume. Here we demonstrate a novel, facile, and customizable nanopore sensor modification that reduces double stranded DNA translocation velocity by two orders of magnitude or more via interactions outside the nanopore. This is achieved by electrospinning a copolymer nanofiber mesh (NFM) directl...

  13. "Translocal Express" juba täna! / Rael Artel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2009-01-01

    27. märtsil algab Kumu Kunstimuuseumis "Public Preparation'i" ("Avalik ettevalmistus") sarja rahvusvaheline seminar "Translocal Express. Golden Age" ("Translokaalne ekspress. Kuldaeg"), kus on kõne all ajalookirjutamise ja kollektiivse mälu roll praegu domineerivas natsionalistlikus diskursuses ja selle käsitlemine kaasaegses kunstis. Seminaril on lähtutud eelkõige kunstnike Martin Krenni (Viin) ja Kristina Normani teoste tutvustamisest

  14. Particles translocate from the vagina to the oviducts and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Hall, A.S.; Weller, R.E.; Lepel, E.A.; Schirmer, R.E.

    1985-03-01

    To investigate whether particles deposited in the vagina translocate to the oviducts, 0.3 ml of a 4% bone black suspension was deposited in the posterior vaginal fornix of each of five cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) during their mid-menstrual cycle. Simultaneously, each animal received 10 units of oxytocin by intramuscular injection. The oviducts of three animals were removed 1 hr after administration of the bone black, while those of the remaining two animals were removed 72 hr after dosing. The removed oviducts were flushed with Hank's solution and then with collagenase solution. The solutions were collected in clean vials and filtered. The filters were examined for bone black particles by light microscopy, as were filters through which solution blanks (negative controls) had been passed. Particles resembling bone black were found on all filters. There were no appreciable differences in the number or shape of these particles between the solution-blank filters and the oviduct-flush filters. The particles on both the solution-blank filters and on the oviduct-flush filters probably originated from environmental contamination by ubiquitous carbon particles. While these results suggested that no translocation took place, translocation could not be ruled out with certainty in the absence of quantitative analyses. A more definitive pilot study was then conducted with two dosed monkeys and one control, using talc labelled by neutron activation to circumvent the problem of environmental contamination. Gamma-Ray analysis of tissue and peritoneal lavage samples for the radionuclides /sup 46/Sc, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 60/Co indicated that no measurable quantities (i.e. greater than 0.5 micrograms) of talc translocated from the deposition site in the vagina to the uterine cavity and beyond.

  15. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  16. Growth hormone reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-de-Segura, I.A.; Miguel, E. de [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Experimental Surgery; Prieto, I. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of General and Digestive Surgery; Grande, A.G. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Oncology Radiotherapy; Garcia, P.; Mendez, J. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Clinical Biochemistry; Guerra, A. [`La Paz` Hospital, Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-09-01

    Growth hormone stimulates the growth of intestinal mucosa and may reduce the severity of injury caused by radiation. Male Wistar rats underwent abdominal irradiation (12 Gy) and were treated with either human growth hormone (hGH) or saline, and sacrificed at day 4 or 7 post-irradiation. Bacterial translocation, and the ileal mucosal thickness, proliferation, and disaccharidase activity were assessed. Mortality was 65% in irradiated animals, whereas hGH caused a decrement (29%, p<0.05). Bacterial translocation was also reduced by hGH (p<0.05). Treating irradiated rats with hGH prevented body weight loss (p<0.05). Mucosal thickness increased faster in irradiated hGH-treated animals. The proliferative index showed an increment in hGH-treated animals (p<0.05). Giving hGH to irradiated rats prevented decrease in sucrose activity, and increment in lactase activity. In conclusion, giving hGH to irradiated rats promotes the adaptative process of the intestine and acute radiation-related negative effects, including mortality, bacterial translocation, and weight loss. (orig.)

  17. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed.

  18. Growth factor deprivation induces cytosolic translocation of SIRT1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chengbo; Xing, Da; Wu, Shengnan; Huang, Lei

    2010-02-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, plays a critical role in cellular senescence, aging and longevity. In general, SIRT1 is localized in nucleus and is believed as a nuclear protein. Though overexpression of SIRT1 delays senescence, SIRT1-protein levels decline naturally in thymus and heart during aging. In the present studies, we investigated the subcellular localization of SIRT1 in response to growth factor deprivation in African green monkey SV40-transformed kidney fibroblast cells (COS-7). Using SIRT1-EGFP fluorescence reporter, we found that SIRT1 localized to nucleus in physiological conditions. We devised a model enabling cell senescence via growth factor deprivation, and we found that SIRT1 partially translocated to cytosol under the treatment, suggesting a reduced level of SIRT1's activity. We found PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in the inhibition of SIRT1's cytosolic translocation, because inhibition of these kinases significantly decreased the amount of SIRT1 maintained in nucleus. Taken together, we demonstrated that growth factor deprivation induces cytosolic translocation of SIRT1, which suggesting a possible connection between cytoplasm-localized SIRT1 and the aging process.

  19. Dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations are a major component of radiation or chemically induced genetic damage in mammalian germ cells. The types of aberration produced are dependent upon the mutagen used and the germ-cell stage treated. For example, in male meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells certain alkylating chemicals induce both dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations while others induce primarily dominant-lethal mutations. Production of these two endpoints appears to be determined by the stability of alkylation products with the chromosomes. If the reaction products are intact in the male chromosomes at the time of sperm entry, they may be repaired in fertilized eggs. If repair is not effected and the alkylation products persist to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication, they lead to chromatid-type aberrations and eventually to dominant-lethality. The production of heritable translocations, on the other hand, requires a transformation of unstable alkylation products into suitable intermediate lesions. The process by which these lesions are converted into chromosome exchange within the male genome takes place after sperm enters the egg but prior to the time of pronuclear chromosome replication (i.e., chromosome-type). Thus, dominant-lethal mutations result from both chromatid- and chromosome-type aberrations while heritable translocations result primarily from the latter type. DNA target sites associated with the production of these two endpoints are discussed

  20. Nanowire-nanopore transistor sensor for DNA detection during translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ping; Xiong, Qihua; Fang, Ying; Qing, Quan; Lieber, Charles

    2011-03-01

    Nanopore sequencing, as a promising low cost, high throughput sequencing technique, has been proposed more than a decade ago. Due to the incompatibility between small ionic current signal and fast translocation speed and the technical difficulties on large scale integration of nanopore for direct ionic current sequencing, alternative methods rely on integrated DNA sensors have been proposed, such as using capacitive coupling or tunnelling current etc. But none of them have been experimentally demonstrated yet. Here we show that for the first time an amplified sensor signal has been experimentally recorded from a nanowire-nanopore field effect transistor sensor during DNA translocation. Independent multi-channel recording was also demonstrated for the first time. Our results suggest that the signal is from highly localized potential change caused by DNA translocation in none-balanced buffer condition. Given this method may produce larger signal for smaller nanopores, we hope our experiment can be a starting point for a new generation of nanopore sequencing devices with larger signal, higher bandwidth and large-scale multiplexing capability and finally realize the ultimate goal of low cost high throughput sequencing.

  1. Molecular diagnosis of sarcomas: chromosomal translocations in sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alexander; Abruzzo, Lynne V; Pollock, Raphael E; Lee, Sangkyou; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2006-08-01

    Sarcomas are rare, numerous in type, and often difficult to definitively classify. Work in the last 2 decades has revealed that a significant subset of sarcomas are associated with specific chromosomal translocations producing chimeric (fusion) genes that play a role in the sarcomas' biology and are helpful in their differential diagnosis. To briefly review the sarcomas associated with specific translocations presenting Ewing sarcoma and synovial sarcoma as archetypes and to further explain how cytogenetic and molecular biologic approaches are being used in the diagnosis of sarcomas. This work is based on a selected review of the relevant medical and scientific literature and our extensive experience with molecular testing in sarcomas. In addition to, and complementing, the traditional diagnostic methods of examination of hematoxylin-eosin stained slides, immunohistochemistry, and sound clinical-pathologic correlation, additional cytogenetic and molecular biologic methods are being increasingly utilized and relied on in sarcoma pathology. These methods include chromosomal karyotyping, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, spectral karyotyping, and polymerase chain reaction- based methods for demonstrating specific chromosomal translocations and fusion genes. Understanding the basis of these methods and their application is critical to better provide accurate and validated specific diagnoses of sarcomas.

  2. Bacterial translocation and intestinal injury in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, I; Ozdemir, M; Aktan, M; Aslan, K

    2012-01-01

    To study the occurrence of bacterial translocation and to assess the impact of breastfeeding on bacterial translocation in the animal model of necrotizing enterocolitis. A total of 20 neonate Sprague-Dawley rats were enrolled in the study. Rats were randomly allocated into either control or study group just after birth. Ten newborn rats in the control group were left with their mother to be breast-fed. In contrary, necrotizing enterocolitis group consisted of neonates that were separated from their mothers, housed in an incubator and were gavaged with a special rodent formula three times daily. Survival rates, weight changes, and morphologic scoring obtained after microscopic evaluation were determined as microbiologic evaluation criteria. All the rats in the control group survived, while 1 (10 %) rat died in the necrotizing enterocolitis group. Mortality rates of the two groups were similar. All the formula-fed animals in the necrotizing enterocolitis group had significant weight loss compared to the breast milk-fed rats in the control group (pmicrorganisms in the bowel pass through the intestinal barrier and reach the liver and the spleen via the hematogenous route. This condition is closely related to the impairment of physiological and functional features of the intestinal barrier and is independent from the degree of intestinal injury. Bacterial translocation should be remembered in cases suspected of necrotizing enterocolitis, and a rapid and effective treatment algorithm should be applied in such circumstances (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 21). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  3. Twin-arginine-dependent translocation of folded proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbel, Julia; Rose, Patrick; Müller, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) denotes a protein transport pathway in bacteria, archaea and plant chloroplasts, which is specific for precursor proteins harbouring a characteristic twin-arginine pair in their signal sequences. Many Tat substrates receive cofactors and fold prior to translocation. For a subset of them, proofreading chaperones coordinate maturation and membrane-targeting. Tat translocases comprise two kinds of membrane proteins, a hexahelical TatC-type protein and one or two members of the single-spanning TatA protein family, called TatA and TatB. TatC- and TatA-type proteins form homo- and hetero-oligomeric complexes. The subunits of TatABC translocases are predominantly recovered from two separate complexes, a TatBC complex that might contain some TatA, and a homomeric TatA complex. TatB and TatC coordinately recognize twin-arginine signal peptides and accommodate them in membrane-embedded binding pockets. Advanced binding of the signal sequence to the Tat translocase requires the proton-motive force (PMF) across the membranes and might involve a first recruitment of TatA. When targeted in this manner, folded twin-arginine precursors induce homo-oligomerization of TatB and TatA. Ultimately, this leads to the formation of a transmembrane protein conduit that possibly consists of a pore-like TatA structure. The translocation step again is dependent on the PMF. PMID:22411976

  4. Single-strand DNA molecule translocation through nanoelectrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiongce; Payne, Christina M; Cummings, Peter T; Lee, James W

    2007-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the translocation of single-strand DNA through nanoscale electrode gaps under the action of a constant driving force. The application behind this theoretical study is a proposal to use nanoelectrodes as a screening gap as part of a rapid genomic sequencing device. Preliminary results from a series of simulations using various gap widths and driving forces suggest that the narrowest electrode gap that a single-strand DNA can pass is ∼1.5 nm. The minimum force required to initiate the translocation within nanoseconds is ∼0.3 nN. Simulations using DNA segments of various lengths indicate that the minimum initiation force is insensitive to the length of DNA. However, the average threading velocity of DNA varies appreciably from short to long DNA segments. We attribute such variation to the different nature of drag force experienced by the short and long DNA segments in the environment. It is found that DNA molecules deform significantly to fit in the shape of the nanogap during the translocation

  5. Confirmation of translocated gastrointestinal bacteria in a neonatal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, J; Lee, D J; Harmon, C M; Drongowski, R A; Coran, A G

    1999-11-01

    The hypothesis that enteric bacteria translocate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to extraintestinal sites has been extensively studied. However, definitive evidence that spontaneous bacterial translocation and dissemination from the GI tract to extraintestinal sites occur in a neonatal model has been lacking. The aim of this study was to confirm this phenomenon by tracking enterally administered, plasmid-labeled bacteria to extraintestinal sites. Escherichia coli 07:K1 (E. coli K1) with and without a nontransferable, ampicillin resistance plasmid (pGEM-7) were used in this study. Newborn New Zealand white rabbit pups were separated into three treatment groups: transformed E. coli K1 (E. coli K1 + pGEM-7, n = 20), nontransformed E. coli K1 (n = 12), and control pups (no bacteria, n = 7). Pups were enterally fed 10% Formulac solution supplemented with a suspension of bacteria respective to their group. After the pups fed twice daily for 2 days, representative tissue specimens from the small bowel (SB), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen (SPL), and liver (LIV) were aseptically harvested and tested for culture growth in ampicillin-supplemented medium. Positive growths of plasmid-induced ampicillin-resistant bacteria were detected in tissue specimens harvested from rabbits fed transformed E. coli K1, but were not detected in the other groups. This experiment demonstrated conclusively that transformed E. coli K1 fed to healthy rabbit pups spontaneously translocated from the intestinal lumen and subsequently disseminated to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  6. Frequency Synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, Salvatore; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus M.W.; Breems, Lucien J.; Nauta, Bram

    2016-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  7. Frequency synthesiser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drago, S.; Sebastiano, Fabio; Leenaerts, Dominicus Martinus Wilhelmus; Breems, Lucien Johannes; Nauta, Bram

    2010-01-01

    A low power frequency synthesiser circuit (30) for a radio transceiver, the synthesiser circuit comprising: a digital controlled oscillator configured to generate an output signal having a frequency controlled by an input digital control word (DCW); a feedback loop connected between an output and an

  8. Bacterial translocation and enteral nutrition in humans: an outsider looks in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, T O

    1995-01-01

    To assess the literature documenting the existence of bacterial translocation in humans, the effects of enteral nutrition on bacterial translocation in humans, and the hypothesis that enteral nutrition prevents bacterial translocation in humans. Sources included Medline search, references from review articles, and references from animal and human studies. The goal was to include all animal and human studies directly addressing questions of bacterial translocation and nutritional status or nutritional support. An attempt was made to briefly summarize methodology and findings of relevent studies. No general attempt was made to assess quality of individual studies. Bacterial translocation is a well documented phenomenon in animal models. Starvation and malnutrition of themselves do not induce bacterial translocation, but may facilitate translocation in the presence of other systemic insults. Parenteral nutrition and many forms of enteral nutrition may induce and/or facilitate bacterial translocation. Chow and certain fiber sources seem protective. Moderate direct and several lines of indirect evidence support the existence of bacterial translocation in humans. There is no direct evidence and questionable indirect evidence suggesting that enteral nutrition prevents or modifies bacterial translocation in humans. The hypothesis relating enteral nutrition and bacterial translocation in critically ill patients remains attractive, but unproven.

  9. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  10. Low translocation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis to inner organs in mice after pulmonary exposure to commercial biopesticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kenneth Klingenberg; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Krogfelt, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Translocation of viable cells from a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis-based biopesticide to inner organs in a mouse model was studied. Mice were exposed to the originally formulated product through the lungs and gastrointestinal tract by intratracheal instillation. Colony forming units (CFU) were...... grown from lungs, caecum, spleen and liver on Bacillus cereus-specific agar (BCSA) after 24 h and finally determined to be biopesticide strain B. t. israelensis by large plasmid profile. No CFU were found in spleen or liver of the control mice or in any aerosol background or material. We have shown...... biopesticides in the future....

  11. Superluminal velocity of photons in a gravitational background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khriplovich, I.B.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of radiative corrections on the photon propagation in a gravitational background is investigated without the low-frequency assumption. The conclusion is made in this way that the velocity of light can exceed unity. 7 refs

  12. Background Rejection in the ARA Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfendner Carl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Askaryan Radio Array (ARA is a radio frequency observatory under construction at the South Pole that is searching for ultrahigh energy neutrinos via the Askaryan effect. Thermal fluctuations currently dominate the trigger-level background for the observatory and anthropogenic sources also introduce a significant source of noise. By taking advantage of the observatory’s regular geometry and the expected coincident nature of the RF signals arriving from neutrino-induced events, this background can be filtered efficiently. This contribution will discuss techniques developed for the ARA analyses to reject these thermal signals, to reject anthropogenic backgrounds, and to search for neutrino-induced particle showers in the Antarctic ice. The results of a search for neutrinos from GRBs using the prototype station using some of these techniques will be presented.

  13. Visual signal detection in structured backgrounds. II. Effects of contrast gain control, background variations, and white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, M. P.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of visual detection of a signal superimposed on one of two identical backgrounds show performance degradation when the background has high contrast and is similar in spatial frequency and/or orientation to the signal. To account for this finding, models include a contrast gain control mechanism that pools activity across spatial frequency, orientation and space to inhibit (divisively) the response of the receptor sensitive to the signal. In tasks in which the observer has to detect a known signal added to one of M different backgrounds grounds due to added visual noise, the main sources of degradation are the stochastic noise in the image and the suboptimal visual processing. We investigate how these two sources of degradation (contrast gain control and variations in the background) interact in a task in which the signal is embedded in one of M locations in a complex spatially varying background (structured background). We use backgrounds extracted from patient digital medical images. To isolate effects of the fixed deterministic background (the contrast gain control) from the effects of the background variations, we conduct detection experiments with three different background conditions: (1) uniform background, (2) a repeated sample of structured background, and (3) different samples of structured background. Results show that human visual detection degrades from the uniform background condition to the repeated background condition and degrades even further in the different backgrounds condition. These results suggest that both the contrast gain control mechanism and the background random variations degrade human performance in detection of a signal in a complex, spatially varying background. A filter model and added white noise are used to generate estimates of sampling efficiencies, an equivalent internal noise, an equivalent contrast-gain-control-induced noise, and an equivalent noise due to the variations in the structured background.

  14. Mapping the gravitational wave background

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, Neil J.

    2001-01-01

    The gravitational wave sky is expected to have isolated bright sources superimposed on a diffuse gravitational wave background. The background radiation has two components: a confusion limited background from unresolved astrophysical sources; and a cosmological component formed during the birth of the universe. A map of the gravitational wave background can be made by sweeping a gravitational wave detector across the sky. The detector output is a complicated convolution of the sky luminosity ...

  15. TFE3-positive renal cell carcinomas are not always Xp11 translocation carcinomas: Report of a case with a TPM3-ALK translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, Paul Scott; Shago, Mary; Marrano, Paula; Shaikh, Furqan; Somers, Gino R

    2016-10-01

    Translocation-associated renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a distinct subtype of RCC with gene rearrangements of the TFE3 or TFEB loci. The TFE3 gene is located at Xp11 and can fuse to a number of translocation partners, resulting in high nuclear expression of TFE3 protein. TFE3 immunostaining is often used as a surrogate marker for a TFE3 translocation. We report a case of an RCC that expressed TFE3 but showed only gain of TFE3 rather than a translocation. Moreover, this case had a t(1;2) translocation fusing ALK and TMP3, identical to that seen in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour. There was resulting overexpression of ALK protein in a cytoplasmic and membranous pattern. The patient was not treated with chemotherapy but following regional nodal recurrence, an ALK inhibitor was added and the patient remains alive one year later. There are only rare reports of RCC with an ALK-TMP3 fusion, and these tumours can express TFE3 on some unknown basis not related to a TFE3 translocation. Any RCC positive for TFE3 and lacking a translocation should be tested for ALK expression and translocation. Recognition of this subtype of RCC will allow ALK inhibitor therapy to be added, in the hope of improving patient outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...

  17. Fingerprints of Galactic Loop I on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hao; Mertsch, Philipp; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the "radio loops" in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly, there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where...

  18. Stable Translocation Intermediates Jam Global Protein Export in Plasmodium falciparum Parasites and Link the PTEX Component EXP2 with Translocation Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesén-Ramírez, Paolo; Reinsch, Ferdinand; Blancke Soares, Alexandra; Bergmann, Bärbel; Ullrich, Ann-Katrin; Tenzer, Stefan; Spielmann, Tobias

    2016-05-01

    Protein export is central for the survival and virulence of intracellular P. falciparum blood stage parasites. To reach the host cell, exported proteins cross the parasite plasma membrane (PPM) and the parasite-enclosing parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM), a process that requires unfolding, suggestive of protein translocation. Components of a proposed translocon at the PVM termed PTEX are essential in this phase of export but translocation activity has not been shown for the complex and questions have been raised about its proposed membrane pore component EXP2 for which no functional data is available in P. falciparum. It is also unclear how PTEX mediates trafficking of both, soluble as well as transmembrane proteins. Taking advantage of conditionally foldable domains, we here dissected the translocation events in the parasite periphery, showing that two successive translocation steps are needed for the export of transmembrane proteins, one at the PPM and one at the PVM. Our data provide evidence that, depending on the length of the C-terminus of the exported substrate, these steps occur by transient interaction of the PPM and PVM translocon, similar to the situation for protein transport across the mitochondrial membranes. Remarkably, we obtained constructs of exported proteins that remained arrested in the process of being translocated across the PVM. This clogged the translocation pore, prevented the export of all types of exported proteins and, as a result, inhibited parasite growth. The substrates stuck in translocation were found in a complex with the proposed PTEX membrane pore component EXP2, suggesting a role of this protein in translocation. These data for the first time provide evidence for EXP2 to be part of a translocating entity, suggesting that PTEX has translocation activity and provide a mechanistic framework for the transport of soluble as well as transmembrane proteins from the parasite boundary into the host cell.

  19. Voltage-driven translocation of DNA through a high throughput conical solid-state nanopore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjun Liu

    Full Text Available Nanopores have become an important tool for molecule detection at single molecular level. With the development of fabrication technology, synthesized solid-state membranes are promising candidate substrates in respect of their exceptional robustness and controllable size and shape. Here, a 30-60 (tip-base nm conical nanopore fabricated in 100 nm thick silicon nitride (Si(3N(4 membrane by focused ion beam (FIB has been employed for the analysis of λ-DNA translocations at different voltage biases from 200 to 450 mV. The distributions of translocation time and current blockage, as well as the events frequencies as a function of voltage are investigated. Similar to previously published work, the presence and configurations of λ-DNA molecules are characterized, also, we find that greater applied voltages markedly increase the events rate, and stretch the coiled λ-DNA molecules into linear form. However, compared to 6-30 nm ultrathin solid-state nanopores, a threshold voltage of 181 mV is found to be necessary to drive DNA molecules through the nanopore due to conical shape and length of the pore. The speed is slowed down ∼5 times, while the capture radius is ∼2 fold larger. The results show that the large nanopore in thick membrane with an improved stability and throughput also has the ability to detect the molecules at a single molecular level, as well as slows down the velocity of molecules passing through the pore. This work will provide more motivations for the development of nanopores as a Multi-functional sensor for a wide range of biopolymers and nano materials.

  20. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Ahluwalia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3 that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain.

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with Xp11.2 Translocation/TFE3 Gene Fusion: A Rare Case Report with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Puneet; Nair, Balagopal; Kumar, Ginil

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The recently recognized renal cell carcinomas associated with Xp11.2 translocations are rare tumors predominantly reported in children. Chromosome Xp11.2 translocation results in gene fusion related to transcription factor E3 (TFE3) that plays an important role in proliferation and survival. Case Report. Herein, we present two cases of a TFE3 translocation-associated RCC in young female adults, one detected incidentally and the other one presenting with gross hematuria. Tumor is characterized by immunohistochemistry and a literature review with optimal treatment regimen is presented. Discussion. Xp11.2 translocation RCCs in adult patients are associated with advanced stages, large tumors, and extracapsular disease and usually have an aggressive clinical course. Conclusion. In TFE3 RCC, the genetic background may not only contribute to tumorigenesis, but also determine the response to chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Therefore it is necessary to diagnose this tumor entity accurately. Because of the small number of TFE3 gene fusion-related renal tumors described in the literature, the exact biologic behavior and impact of current treatment modalities remain to be uncertain. PMID:24455396

  2. An Improved Spectral Background Subtraction Method Based on Wavelet Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengkui; Wang, Jian; Wang, Aimin

    2016-12-01

    Most spectral background subtraction methods rely on the difference in frequency response of background compared with characteristic peaks. It is difficult to extract accurately the background components from the spectrum when characteristic peaks and background have overlaps in frequency domain. An improved background estimation algorithm based on iterative wavelet transform (IWT) is presented. The wavelet entropy principle is used to select the best wavelet basis. A criterion based on wavelet energy theory to determine the optimal iteration times is proposed. The case of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is discussed for illustration. A simulated spectrum with a prior known background and an experimental spectrum are tested. The processing results of the simulated spectrum is compared with non-IWT and it demonstrates the superiority of the IWT. It has great significance to improve the accuracy for spectral analysis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    Saharan Africa at US$4 billion per year for grains alone (World Bank, 2010). Considerable scope exists for research to find effecve ways to reduce food losses while increasing returns through product quality control, market segmentaon,.

  4. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  5. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    particularly in urban areas and emerging hunger hotspots. Migration caused by the ... Deltas: Deltas in Africa and South Asia are some of the world's most vulnerable coastal areas because of a critical combination ... rise and land subsidence persist, 5.4 million people in Africa and Asia might be displaced by 2050:. 93% live.

  6. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    inequalities, and poverty based on rigorous data collection and analysis. ... at how poor urban planning may be contributing to forced evictions and mass relocations, which in turn can lead to violence in the form of ... communities with similar conditions of social exclusion experience different levels of violence. The study will.

  7. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Through this initiative, four consortia will conduct research in three “hot spots” – regions where demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong climate signals put large numbers of people and their livelihoods at risk: semi-arid regions, deltas, and Himalayan river basins. The initiative brings ...

  8. [A case of probable bacterial translocation-associated sepsis in healthy adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohosone, Yasuo; Obana, Mitsuo; Koido, Norihiko; Akizuki, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Yasuo; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2004-03-01

    We report a patient with bacterial translocation-associated sepsis who was healthy and did not have any related-background. The 57-year-old male had been well until 16 hours before admission, when nausea and vomiting gradually developed and increased in intensity. In the morning of May 22, 2002, he had shaking chills, temperature of 38.6 degrees C and watery diarrhea, and was admitted to Kawasaki Municipal Hospital. On admission, temperature was 40.7 degrees C but otherwise physical examination revealed no particular abnormality. Laboratory data showed total white blood cells of 28,400/microliter, platelet count of 130,000/microliter, creatinine of 2.0 mg/dl and C-reactive protein of 7.5 mg/dl. 1 g of cefmetazole was administered every eight hours. In the early morning of May 23, he suddenly went into shock. At that time, laboratory findings revealed total white blood cells of 33,700/microliter, platelet count of 65,000/microliter, C-reactive protein of 24.9 mg/dl, creatinine of 5.6 mg/dl and serum potassium concentration of 5.7 mEq/l. Gram positive cocci and gram negative rods were isolated from blood culture obtained on admission. Cefmetazole was changed to 1.5 g/day of imipenem/cilastatin sodium and 600 mg/day of clindamycin. In addition, hemodialysis and endotoxin removal with an adsorbent column using polymyxin B were performed. Bacteria detected in the blood on admission were identified as Klebsiela oxytoca and Enterococcus faecium. Imipenem/cilastatin sodium and clindamycin were continued for 13 days. The patient recovered fully and was discharged on June 11. This case suggests that bacterial translocation-associated sepsis might occur even in a hitherto healthy adult.

  9. Aquaporin-1 translocation and degradation mediates the water transportation mechanism of acetazolamide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhao Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diuretic agents are widely used on the treatment of water retention related diseases, among which acetazolamide (AZA acts originally as a carbonic anhydrase (CA inhibitor. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1 being located in renal proximal tubules is required for urine concentration. Previously our lab has reported AZA putatively modulated AQP1. Aim of this study is to testify our hypothesis that regulating AQP1 may mediate diuretic effect of AZA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For in vivo study, we utilized Sprague Dawley rats, as well as AQP1 knock-out (AQP1(-/- mice to examine urine volume, and human kidney-2 (HK-2 cell line was used for in vitro mechanism study. In our present study we found that AZA decreased CAs activity initially but the activity gradually recovered. Contrarily, diuretic effect was consistently significant. AQP1 protein expression was significantly decreased on day 7 and 14. By utilizing AQP1(-/- mice, we found diuretic effect of AZA was cancelled on day 14, while urine volume continuously increased in wild-type mice. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR results indicated AQP1 was physiologically bound by myosin heavy chain (MHC, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence results confirmed this protein interaction. In vitro study results proved AZA facilitated AQP1 translocation onto cell membrane by promoting interaction with MHC, dependent on ERK/ myosin light chain kinase (MLCK pathway activation. MHC inhibitor BDM and ERK inhibitor U0126 both abolished above effect of AZA. Eventually AZA induced AQP1 ubiquitination, while proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed AZA's down-regulating effect upon AQP1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results identified AZA exerted diuretic effect through an innovative mechanism by regulating AQP1 and verified its inhibitory mechanism was via promoting MHC-dependent translocation onto cell membrane and then ubiquitin mediated degradation, implicating a novel mechanism and target for diuretic agent

  10. Serotonin transporter (SERT and translocator protein (TSPO expression in the obese ob/ob mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini Ferruccio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ever growing body of evidences is emerging concerning metabolism hormones, neurotransmitters or stress-related biomarkers as effective modulators of eating behavior and body weight in mammals. The present study sought at examining the density and affinity of two proteins related to neurotransmission and cell metabolism, the serotonin transporter SERT and the cholesterol import-benzodiazepine site TSPO (translocator protein, in a rodent leptin-lacking mutant, the obese ob/ob mouse. Binding studies were thus carried out in brain or peripheral tissues, blood platelets (SERT and kidneys (TSPO, of ob/ob and WT mice supplied with a standard diet, using the selective radiochemical ligands [3H]-paroxetine and [3H]-PK11195. Results We observed comparable SERT number or affinity in brain and platelets of ob/ob and WT mice, whilst a significantly higher [3H]-PK11195 density was reported in the brain of ob/ob animals. TSPO binding parameters were similar in the kidneys of all tested mice. By [3H]-PK11195 autoradiography of coronal hypothalamic-hippocampal sections, an increased TSPO signal was detected in the dentate gyrus (hippocampus and choroids plexus of ob/ob mice, without appreciable changes in the cortex or hypothalamic-thalamic regions. Conclusions These findings show that TSPO expression is up-regulated in cerebral regions of ob/ob leptin-deficient mice, suggesting a role of the translocator protein in leptin-dependent CNS trophism and metabolism. Unchanged SERT in mutant mice is discussed herein in the context of previous literature as the forerunner to a deeper biochemical investigation.

  11. Acute Ethanol Intake Induces NAD(PH Oxidase Activation and Rhoa Translocation in Resistance Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina A. Simplicio

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The mechanism underlying the vascular dysfunction induced by ethanol is not totally understood. Identification of biochemical/molecular mechanisms that could explain such effects is warranted. Objective: To investigate whether acute ethanol intake activates the vascular RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in resistance arteries and the role of NAD(PH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS on such response. We also evaluated the requirement of p47phox translocation for ethanol-induced NAD(PH oxidase activation. Methods: Male Wistar rats were orally treated with ethanol (1g/kg, p.o. gavage or water (control. Some rats were treated with vitamin C (250 mg/kg, p.o. gavage, 5 days before administration of water or ethanol. The mesenteric arterial bed (MAB was collected 30 min after ethanol administration. Results: Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in superoxide anion (O2- generation and lipoperoxidation in the MAB. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the reduced glutathione, nitrate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 levels were not affected by ethanol. Vitamin C and 4-methylpyrazole prevented the increase on O2- generation induced by ethanol in cultured MAB vascular smooth muscle cells. Ethanol had no effect on phosphorylation levels of protein kinase B (Akt and eNOS (Ser1177 or Thr495 residues or MAB vascular reactivity. Vitamin C prevented ethanol-induced increase in the membrane: cytosol fraction ratio of p47phox and RhoA expression in the rat MAB. Conclusion: Acute ethanol intake induces activation of the RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by a mechanism that involves ROS generation. In resistance arteries, ethanol activates NAD(PH oxidase by inducing p47phox translocation by a redox-sensitive mechanism.

  12. Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Kroum Gherardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum oxyhydroxide (alum is a crystaline compound widely used as an immunologic adjuvant of vaccines. Concerns linked to the use of alum particles emerged following recognition of their causative role in the so-called macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF lesion detected in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue/syndrome. MMF revealed an unexpectedly long-lasting biopersistence of alum within immune cells in presumably susceptible individuals, stressing the previous fundamental misconception of its biodisposition. We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytozed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. The understanding of basic mechanisms of particle biopersistence and brain translocation represents a major health challenge, since it could help to define susceptibility factors to develop chronic neurotoxic damage. Biopersistence of alum may be linked to its lysosome-destabilizing effect, which is likely due to direct crystal-induced rupture of phagolysosomal membranes. Macrophages that continuously perceive foreign particles in their cytosol will likely reiterate, with variable interindividual efficiency, a dedicated form of autophagy (xenophagy until they dispose of alien materials. Successful compartmentalization of particles within double membrane autophagosomes and subsequent fusion with repaired and re-acidified lysosomes will expose alum to lysosomal acidic pH, the sole factor that can solubilize alum particles. Brain translocation of alum particles is linked to a Trojan horse mechanism previously described for infectious particles (HIV, HCV, that obeys to CCL2 signaling the major inflammatory monocyte

  13. A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    cancer cell lines with validated AGTR1 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.0 -1.0 Normal Breast Fibroadenoma Breast Ductal Carcinoma A -1.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 4.0 3.0...in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Arul M. Chinnaiyan, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Michigan...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Search for Gene Fusions/Translocations in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0110 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Cytogenetic and molecular characteristics of 25 Chilean patients with a variant Ph translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legues, Maria E; Encina, Andrea; Valenzuela, Mercedes; Palma, Tamara; Undurraga, Maria S

    2011-07-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which results from a balanced translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, the t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). In 5-10% of the cases, variants of the Ph (vPh) are detected, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11.2. Deletions on the der(9) and der(22) can be detected in approximately 10-15% of CML patients. The frequency of a deletion of the der(9) in vPh CML is variable. Most studies have shown high frequencies (30-45%) in this subgroup. We report the cytogenetic evaluation of 25 vPh cases, which represents 6.8% of the CML cases diagnosed at one institution in 20 years. The breakpoints of the partners of the vPh in our patients agree with those reported previously, except for a novel 18q23. We found a low incidence of deletions of the der(9) (10%) and der(22) (5%) in these patients, contrasting with several reports in the literature. This finding may reflect the extensive spectrum of aberrations in vPh, and the possibility that a considerable group of these aberrations may not affect the genetic stability of 5'ABL1 and 3'BCR. Epidemiologic differences may also exist and could explain our results. These differences would require further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of transposon TN1 translocation under the action of different mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubanejshvili, M.G.; Smirnov, S.P.; Tarasov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    Migration of ampicillin transposon Tn1 under normal conditions in Escherichia coli cells proceeds with low frequency (10 -4 transpositions for cell). The low transposition frequency is conditioned by the transposition repression, realized by the gene-repressor in transposon structure and, probably, by other regulating genes of the bacterium-host. E. coli cell treatment by physical and chemical mutagens resulted in induction of translocation of ampicillin transposon Tn1 from plasmid RP4 into other replicons. Mitomycin C and ultraviolet radiation produced stronger inducing effect as compared to nitroso-guanidine (NG). The effect of the given mutagens on transposition Tn1 correlated with their activating capacity with respect to inducible SOS-functions of E coli. The mutation of rec A didn't influence on spontaneous Tn1 transposition, but blocked completely the induction of transposition process under mutagen effect. The relationship of inducible transposition with SOS-functions in E. coli cells, controlled by recA and lexA genes, as well as the possible role of the process in genetic microorganism variability are discussed in the paper

  16. Use of chromosome translocations for measuring prior environment exposures in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, J. D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in cytogenetic methodology are beginning to have a major impact upon our ability to provide assessments of environmental exposure in humans. The advent of fluorescent-based techniques for `painting` whole chromosomes has made the analysis of chromosome translocations rapid, specific, sensitive and routine. Chromosome painting has been used to address a wide variety of scientific questions, resulting in an increased understanding of the biological consequences of adverse environmental exposure. This paper describes the use of chromosome translocations as a biological marker of exposure and effect in humans. The relevance of translocations is discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of painting compared to classical cytogenetic methods for translocation evaluation. The factors to consider in the use of translocations as a retrospective indicator of exposure are then described. Several theoretical parameters that are important to the use of translocations are provided, and the paper concludes with a vision for the future of cytogenetic methodology.

  17. Polymer translocation under a pulling force: Scaling arguments and threshold forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menais, Timothée

    2018-02-01

    DNA translocation through nanopores is one of the most promising strategies for next-generation sequencing technologies. Most experimental and numerical works have focused on polymer translocation biased by electrophoresis, where a pulling force acts on the polymer within the nanopore. An alternative strategy, however, is emerging, which uses optical or magnetic tweezers. In this case, the pulling force is exerted directly at one end of the polymer, which strongly modifies the translocation process. In this paper, we report numerical simulations of both linear and structured (mimicking DNA) polymer models, simple enough to allow for a statistical treatment of the pore structure effects on the translocation time probability distributions. Based on extremely extended computer simulation data, we (i) propose scaling arguments for an extension of the predicted translocation times τ ˜N2F-1 over the moderate forces range and (ii) analyze the effect of pore size and polymer structuration on translocation times τ .

  18. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  19. Balanced translocation linked to psychiatric disorder, glutamate, and cortical structure/function

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pippa A; Duff, Barbara; Blackwood, Douglas H R; Romaniuk, Liana; Watson, Andrew; Whalley, Heather C; Li, Xiang; Dauvermann, Maria R; Moorhead, T William J; Bois, Catherine; Ryan, Niamh M; Redpath, Holly; Hall, Lynsey; Morris, Stewart W; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2016-01-01

    Rare genetic variants of large effect can help elucidate the pathophysiology of brain disorders. Here we expand the clinical and genetic analyses of a family with a (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation multiply affected by major psychiatric illness and test the effect of the translocation on the structure and function of prefrontal, and temporal brain regions. The translocation showed significant linkage (LOD score 6.1) with a clinical phenotype that included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorde...

  20. Home range and movements of male translocated problem tigers in Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Dolly Priatna; Yanto Santosa; Lilik B. Prasetyo; Agus P. Kartono

    2012-01-01

    The ranging behaviour of translocated problem tigers is poorly understood. The demand for releasing problem tigers back to the wild increases following the increasing the number of problem tigers that needs to be rescued in Sumatra in the last decade. In this study we estimate the home range size and obtain information on daily range of four translocated problem tigers, as well as discussing some potential factors determining the size of home range and their movement. We translocated four ad...

  1. Meiotic behaviour and spermatogenesis in male mice heterozygous for translocation types also occurring in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhoff, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a start was made with meiotic observations of mouse translocation types - a Robertsonian translocation and a translocation between a metacentric and an acrocentric chromosome - which also occur in man. As an exogeneous factor of possible influence, the meiotic effects of two types of radiation (fission neutrons and X-rays) administered at relatively low doses 2 and 3 hours before prometaphase-metaphase II (probably during metaphase-anaphase I), were determined in Rb4Bnr/+-males. (Auth.)

  2. Occurence of translocations between irradiated and intact chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasnyankina, E.N.; Abeleva, Eh.A.; Generalova, M.V.

    1980-01-01

    Two translocations between irradiated father and intact mother autosomes are obtained in Drosophila melanogaster. Five out of 283 regular translocations (between the second and the third chromosomes of an irradiated male) are accompanied by a recombination over the second or the third chromosomes. Nine flies out of twenty considered to be recombinants, could originate due to mutations. The data obtained prove that intact female autosomes can take part in the exchange with homologic (recombinations) and heterologic (translocations) irradiated male autosomes

  3. Insulin-induced translocation of IR to the nucleus in insulin responsive cells requires a nuclear translocation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Dov; Horovitz-Fried, Miriam; Brutman-Barazani, Tamar; Sampson, Sanford R

    2018-04-01

    Insulin binding to its cell surface receptor (IR) activates a cascade of events leading to its biological effects. The Insulin-IR complex is rapidly internalized and then is either recycled back to the plasma membrane or sent to lysosomes for degradation. Although most of the receptor is recycled or degraded, a small amount may escape this pathway and migrate to the nucleus of the cell where it might be important in promulgation of receptor signals. In this study we explored the mechanism by which insulin induces IR translocation to the cell nucleus. Experiments were performed cultured L6 myoblasts, AML liver cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Insulin treatment induced a rapid increase in nuclear IR protein levels within 2 to 5 min. Treatment with WGA, an inhibitor of nuclear import, reduced insulin-induced increases nuclear IR protein; IR was, however, translocated to a perinuclear location. Bioinformatics tools predicted a potential nuclear localization sequence (NLS) on IR. Immunofluorescence staining showed that a point mutation on the predicted NLS blocked insulin-induced IR nuclear translocation. In addition, blockade of nuclear IR activation in isolated nuclei by an IR blocking antibody abrogated insulin-induced increases in IR tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear PKCδ levels. Furthermore, over expression of mutated IR reduced insulin-induced glucose uptake and PKB phosphorylation. When added to isolated nuclei, insulin induced IR phosphorylation but had no effect on nuclear IR protein levels. These results raise questions regarding the possible role of nuclear IR in IR signaling and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Balanced Autosomal Translocations in Two Women Reporting Recurrent Miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Brindha; Samuel, Chandra R; Thyagarajan, Santhiya Sathiyavedu

    2016-12-01

    Spontaneous abortion or loss of fetus prior to 20 weeks of gestation is observed in 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies. Recurrent Miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses and it affects 1-2% of women. Parental chromosomal rearrangements account for 2-5% of RM. This report describes two couples with a clinical history of RM who were subjected to conventional cytogenetic analysis to ascertain the chromosomal aetiology. Analysis of GTG-banded metaphases obtained from cultured lymphocytes at approximately 500-band resolution revealed balanced translocation in the female spouses as 46,XX,t(8;11)(p11.2;q23.3) in BR27W and 46,XX,t(5;7)(p15.1;q32) pat in BR49W. Both the male partners exhibited 46,XY karyotype. Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis was subsequently carried out to confirm the balanced translocation using suitable whole chromosome paint probes. These balanced chromosomal abnormalities in the parents could be responsible for the repeated fetal losses. Hence, karyotype analysis should be a mandatory etiological investigation for couples with RM towards genetic counselling. Disruption of critical genes through these rearrangements could also underlie the pregnancy outcome.

  5. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Adam; Krupke, Christian H

    2017-01-01

    Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn) seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  6. Translocation of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin in maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Alford

    Full Text Available Neonicotinoid seed treatments, typically clothianidin or thiamethoxam, are routinely applied to >80% of maize (corn seed grown in North America where they are marketed as a targeted pesticide delivery system. Despite this widespread use, the amount of compound translocated into plant tissue from the initial seed treatment to provide protection has not been reported. Our two year field study compared concentrations of clothianidin seed treatments in maize to that of maize without neonicotinoid seed treatments and found neonicotinoids present in root tissues up to 34 days post planting. Plant-bound clothianidin concentrations followed an exponential decay pattern with initially high values followed by a rapid decrease within the first ~20 days post planting. A maximum of 1.34% of the initial seed treatment was successfully recovered from plant tissues in both study years and a maximum of 0.26% was recovered from root tissue. Our findings show neonicotinoid seed treatments may provide protection from some early season secondary maize pests. However, the proportion of the neonicotinoid seed treatment clothianidin translocated into plant tissues throughout the growing season is low overall and this observation may provide a mechanism to explain reports of inconsistent efficacy of this pest management approach and increasing detections of environmental neonicotinoids.

  7. Pore formation by T3SS translocators: liposome leakage assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faudry, Eric; Perdu, Caroline; Attrée, Ina

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize a dedicated membrane-embedded apparatus, the type III secretion system (T3SS), to inject proteins into host cells. The passage of the proteins across the target membrane is accomplished by a proteinaceous pore-the translocon-formed within the host-cell cytoplasmic membrane. Translocators bound to their chaperones can be expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently dissociated from the chaperone by guanidine treatment. The pore formation properties of the translocators can then be studied by an in-vitro liposome leakage assay. Sulforhodamine-B is encapsulated within lipid vesicles during liposome preparation. At high concentration, this fluorochrome exhibits self-quenching limiting fluorescence emission. Upon pore formation, liposome leakage leads to the dilution of Sulforhodamine-B in the medium and fluorescence emission increases. Alternatively, fluorochromes coupled to large dextran molecules can be encapsulated in order to estimate pore dimensions. Here we describe protein expression and purification, dye-liposome preparation, and leakage assay conditions.

  8. Myeloid translocation genes differentially regulate colorectal cancer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Bradley, Amber M.; Mittal, Mukul K.; Short, Sarah P.; Thompson, Joshua J.; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Naik, Rishi D.; Bilotta, Anthony J.; Washington, Mary K.; Revetta, Frank L.; Smith, Jesse J.; Chen, Xi; Wilson, Keith T.; Hiebert, Scott W.; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid translocation genes (MTGs), originally identified as chromosomal translocations in acute myelogenous leukemia, are transcriptional corepressors that regulate hematopoietic stem cell programs. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that MTGs were mutated in epithelial malignancy and suggested that loss of function might promote tumorigenesis. Genetic deletion of MTGR1 and MTG16 in the mouse has revealed unexpected and unique roles within the intestinal epithelium. Mtgr1−/− mice have progressive depletion of all intestinal secretory cells, and Mtg16−/− mice have a decrease in goblet cells. Furthermore, both Mtgr1−/− and Mtg16−/− mice have increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. We thus hypothesized that loss of MTGR1 or MTG16 would modify Apc1638/+-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis. Mtgr1−/− mice, but not Mtg16−/− mice, had a 10-fold increase in tumor multiplicity. This was associated with more advanced dysplasia, including progression to invasive adenocarcinoma, and augmented intratumoral proliferation. Analysis of ChIP-seq datasets for MTGR1 and MTG16 targets indicated that MTGR1 can regulate Wnt and Notch signaling. In support of this, immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis revealed that both Wnt and Notch signaling pathways were hyperactive in Mtgr1−/− tumors. Furthermore, in human colorectal cancer (CRC) samples MTGR1 was downregulated at both the transcript and protein level. Overall our data indicates that MTGR1 has a context dependent effect on intestinal tumorigenesis. PMID:27270437

  9. Reverse translocation of tRNA in the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Shinichiro; Walker, Sarah E; Fredrick, Kurt

    2006-12-28

    A widely held view is that directional movement of tRNA in the ribosome is determined by an intrinsic mechanism and driven thermodynamically by transpeptidation. Here, we show that, in certain ribosomal complexes, the pretranslocation (PRE) state is thermodynamically favored over the posttranslocation (POST) state. Spontaneous and efficient conversion from the POST to PRE state is observed when EF-G is depleted from ribosomes in the POST state or when tRNA is added to the E site of ribosomes containing P-site tRNA. In the latter assay, the rate of tRNA movement is increased by streptomycin and neomycin, decreased by tetracycline, and not affected by the acylation state of the tRNA. In one case, we provide evidence that complex conversion occurs by reverse translocation (i.e., direct movement of the tRNAs from the E and P sites to the P and A sites, respectively). These findings have important implications for the energetics of translocation.

  10. HMGB1 Translocation After Ischemia in the Ovine Fetal Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiyong; Klufas, Daniel; Manalo, Karina; Adjepong, Kwame; Davidson, Joanne O; Wassink, Guido; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J; Stopa, Edward G; Liu, Keyue; Nishibori, Masahiro; Stonestreet, Barbara S

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation contributes to the evolution of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is translocated from the nucleus and released after ischemia in adult rodents and thereby initiates inflammatory responses. However, there is very little information regarding the effects of HI on HMGB1 in immature brains. To investigate the effects of HI on HMGB1 in the term-equivalent fetal brain, ovine fetuses at 127 days gestation were studied after 30 minutes of carotid occlusion. Groups were sham-control and ischemia with 48 hours and ischemia with 72 hours of reperfusion. By immunohistochemistry, HMGB1 was found to be localized primarily in cell nuclei and partially in cytoplasmic compartments in the cerebral cortex of controls. Ischemia increased the area fraction of neuronal cells with cytoplasmic HMGB1 staining, and Western immunoblot revealed that cytosolic HMGB1 expression increased after ischemia (p the sham-control brains (p the nuclear to cytosolic compartments after ischemic brain injury in fetal sheep. This translocation may enable the action of HMGB1 as a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to HI injury in the developing brain. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DNA translocation through single-layer boron nitride nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zonglin; Zhang, Yuanzhao; Luan, Binquan; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-01-21

    Ultra-thin nanopores have become promising biological sensors because of their outstanding signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Here, we show that boron nitride (BN), which is a new two-dimensional (2D) material similar to graphene, could be utilized for making a nanopore with an atomic thickness. Using an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, we investigated the dynamics of DNA translocation through the BN nanopore. The results of our simulations demonstrated that it is possible to detect different double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences from the recording of ionic currents through the pore during the DNA translocation. Surprisingly, opposite to results for a graphene nanopore, we found the calculated blockage current for poly(A-T)40 in a BN nanopore to be less than that for poly(G-C)40. Also in contrast with the case of graphene nanopores, dsDNA models moved smoothly and in an unimpeded manner through the BN nanopores in the simulations, suggesting a potential advantage for using BN nanopores to design stall-free sequencing devices. BN nanopores, which display several properties (such as being hydrophilic and non-metallic) that are superior to those of graphene, are thus expected to find applications in the next generation of high-speed and low-cost biological sensors.

  12. Dynamics of end-pulled polymer translocation through a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Ghosh, Bappa; Chaudhury, Srabanti; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2017-11-01

    We consider the translocation dynamics of a polymer chain forced through a nanopore by an external force on its head monomer on the trans side. For a proper theoretical treatment we generalize the iso-flux tension propagation (IFTP) theory to include friction arising from the trans side subchain. The theory reveals a complicated scenario of multiple scaling regimes depending on the configurations of the cis and the trans side subchains. In the limit of high driving forces f such that the trans subchain is strongly stretched, the theory is in excellent agreement with molecular dynamics simulations and allows an exact analytic solution for the scaling of the translocation time τ as a function of the chain length N 0 and f. In this regime the asymptotic scaling exponents for τ ∼ N_0α fβ are α=2 , and β =-1 . The theory reveals significant correction-to-scaling terms arising from the cis side subchain and pore friction, which lead to a very slow approach to α =2 from below as a function of increasing N 0.

  13. Molecular determinants of nucleolar translocation of RNA helicase A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhe; Kenworthy, Rachael; Green, Christopher; Tang, Hengli

    2007-01-01

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAH-box family of DNA/RNA helicases involved in multiple cellular processes and the life cycles of many viruses. The subcellular localization of RHA is dynamic despite its steady-state concentration in the nucleoplasm. We have previously shown that it shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by virtue of a bidirectional nuclear transport domain (NTD) located in its carboxyl terminus. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants for its translocation within the nucleus and, more specifically, its redistribution from the nucleoplasm to nucleolus or the perinucleolar region. We found that low temperature treatment, transcription inhibition or replication of hepatitis C virus caused the intranuclear redistribution of the protein, suggesting that RHA shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm and becomes trapped in the nucleolus or the perinucleolar region upon blockade of transport to the nucleoplasm. Both the NTD and ATPase activity were essential for RHA's transport to the nucleolus or perinucleolar region. One of the double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD II) was also required for this nucleolar translocation (NoT) phenotype. RNA interference studies revealed that RHA is essential for survival of cultured hepatoma cells and the ATPase activity appears to be important for this critical role

  14. Translocation of cesium in plants after foliar deposition - Experiments and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.; Voigt, G.; Mueller, H.

    1991-01-01

    The translocation of cesium from the foliage to the edible parts as function of the time period between deposition and harvest has been determined for cereals, potatoes, green beans and carrots. From the results the following conclusions can be drawn: 1. The maximum of the cesium translocation is 40 to 50 and 70 to 90 days before harvest for cereals and potatoes respectively. For green beans a maximum was observed after deposition 15 days before harvest; 2. The variations of the translocation factors are less if the translocation is normalized to the yield; 3. The translocation factors are in good agreement with those of other investigators. The agreement between the experimental series is better for a normalization of the translocation factor on the yield; 4. For cereals and potatoes the translocation can be described with gaussian functions which are consistent with the physiological development of cereals and potatoes. Although the approach in ECOSYS tends to over predict slightly the translocation for barley and potatoes there is a good overall agreement between the experiments and this model; 5. According to the investigations available the translocation of cesium can be predicted within a factor of 3 for cereals and a factor of 4 for potatoes. Sources of the uncertainties besides the biological variability and the inherent experimental error are differences in the development of the plants due to weather conditions, farm management and plant diseases. (9 refs., 5 figs.)

  15. Translocation of a Polymer Chain across a Nanopore: A Brownian Dynamics Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pu; Smith, Grant D.

    2003-01-01

    We carried out Brownian dynamics simulation studies of the translocation of single polymer chains across a nanosized pore under the driving of an applied field (chemical potential gradient). The translocation process can be either dominated by the entropic barrier resulted from restricted motion of flexible polymer chains or by applied forces (or chemical gradient across the wall), we focused on the latter case in our studies. Calculation of radius of gyrations at the two opposite sides of the wall shows that the polymer chains are not in equilibrium during the translocation process. Despite this fact, our results show that the one-dimensional diffusion and the nucleation model provide an excellent description of the dependence of average translocation time on the chemical potential gradients, the polymer chain length and the solvent viscosity. In good agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions, the translocation time distribution of our simple model shows strong non-Gaussian characteristics. It is observed that even for this simple tubelike pore geometry, more than one peak of translocation time distribution can be generated for proper pore diameter and applied field strengths. Both repulsive Weeks-Chandler-Anderson and attractive Lennard-Jones polymer-nanopore interaction were studied, attraction facilitates the translocation process by shortening the total translocation time and dramatically improve the capturing of polymer chain. The width of the translocation time distribution was found to decrease with increasing temperature, increasing field strength, and decreasing pore diameter.

  16. Use of wild–caught individuals as a key factor for success in vertebrate translocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rummel, L.; MartInez-AbraIn, A.; Mayol, J.; Ruiz-Olmo, J.; Mañas, F.; Jimenez, J.; Gomez, J.A.; Oro, D.

    2016-07-01

    Success of vertebrate translocations is crucial to improve efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions but it is often difficult to assess because negative results (failed translocations) are seldom published. We developed surveys and sent them to heads of conservation services in three major Spanish Mediterranean regions. The purpose of our surveys was to determine which methodological factor, that could easily be implemented in practice, was more influential for translocation success. These factors included the origin of translocated individuals (captive or wild) and translocation effort (propagule size and program duration). After analyzing 83 programs, corresponding to 34 different vertebrate species, by means of generalized linear mixed modelling, we found that ‘origin’ was more relevant for translocation success than ‘effort’, although we could not rule out some role of translocation effort. Variance in success of translocation programs involving individuals from wild sources was smaller and consequently results more predictable. Origin interacted with taxa so that success was higher when using wild birds and especially wild fish and mammals, but not when releasing reptiles. Hence, we suggest that, for any given effort, translocation results will be better for most vertebrate taxa if individuals from wild sources are used. When this is not feasible, managers should release captive–reared individuals for a long number of years rather than a short number of years. (Author)

  17. Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization and Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) offer a means to explore the universe at a very early epoch. Specifically, if the universe went through a brief period of exponential expansion called inflation as current data suggest, gravitational waves from this period would polarize the CMB in a specific pattern. At GSFC, we are currently working towards two experiments that work in concert to measure this polarization pattern in search of evidence for inflation. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) will measure the polarization at frequencies between 40 and 150 GHz from the Atacama Desert in Chile. The Primordial Inflation Polarization Explorer (PIPER) is a balloon-borne experiment that will make similar measurements at frequencies between 200 and 600 GHz.

  18. Spontaneous Radiation Background Calculation for LCLS

    CERN Document Server

    Reiche, Sven

    2004-01-01

    The intensity of undulator radiation, not amplified by the FEL interaction, can be larger than the maximum FEL signal in the case of an X-ray FEL. In the commissioning of a SASE FEL it is essential to extract an amplified signal early to diagnose eventual misalignment of undulator modules or errors in the undulator field strength. We developed a numerical code to calculate the radiation pattern at any position behind a multi-segmented undulator with arbitrary spacing and field profiles. The output can be run through numerical spatial and frequency filters to model the radiation beam transport and diagnostic. In this presentation we estimate the expected background signal for the FEL diagnostic and at what point along the undulator the FEL signal can be separated from the background. We also discusses how much information on the undulator field and alignment can be obtained from the incoherent radiation signal itself.

  19. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  20. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different ...

  1. Protein kinase A antagonist inhibits β-catenin nuclear translocation, c-Myc and COX-2 expression and tumor promotion in ApcMin/+ mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brudvik Kristoffer W

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC protein is part of the destruction complex controlling proteosomal degradation of β-catenin and limiting its nuclear translocation, which is thought to play a gate-keeping role in colorectal cancer. The destruction complex is inhibited by Wnt-Frz and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 - PI-3 kinase pathways. Recent reports show that PGE2-induced phosphorylation of β-catenin by protein kinase A (PKA increases nuclear translocation indicating two mechanisms of action of PGE2 on β-catenin homeostasis. Findings Treatment of ApcMin/+ mice that spontaneously develop intestinal adenomas with a PKA antagonist (Rp-8-Br-cAMPS selectively targeting only the latter pathway reduced tumor load, but not the number of adenomas. Immunohistochemical characterization of intestines from treated and control animals revealed that expression of β-catenin, β-catenin nuclear translocation and expression of the β-catenin target genes c-Myc and COX-2 were significantly down-regulated upon Rp-8-Br-cAMPS treatment. Parallel experiments in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT116 revealed that Rp-8-Br-cAMPS blocked PGE2-induced β-catenin phosphorylation and c-Myc upregulation. Conclusion Based on our findings we suggest that PGE2 act through PKA to promote β-catenin nuclear translocation and tumor development in ApcMin/+ mice in vivo, indicating that the direct regulatory effect of PKA on β-catenin nuclear translocation is operative in intestinal cancer.

  2. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  3. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2005-01-01

    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular sca...

  4. Relative rates at which dominant-lethal mutations and heritable translocations are induced by alkylating chemicals in postmeiotic male germ cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generoso, W M; Huff, S W; Cain, K T

    1979-09-01

    There is a close relationship between the rates at which dominant lethal mutations and heritable translocations are induced by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) or triethylenemelamine (TEM) in male postmeiotic germ cells. This relationship does not hold for isopropyl methanesulfonate (IMS), which induced only negligible frequencies of heritable translocations at doses that induced high levels of dominant lethal mutations. Nor does IMS behave like EMS and TEM in the degree to which eggs of different stocks of females repair premutational lesions that are carried in the sperm-large differences between stocks for IMS treatment and small differences for EMS or TEM treatment. These dissimilarities between IMS and the other two alkylating chemicals are postulated to be attributable to differences in the types of lesions present at the time of repair activity and to whether or not chromosomal aberrations are already fixed prior to postfertilization pronuclear DNA synthesis.

  5. Crosses Heterozygous for Hybrid Neurospora Translocation Strains Show Transmission Ratio Distortion Disfavoring Homokaryotic Ascospores Made Following Alternate Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Ashish Giri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available By introgressing Neurospora crassa translocations into N. tetrasperma, we constructed heterokaryons bearing haploid nuclei of opposite mating types, and either the translocation and normal sequence chromosomes (i.e., [T + N] or a duplication and its complementary deficiency (i.e., [Dp + Df]. The [T + N] heterokaryons result from alternate segregation of homologous centromeres, whereas adjacent-1 segregation generates [Dp + Df]. Self-cross of either heterokaryon produces [T + N] and [Dp + Df] progeny. Occasionally during N. tetrasperma ascus development, a pair of smaller homokaryotic ascospores replaces a heterokaryotic ascospore. Crosses with the Eight-spore mutant increase such replacement, and can generate asci with eight homokaryotic ascospores, either 4T + 4N from alternate segregation, or 4Dp + 4Df from adjacent-1 segregation. Crosses of some of the introgressed translocation strains with normal sequence N. tetrasperma produced more Dp than T or N homokaryotic progeny. We suggest this is due to an insufficiency for a presumptive ascospore maturation factor, which increases the chance that, in asci with > 4 viable ascospores, none properly mature. Since only four viable ascospores (Dp or [Dp + Df] share the limiting factor following adjacent-1 segregation, whereas four to eight ascospores compete for it following alternate segregation, this would explain why Dp homokaryons outnumber T and N types, whereas the heterokaryons are not as affected. We believe that this novel form of transmission ratio distortion is caused by a Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller Incompatibility (BDMI triggered by an N. crassa gene in the N. tetrasperma background. Heterokaryons tend not to out-cross, and crosses of Dp strains are barren, thus the BDMI impedes interspecies gene flow.

  6. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  7. Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Dietary Supplements Health Professional Other Resources Botanical Dietary Supplements Background Information Have a question? Ask ... on botanical dietary supplements? Disclaimer What is a botanical? A botanical is a plant or plant part ...

  8. Microenvironments to study migration and somal translocation in cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shifang; Fan, Wenqiang; Guo, Xiang; Xue, Longjian; Berninger, Benedikt; Salierno, Marcelo J; Del Campo, Aránzazu

    2018-02-01

    Migrating post-mitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex undergo terminal somal translocation (ST) when they reach their final destination in the cortical plate. This process is crucial for proper cortical layering and its perturbation can lead to brain dysfunction. Here we present a reductionist biomaterials platform that faithfully supports and controls the distinct phases of terminal ST in vitro. We developed microenvironments with different adhesive molecules to support neuronal attachment, neurite extension, and migration in distinct manners. Efficient ST occurred when the leading process of migratory neurons crossed from low-to high-adhesive areas on a substrate, promoting spreading of the leading growth cone. Our results indicate that elementary adhesive cell-substrate interactions strongly influence migratory behavior and the final positioning of neurons during their developmental journey. This in vitro model allows advanced experimentation to reveal the microenvironmental requirements underlying cortical layer development and disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. How filamentous plant pathogen effectors are translocated to host cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Libera; Kahmann, Regine

    2017-08-01

    The interaction of microbes with "signature" plants is largely governed by secreted effector proteins, which serve to dampen plant defense responses and modulate host cell processes. Secreted effectors can function either in the apoplast or within plant cell compartments. How oomycetes and fungi translocate their effectors to plant cells is still poorly understood and controversial. While most oomycete effectors share a common 'signature' that was proposed to mediate their uptake via endocytosis, fungal effectors display no conserved motifs at the primary amino acid sequence level. Here we summarize current knowledge in the field of oomycete and fungal effector uptake and highlight emerging themes that may unite rather than set apart these unrelated filamentous pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  11. Logic Gate Operation by DNA Translocation through Biological Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yasuga

    Full Text Available Logical operations using biological molecules, such as DNA computing or programmable diagnosis using DNA, have recently received attention. Challenges remain with respect to the development of such systems, including label-free output detection and the rapidity of operation. Here, we propose integration of biological nanopores with DNA molecules for development of a logical operating system. We configured outputs "1" and "0" as single-stranded DNA (ssDNA that is or is not translocated through a nanopore; unlabeled DNA was detected electrically. A negative-AND (NAND operation was successfully conducted within approximately 10 min, which is rapid compared with previous studies using unlabeled DNA. In addition, this operation was executed in a four-droplet network. DNA molecules and associated information were transferred among droplets via biological nanopores. This system would facilitate linking of molecules and electronic interfaces. Thus, it could be applied to molecular robotics, genetic engineering, and even medical diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has...... is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms...

  13. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  14. Estimating COCOM Natural Background Dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 5- 7 Phase IV Army Camouflage Development Effort Estimating COCOM Natural Background Dormancy Co ld R eg io ns...ERDC/CRREL TR-15-7 April 2015 Estimating COCOM Natural Background Dormancy Alexis L. Coplin and Charles C. Ryerson Cold Regions Research and...phenological stage, controls color and tex- ture of natural vegetation as it cycles through greenup, verdancy, senes- cence, and dormancy . For the Army

  15. Translocation, distribution, and environmental degradation of hexachlorophene in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Auken, O W; Hulse, M

    1979-01-01

    The translocation, distribution, metabolism and environmental degradation of hexachlorophene were investigated in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv. beefsteak). All plants were grown under standardized conditions and treated with leaf-applied 14C-ring-labeled hexachlorophene (HCP). Treatment time ranged from 0 to 70 days. Autoradiographic analyses were performed on all plants. Selected plant tissues were extracted and chromatographed, using thin layer (TLC) and gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Hexachlorophene was not translocated from the plant leaves. No metabolites of hexachlorophene was found. A slight, but statistically nonsignificant, amount of HCP was lost from the leaves and the inert controls. At the end of the 70-day treatment, based on TLC and regression analysis of thin layer chromatographic plates, averages of 89.5% and 75.9% of the applied HPC remained unaltered on the treated plants and controls, respectively. This indicated that 10.5% and 24.1%, respectively, of the original HCP had been altered. Differences between the treatments and controls were statistically significant after 28 days of exposure. Further analyses of the above data, using gas chromatographic methods, showed that as many as 14 peaks were found in the treated samples and the controls, including the parent material. Ultraviolet photolysis seemed to be the mechanism responsible for alteration of the hexachlorophene. Three extracted chlorinated compounds have been identified by GC-mass spectral (MS) analysis including 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,5',6,6'-tetrachlorodiphenylmethane, 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,5,5',6,6'-pentachlorodiphenylmethane, and 2,2'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,5',6,6'-hexachlorodiphenylmethane (parent HCP). Eleven other electrophylic compounds have been found in various treated plant or control extracts. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the identification of the other degradation products.

  16. Translocation of cell penetrating peptide engrafted nanoparticles across skin layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Ram R; Desai, Pinaki R; Belay, Kalayu; Singh, Mandip S

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the ability of cell penetrating peptides (CPP) to translocate the lipid payload into the skin layers. Fluorescent dye (DID-oil) encapsulated nano lipid crystal nanoparticles (FNLCN) were prepared using Compritol, Miglyol and DOGS-NTA-Ni lipids by hot melt homogenization technique. The FNLCN surface was coated with TAT peptide (FNLCNT) or control YKA peptide (FNLCNY) and in vitro rat skin permeation studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. Observation of lateral skin sections obtained using cryotome with a confocal microscope demonstrated that skin permeation of FNLCNT was time dependent and after 24h, fluorescence was observed upto a depth of 120 microm which was localized in the hair follicles and epidermis. In case of FNLCN and FNLCNY formulations fluorescence was mainly observed in the hair follicles. This observation was further supported by confocal Raman spectroscopy where higher fluorescence signal intensity was observed at 80 and 120 microm depth with FNLCNT treated skin and intensity of fluorescence peaks was in the ratio of 2:1:1 and 5:3:1 for FNLCNT, FNLCN, and FNLCNY treated skin sections, respectively. Furthermore, replacement of DID-oil with celecoxib (Cxb), a model lipophilic drug showed similar results and after 24h, the CXBNT formulation increased the Cxb concentration in SC by 3 and 6 fold and in epidermis by 2 and 3 fold as compared to CXBN and CXBNY formulations respectively. Our results strongly suggest that CPP can translocate nanoparticles with their payloads into deeper skin layers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. ESX-1-mediated translocation to the cytosol controls virulence of mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Houben, Diane

    2012-05-08

    Mycobacterium species, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, are among the most potent human bacterial pathogens. The discovery of cytosolic mycobacteria challenged the paradigm that these pathogens exclusively localize within the phagosome of host cells. As yet the biological relevance of mycobacterial translocation to the cytosol remained unclear. In this current study we used electron microscopy techniques to establish a clear link between translocation and mycobacterial virulence. Pathogenic, patient-derived mycobacteria species were found to translocate to the cytosol, while non-pathogenic species did not. We were further able to link cytosolic translocation with pathogenicity by introducing the ESX-1 (type VII) secretion system into the non-virulent, exclusively phagolysosomal Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Furthermore, we show that translocation is dependent on the C-terminus of the early-secreted antigen ESAT-6. The C-terminal truncation of ESAT-6 was shown to result in attenuation in mice, again linking translocation to virulence. Together, these data demonstrate the molecular mechanism facilitating translocation of mycobacteria. The ability to translocate from the phagolysosome to the cytosol is with this study proven to be biologically significant as it determines mycobacterial virulence. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Campylobacter jejuni translocation across intestinal epithelial cells is facilitated by ganglioside-like lipooligosaccharide structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.L. Louwen (Rogier); E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis (Edward); L. van Marrewijk (Leonie); D. Horst-Kreft (Deborah); L.F. de Ruiter (Lilian); A.P. Heikema (Astrid); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); J.A. Wagenaar (Jaap); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); P. van Baarlen (Peter); A.S. Akhmanova (Anna); A.F. van Belkum (Alex)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTranslocation across intestinal epithelial cells is an established pathogenic feature of the zoonotic bacterial species Campylobacter jejuni. The number of C. jejuni virulence factors known to be involved in translocation is limited. In the present study, we investigated whether

  19. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis by fluorescence in situ hybridization of reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kai Chen

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: There is a trend whereby the outcome for Robertsonian translocation group carriers is better than that for reciprocal translocation group carriers. Aneuploidy screening may possibly be added in order to improve the outcome, especially for individuals with an advanced maternal age. The emergence of an array-based technology should help improve this type of analysis.

  20. Analysis of 1;17 translocation breakpoints in neuroblastoma: implications for mapping of neuroblastoma genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roy, N.; Laureys, G.; van Gele, M.; Opdenakker, G.; Miura, R.; van der Drift, P.; Chan, A.; Versteeg, R.; Speleman, F.

    1997-01-01

    Deletions and translocations resulting in loss of distal 1p-material are known to occur frequently in advanced neuroblastomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that 17q was most frequently involved in chromosome 1p translocations. A review of the literature shows that 10 of 27 cell

  1. INTESTINAL BACTERIAL TRANSLOCATION IN EXPERIMENTALLY BURNED MICE WITH WOUNDS COLONIZED BY PSEUDOMONAS-AERUGINOSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSON, WL; COENEN, JMFH; KLASEN, HJ; HORWITZ, EH

    1992-01-01

    Translocation of micro-organisms from the gastrointestinal tract may play a role in the pathogenesis of septic complications in severely burned patients. We therefore investigated the influence of burn wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa on translocation in experimentally burned mice. The P.

  2. Competition between Sec- and TAT-dependent protein translocation in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristóbal, S.; de Gier, J.-W.; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a new protein translocation pathway, the twin-arginine translocation (TAT) pathway, has been identified in both bacteria and chloroplasts. To study the possible competition between the TAT- and the well-characterized Sec translocon-dependent pathways in Escherichia coli, we have fused...

  3. Comparison of experimentally determined translocation of 134Cs in potatoes with the radioecological code CHECOSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.; Egli, J.; Andres, R.

    1997-01-01

    The verification and adoption of radioecological models is a continuous process. Greenhouse trials on the translocation of radiocaesium from leaves to potato tubers showed a 4-12 times higher translocation rate compared to the radioecological code CHECOSYS. The possible reasons for the differences are discussed. (author) 1 tab., 3 refs

  4. Proton transfer is rate-limiting for translocation of precursor proteins by the Escherichia coli translocase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Wickner, William

    1991-01-01

    The protonmotive force stimulates translocation in vivo, in crude in vitro reactions, and in a purified, reconstituted reaction. Translocation activity is a function of the pH at the inner face of the membrane. Both the transmembrane pH gradient and the transmembrane electrical potential stimulate

  5. Comparative study of the reciprocal translocation rate in spermatocytes after irradiation of newborn and adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomerantseva, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The yield of reciprocal translocations was investigated in spermatocytes of the CBA male mice irradiated immediately after their brith or after the irradiation of the stem spermatogonia at the age of 3 months. The irradiation doses were 100, 200, 400 R X-rays 300 R gamma-rays 60 Co. The yield of translocations in both groups was the same

  6. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for X;autosome translocations : lessons from a case of misdiagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Echten-Arends, J.; Coonen, E.; Reuters, B.; Suijkerbuijk, R. F.; Dul, E. C.; Land, J. A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is offered to couples carrying a reciprocal translocation in an attempt to increase their chance of phenotypically normal offspring. For the selection of embryos that are balanced for the translocation chromosomes, it is critical to use a combination of DNA

  7. Nanomaterial translocation - the biokinetics, tissue accumulation, toxicity and fate of materials in secondary organs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Balharry, Dominique; Wallin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    indicates that pulmonary exposure is associated with low (inhalation route-0.00001-1% of total applied dose-24 h) translocation of virtually insoluble NMs such as iridium, carbon black, gold and polystyrene, while slightly higher translocation has been observed for NMs with either slow (e.g. silver, cerium...

  8. Conversion frequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauteret, C.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental evidence of short wavelength for laser inertial confinement has strongly increased the interest in high efficiency harmonic conversion of powerful Nd: glass lasers. This work describes our high power harmonic conversion experiments performed using the same laser apparatus for doubling, tripling the three high power 1064 nm P102, OCTAL and PHEBUS lasers. In addition to the understanding the physics of harmonic conversion, this work includes the basic concepts allows us to improve the technique such as non colinear schemes, to extend this method to other frequencies (fourth generation) and to predict some physical limits [fr

  9. EspZ of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli regulates type III secretion system protein translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cedric N; Crepin, Valerie F; Baruch, Kobi; Mousnier, Aurelie; Rosenshine, Ilan; Frankel, Gad

    2012-01-01

    Translocation of effector proteins via a type III secretion system (T3SS) is a widespread infection strategy among Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Each pathogen translocates a particular set of effectors that subvert cell signaling in a way that suits its particular infection cycle. However, as effector unbalance might lead to cytotoxicity, the pathogens must employ mechanisms that regulate the intracellular effector concentration. We present evidence that the effector EspZ controls T3SS effector translocation from enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli. Consistently, an EPEC espZ mutant is highly cytotoxic. Following ectopic expression, we found that EspZ inhibited the formation of actin pedestals as it blocked the translocation of Tir, as well as other effectors, including Map and EspF. Moreover, during infection EspZ inhibited effector translocation following superinfection. Importantly, while EspZ of EHEC O157:H7 had a universal "translocation stop" activity, EspZ of EPEC inhibited effector translocation from typical EPEC strains but not from EHEC O157:H7 or its progenitor, atypical EPEC O55:H7. We found that the N and C termini of EspZ, which contains two transmembrane domains, face the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane at the site of bacterial attachment, while the extracellular loop of EspZ is responsible for its strain-specific activity. These results show that EPEC and EHEC acquired a sophisticated mechanism to regulate the effector translocation. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are important diarrheal pathogens responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries and the developed world, respectively. The virulence strategy of EPEC and EHEC revolves around a conserved type III secretion system (T3SS), which translocates bacterial proteins known as effectors directly into host cells. Previous studies have shown that when cells are infected in two

  10. Unraveling the relationship between microbial translocation and systemic immune activation in HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Liang; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic immune activation is a key factor in HIV-1 disease progression. The translocation of microbial products from the intestinal lumen into the systemic circulation occurs during HIV-1 infection and is associated closely with immune activation; however, it has not been determined conclusively whether microbial translocation drives immune activation or occurs as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In an important study in this issue of the JCI, Kristoff and colleagues describe the role of microbial translocation in producing immune activation in an animal model of HIV-1 infection, SIV infection of pigtailed macaques. Blocking translocation of intestinal bacterial LPS into the circulation dramatically reduced T cell activation and proliferation, production of proinflammatory cytokines, and plasma SIV RNA levels. This study directly demonstrates that microbial translocation promotes the systemic immune activation associated with HIV-1/SIV infection. PMID:24837427

  11. Cosmic backgrounds of relic gravitons and their absolute normalization

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Provided the consistency relations are not violated, the recent Bicep2 observations pin down the absolute normalization, the spectral slope and the maximal frequency of the cosmic graviton background produced during inflation. The properly normalized spectra are hereby computed from the lowest frequencies (of the order of the present Hubble rate) up to the highest frequency range in the GHz region. Deviations from the conventional paradigm cannot be excluded and are examined by allowing for different physical possibilities including, in particular, a running of the tensor spectral index, an explicit breaking of the consistency relations and a spike in the high-frequency tail of the spectrum coming either from a post-inflationary phase dominated by a stiff fluid of from the contribution of waterfall fields in a hybrid inflationary context. The direct determinations of the tensor to scalar ratio at low frequencies, if confirmed by the forthcoming observations, will also affect and constrain the high-frequencies...

  12. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  13. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  14. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  15. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  16. Interleukin-10 inhibits osteoclastogenesis by reducing NFATc1 expression and preventing its translocation to the nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Simon W

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-10 has a potent inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis. In vitro and in vivo studies confirm the importance of this cytokine in bone metabolism, for instance IL-10-deficient mice develop the hallmarks of osteoporosis. Although it is known that IL-10 directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis at an early stage, preventing differentiation of osteoclast progenitors to preosteoclasts, the precise mechanism of its action is not yet clear. Several major pathways regulate osteoclastogenesis, with key signalling genes such as p38, TRAF6, NF-κB and NFATc1 well established as playing vital roles. We have looked at gene expression in eleven of these genes using real-time quantitative PCR on RNA extracted from RANKL-treated RAW264.7 monocytes. Results There was no downregulation by IL-10 of DAP12, FcγRIIB, c-jun, RANK, TRAF6, p38, NF-κB, Gab2, Pim-1, or c-Fos at the mRNA level. However, we found that IL-10 significantly reduces RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. NFATc1 is transcribed from two alternative promoters in Mus musculus and, interestingly, only the variant transcribed from promoter P1 and beginning with exon 1 was downregulated by IL-10 (isoform 1. In addition, immunofluorescence studies showed that IL-10 reduces NFATc1 levels in RANKL-treated precursors and suppresses nuclear translocation. The inhibitory effect of IL-10 on tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell number and NFATc1 mRNA expression was reversed by the protein kinase C agonist phorbol myristate acetate, providing evidence that interleukin-10 disrupts NFATc1 activity through its effect on Ca2+ mobilisation. Conclusion IL-10 acts directly on mononuclear precursors to inhibit NFATc1 expression and nuclear translocation, and we provide evidence that the mechanism may involve disruption of Ca2+ mobilisation. We detected downregulation only of the NFATc1 isoform 1 transcribed from promoter P1. This is the first report indicating that one of the ways in which

  17. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr......Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments...... of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led...... to background levels below 10−6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10−7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO...

  18. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  19. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  20. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when...

  1. The impact of translocations on neutral and functional genetic diversity within and among populations of the Seychelles warbler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David J.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Collar, Nigel J.; Komdeur, Jan; Burke, Terry; Richardson, David S.

    Translocations are an increasingly common tool in conservation. The maintenance of genetic diversity through translocation is critical for both the short- and long-term persistence of populations and species. However, the relative spatio-temporal impacts of translocations on neutral and functional

  2. Ambient Background Particulate Compositiion Outdoor Natural Background: Interferents/Clutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    current generation of point and standoff BW detectors. Data were extracted from 2 long- term environmental background studies, which provide the rationale...cause False Alarms by these non specific biodctectors. The response of biodetection technologies to the naturally occurring bioaerosol interferents...day, and can be affected by regional and local sources. Regional sources and most local emission sources generally become dispersed and mixed

  3. The cosmic infrared background experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki

    2006-03-01

    The extragalactic background, based on absolute measurements reported by DIRBE and IRTS at 1.2 and 2.2 μm, exceeds the brightness derived from galaxy counts by up to a factor 5. Furthermore, both DIRBE and the IRTS report fluctuations in the near-infrared sky brightness that appear to have an extra-galactic origin, but are larger than expected from local ( z = 1-3) galaxies. These observations have led to speculation that a new class of high-mass stars or mini-quasars may dominate primordial star formation at high-redshift ( z ˜ 10-20), which, in order to explain the excess in the near-infrared background, must be highly luminous but produce a limited amount of metals and X-ray photons. Regardless of the nature of the sources, if a significant component of the near-infrared background comes from first-light galaxies, theoretical models generically predict a prominent near-infrared spectral feature from the redshifted Lyman cutoff, and a distinctive fluctuation power spectrum. We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7″ to 2°, where a first-light galaxy signature is expected to peak, over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100× fainter than IRTS/DIRBE, with sufficient resolution to remove local-galaxy correlations. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near

  4. Muscle contraction increases carnitine uptake via translocation of OCTN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Yasuro [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Sugiura, Tomoko; Kato, Yukio [Faculty of Pharmacy, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Takakura, Hisashi [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Hanai, Yoshiteru [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu (Japan); Masuda, Kazumi, E-mail: masuda@ed.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Human Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Muscle contraction augmented carnitine uptake into rat hindlimb muscles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An increase in carnitine uptake was due to an intrinsic clearance, not blood flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histochemical analysis showed sarcolemmal OCTN2 was emphasized after contraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OCTN2 protein in sarcolemmal fraction was increased in contracting muscles. -- Abstract: Since carnitine plays an important role in fat oxidation, influx of carnitine could be crucial for muscle metabolism. OCTN2 (SLC22A5), a sodium-dependent solute carrier, is assumed to transport carnitine into skeletal muscle cells. Acute regulation of OCTN2 activity in rat hindlimb muscles was investigated in response to electrically induced contractile activity. The tissue uptake clearance (CL{sub uptake}) of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine during muscle contraction was examined in vivo using integration plot analysis. The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]iodoantipyrine (IAP) was also determined as an index of tissue blood flow. To test the hypothesis that increased carnitine uptake involves the translocation of OCTN2, contraction-induced alteration in the subcellular localization of OCTN2 was examined. The CL{sub uptake} of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine in the contracting muscles increased 1.4-1.7-fold as compared to that in the contralateral resting muscles (p < 0.05). The CL{sub uptake} of [{sup 14}C]IAP was much higher than that of L-[{sup 3}H]carnitine, but no association between the increase in carnitine uptake and blood flow was obtained. Co-immunostaining of OCTN2 and dystrophin (a muscle plasma membrane marker) showed an increase in OCTN2 signal in the plasma membrane after muscle contraction. Western blotting showed that the level of sarcolemmal OCTN2 was greater in contracting muscles than in resting muscles (p < 0.05). The present study showed that muscle contraction facilitated carnitine uptake in skeletal muscles, possibly

  5. Uptake, translocation, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Shahmansouri, Nastaran

    Nanomaterials are widely used in many different products, such as electronics, cosmetics, industrial goods, biomedical uses, and other material applications. The heavy emission of nanomaterials into the environment has motived increasing concern regarding the effects on ecosystems, food chains, and, human health. Plants can tolerate a certain amount of natural nanomaterials, but large amounts of ENMs released from a variety of industries could be toxic to plants and possibly threaten the ecosystem. Employing phytoremediation as a contamination treatment method may show promise. However a pre-requisite to successful treatment is a better understanding of the behavior and effects of nanomaterials within plant systems. This study is designed to investigate the uptake, translocation, bioavailability, and toxicity of gold nanorods in maize plants. Maize is an important food and feed crop that can be used to understand the potential hazardous effects of nanoparticle uptake and distribution in the food chain. The findings could be an important contribution to the fields of phytoremediation, agri-nanotechnology, and nanoparticle toxicity on plants. In the first experiment, hydroponically grown maize seedlings were exposed to similar doses of commercial non-coated gold nanorods in three sizes, 10x34 nm, 20x75 nm, and 40x96 nm. The three nanorod species were suspended in solutions at concentrations of 350 mg/l, 5.8 mg/l, and 14 mg/l, respectively. Maize plants were exposed to all three solutions resulting in considerably lower transpiration and wet biomass than control plants. Likewise, dry biomass was reduced, but the effect is less pronounced than that of transpiration and wet biomass. The reduced transpiration and water content, which eventually proved fatal to exposed plants, were most likely a result of toxic effect of gold nanorod, which appeared to physically hinder the root system. TEM images proved that maize plants can uptake gold particles and accumulate them in

  6. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  7. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, K.; Wickner, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl β-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure [ 35 S]pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components

  8. Domain Organization in Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Type E is Unique: Its Implication in Faster Translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, D.; Eswaramoorthy, S; Furey, W; Navaza, J; Sax, M; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces seven antigenically distinct neurotoxins [C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) A-G] sharing a significant sequence homology. Based on sequence and functional similarity, it was believed that their three-dimensional structures will also be similar. Indeed, the crystal structures of BoNTs A and B exhibit similar fold and domain association where the translocation domain is flanked on either side by binding and catalytic domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of BoNT E holotoxin and show that the domain association is different and unique, although the individual domains are similar to those of BoNTs A and B. In BoNT E, both the binding domain and the catalytic domain are on the same side of the translocation domain, and all three have mutual interfaces. This unique association may have an effect on the rate of translocation, with the molecule strategically positioned in the vesicle for quick entry into cytosol. Botulism, the disease caused by BoNT E, sets in faster than any other serotype because of its speedy internalization and translocation, and the present structure offers a credible explanation. We propose that the translocation domain in other BoNTs follows a two-step process to attain translocation-competent conformation as in BoNT E. We also suggest that this translocation-competent conformation in BoNT E is a probable reason for its faster toxic rate compared to BoNT A. However, this needs further experimental elucidation.

  9. Dermatoglyphics and Reproductive Risk in a Family with Robertsonian Translocation 14q;21q

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolgeci, Selim; Kolgeci, Jehona; Azemi, Mehmedali; Daka, Aferdita; Shala-Beqiraj, Ruke; Kurtishi, Ilir; Sopjani, Mentor

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study is carried out to evaluate the risk of giving birth to children with Down syndrome in a family with Robertsonian translocation 14q;21q, and to find the dermatoglyphic changes present in carriers of this translocation. Methods: Cytogenetics diagnosis has been made according to Moorhead and Seabright method, while the analysis of prints (dermatoglyphics analysis) was made with the Cummins and Midlo method. Results: Cytogenetic diagnosis has been made in a couple who suffered the spontaneous miscarriages and children with Down syndrome. Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 14 and 21 (45, XX, der (14; 21) (q10; q10)) was found in a female partner who had four pregnancies, in two of which was found fetus karyotype with trisomy in chromosome 21 and pregnancies were terminated. The outcome of fourth pregnancy was twin birth, one of them with normal karyotype and another with Down syndrome due to Robertsonian translocation inherited by mother side. Specific dermatoglyphics traits are found in the child carrying Down syndrome, whereas several traits of dermatoglyphics characteristic of Down syndrome have been displayed among the silent carriers of Robertsonian translocation 14q;21q. Conclusion: Robertsonian translocation found in female partner was the cause of spontaneous miscarriages, of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome, and of trisomy of chromosome 21 due to translocation in two pregnancies. PMID:26236088

  10. Genetic variation in natural and translocated populations of the endangered Delmarva fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, S.L.; Maldonado, J.E.; Bocetti, Carol I.; Pattee, O.H.; Ballou, J.D.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Delmarva fox squirrel, Sciurus niger cinereus, is a federally listed endangered subspecies whose range has been reduced by 90%. In an attempt to increase both population size and range, translocation sites were established beginning in the 1960's by moving squirrels from the natural range to sites outside the current range. Although translocations have served as the primary component of the DFS recovery program, there has been very little post-release examination of the genetics of the translocation sites. In this study, we developed ten microsatellite loci, screened the three polymorphic loci, and sequenced a 330 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region in order to assess levels of genetic variation in natural and translocated regions of Delmarva fox squirrels and to compare them to Southeastern fox squirrels (S. n. niger). Although we found low levels of microsatellite polymorphism, there were no differences in heterozygosity between natural and translocated regions, or between Delmarva and Southeastern fox squirrels. We found high levels of polymorphism in the mitochondrial control region. Our patterns of haplotype diversity suggest incomplete lineage sorting of the two subspecies. In general, our data suggest that the current levels of genetic variation in the translocated sites are representative of those found in the natural population, and we encourage the continued use of translocations as a major component of Delmarva fox squirrel recovery.

  11. The E Block motif is associated with Legionella pneumophila translocated substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Boyd, Dana; Amyot, Whitney M; Hempstead, Andrew D; Luo, Zhao-Qing; O'Connor, Tamara J; Chen, Cui; Machner, Matthias; Montminy, Timothy; Isberg, Ralph R

    2011-02-01

    Legionella pneumophila promotes intracellular growth by moving bacterial proteins across membranes via the Icm/Dot system. A strategy was devised to identify large numbers of Icm/Dot translocated proteins, and the resulting pool was used to identify common motifs that operate as recognition signals. The 3' end of the sidC gene, which encodes a known translocated substrate, was replaced with DNA encoding 200 codons from the 3' end of 442 potential substrate-encoding genes. The resulting hybrid proteins were then tested in a high throughput assay, in which translocated SidC antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Among translocated substrates, regions of 6-8 residues called E Blocks were identified that were rich in glutamates. Analysis of SidM/DrrA revealed that loss of three Glu residues, arrayed in a triangle on an α-helical surface, totally eliminated translocation of a reporter protein. Based on this result, a second strategy was employed to identify Icm/Dot substrates having carboxyl terminal glutamates. From the fusion assay and the bioinformatic queries, carboxyl terminal sequences from 49 previously unidentified proteins were shown to promote translocation into target cells. These studies indicate that by analysing subsets of translocated substrates, patterns can be found that allow predictions of important motifs recognized by Icm/Dot. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Timing of translocation influences birth rate and population dynamics in a forest carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facka, Aaron N; Lewis, Jeffrey C.; Happe, Patricia; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Callas, Richard; Powell, Roger A.

    2016-01-01

    Timing can be critical for many life history events of organisms. Consequently, the timing of management activities may affect individuals and populations in numerous and unforeseen ways. Translocations of organisms are used to restore or expand populations but the timing of translocations is largely unexplored as a factor influencing population success. We hypothesized that the process of translocation negatively influences reproductive rates of individuals that are moved just before their birthing season and, therefore, the timing of releases could influence translocation success. Prior to reintroducing fishers (Pekania pennanti) into northern California and onto the Olympic Peninsula of Washington, we predicted that female fishers released in November and December (early) would have a higher probability of giving birth to kits the following March or April than females released in January, February, and March (late), just prior to or during the period of blastocyst implantation and gestation. Over four winters (2008–2011), we translocated 56 adult female fishers that could have given birth in the spring immediately after release. Denning rates, an index of birth rate, for females released early were 92% in California and 38% in Washington. In contrast, denning rates for females released late were 40% and 11%, in California and Washington, a net reduction in denning rate of 66% across both sites. To understand how releasing females nearer to parturition could influence population establishment and persistence, we used stochastic population simulations using three-stage Lefkovitch matrices. These simulations showed that translocating female fishers early had long-term positive influences on the mean population size and on quasi-extinction thresholds compared to populations where females were released late. The results from both empirical data and simulations show that the timing of translocation, with respect to life history events, should be considered during

  13. Production and Identification of Wheat-Agropyron cristatum 2P Translocation Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huanhuan; Lv, Mingjie; Song, Liqiang; Zhang, Jinpeng; Gao, Ainong; Li, Lihui; Liu, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn. (2n = 28, PPPP), a wild relative of common wheat, possesses many potentially valuable traits that can be transferred to common wheat through breeding programs. The wheat-A. cristatum disomic addition and translocation lines can be used as bridge materials to introduce alien chromosomal segments to wheat. Wheat-A. cristatum 2P disomic addition line II-9-3 was highly resistant to powdery mildew and leaf rust, which was reported in our previous study. However, some translocation lines induced from II-9-3 have not been reported. In this study, some translocation lines were induced from II-9-3 by 60Co-γ irradiation and gametocidal chromosome 2C and then identified by cytological methods. Forty-nine wheat-A. cristatum translocation lines were obtained and various translcoation types were identified by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization), such as whole-arm, segmental and intercalary translocations. Dual-color FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) was applied to identify the wheat chromosomes involved in the translocations, and the results showed that A. cristatum 2P chromosome segments were translocated to the different wheat chromosomes, including 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 3B, 5B, 7B, 1D, 4D and 6D. Many different types of wheat-A. cristatum alien translocation lines would be valuable for not only identifying and cloning A. cristatum 2P-related genes and understanding the genetics and breeding effects of the translocation between A. cristatum chromosome 2P and wheat chromosomes, but also providing new germplasm resources for the wheat genetic improvement. PMID:26731742

  14. SET translocation is associated with increase in caspase cleaved amyloid precursor protein in CA1 of Alzheimer and Down syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, Patricia; Dorard, Emilie; Contremoulins, Vincent; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Déglon, Nicole; Sazdovitch, Véronique; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Duyckaerts, Charles; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2014-05-01

    Caspase cleaved amyloid precursor protein (APPcc) and SET are increased and mislocalized in the neuronal cytoplasm in Alzheimer Disease (AD) brains. Translocated SET to the cytoplasm can induce tau hyperphosphorylation. To elucidate the putative relationships between mislocalized APPcc and SET, we studied their level and distribution in the hippocampus of 5 controls, 3 Down syndrome and 10 Alzheimer patients. In Down syndrome and Alzheimer patients, APPcc and SET levels were increased in CA1 and the frequency of both localizations in the neuronal cytoplasm was high in CA1, and low in CA4. As the increase of APPcc is already present at early stages of AD, we overexpressed APPcc in CA1 and the dentate gyrus neurons of adult mice with a lentiviral construct. APPcc overexpression in CA1 and not in the dentate gyrus induced endogenous SET translocation and tau hyperphosphorylation. These data suggest that increase in APPcc in CA1 neurons could be an early event leading to the translocation of SET and the progression of AD through tau hyperphosphorylation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A correlative study on the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van

    1976-01-01

    A series of investigations on the correlation between the frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in somatic and germ cells of mouse and rhesus monkey is described. In the mouse the induction of reciprocal translocations in bone-marrow cells was compared with that in spermatogonia (as scored in the descending spermatocytes). In the rhesus monkey frequencies of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in spermatogonia and peripheral blood lymphocytes were studied. Furthermore the effect of multigeneration irradiation (69 generations with 200 rads X-rays) on the sensitivity for translocation induction in spermatogonia of male mice was studied. Frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and chromosomal deletions in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of 5 different types of mice were determined following in vitro irradiation with doses of 100 and/or 200 rad X-rays. To obtain more insight into the processes underlying translocation induction in spermatogonia of the mouse, fractionation experiments were conducted

  17. Variant Philadelphia translocations with different breakpoints in six chronic myeloid leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhan Kuru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome, consisting of the t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation, is observed in ~90% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Variant Ph translocations are observed in 5%-10% of CML patients. In variant translocations 3 and possibly more chromosomes are involved. Herein we report 6 CML patients with variant Ph translocations.Materials and Methods: Bone marrow samples were examined using conventional cytogenetic meth ods. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with whole-chromosome paints and BCR-ABL 1D probes were used to confirm and/or complement the findings, and identify rearrangements beyond the resolution of conventional cytogenetic methods. Results: Variant Ph translocations in the 6 patients were as follows: t(7;22(p22;q11, t(9;22;15(q34;q11;q22, t(15;22(p11;q11, t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21, t(12;22(p13;q11, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11.Conclusion: Among the patients, 3 had simple and 3 had complex variant Ph translocations. Two of the presented cases had variant Ph chromosomes not previously described, 1 of which had a new complex Ph translocation involving chromosomes 1, 3, 9, 22, and t(1;9;22;3(q24;q34;q11;q21 apart from a clone with a classical Ph, and the other case had variant Ph translocation with chromosomes 4, 8, 9, and 22, and t(4;8;9;22(q11;q13;q34;q11 full complex translocation. Number of studies reported that some patients with variant Ph translocation were poor responders to imatinib. All of our patients with variant Ph translocations had suboptimal responses to imatinib, denoting a poor prognosis also. Variant Ph translocations may be important as they are associated with prognosis and therapy for CML patients.

  18. High speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb in the phloem of Tradescantia viridis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penot, M.

    1976-01-01

    An autoradiographic study of the rooted shoots of Tradescantia viridis showed a high speed translocation of /sup 86/Rb applied to a leaf for short periods of time (5 to 2.5 min). The speed of this translocation (between 840 and 1.440 cm h/sup -1/) speaks for the existence of a very rapid phloem component translocating ions to an active sink, represented here by the growing roots. Pretreatment with cycloheximide (48 h, 50 mg 1/sup -1/) decreases the quantity of this long distance transport but not the velocity.

  19. Ready Experimental Translocation of Mycobacterium canettii Yields Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Fériel; Brégeon, Fabienne; Lepidi, Hubert; Donoghue, Helen D; Minnikin, David E; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium canettii , which has a smooth colony morphology, is the tuberculous organism retaining the most genetic traits from the putative last common ancestor of the rough-morphology Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. To explore whether M. canettii can infect individuals by the oral route, mice were fed phosphate-buffered saline or 10 6 M. canettii mycobacteria and sacrificed over a 28-day experiment. While no M. canettii was detected in negative controls, M. canettii -infected mice yielded granuloma-like lesions for 4/4 lungs at days 14 and 28 postinoculation (p.i.) and positive PCR detection of M. canettii for 5/8 mesenteric lymph nodes at days 1 and 3 p.i. and 5/6 pooled stools collected from day 1 to day 28 p.i. Smooth M. canettii colonies grew from 68% of lungs and 36% of spleens and cervical lymph nodes but fewer than 20% of axillary lymph nodes, livers, brown fat samples, kidneys, or blood samples throughout the 28-day experiment. Ready translocation in mice after digestive tract challenge demonstrates the potential of ingested M. canettii organisms to relocate to distant organs and lungs. The demonstration of this relocation supports the possibility that populations may be infected by environmental M. canettii . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Melanosome transfer to and translocation in the keratinocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, Raymond E

    2003-01-01

    Complexion coloration in humans is primarily regulated by the amount and type of melanin synthesized by the epidermal melanocyte. However, additional and equally contributing factors consist of (1) efficient transfer of melanin from the melanocytes to the neighboring keratinocytes and (2) distribution and degradation of the transferred melanosomes by the recipient keratinocytes. Once synthesized in the cell body of the epidermal melanocyte, pigmented melanosomes are translocated down the dendrites and captured at the dendritic tips via various cytoskeletal elements. Molecules recently identified that participate in this process consist of Rab27a, myosin-Va and melanophilin. Eventually, these peripherally localized melanosomes are transferred to keratinocytes by a presently undefined mechanism. The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) and unidentified surface lectins and glycoproteins facilitate this transfer process. Once incorporated into the keratinocytes, melanosomes are distributed individually or as clusters, aggregated towards the apical pole of the nucleus, and degraded as the keratinocytes undergo terminal differentiation and desquamation. Ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) can modulate the process of melanosome transfer from the melanocytes to the keratinocytes. UVR can upregulate expression of PAR-2 and lectin-binding receptors and increase phagocytic activity of cultured keratinocytes. Therefore, many cellular and molecular events that occur after melanogenesis contribute to skin color.

  1. Movilidad y desarrollo translocal en la Nicaragua (semi-rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griet Steel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende contribuir al debate sobre los vínculos entre la movilidad y el desarrollo, explorando el concepto de desarrollo translocal. Basado en trabajo de campo en los municipios de Matiguás y Muy Muy, éste analiza cómo la movilidad da forma a las estrategias de vida de los hogares (semi-rurales en Nicaragua, y explora cómo los diferentes miembros de un hogar utilizan la movilidad física como una estrategia de vida. Argumenta que los habitantes de áreas (semi-rurales consideran distintos tipos de movimientos como estrategias importantes para establecer enlaces entre personas y lugares, y para alcanzar un mejor bienestar en su comunidad natal. Al mismo tiempo muestra cómo la movilidad se forma en una arena de poder, lo que afecta su potencial. De esta manera, este artículo contribuye a un entendimiento dinámico y multidimensional de cómo los procesos de desarrollo dan forma a – y son formados por – la movilidad y la interconectividad.

  2. Cholesterol Hydroperoxide Generation, Translocation, and Reductive Turnover in Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotti, Albert W; Korytowski, Witold

    2017-12-01

    Cholesterol is like other unsaturated lipids in being susceptible to peroxidative degradation upon exposure to strong oxidants like hydroxyl radical or peroxynitrite generated under conditions of oxidative stress. In the eukaryotic cell plasma membrane, where most of the cellular cholesterol resides, peroxidation leads to membrane structural and functional damage from which pathological states may arise. In low density lipoprotein, cholesterol and phospholipid peroxidation have long been associated with atherogenesis. Among the many intermediates/products of cholesterol oxidation, hydroperoxide species (ChOOHs) have a number of different fates and deserve special attention. These fates include (a) damage-enhancement via iron-catalyzed one-electron reduction, (b) damage containment via two-electron reduction, and (c) inter-membrane, inter-lipoprotein, and membrane-lipoprotein translocation, which allows dissemination of one-electron damage or off-site suppression thereof depending on antioxidant location and capacity. In addition, ChOOHs can serve as reliable and conveniently detected mechanistic reporters of free radical-mediated reactions vs. non-radical (e.g., singlet oxygen)-mediated reactions. Iron-stimulated peroxidation of cholesterol and other lipids underlies a newly discovered form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis. These and other deleterious consequences of radical-mediated lipid peroxidation will be discussed in this review.

  3. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  4. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, K.D.; Chu, T.J.; Pitt, W.G.

    1992-05-12

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through amino groups contained on the surface. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to the target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membranes may be reprobed numerous times. No Drawings

  5. DNA sequencing using fluorescence background electroblotting membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Karin D.; Chu, Tun-Jen; Pitt, William G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for the multiplex sequencing on DNA is disclosed which comprises the electroblotting or specific base terminated DNA fragments, which have been resolved by gel electrophoresis, onto the surface of a neutral non-aromatic polymeric microporous membrane exhibiting low background fluorescence which has been surface modified to contain amino groups. Polypropylene membranes are preferably and the introduction of amino groups is accomplished by subjecting the membrane to radio or microwave frequency plasma discharge in the presence of an aminating agent, preferably ammonia. The membrane, containing physically adsorbed DNA fragments on its surface after the electroblotting, is then treated with crosslinking means such as UV radiation or a glutaraldehyde spray to chemically bind the DNA fragments to the membrane through said smino groups contained on the surface thereof. The DNA fragments chemically bound to the membrane are subjected to hybridization probing with a tagged probe specific to the sequence of the DNA fragments. The tagging may be by either fluorophores or radioisotopes. The tagged probes hybridized to said target DNA fragments are detected and read by laser induced fluorescence detection or autoradiograms. The use of aminated low fluorescent background membranes allows the use of fluorescent detection and reading even when the available amount of DNA to be sequenced is small. The DNA bound to the membrances may be reprobed numerous times.

  6. Frequency and clinical impact of ETV6/RUNX1, AF4‑MLL, and BCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Variations in disease presentation and outcome of leukemia treatment has been associated with the presence of certain mutant genes. Three major translocations (ETV6‑RUNX1, BCR‑ABL, and AF4‑MLL) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been shown to affect treatment outcome. This study is aimed ...

  7. Frequency and clinical impact of ETV6/RUNX1, AF4‑MLL, and BCR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-12

    May 12, 2015 ... Background: Variations in disease presentation and outcome of leukemia treatment has been associated with the presence of certain mutant genes. Three major translocations (ETV6‑RUNX1, BCR‑ABL, and AF4‑MLL) in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have been shown to affect treatment outcome.

  8. Breakpoint mapping and haplotype analysis of translocation t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) in two apparently independent families with vascular phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luukkonen, Tiia Maria; Mehrjouy, Mana M; Pöyhönen, Minna

    2018-01-01

    ." In the first family, carriers (n = 6) manifest with learning problems in childhood, and later with unexplained neurological symptoms (chronic headache, balance problems, tremor, fatigue) and cerebral infarctions in their 50s. In the second family, two carriers suffer from tetralogy of Fallot, one from......BACKGROUND: The risk of serious congenital anomaly for de novo balanced translocations is estimated to be at least 6%. We identified two apparently independent families with a balanced t(1;12)(q43;q21.1) as an outcome of a "Systematic Survey of Balanced Chromosomal Rearrangements in Finns...

  9. Characterization of uptake and translocation of radioactive herbicides in a parasitic-host system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz S, Jorge; Lopez G, Francisca; Garcia T, Luis

    1999-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of [14C]-propyzamide applied to the sunflower seed by coating or soaking, of [14C]-imazapyr and [14C]-glyphosate both applied at post emergence, were studied in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) parasitising or not by nodding broom rape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.). Sunflower seed absorbed 9.8 and 3.4% of [14C]-propyzamide applied by coating or soaking, respectively, and less than 1% was translocated to the nodding broom rape. In sunflower plants infested and not infested with nodding broom rape, nearly 90% of [14C]-imazapyr was absorbed and 26% was translocated to the parasitic weed. Uptake of [14C]-glyphosate was similar (50%) for infested or not infested sunflower plants and only the 6% was translocated to the nodding broom rape

  10. Complex Variant t(9;22 Chromosome Translocations in Five Cases of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph1 chromosome arising from the reciprocal t(9;22 translocation is found in more than 90% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML patients and results in the formation of the chimeric fusion gene BCR-ABL. However, a small proportion of patients with CML have simple or complex variants of this translocation, involving various breakpoints in addition to 9q34 and 22q11. We report five CML cases carrying variant Ph translocations involving both chromosomes 9 and 22 as well as chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 8, or 10. G-banding showed a reciprocal three-way translocation involving 3q21, 5q31, 7q32, 8q24, and 10q22 bands. BCR-ABL fusion signal on der(22 was found in all of the cases by FISH.

  11. Advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and potential therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Garbutt, Cassandra C; Hornicek, Francis; Guo, Zheng; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2018-02-01

    Chromosomal translocations and fusion genes are very common in human cancer especially in subtypes of sarcomas, such as rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, synovial sarcoma and liposarcoma. The discovery of novel chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in different tumors are due to the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies such as whole genome sequencing. Recently, many novel chromosomal translocations and gene fusions have been identified in different types of sarcoma through NGS approaches. In addition to previously known sarcoma fusion genes, these novel specific fusion genes and associated molecular events represent important targets for novel therapeutic approaches in the treatment of sarcomas. This review focuses on recent advances in chromosomal translocations and fusion genes in sarcomas and their potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of sarcomas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for reciprocal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yinghui; Luo, Yuqin; Qian, Yuli; Xu, Chenming; Jin, Fan

    2011-07-01

    To report the first case of cri du chat syndrome after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for reciprocal translocation. Case report. In vitro fertilization center in a university affiliated hospital. A woman carrying a t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was performed, and the woman became pregnant. Successful PGD for reciprocal translocation and diagnosis of Cri du chat syndrome for the baby. A male baby was born at 36 weeks' gestation. However, the baby presented with a high-pitched, cat-like cry. Cytogenetic study revealed a rare case of cri du chat syndrome associated with t(11;22)(q23;q11.2) translocation. Chromosomal abnormalities, including the rare cru du chat syndrome, may occur after fluorescent in situ hybridization-based preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in male and female flowers of Cucurbita pepo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stpiczynska, M.; Nepi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The production and secretion of nectar has an energy cost that can be a substantial part of the energy economy of the plant. Plants may therefore recover part of the energy allocated to nectar secretion by reabsorbing nectar not collected by pollinators. This energy-saving strategy has been demonstrated by several authors by different methods. Here we demonstrate nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation in Cucurbita pepo by means of microautoradiography. Our results confirm that the dynamics of nectar reabsorption is different in male and female flowers. Differences in the dynamics of nectar reabsorption and sugar translocation were also found in pollinated and unpollinated female flowers. Pollinated female flowers reabsorbed sugar very quickly and translocated it to developing fruits in which ovules were the main sugar sink. Sugar translocation was slower and ovules did not label in unpollinated female flowers. (author)

  14. Bobbing of Oxysterols: Molecular Mechanism for Translocation of Tail-Oxidized Sterols through Biological Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Mikkolainen, Heikki; Olżyńska, Agnieszka; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Hof, Martin; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Jungwirth, Pavel; Rog, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    Translocation of sterols between cellular membrane leaflets is of key importance in membrane organization, dynamics, and signaling. We present a novel translocation mechanism that differs in a unique manner from the established ones. The bobbing mechanism identified here is demonstrated for tail-oxidized sterols, but is expected to be viable for any molecule containing two polar centers at the opposite sides of the molecule. The mechanism renders translocation across a lipid membrane possible without a change in molecular orientation. For tail-oxidized sterols, the bobbing mechanism provides an exceptionally facile means to translocate these signaling molecules across membrane structures and may thus represent an important pathway in the course of their biological action.

  15. Molecular events during translocation and proofreading extracted from 200 static structures of DNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerases in family B are workhorses of DNA replication that carry out the bulk of the job at a high speed with high accuracy. A polymerase in this family relies on a built-in exonuclease for proofreading. It has not been observed at the atomic resolution how the polymerase advances one nucleotide space on the DNA template strand after a correct nucleotide is incorporated, that is, a process known as translocation. It is even more puzzling how translocation is avoided after the primer strand is excised by the exonuclease and returned back to the polymerase active site once an error occurs. The structural events along the bifurcate pathways of translocation and proofreading have been unwittingly captured by hundreds of structures in Protein Data Bank. This study analyzes all available structures of a representative member in family B and reveals the orchestrated event sequence during translocation and proofreading. PMID:27325739

  16. High positive end-expiratory pressure levels promote bacterial translocation in experimental pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmann, Robert A.; van Kaam, Anton H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    A previous study in piglets with experimental pneumonia showed that reducing atelectasis by means of open lung ventilation attenuated bacterial translocation compared to conventional ventilation settings. This study examined the effect of open lung ventilation with higher than necessary positive

  17. Unfoldase-mediated protein translocation through an α-hemolysin nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Jeff; Marks, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Using nanopores to sequence biopolymers was proposed more than a decade ago1. Recent advances in enzyme-based control of DNA translocation2 and in DNA nucleotide resolution using modified biological pores3 have satisfied two technical requirements of a functional nanopore DNA sequencing device. Nanopore sequencing of proteins was also envisioned1. Although proteins have been shown to move through nanopores4, 5, 6, a technique to unfold proteins for processive translocation has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe controlled unfolding and translocation of proteins through the α-hemolysin (α-HL) pore using the AAA+ unfoldase ClpX. Sequence-dependent features of individual engineered proteins were detected during translocation. These results demonstrate that molecular motors can reproducibly drive proteins through a model nanopore—a feature required for protein sequence analysis using this single-molecule technology. PMID:23376966

  18. A case of posttraumatic splenic translocation into the thorax; Przypadek pourazowego przemieszczenia sledziony do klatki piersiowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnowski, P.; Sikorski, L.; Ziemianski, A. [Akademia Medyczna, Poznan (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    A case of the left diaphragmatic hernia due to blunt thoracic and abdominal trauma is presented. Characteristic radiological signs of splenic translocation into the thorax contributed to quick diagnosis and immediate surgical intervention. (author). 5 refs, 2 figs.

  19. Cloning of a balanced translocation breakpoint mapping in the DiGeorge syndrome critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demczuk, S.; Zucman, J.; Desmaze, C. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a developmental defect of thymus, parathyroids and heart, which is associated with microdeletions in chromosomal region 22q11.2. A detailed physical map of the region has been established and a shortest region of overlap based on deletions and unbalanced translocations giving rise to DGS has been derived. Moreover, the breakpoint of a balanced translocation borne by a DGS patient has been localized in that critical region; thereby suggesting that the translocation breakpoint interrupts the or one of the major gene(s) implicated in DGS. We have initiated a chromosome walk by establishing cosmid contigs from probes distally flanking the breakpoint. One contig covers 150 kb of genomic DNA and a second one spans 350 kb in the region and contains the balanced translocation breakpoint. Phylogenetically conserved sequences are being searched for in the vicinity of the breakpoint to be used as probes in order to isolate cDNAs.

  20. Variants forms of Philadelphia translocation in two patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, A.; Zamecnikova, A.; Krizan, P.; Karlic, H.; Nowotny, H.

    1996-01-01

    During a 4-year period (December 1990-December 1994), among other diagnoses hundred cases of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) were analyzed in our departments. We focused our attention on two cases with a variant form of Philadelphia translocation. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic studies were performed to resolve the status of BCR and ABL in the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells of the two CML patients with complex translocations involving chromosomes, 3, 9, 22 and 9, 12, 22 respectively. In the first case the presence of Ph chromosome was detected cytogenetically, BCR-ABL translocation was detected by Southern hybridization. In the second phase, only the PCR method showed BCR-ABL rearrangement. The second case, with a random variant form of Ph translocation, could be detected using different methods of clinical molecular genetics. (author)

  1. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in

  2. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background.

  3. The response of Rana muscosa, the mountain yellow-legged frog, to short distance translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Matthews

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—To determine the response of Mountain Yellow-Legged Frogs to short distance translocations, I placed transmitters on 20 adult frogs and moved them short distances from 144–630 m and monitored their responses for up to 30 days. Of the 20 translocated frogs, seven frogs returned to their original capture site, four frogs moved in the direction of their capture...

  4. Damaged intestinal epithelial integrity linked to microbial translocation in pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D Estes

    Full Text Available The chronic phase of HIV infection is marked by pathological activation of the immune system, the extent of which better predicts disease progression than either plasma viral load or CD4(+ T cell count. Recently, translocation of microbial products from the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed as an underlying cause of this immune activation, based on indirect evidence including the detection of microbial products and specific immune responses in the plasma of chronically HIV-infected humans or SIV-infected Asian macaques. We analyzed tissues from SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RMs to provide direct in situ evidence for translocation of microbial constituents from the lumen of the intestine into the lamina propria and to draining and peripheral lymph nodes and liver, accompanied by local immune responses in affected tissues. In chronically SIV-infected RMs this translocation is associated with breakdown of the integrity of the epithelial barrier of the gastrointestinal (GI tract and apparent inability of lamina propria macrophages to effectively phagocytose translocated microbial constituents. By contrast, in the chronic phase of SIV infection in sooty mangabeys, we found no evidence of epithelial barrier breakdown, no increased microbial translocation and no pathological immune activation. Because immune activation is characteristic of the chronic phase of progressive HIV/SIV infections, these findings suggest that increased microbial translocation from the GI tract, in excess of capacity to clear the translocated microbial constituents, helps drive pathological immune activation. Novel therapeutic approaches to inhibit microbial translocation and/or attenuate chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals may complement treatments aimed at direct suppression of viral replication.

  5. Y autosome translocation and complex chromosome rearrangement in cri du chat syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, J F; Mattei, M G; Coignet, J; Giraud, F

    1978-01-01

    An unbalanced Y autosome translocation t(5;Y) and an apparently balanced translocation t(2;13) are identified with the Q and R banding in a 7-year-old boy with severe encephalopathy and a multiple malformation syndrome. At birth, the clinical diagnosis of 'cri du chat' syndrome based on the characteristic crying was not confirmed after karyotyping, using conventional staining techniques. Images PMID:641952

  6. Penetration and translocation of dihydrostreptomycin 3H-sesquisulfate in plant tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, H.

    1975-01-01

    Penetration and translocation of 3 H-labelled dihydrestreptomycinsesquisulfate in plant tissue were investigated by autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting. The antibiotic is translocated upwards with the transpiration stream and on a smaller scale downwards with the assimilates. The addition of CaCl 2 or MnCl 2 increased the absorption. Adjuvants such as glycerol, emulsified oil or surfactants also improved the movement of 3 H-DHS. (orig.) [de

  7. Leaves Of Cut Rose Flower Convert Exogenously Applied Glucose To Sucrose And Translocate It To Petals

    OpenAIRE

    Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio

    2014-01-01

    To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...

  8. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  9. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnsworth, Matthew L; Dickson, Brett G; Zachmann, Luke J; Hegeman, Ericka E; Cangelosi, Amanda R; Jackson, Thomas G; Scheib, Amanda F

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  10. The impact of transportation and translocation on dispersal behaviour in the invasive cane toad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Lachlan; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Biological invasions transport organisms to novel environments; but how does the translocation process influence movement patterns of the invader? Plausibly, the stress of encountering a novel environment, or of the transport process, might induce rapid dispersal from the release site-potentially enhancing (or reducing) invader success and spread. We investigated the effect of transportation and release to novel environments on dispersal-relevant traits of one of the world's most notorious invaders, the cane toad (Rhinella marina). We collected toads in northern New South Wales from heath and woodland habitats, manipulated the level of transport stress and either returned toads to their exact collection point (residents) or reciprocally translocated them to a novel site. Both translocation and the level of transport stress drastically altered toad dispersal rates for at least 5 days post-release. Translocated toads (depending on their level of transport stress and release habitat) moved on average two to five times further per day (mean range 67-148 m) than did residents (mean range 22-34 m). Translocated toads also moved on more days, and moved further from their release point than did resident toads, but did not move in straighter lines. A higher level of transport stress (simulating long-distance translocation) had no significant effect on movements of resident toads but amplified the dispersal of translocated toads only when released into woodland habitat. These behavioural shifts induced by translocation and transportation may affect an invader's ability to colonise novel sites, and need to be incorporated into plans for invader control.

  11. DNA translocation across protein channels: How does a polymer worm through a hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, M.

    2001-03-01

    Free energy barriers control the translocation of polymers through narrow channels. Based on an analogy with the classical nucleation and growth process, we have calculated the translocation time and its dependencies on the length, stiffness, and sequence of the polymer, solution conditions, and the strength of the driving electrochemical potential gradient. Our predictions will be compared with experimental results and prospects of reading polymer sequences.

  12. Chromosomal translocation in a mongoloid male child and his normal mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willy Beçak

    1963-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a translocation 21/13-15 is related in 46 chromosomes, karyotypes of a mongoloid male child (Down's syndrome. The abnormal chromosome was transmitted by the mother of the patient. The possible deficiency of translocated chromosome 21 and the possible origin of the anomaly in the family was discussed and the presence of a markedly large Y chromosome in the karyotypes of the patient as in those of his father was also noted.

  13. Carbon 14 absorption and translocation in sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, R.M.M.; Sampaio, E.V.S.; Salcedo, I.H.

    1990-01-01

    Plant-cane stools were labelled with sup(14) CO sub(2), in the field, at Goiana-PE, Brazil, when 3, 7 and 11 months old. Each stool was enclosed in a chamber with sup(14) CO sub(2) for 90 minutes. The sub(14) C photosynthetic were measured in leaves, stalks, roots and soil 24 hours after labelling. Roots were divided into alive and dead and soil into rhizosphere and outer soil. At the end of the labelling period at 3, 7 and 11 months, 2, 19 and 1% of the initial sup(14) CO sub(2) were recovered in the plant and the soil. The low recovery of sub(14) C at 3 months could be attribute to losses by respiration and lack of sampling of the top growing point. The low CO sub(2) fixation and losses at first sampling in the 7 month old labelling were attributed to low light intensity during the day of labelling. Most of the recovered sub(14) C (>80%) was founded in the leaves but all plant parts received labelled photosynthetic. At 3 months, most of the sub(14) C translocated from the leaves went to the living roots (83%); at 7 and 11 months it went to the stalks (69 and 66%). While the roots received less than 2%. Root masses did not vary consistently along the plant cycle and dead root masses were always less than 10% of the total root mass. Radioactivity in the dead roots was always very low. These results suggest that the root system have a low turnover rate after 3 months old. (author)

  14. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  15. Optical polarization: background and camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škerlind, Christina; Hallberg, Tomas; Eriksson, Johan; Kariis, Hans; Bergström, David

    2017-10-01

    Polarimetric imaging sensors in the electro-optical region, already military and commercially available in both the visual and infrared, show enhanced capabilities for advanced target detection and recognition. The capabilities arise due to the ability to discriminate between man-made and natural background surfaces using the polarization information of light. In the development of materials for signature management in the visible and infrared wavelength regions, different criteria need to be met to fulfil the requirements for a good camouflage against modern sensors. In conventional camouflage design, the aimed design of the surface properties of an object is to spectrally match or adapt it to a background and thereby minimizing the contrast given by a specific threat sensor. Examples will be shown from measurements of some relevant materials and how they in different ways affect the polarimetric signature. Dimensioning properties relevant in an optical camouflage from a polarimetric perspective, such as degree of polarization, the viewing or incident angle, and amount of diffuse reflection, mainly in the infrared region, will be discussed.

  16. A kinetic Monte Carlo approach to investigate antibiotic translocation through bacterial porins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, Matteo; Ruggerone, Paolo; Vargiu, Attilio V

    2012-01-01

    Many relevant biological processes take place on time scales not reachable by standard all-atom computer simulations. The translocation of antibiotics through non-specific bacterial porins is an example. Microscopic effects compete to determine penetration routes and, consequently, free energy barriers to be overcome. Since bacteria can develop resistance to treatment also by reducing their antibiotic permeability, to understand the microscopic aspects of antibiotic translocation is an important step to rationalize drug design. Here, to investigate the translocation we propose a complete numerical model that combines the diffusion-controlled rate theory and a kinetic Monte Carlo scheme based on both experimental data and microscopically well-founded all-atom simulations. Within our model, an antibiotic translocating through an hour-glass-shaped channel can be described as a molecule moving on a potential of mean force featuring several affinity sites and a high central barrier. The implications of our results for the characterization of antibiotic translocation at in vivo concentrations are discussed. The presence of an affinity site close to the mouth of the channel seems to favor the translocation of antibiotics, the affinity site acting as a particle reservoir. Possible connections between results and the appearance of mutations in clinical strains are also outlined. (paper)

  17. Movements and survival of black-footed ferrets associated with an experimental translocation in South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Godbey, J.L.; Horton, B.M.; Livieri, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) apparently were extirpated from all native habitats by 1987, and their repatriation requires a combination of captive breeding, reintroductions, and translocations among sites. Improvements in survival rates of released ferrets have resulted from experience in quasi-natural environments during their rearing. Reestablishment of a self-sustaining wild population by 1999 provided the 1st opportunity to initiate new populations by translocating wild-born individuals. Using radiotelemetry, we compared behaviors and survival of 18 translocated wild-born ferrets and 18 pen-experienced captive-born ferrets after their release into a prairie dog colony not occupied previously by ferrets. Translocated wild-born ferrets moved significantly less and had significantly higher short-term survival rates than their captive-born counterparts. Using markrecapture methods, we also assessed potential impacts to the established donor population of removing 37% of its estimated annual production of kits. Annual survival rates for 30 ferret kits remaining at the donor subcomplex were higher than rates for 54 ferret kits at the control subcomplex (unmanipulated) for males (+82%) and females (+32%). Minimum survival of translocated kits did not differ significantly from survival of those at the control subcomplex. Direct translocation of young, wild-born ferrets from site to site appears to be an efficient method to establish new populations. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Characterization of a wheat-Thinopyrum bessarabicum (T2JS-2BS.2BL) translocation line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zengjun; Du, Pei; Qian, Baoli; Zhuang, Lifang; Chen, Huafeng; Chen, Tingting; Shen, Jian; Guo, Jie; Feng, Yigao; Pei, Ziyou

    2010-08-01

    Thinopyrum bessarabicum (2n = 2x = 14, JJ or E(b)E(b)) is an important genetic resource for wheat improvement due to its salinity tolerance and disease resistance. Development of wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. In this study, a novel wheat-Th. bessarabicum translocation line T2JS-2BS.2BL, which carries a segment of Th. bessarabicum chromosome arm 2JS was identified and further characterized using sequential chromosome C-banding, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), dual-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA markers. The translocation breakpoint was mapped within bin C-2BS1-0.53 of chromosome 2B through marker analysis. Compared to the Chinese Spring (CS) parent and to CS-type lines, the translocation line has more fertile spikes per plant, longer spikes, more grains per spike and higher yield per plant, which suggests that the alien segment carries yield-related genes. However, plants with the translocation are also taller, head later and have lower 1,000-kernel weight than CS or CS-type lines. By using markers specific to the barley photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1, it was determined that the late heading date was conferred by a recessive allele located on the 2JS segment. In addition, four markers specific for the translocated segment were identified, which can be used for marker-aided screening.

  19. Uptake and translocation of imidacloprid, clothianidin and flupyradifurone in seed-treated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Mitchell D; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M; Baxendale, Frederick P; Siegfried, Blair D; Blankenship, Erin E; Nauen, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Seed treatment insecticides have become a popular management option for early-season insect control. This study investigated the total uptake and translocation of seed-applied [(14) C]imidacloprid, [(14) C]clothianidin and [(14) C]flupyradifurone into different plant parts in three soybean vegetative stages (VC, V1 and V2). The effects of soil moisture stress on insecticide uptake and translocation were also assessed among treatments. We hypothesized that (1) uptake and translocation would be different among the insecticides owing to differences in water solubility, and (2) moisture stress would increase insecticide uptake and translocation. Uptake and translocation did not follow a clear trend in the three vegetative stages. Initially, flupyradifurone uptake was greater than clothianidin uptake in VC soybeans. In V1 soybeans, differences in uptake among the three insecticides were not apparent and unaffected by soil moisture stress. Clothianidin was negatively affected by soil moisture stress in V2 soybeans, while imidacloprid and flupyradifurone were unaffected. Specifically, soil moisture stress had a positive effect on the distribution of flupyradifurone in leaves. This was not observed with the neonicotinoids. This study enhances our understanding of the uptake and distribution of insecticides used as seed treatments in soybean. The uptake and translocation of these insecticides differed in response to soil moisture stress. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Connecting the dots: could microbial translocation explain commonly reported symptoms in HIV disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Natalie L; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Heath, Sonya L; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2014-01-01

    Microbial translocation within the context of HIV disease has been described as one of the contributing causes of inflammation and disease progression in HIV infection. HIV-associated symptoms have been related to inflammatory markers and sCD14, a surrogate marker for microbial translocation, suggesting a plausible link between microbial translocation and symptom burden in HIV disease. Similar pathophysiological responses and symptoms have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We provide a comprehensive review of microbial translocation, HIV-associated symptoms, and symptoms connected with inflammation. We identify studies showing a relationship among inflammatory markers, sCD14, and symptoms reported in HIV disease. A conceptual framework and rationale to investigate the link between microbial translocation and symptoms is presented. The impact of inflammation on symptoms supports recommendations to reduce inflammation as part of HIV symptom management. Research in reducing microbial translocation-induced inflammation is limited, but needed, to further promote positive health outcomes among HIV-infected patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Translocation of mercury and cadmium into the fruiting bodies of six higher fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, H.; Zadrazil, F.

    1983-01-01

    The species- and metal-specific translocation of cadmium and mercury from the substrate to the fruiting bodies of 6 higher fungi has been investigated. The 6 species differed greatly in their ability to translocate cadmium and mercury. The highest translocation rates displayed Pleurotus flabellatus: 75.0% of the applied cadmium and 38.5% of the mercury could be recovered from the fruiting bodies. High translocation rates also found with Pleurotus ostreatus (19.3 and 38.5% for cadmium and mercury, respectively). This compares with only 1.27% of cadmium and 8.42% of mercury in Agaricus bisporus or 3.71% of cadmium and 3.63% of mercury in Pleurotus sajor caju. For Agaricus bisporus it was shown that there was proportionality of translocation over a 1:10 concentration range. In 4 out of 6 species there was a tendency towards higher heavy metal contents in later crops, when calculated on the basis of ..mu..g/g of dry fruiting body. In 4 out of 6 more mercury than cadmium was translocated into the fruiting bodies, the Cd/Hg ratios being 6.6, 2.0, 5.6, and 3.2, respectively. In Pleurotus sajor caju the ratio was about 1. Only in Pleurotus flabellatus more cadmium than mercury was found in the fruiting bodies (Cd/Hg ratio 0.65).

  2. Sigmoid colon translocation of an intrauterine device misdiagnosed as a colonic polyp: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin-Xin; Yu, Mo-Sang; Gu, Meng-Li; Zhong, Wei-Xiang; Wu, Hong-Ru; Ji, Feng; Pan, Hang-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) are recommended as a means of contraception. Translocation of IUD is a rare and serious complication. Colonic inflammatory mass caused by translocated IUD initially misdiagnosed as a colonic polyp is extremely rare and has not been reported yet. This report presents a case of sigmoid colon translocation of intrauterine device on a 37-year-old female patient. Colonoscopy was performed due to her complain of repeated blood in stools and subsequently the patient was misdiagnosed as a sigmoid colon polyp. Nonetheless, the "polyp" was not able to be removed endoscopically. Sigmoid colon translocation of an intrauterine device. To further clarify the diagnosis, computed tomography (CT) scan was performed and the "polyp" was confirmed to be caused by a translocated IUD. The translocated IUD was removed easily by surgery, and the patient recovered soon after the operation. The present case indicates that an annual gynaecologic examination is necessary to determine the position of the IUD, and a CT examination may help confirm an ectopic IUD.

  3. Translocation mechanism(s) of cell-penetrating peptides: biophysical studies using artificial membrane bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Chassaing, Gérard; Swiecicki, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-20

    The ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to cross cell membranes has found numerous applications in the delivery of bioactive compounds to the cytosol of living cells. Their internalization mechanisms have been questioned many times, and after 20 years of intense debate, it is now widely accepted that both energy-dependent and energy-independent mechanisms account for their penetration properties. However, the energy-independent mechanisms, named "direct translocation", occurring without the requirement of the cell internalization machinery, remain to be fully rationalized at the molecular level. Using artificial membrane bilayers, recent progress has been made toward the comprehension of the direct translocation event. This review summarizes our current understanding of the translocation process, starting from the adsorption of the CPP on the membrane to the membrane crossing itself. We describe the different key steps occurring before direct translocation, because each of them can promote and/or hamper translocation of the CPP through the membrane. We then dissect the modification to the membranes induced by the presence of the CPPs. Finally, we focus on the latest studies describing the direct translocation mechanisms. These results provide an important framework within which to design new CPPs and to rationalize an eventual selectivity of CPPs in their penetration ability.

  4. Breeding few-seed/seedless watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation induced by gamma-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, W.; Xingping, Z.; Xian, Z.; Kechi, N.; Shuai, Z.; Juenlian, Z.

    1988-01-01

    The development of autotriploid watermelon was a great advance in the field of watermelon breeding. However, some disadvantages still existed with this type of seedless watermelon. Partial sterility may be induced in diploid watermelon via chromosome reciprocal translocation. We used gamma-rays to irradiate the seeds of homozygous translocation strains with one translocation ring composed of 4 chromosomes (symbol (4) ). Watermelon strains were 'Asahi Yamato', 'Mioyaka', and 'Fumin' saent to us by H. Kihara in 1977. In order to further induce multiple reciprocal translocations for developing new few-seed/seedless watermelon strains, the seeds of the above 3 strains were sown for further selfing in 1978. The seeds of each selfed fruit were grown as a single plant line in 1979 for evaluation of their characters. In addition, some crosses between common diploid watermelon cultivars and translocations were carried out to test the seed setting rate of the heterozygous translocation strains. Some of the crosses were 'Sugar Baby' x 'Asahi Yamato AT-1' and 'Akakotama' x Asahi Yamato AT-2'. The plump seed setting rate of the F1 of these crosses were ca. 50%

  5. Genetic analysis of γ-ray induced W-translocation strain on Bombyx nori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Akio; Murakami, Akio

    1976-01-01

    In the process of analyzing a γ-ray induced mutant of Bombyx nori oo cyte, new type translocation strains of W chromosomes and No.5 chromosomes were detected. The constitution of their translocated chromosomes was assumed to be Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/v. Owing to such chromosome constitution, it was considered that non-disjunction was induced at meiosis, and Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)/V, Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V were produced besides Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V in the female chromosomes (gene) of the next progeny, while V/V and Z/Z, V + sup(oc)/V were produced besides Z/Z, V/V in male. Death of some male eggs in this translocation strain was also observed. No dissociated individual of translocated chromosomes was segregated in the next progeny of the female moth with Z/(W-V) + sup(pe), V/V chromosome constitution and the marker stock male moth, while a few dissociated individuals appeared in the next progeny of Z/(W-V) + sup(pe)-V + sup(oc)/V female moth group. This fact seemed to be resulted from the complicated translocated chromosome constitution of the translocation strain. (Kobatake, H.)

  6. The Semiflexible Polymer Translocation into Laterally Unbounded Region between Two Parallel Flat Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Yang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the dynamic Monte Carlo method, we investigate dynamics of semiflexible polymer translocation through a nanopore into laterally unbounded region between two parallel flat membranes with separation R in presence of an electric field inside the pore. The average translocation time τ initially decreases rapidly with increase of R in the range of R < 10 and then almost keeps constant for R ≥ 10, and the decline range increases with increase of dimensionless bending stiffness κ. We mainly study the effect of chain length N, κ and electric field strength E on the translocation process for R = 5. The translocation dynamics is significantly altered in comparison to an unconfined environment. We find τ ~ Nα, where the exponent α increases with increase of E for small κ. α initially increases slowly with increase of E and then keeps constant for moderate κ. α decreases with increase of E for large κ. However, α decreases with increase of κ under various E. In addition, we find τ ~ κβ. β decreases with increase of N under various E. These behaviors are interpreted in terms of the probability distribution of translocation time and the waiting time of an individual monomer segment passing through the pore during translocation.

  7. Curcumin attenuates insulin resistance in hepatocytes by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Guang; Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Wang, Jing-Jie; Wang, Xv-Xia; Qin, Ming; Wen, Qin-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    NF-E2-Related Factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the cellular protection against oxidative stress. Curcumin has been reported to induce Nrf2 nuclear translocation and upregulate the expression of numerous reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxifying and antioxidant genes in hepatocytes. This study was designed to investigate whether curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. Human LO2 hepatocytes were incubated with curcumine and glucose oxidase (GO) in the presence/absence of wortmannin (a phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor), oxidative stress, cellular damage, Nrf2 nuclear translocation and insulin resistance were measured. GO exposure significantly increased intracellular ROS, glutathione (GSH) depletion, malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and increased activities of cellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as causing insulin resistance. Curcumin pretreatment significantly attenuated these disturbances in intracellular ROS, liver enzyme activity and significantly antagonized the lipid peroxidation, GSH depletion and insulin resistance induced by GO in LO2 hepatocytes. These effects paralleled Nrf2 nuclear translocation induced by curcumin. Wortmannin partially blocked curcumin-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In addition, wortmannin prevented curcumin-induced improvements in intracellular ROS, MDA formation, GSH depletion, liver enzyme activity and insulin resistance in cultured LO2 hepatocytes. These findings suggest that curcumin could reduce ROS-mediated insulin resistance in hepatocytes, at least in part through nuclear translocation of Nrf2.

  8. Recombinase, chromosomal translocations and lymphoid neoplasia: targeting mistakes and repair failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marculescu, Rodrig; Vanura, Katrina; Montpellier, Bertrand; Roulland, Sandrine; Le, Trang; Navarro, Jean-Marc; Jäger, Ulrich; McBlane, Fraser; Nadel, Bertrand

    2006-09-08

    A large number of lymphoid malignancies is characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which are closely linked to the initial steps of pathogenesis. The hallmark of these translocations is the ectopic activation of a silent proto-oncogene through its relocation at the vicinity of an active regulatory element. Due to the unique feature of lymphoid cells to somatically rearrange and mutate receptor genes, and to the corresponding strong activity of the immune enhancers/promoters at that stage of cell development, B- and T-cell differentiation pathways represent propitious targets for chromosomal translocations and oncogene activation. Recent progress in the understanding of the V(D)J recombination process has allowed a more accurate definition of the translocation mechanisms involved, and has revealed that V(D)J-mediated translocations result both from targeting mistakes of the recombinase, and from illegitimate repair of the V(D)J recombination intermediates. Surprisingly, V(D)J-mediated translocations turn out to be restricted to two specific sub-types of lymphoid malignancies, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and a restricted set of mature B-cell Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.

  9. Discrete frequency identification using the HP 5451B Fourier analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.; Barry, P.

    1977-01-01

    The frequency analysis by the HP5451B discrete frequency Fourier analyser is studied. The advantages of cross correlation analysis to identify discrete frequencies in a background noise are discussed in conjuction with the elimination of aliasing and wraparound error. Discrete frequency identification is illustrated by a series of graphs giving the results of analysing 'electrical' and 'acoustical' white noise and sinusoidal signals [pt

  10. The translocation of white phosphorus from hen (Gallus domesticus) to egg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, S.I.; MacMillan, D.L.; Roebuck, B.D. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Thousands of waterfowl deaths occurring at Eagle River Flats (ERF), Anchorage, Alaska, have been attributed to the ingestion of white phosphorus (P{sub 4}) particles. White phosphorus has been found in the egg of one herring gull (Larus argentatus) and in the yolks of some shorebirds at ERF. The presence of P{sub 4} in eggs suggests potential toxic consequences for avian reproduction. This study was undertaken to determine the magnitude and potential importance of P{sub 4} translocation from the hen to the egg. Egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were gavaged with a single dose of 1, 3, or 5 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight or dosed with 1 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight for 5 consecutive d. Eggs of dosed hens were collected daily. White phosphorus was extracted from the yolk and the white, individually, with isooctane and analyzed by gas chromatography. White phosphorus had no significant effect on chicken weight, egg weight, or shell thickness. However, laying frequency was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in chickens receiving 1 mg P{sub 4}/kg body weight for 5 d. For all treatments, P{sub 4} was detected in the yolk and not in the white. It was first detected in the yolk approx. 1 to 2 d after P{sub 4} exposure and became nondetectable 6 to 10 d after P{sub 4} exposure. The total P{sub 4} recovered from eggs of chickens treated with P{sub 4} was less than 0.01% of the administered dose.

  11. Constraining radon backgrounds in LZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E. H.; Busenitz, J.; Edberg, T. K.; Ghag, C.; Hall, C.; Leonard, R.; Lesko, K.; Liu, X.; Meng, Y.; Piepke, A.; Schnee, R. W.

    2018-01-01

    The LZ dark matter detector, like many other rare-event searches, will suffer from backgrounds due to the radioactive decay of radon daughters. In order to achieve its science goals, the concentration of radon within the xenon should not exceed 2 µBq/kg, or 20 mBq total within its 10 tonnes. The LZ collaboration is in the midst of a program to screen all significant components in contact with the xenon. The four institutions involved in this effort have begun sharing two cross-calibration sources to ensure consistent measurement results across multiple distinct devices. We present here five preliminary screening results, some mitigation strategies that will reduce the amount of radon produced by the most problematic components, and a summary of the current estimate of radon emanation throughout the detector. This best estimate totals < 17.3 mBq, sufficiently low to meet the detector's science goals.

  12. Expression pattern of a nuclear encoded mitochondrial arginine-ornithine translocator gene from Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Anja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine and citrulline serve as nitrogen storage forms, but are also involved in biosynthetic and catabolic pathways. Metabolism of arginine, citrulline and ornithine is distributed between mitochondria and cytosol. For the shuttle of intermediates between cytosol and mitochondria transporters present on the inner mitochondrial membrane are required. Yeast contains a mitochondrial translocator for ornithine and arginine, Ort1p/Arg11p. Ort1p/Arg11p is a member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF essential for ornithine export from mitochondria. The yeast arg11 mutant, which is deficient in Ort1p/Arg11p grows poorly on media lacking arginine. Results High-level expression of a nuclear encoded Arabidopsis thaliana homolog (AtmBAC2 of Ort1p/Arg11p was able to suppress the growth deficiency of arg11. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated expression of AtmBAC2 in all tissues with highest levels in flowers. Promoter-GUS fusions showed preferential expression in flowers, i.e. pollen, in the vasculature of siliques and in aborted seeds. Variable expression was observed in leaf vasculature. Induction of the promoter was not observed during the first two weeks in seedlings grown on media containing NH4NO3, arginine or ornithine as sole nitrogen sources. Conclusion AtmBAC2 was isolated as a mitochondrial transporter for arginine in Arabidopsis. The absence of expression in developing seeds and in cotyledons of seedlings indicates that other transporters are responsible for storage and mobilization of arginine in seeds.

  13. A translocator-specific export signal establishes the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy that is important for type III secretion system function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomalka, Amanda G.; Stopford, Charles M.; Lee, Pei-Chung; Rietsch, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Summary Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative pathogens to directly deliver effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells. To accomplish this, bacteria secrete translocator proteins that form a pore in the host-cell membrane through which the effector proteins are then introduced into the host cell. Evidence from multiple systems indicates that the pore-forming translocator proteins are exported before effectors, but how this secretion hierarchy is established is unclear. Here we used the P. aeruginosa translocator protein PopD as a model to identify its export signals. The amino-terminal secretion signal and chaperone, PcrH, are required for export under all conditions. Two novel signals in PopD, one proximal to the chaperone-binding site and one at the very C-terminus of the protein, are required for export of PopD before effector proteins. These novel export signals establish the translocator-effector secretion hierarchy, which in turn, is critical for the delivery of effectors into host cells. PMID:23121689

  14. Frequencies and distributions of sex chromosome abnormalities in females with the Turner phenotype: a long-term retrospective study in the southern region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrıverdi, Nilgün; Demirhan, Osman; Süleymanova, Dilara; Pazarbaşı, Ayfer

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: The genetic background of Turner syndrome (TS) is highly variable. The correlation between genotype and phenotype is not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to describe the frequencies and distributions of Turner karyotypes and to discuss the phenotype/genotype relation in a very large group of individuals with TS. Materials and methods: The karyotype results of 248 female participants were evaluated retrospectively.Results: Of 248 females with the Turner phenotype, 14.5% had normal karyotypes and 85.5% had Turner karyotypes. About 72.2% of the abnormalities were numerical aberrations and 27.8% were structural aberrations. The most frequent karyotype was monosomy X, which was found in 135 females (63.7%), followed by 44 mosaics (21%), 40 isochromosomes of the long and short arms of chromosome X (19.1%), and 17 deletions of the short and long arms of chromosome X (8.0%). One case of Robertsonian translocation and one case of mosaic TS with marker chromosome were detected. Conclusion: This study shows the frequency and distribution of karyotypes in females with TS. There is great value to be gleaned from studies of females with TS in furthering our understanding of the atypical clinical features associated with TS. Studies involving genetic analyses will be necessary to examine gene expression profiles in girls with TS and identify potential candidate genes underlying the atypical clinical features associated with TS.

  15. Impact of personal and environmental factors on the rate of chromosome aberrations named translocations - Part 1: age, gender, smoking, alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, E.; Gruel, G.; Martin, C.; Roch-Lefevre, S.; Vaurijoux, A.; Voisin, P.; Roy, L.

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of exposure to ionizing radiation, carried out long time after exposure, is currently performed by scoring of translocations, a specific type of chromosomal aberrations. The translocations rate observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes of exposed subjects is compared to that observed in a control population. However, the translocation specificity towards radiation exposure is not clearly identified. To avoid any hasty conclusion, it is necessary to identify all the factors likely to induce translocation. To our knowledge, no study has thus far examined the effects of all these different factors on translocation rates. A review of the literature thus allowed us to assess the impact of host factors and lifestyle on the production of translocations. This study confirms that age appears to be the factor having the greatest impact on the rate of translocations, especially over 60 years. To date, the factor 'age' is already considered in estimating the impact of radiation on the rate of translocation for all age groups. However, the study also shows that this rate varies significantly when the patient is exposed simultaneously and significantly towards many lifestyle agents. A precise threshold translocation rate should thus be established as a function of known behavioral exposures, below which it is impossible to conclude that radiological exposure has occurred. The effects of chemicals on the translocation rate after occupational exposure will be the subject of a second part. (authors)

  16. Development of a high-throughput method for the systematic identification of human proteins nuclear translocation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Jun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Important clues to the function of novel and uncharacterized proteins can be obtained by identifying their ability to translocate in the nucleus. In addition, a comprehensive definition of the nuclear proteome undoubtedly represents a key step toward a better understanding of the biology of this organelle. Although several high-throughput experimental methods have been developed to explore the sub-cellular localization of proteins, these methods tend to focus on the predominant localizations of gene products and may fail to provide a complete catalog of proteins that are able to transiently locate into the nucleus. Results We have developed a method for examining the nuclear localization potential of human gene products at the proteome scale by adapting a mammalian two-hybrid system we have previously developed. Our system is composed of three constructs co-transfected into a mammalian cell line. First, it contains a PCR construct encoding a fusion protein composed of a tested protein, the PDZ-protein TIP-1, and the transactivation domain of TNNC2 (referred to as ACT construct. Second, our system contains a PCR construct encoding a fusion protein composed of the DNA binding domain of GAL4 and the PDZ binding domain of rhotekin (referred to as the BIND construct. Third, a GAL4-responsive luciferase reporter is used to detect the reconstitution of a transcriptionally active BIND-ACT complex through the interaction of TIP-1 and rhotekin, which indicates the ability of the tested protein to translocate into the nucleus. We validated our method in a small-scale feasibility study by comparing it to green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion-based sub-cellular localization assays, sequence-based computational prediction of protein sub-cellular localization, and current sub-cellular localization data available from the literature for 22 gene products. Conclusion Our reporter-based system can rapidly screen gene products for their ability

  17. Translocation of labelled fertilizer nitrogen in soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haunold, E.; Zvara, J.

    1975-01-01

    The nitrogen translocation studies, 15 N was used in ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and K 15 NO 3 in rates of 150 and 300 kg/hectar. The fertilizers were in autumn added to soil columns (45cm x 0=5cm). The pH-value of the soil was 7.6. The following June, the columns were taken out, cutted into segment and analyzed. The drainage water, stored during this time in receptacles of the soil columns also analyzed. The water balance for the first year with a total precipitation of 393 mm was as follows: 7% drainage water, 30 % in the soil and 53 % lost by evaporation. At the end of the second year, with a rainfall of 170 mm during the investigation interval, these figures were 12 %, 56 % and 32 % respectively. The total amount of nitrogen, found in the drainage water after NH 4 -application was equal in both years and not significantly different from the controls. When nitrogen was applied as NO 3 , a higher amount of total nitrogen was recovered in the drains. When the fertilizer nitrogen was given as NH 4 , the interchange rate with the soil nitrogen was 10 % and 13 %, with NO 3 only 2 %, respectively. These figures, evaluated in the first year with an isotope method, did show in the second year the corresponding values of 1 and 6 %, or 0.5 % respectively. The balance of fertilizer nitrogen calculated with the distribution of 15 N indicated the following situation: When fertilizing with NH 4 7.6 % and 6.6 % were leached out, 37.9 % and 33.7 % remained in the soil, 54,5 % and 59,7 % were lost as gaseous nitrogen. After NO 3 application 29.6 % and 22.6 % were found in the drainage water, 18.1 % and 16.7 % remained in the soil and 52.3 % and 60.6 % were lost. At the end of the second year 10.3 % and 5.9 % of the applied NH 4 were recovered in the drainage water, 50.1 % and 44.1 % remained in the soil and 39.5 % and 50.1 % were lost. After NO 3 -application these figures were 47.3 % and 43.3 %, then 40.0 % and 34.8 % and the losses were 12.7 and 21.9 % respectively. (author)

  18. Bim nuclear translocation and inactivation by viral interferon regulatory factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Bong Choi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral replication efficiency is in large part governed by the ability of viruses to counteract pro-apoptotic signals induced by infection of the host cell. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 uses several strategies to block the host's innate antiviral defenses via interference with interferon and apoptotic signaling. Contributors include the four viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs 1-4, which function in dominant negative fashion to block cellular IRF activities in addition to targeting IRF signaling-induced proteins such as p53 and inhibiting other inducers of apoptosis such as TGFbeta receptor-activated Smad transcription factors. Here we identify direct targeting by vIRF-1 of BH3-only pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bim, a key negative regulator of HHV-8 replication, to effect its inactivation via nuclear translocation. vIRF-1-mediated relocalization of Bim was identified in transfected cells, by both immunofluorescence assay and western analysis of fractionated cell extracts. Also, co-localization of vIRF-1 and Bim was detected in nuclei of lytically infected endothelial cells. In vitro co-precipitation assays using purified vIRF-1 and Bim revealed direct interaction between the proteins, and Bim-binding residues of vIRF-1 were mapped by deletion and point mutagenesis. Generation and experimental utilization of Bim-refractory vIRF-1 variants revealed the importance of vIRF-1:Bim interaction, specifically, in pro-replication and anti-apoptotic activity of vIRF-1. Furthermore, blocking of the interaction with cell-permeable peptide corresponding to the Bim-binding region of vIRF-1 confirmed the relevance of vIRF-1:Bim association to vIRF-1 pro-replication activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an IRF protein that interacts with a Bcl-2 family member and of nuclear sequestration of Bim or any other member of the family as a means of inactivation. The data presented reveal a novel mechanism utilized by a virus to control

  19. Thresholding of auditory cortical representation by background noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Feixue; Bai, Lin; Tao, Huizhong W.; Zhang, Li I.; Xiao, Zhongju

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that background noise can mask auditory information. However, how the noise specifically transforms neuronal auditory processing in a level-dependent manner remains to be carefully determined. Here, with in vivo loose-patch cell-attached recordings in layer 4 of the rat primary auditory cortex (A1), we systematically examined how continuous wideband noise of different levels affected receptive field properties of individual neurons. We found that the background noise, when above a certain critical/effective level, resulted in an elevation of intensity threshold for tone-evoked responses. This increase of threshold was linearly dependent on the noise intensity above the critical level. As such, the tonal receptive field (TRF) of individual neurons was translated upward as an entirety toward high intensities along the intensity domain. This resulted in preserved preferred characteristic frequency (CF) and the overall shape of TRF, but reduced frequency responding range and an enhanced frequency selectivity for the same stimulus intensity. Such translational effects on intensity threshold were observed in both excitatory and fast-spiking inhibitory neurons, as well as in both monotonic and nonmonotonic (intensity-tuned) A1 neurons. Our results suggest that in a noise background, fundamental auditory representations are modulated through a background level-dependent linear shifting along intensity domain, which is equivalent to reducing stimulus intensity. PMID:25426029

  20. Modeling of the human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma Pax3-Foxo1 chromosome translocation in mouse myoblasts using CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Lagutina

    Full Text Available Many recurrent chromosome translocations in cancer result in the generation of fusion genes that are directly implicated in the tumorigenic process. Precise modeling of the effects of cancer fusion genes in mice has been inaccurate, as constructs of fusion genes often completely or partially lack the correct regulatory sequences. The reciprocal t(2;13(q36.1;q14.1 in human alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (A-RMS creates a pathognomonic PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene. In vivo mimicking of this translocation in mice is complicated by the fact that Pax3 and Foxo1 are in opposite orientation on their respective chromosomes, precluding formation of a functional Pax3-Foxo1 fusion via a simple translocation. To circumvent this problem, we irreversibly inverted the orientation of a 4.9 Mb syntenic fragment on chromosome 3, encompassing Foxo1, by using Cre-mediated recombination of two pairs of unrelated oppositely oriented LoxP sites situated at the borders of the syntenic region. We tested if spatial proximity of the Pax3 and Foxo1 loci in myoblasts of mice homozygous for the inversion facilitated Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene formation upon induction of targeted CRISPR-Cas9 nuclease-induced DNA double strand breaks in Pax3 and Foxo1. Fluorescent in situ hybridization indicated that fore limb myoblasts show a higher frequency of Pax3/Foxo1 co-localization than hind limb myoblasts. Indeed, more fusion genes were generated in fore limb myoblasts via a reciprocal t(1;3, which expressed correctly spliced Pax3-Foxo1 mRNA encoding Pax3-Foxo1 fusion protein. We conclude that locus proximity facilitates chromosome translocation upon induction of DNA double strand breaks. Given that the Pax3-Foxo1 fusion gene will contain all the regulatory sequences necessary for precise regulation of its expression, we propose that CRISPR-Cas9 provides a novel means to faithfully model human diseases caused by chromosome translocation in mice.

  1. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT/HIF-1β is Influenced by Hypoxia and Hypoxia-Mimetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wolff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator (ARNT, HIF-1β is a member of the basic-Helix-Loop-Helix PER/ARNT/SIM (bHLH/PAS protein family and a vital transcriptional regulator regarding development and physiological adaptation processes. ARNT is discussed to be linked with cancer, and other diseases. ARNT is known to be translocated into the cell nucleus, where accumulation of the protein takes place. ARNT is a heterodimerisation partner of the xenobiotic ligand activated Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR, the Single Minded proteins (SIM, the cardiovascular helix-loop-helix factor 1 and the Hypoxia Inducible Factor proteins (HIF-α. ARNT is obligatory for HIF-1, HIF-2 and HIF-3 binding to DNA. Whereas degradation of the HIF-α subunits is suppressed by hypoxia, ARNT is generally regarded as constitutively expressed in excess within the cell, and stabilisation is commonly thought to be oxygen-independent. However, we provide evidence that the regulation of ARNT is far more complex. The aim of our study was to reevaluate the regulation of ARNT expression. Methods: We examined cell lines of different origin like MCF-7 and T47D (human breast cancer, HeLa (human cervix carcinoma, Hep3B and HepG2 (human hepatoma, Kelly (human neuroblastoma, REPC (human kidney and Cos7 (primary primate kidney cells. We used immunoblot analysis, densitometry, RT-PCR and transient transfection. Results and Conclusion: Our results show that ARNT protein levels are influenced by hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics such as cobalt(II-chloride (CoCl2 and dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG in a cell line specific manner. We demonstrate that this effect might be triggered by HIF-1α which plays an important role in the process of stabilizing ARNT in hypoxia.

  2. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Rodrigues, Michele A. [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Department of General Pathology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil); Gomes, Dawidson A., E-mail: dawidson@ufmg.br [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2016-09-09

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  3. PAK1 translocates into nucleus in response to prolactin but not to estrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oladimeji, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Oladimeji@rockets.utoledo.edu; Diakonova, Maria, E-mail: mdiakon@utnet.utoledo.edu

    2016-04-22

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation of the p21-activated serine–threonine kinase 1 (PAK1) has an essential role in regulating PAK1 functions in breast cancer cells. We previously demonstrated that PAK1 serves as a common node for estrogen (E2)- and prolactin (PRL)-dependent pathways. We hypothesize herein that intracellular localization of PAK1 is affected by PRL and E2 treatments differently. We demonstrate by immunocytochemical analysis that PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: only PRL but not E2 stimulated PAK1 nuclear translocation. Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is essential for this nuclear translocation because phospho-tyrosyl-deficient PAK1 Y3F mutant is retained in the cytoplasm in response to PRL. We confirmed these data by Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions. In 30 min of PRL treatment, only 48% of pTyr-PAK1 is retained in the cytoplasm of PAK1 WT clone while 52% re-distributes into the nucleus and pTyr-PAK1 shuttles back to the cytoplasm by 60 min of PRL treatment. In contrast, PAK1 Y3F is retained in the cytoplasm. E2 treatment causes nuclear translocation of neither PAK1 WT nor PAK1 Y3F. Finally, we show by an in vitro kinase assay that PRL but not E2 stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in the nuclear fraction. Thus, PAK1 nuclear translocation is ligand-dependent: PRL activates PAK1 and induces translocation of activated pTyr-PAK1 into nucleus while E2 activates pTyr-PAK1 only in the cytoplasm. - Highlights: • Prolactin but not estrogen causes translocation of PAK1 into nucleus. • Tyrosyl phosphorylation of PAK1 is required for nuclear localization. • Prolactin but not estrogen stimulates PAK1 kinase activity in nucleus.

  4. Dynamics of response to asynapsis and meiotic silencing in spermatocytes from Robertsonian translocation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Naumova

    Full Text Available Failure of homologous synapsis during meiotic prophase triggers transcriptional repression. Asynapsis of the X and Y chromosomes and their consequent silencing is essential for spermatogenesis. However, asynapsis of portions of autosomes in heterozygous translocation carriers may be detrimental for meiotic progression. In fact, a wide range of phenotypic outcomes from meiotic arrest to normal spermatogenesis have been described and the causes of such a variation remain elusive. To better understand the consequences of asynapsis in male carriers of Robertsonian translocations, we focused on the dynamics of recruitment of markers of asynapsis and meiotic silencing at unsynapsed autosomal trivalents in the spermatocytes of Robertsonian translocation carrier mice. Here we report that the enrichment of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1 and histone γH2AX at unsynapsed trivalents declines during the pachytene stage of meiosis and differs from that observed in the sex body. Furthermore, histone variant H3.3S31, which associates with the sex chromosomes in metaphase I/anaphase I spermatocytes, localizes to autosomes in 12% and 31% of nuclei from carriers of one and three translocations, respectively. These data suggest that the proportion of spermatocytes with markers of meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC at trivalents depends on both, the stage of meiosis and the number of translocations. This may explain some of the variability in phenotypic outcomes associated with Robertsonian translocations. In addition our data suggest that the dynamics of response to asynapsis in Robertsonian translocations differs from the response to sex chromosomal asynapsis in the male germ line.

  5. Effects of different ligands on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nuclear translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, Jerusa A.Q.A.; Andrade, Carolina de; Goes, Alfredo M.; Rodrigues, Michele A.; Gomes, Dawidson A.

    2016-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is activated through binding to specific ligands and generates signals for proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell survival. Recent data show the role of nuclear EGFR in tumors. Although many EGFR ligands are upregulated in cancers, little is known about their effects on EGFR nuclear translocation. We have compared the effects of six EGFR ligands (EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin, amphiregulin, and epiregulin) on nuclear translocation of EGFR, receptor phosphorylation, migration, and proliferation. Cell fractionation and confocal immunofluorescence detected EGFR in the nucleus after EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, amphiregulin and epiregulin did not generate nuclear translocation of EGFR. EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin showed correlations between a higher rate of wound closure and increased phosphorylation of residues in the carboxy-terminus of EGFR, compared to amphiregulin and epiregulin. The data indicate that EGFR is translocated to the nucleus after stimulation with EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin, and that these ligands are related to increased phosphorylation of EGFR tyrosine residues, inducing migration of SkHep-1 cells. - Highlights: • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α, β-Cellulin are involved in the EGFR nuclear translocation. • Amphiregulin and epiregulin did not promote nuclear translocation of EGFR. • EGF, HB-EGF, TGF-α and β-Cellulin have a role in SkHep-1 cells migration. • EGFR ligands associated with better prognosis don't stimulate EGFR translocation.

  6. Driven polymer translocation in good and bad solvent: Effects of hydrodynamics and tension propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisio, J E; Piili, J; Linna, R P

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the driven polymer translocation through a nanometer-scale pore in the presence and absence of hydrodynamics both in good and bad solvent. We present our results on tension propagating along the polymer segment on the cis side that is measured for the first time using our method that works also in the presence of hydrodynamics. For simulations we use stochastic rotation dynamics, also called multiparticle collision dynamics. We find that in the good solvent the tension propagates very similarly whether hydrodynamics is included or not. Only the tensed segment is by a constant factor shorter in the presence of hydrodynamics. The shorter tensed segment and the hydrodynamic interactions contribute to a smaller friction for the translocating polymer when hydrodynamics is included, which shows as smaller waiting times and a smaller exponent in the scaling of the translocation time with the polymer length. In the bad solvent hydrodynamics has a minimal effect on polymer translocation, in contrast to the good solvent, where it speeds up translocation. We find that under bad-solvent conditions tension does not spread appreciably along the polymer. Consequently, translocation time does not scale with the polymer length. By measuring the effective friction in a setup where a polymer in free solvent is pulled by a constant force at the end, we find that hydrodynamics does speed up collective polymer motion in the bad solvent even more effectively than in the good solvent. However, hydrodynamics has a negligible effect on the motion of individual monomers within the highly correlated globular conformation on the cis side and hence on the entire driven translocation under bad-solvent conditions.

  7. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  8. The Background of Politeness Universals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ставрос Ассимакопулос

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early accounts of politeness have been widely criticised for adopting a universalist stance while attempting to account for a phenomenon that is clearly culture-dependent. In reaction to this criticism, Leech (2007/2014 has argued for the necessity of politeness universals, on condition that they allow for the investigation of the relevant cultural variation. This paper sets out to provide additional support for Leech’s claim, by pursuing the argument that even though different societies have in principle different politeness values, all members of the same cultural and/or linguistic group typically accept very similar sets of such values. This argument is theoretically supported by resort to Searle’s notion of the Background, as a body of preintentional mental capacities that safeguards the alignment of our intentional states with that of our peers. Given then the systematicity with which we develop a culturally uniform understanding of politeness, the postulation of politeness universals, in Leech’s sense, cannot but be a useful analytical tool when theorising about politeness.

  9. Natural background radiation in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, M.N.S.

    1997-01-01

    An Airborne Gamma Ray survey has been accomplished for Jordan since 1979. A complete report has been submitted to the Natural Resources Authority along with field and processed data ''digital and analogue''. Natural radioelements concentration is not provided with this report. From the corrected count rate data for each natural radioelement, Concentrations and exposure rates at the ground level were calculated. Contoured maps, showing the exposure rates and the dose rates were created. Both maps reflect the surface geology of Jordan, where the Phosphate areas are very well delineated by high-level contours. In southeastern Jordan the Ordovician sandstone, which contain high percentage of Th (around 2000 ppm in some places) and a moderate percentage of U (about 300 ppm), also show high gamma radiation exposures compared with the surrounding areas. Comparing the values of the exposure rates given in (μR/h) to those obtained from other countries such as United States, Canada, Germany, etc. Jordan shows higher background radiation which reach two folds and even more than those in these countries. More detailed studies should be performed in order to evaluate the radiological risk limits on people who are living in areas of high radiation such that the area of the phosphatic belt which covers a vast area of Jordan high Plateau. (author)

  10. Concerning background from calorimeter ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digiacomo, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    Any detector system viewing a port or slit in a calorimeter wall will see, in addition to the primary particles of interest, a background of charged and neutral particles and photons generated by scattering from the port walls and by leakage from incompletely contained primary particle showers in the calorimeter near the port. The signal to noise ratio attainable outside the port is a complex function of the primary source spectrum, the calorimeter and port design and, of course, the nature and acceptance of the detector system that views the port. Rather than making general statements about the overall suitability (or lack thereof) of calorimeter ports, we offer here a specific example based on the external spectrometer and slit of the NA34 experiment. This combination of slit and spectrometer is designed for fixed-target work, so that the primary particle momentum spectrum contains higher momentum particles than expected in a heavy ion colliding beam environment. The results are, nevertheless, quite relevant for the collider case

  11. BOOK REVIEW: The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Peter

    2009-08-01

    With the successful launch of the European Space Agency's Planck satellite earlier this year the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is once again the centre of attention for cosmologists around the globe. Since its accidental discovery in 1964 by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, this relic of the Big Bang has been subjected to intense scrutiny by generation after generation of experiments and has gradually yielded up answers to the deepest questions about the origin of our Universe. Most recently, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has made a full-sky analysis of the pattern of temperature and polarization variations that helped establish a new standard cosmological model, confirmed the existence of dark matter and dark energy, and provided strong evidence that there was an epoch of primordial inflation. Ruth Durrer's book reflects the importance of the CMB for future developments in this field. Aimed at graduate students and established researchers, it consists of a basic introduction to cosmology and the theory of primordial perturbations followed by a detailed explanation of how these manifest themselves as measurable variations in the present-day radiation field. It then focuses on the statistical methods needed to obtain accurate estimates of the parameters of the standard cosmological model, and finishes with a discussion of the effect of gravitational lensing on the CMB and on the evolution of its spectrum. The book apparently grew out of various lecture notes on CMB anisotropies for graduate courses given by the author. Its level and scope are well matched to the needs of such an audience and the presentation is clear and well-organized. I am sure that this book will be a useful reference for more senior scientists too. If I have a criticism, it is not about what is in the book but what is omitted. In my view, one of the most exciting possibilities for future CMB missions, including Planck, is the possibility that they might discover physics

  12. The work of the Board's low-background laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of some of the work being undertaken using the National Radiological Protection Board's new low-background facilities. In vivo body monitoring is carried out following requests from users of unsealed radioactive materials anxious about accidental intakes, and an exploratory series of measurements is being undertaken to establish how representative these requests are. A realistic and robust chest phantom is being developed to facilitate calibration and comparisons between laboratories of measurements of low-energy photon emitters such as plutonium. An intercomparison of the determination of uranium in lung is being organised. Studies of the retention and translocation of radioactivity in animals and in man use the detector systems. Environmental monitoring of a wide range of materials provides data for the calculation of dose commitments to the public in the UK. Complex radiochemical procedures are often required. There is considerable international interest in devising a radiation protection standard for building materials, and systematic measurements are being completed of the potassium, radium and thorium contents of established building materials. It is anticipated that increasing interest in the effects of the nuclear power programme will require the evaluation of long-lived radionuclides in various environmental media. (U.K.)

  13. Reciprocal translocations in ageing mice and mice with long-term low-level 239Pu contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacchierotti, F.; Andreozzi, U.; Russo, A.; Metalli, P.

    1983-01-01

    Single intravenous injections of 185 Bq monomeric 239 Pu were given to male mice, and the frequency of primary spermatocytes with reciprocal translocations, determined 724 days after treatment, was not significantly different from that of age-matched untreated controls. These old animals showed significantly higher aberration frequencies than young adults. The data therefore show that for low initial activity and very long retention time the possible cytogenetic effects of incorporated nuclide does not change the age-related pattern of increase of spontaneous chromosome aberrations. Considerations of the main variables involved in the induction of cytogenetic effects of incorporated plutonium, based on literature data, indicate that the initial injected activity, the estimated total accumulated average organ dose, and the retention time interact in a complex way; as far as can be seen at present, the effects seem to be dependent mainly on the initial activity at short times after contamination, while the retention time appears to be predominant in the case of long-term observations. (author)

  14. Free energy and scalings for polymer translocation through a nanopore: A molecular dynamics simulation study combined with milestoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Gui; Zhao, Li; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Ze-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations combined with milestoning method are used to study the stochastic process of polymer chain translocation though a nanopore. We find that the scalings for polymer translocation process (the chain is initialized with the first monomer in the nanopore) and for polymer escape process (the chain is initialized with the middle monomer in the nanopore) are different. The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier, while the polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference. -- Highlights: ► We study polymer translocating through a nanopore by CGMD combined with milestoning. ► We find that the scalings for polymer translocation and for polymer escape are different. ► The translocation process is mainly controlled by the entropic barrier. ► The polymer escape process is driven by the effective force due to free energy difference.

  15. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofidis, I.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  16. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto...

  17. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation of DNA translocation in chemically modified nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Abhijit; Guo, Qingjiang; Iqbal, Samir M; Liu, Yaling

    2011-05-19

    Solid-state nanopores provide a direct means to detect and analyze DNA and proteins. In a typical setup, the DNA molecules travel through a nanopore under electrophoretic voltage bias. The nanopore is sandwiched between two chambers that are filled with ionic solution. A major challenge in using solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing and gene detection is to improve their selectivity and detection sensitivity. To achieve these goals, one solution is to functionalize the nanopores by chemically modifying the pore walls with silanes or nucleic acids. However, little is known about molecular interactions in functionalized nanopores. This paper presents DNA translocation dynamics and the mechanism of DNA sequencing in a functionalized nanopore through a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model. The DNA nucleotide is coarse-grained into two interaction sites: one site corresponds to the base group and the other encompasses the phosphate and sugar groups. The water molecules are included in the model implicitly through Langevin dynamics. The coarse-grained model immensely improves the computational efficiency while still capturing the essential translocation dynamics. The model characterizes important physical properties of functionalized nanopores such as the effective pore diameter and effect of biasing voltage on the DNA translocation dynamics. The model reveals a nonlinear relationship between translocation speed of DNA and applied voltage. Moreover, DNA translocation in nanopores functionalized with hairpin-loop (HPL) DNA and single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) shows significant differences: a target DNA is found to translocate through a ss-DNA coated nanopore 9 times faster than through an HPL coated one at a bias of 100 mV, putatively from lower stiffness of ss-DNA than that for HPL. The DNA translocation speed is also largely influenced by interaction potential between the DNA and surface-tethered molecules. The results reveal that such selective translocation

  18. Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.

  19. All-Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Protein Translocation through an α-Hemolysin Nanopore

    KAUST Repository

    Di Marino, Daniele

    2015-08-06

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Nanopore sensing is attracting the attention of a large and varied scientific community. One of the main issues in nanopore sensing is how to associate the measured current signals to specific features of the molecule under investigation. This is particularly relevant when the translocating molecule is a protein and the pore is sufficiently narrow to necessarily involve unfolding of the translocating protein. Recent experimental results characterized the cotranslocational unfolding of Thioredoxin (Trx) passing through an α-hemolisin pore, providing evidence for the existence of a multistep process. In this study we report the results of all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the same system. Our data indicate that Trx translocation involves two main barriers. The first one is an unfolding barrier associated with a translocation intermediate where the N-terminal region of Trx is stuck at the pore entrance in a conformation that strongly resembles the native one. After the abrupt unfolding of the N-terminal region, the Trx enters the α-hemolisin vestibule. During this stage, the constriction is occupied not only by the translocating residue but also by a hairpin-like structure forming a tangle in the constriction. The second barrier is associated with the disentangling of this region.

  20. Decatransin, a new natural product inhibiting protein translocation at the Sec61/SecYEG translocon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junne, Tina; Wong, Joanne; Studer, Christian; Aust, Thomas; Bauer, Benedikt W.; Beibel, Martin; Bhullar, Bhupinder; Bruccoleri, Robert; Eichenberger, Jürg; Estoppey, David; Hartmann, Nicole; Knapp, Britta; Krastel, Philipp; Melin, Nicolas; Oakeley, Edward J.; Oberer, Lukas; Riedl, Ralph; Roma, Guglielmo; Schuierer, Sven; Petersen, Frank; Tallarico, John A.; Rapoport, Tom A.; Spiess, Martin; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new cyclic decadepsipeptide was isolated from Chaetosphaeria tulasneorum with potent bioactivity on mammalian and yeast cells. Chemogenomic profiling in S. cerevisiae indicated that the Sec61 translocon complex, the machinery for protein translocation and membrane insertion at the endoplasmic reticulum, is the target. The profiles were similar to those of cyclic heptadepsipeptides of a distinct chemotype (including HUN-7293 and cotransin) that had previously been shown to inhibit cotranslational translocation at the mammalian Sec61 translocon. Unbiased, genome-wide mutagenesis followed by full-genome sequencing in both fungal and mammalian cells identified dominant mutations in Sec61p (yeast) or Sec61α1 (mammals) that conferred resistance. Most, but not all, of these mutations affected inhibition by both chemotypes, despite an absence of structural similarity. Biochemical analysis confirmed inhibition of protein translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum of both co- and post-translationally translocated substrates by both chemotypes, demonstrating a mechanism independent of a translating ribosome. Most interestingly, both chemotypes were found to also inhibit SecYEG, the bacterial Sec61 translocon homolog. We suggest ‘decatransin’ as the name for this new decadepsipeptide translocation inhibitor. PMID:25616894

  1. Rad51 inhibits translocation formation by non-conservative homologous recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn M Manthey

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations are a primary biological response to ionizing radiation (IR exposure, and are likely to result from the inappropriate repair of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs that are created. An abundance of repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes provides ample opportunity for such breaks to be repaired by homologous recombination (HR between non-allelic repeats. Interestingly, in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae the central strand exchange protein, Rad51 that is required for DSB repair by gene conversion between unlinked repeats that conserves genomic structure also suppresses translocation formation by several HR mechanisms. In particular, Rad51 suppresses translocation formation by single-strand annealing (SSA, perhaps the most efficient mechanism for translocation formation by HR in both yeast and mammalian cells. Further, the enhanced translocation formation that emerges in the absence of Rad51 displays a distinct pattern of genetic control, suggesting that this occurs by a separate mechanism. Since hypomorphic mutations in RAD51 in mammalian cells also reduce DSB repair by conservative gene conversion and stimulate non-conservative repair by SSA, this mechanism may also operate in humans and, perhaps contribute to the genome instability that propels the development of cancer.

  2. Energy Landscape of the Substrate Translocation Equilibrium of Plasma-Membrane Glutamate Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Albers, Thomas; Grewer, Christof

    2018-01-11

    Glutamate transporters maintain a large glutamate concentration gradient across synaptic membranes and are, thus, critical for functioning of the excitatory synapse. Mammalian glutamate transporters concentrate glutamate inside cells through energetic coupling of glutamate flux to the transmembrane concentration gradient of Na + . Structural models based on an archeal homologue, GltPh, suggest an elevator-like carrier mechanism. However, the energetic determinants of this carrier-based movement are not well understood. Although electrostatics play an important role in governing these energetics, their implication on transport dynamics has not been studied. Here, we combine a pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the translocation equilibrium with electrostatic computations to gain insight into the energetics of the translocation process. Our results show the biphasic nature of translocation, consistent with the existence of an intermediate on the translocation pathway. In the absence of voltage, the equilibrium is shifted to the outward-facing configuration. Electrostatic computations confirm the intermediate state and show that the elevator-like movement is energetically feasible in the presence of bound Na + ions, whereas a substrate-hopping model is energetically prohibitive. Our results highlight the critical contribution of charge compensation to transport and add to results from previous molecular dynamics simulations for improved understanding of the glutamate translocation process.

  3. Driven translocation of a polymer: Role of pore friction and crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbeldam, J. L. A.; Rostiashvili, V. G.; Vilgis, T. A.

    2014-09-01

    Force-driven translocation of a macromolecule through a nanopore is investigated systematically by taking into account the monomer-pore friction as well as the "crowding" of monomers on the trans-side of the membrane which counterbalance the driving force acting in the pore. The problem is treated self-consistently, so that the resulting force in the pore and the dynamics on the cis and trans sides mutually influence each other. The set of governing differential-algebraic equations for the translocation dynamics is derived and solved numerically. The analysis of this solution shows that the crowding of monomers on the trans side hardly affects the dynamics, but the monomer-pore friction can substantially slow down the translocation process. Moreover, the translocation exponent α in the translocation time-vs.-chain length scaling law, τ ∝ Nα, becomes smaller for relatively small chain lengths as the monomer-pore friction coefficient increases. This is most noticeable for relatively strong forces. Our findings show that the variety of values for α reported in experiments and computer simulations, may be attributed to different pore frictions, whereas crowding effects can generally be neglected.

  4. Biphasic and directed translocation of protein kinase Cα inside cultured endothelial cells before migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Arai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical wounding of an endothelial monolayer induces an immediate Ca2+ wave. Several hours later, the denuded area is covered by endothelial cells (ECs that migrate to the wound. This migration process is closely related to protein kinase Cα (PKCα, a Ca2+-dependent protein that translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Because the cells adjacent to the wounded area are the first to migrate into the wound, we investigated whether a mechanical wound immediately induces PKCα translocation in adjacent cells. We monitored Ca2+ dynamics and PKCα translocation simultaneously using fluorescent microscopy. For this simultaneous observation, we used Fura-2–acetoxymethyl ester to visualize Ca2+ and constructed a green fluorescent protein-tagged fusion protein to visualize PKCα. Mechanical wounding of the endothelial monolayer induced an immediate Ca2+ wave in cells adjacent to the wounded cells before their migration. Almost concurrently, PKCα in the neighboring cells translocated to the cell membrane, then accumulated at the periphery near the wounded cell. This report is the first description of this biphasic and directed translocation of PKCα in cells before cell migration. Our results may provide new insights into the directed migration of ECs.

  5. Does unintentional macular translocation after retinal detachment repair influence visual outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Vivek B; Ho, I-Van; Hunyor, Alex P

    2012-01-01

    To document the occurrence of postoperative macular translocation after retinal detachment repair and discuss its influence on visual outcome. Retrospective case series in a tertiary care setting. Five eyes of five patients presenting to our clinic with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. All patients underwent surgical repair of the retinal detachment, with regular postoperative follow-up, including macular optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence. Visual acuity and subjective visual symptoms in patients with anatomically successful retinal detachment repair, in whom inadvertent macular translocation was noted. Our series demonstrates the presence of unintentional macular translocation after retinal detachment repair, detected by fundus autofluorescence imaging. In contrast to previous reports, we document inadvertent macular translocation in one patient after scleral buckling surgery. In each case, the retina was fully reattached postoperatively and no other complications were identified. There was variability in the symptoms and objective visual outcomes after surgery. Inadvertent macular translocation can occur following repair of macula-off retinal detachment, and may be a significant contributor to poorer visual outcome after retinal detachment, despite objective surgical success. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  6. Application of DNA RFLP procedures in interspecific gene transfer: The Lr19 translocation of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, R.; Marais, G.F.; Marais, A.S.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Janse, B.J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-nine lines with deletions in the Lr19 ('Indis') translocated chromosome segment were used to physically map Thinopyrum Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) loci as well as the Sr25 and Sdl loci. The relative distances between marker loci on the translocation were then calculated. The information was then used as an aid to characterize several recombined forms of the translocation. The data confirmed the reported homoeology between the Lr19 segment and chromosome arm 7DL of wheat. Also, it seems that the Lr19 translocation in 'Indis' is very similar to the Lr19 segment in the T4 source and that the former may not derive from Thinopyrum distichum. Near-isogenic lines of the recombined segments were derived and used to study their expression of leaf rust resistance. It became evident that only one potentially useful recombinant was obtained in an earlier attempt to induce allosyndetic pairing between the Lr19 translocation and 7DL of wheat. (author)

  7. RNA/DNA hybrid binding affinity determines telomerase template-translocation efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaodong; Xie, Mingyi; Brown, Andrew F; Bley, Christopher J; Podlevsky, Joshua D; Chen, Julian J-L

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase synthesizes telomeric DNA repeats onto chromosome termini from an intrinsic RNA template. The processive synthesis of DNA repeats relies on a unique, yet poorly understood, mechanism whereby the telomerase RNA template translocates and realigns with the DNA primer after synthesizing each repeat. Here, we provide evidence that binding of the realigned RNA/DNA hybrid by the active site is an essential step for template translocation. Employing a template-free human telomerase system, we demonstrate that the telomerase active site directly binds to RNA/DNA hybrid substrates for DNA polymerization. In telomerase processivity mutants, the template-translocation efficiency correlates with the affinity for the RNA/DNA hybrid substrate. Furthermore, the active site is unoccupied during template translocation as a 5 bp extrinsic RNA/DNA hybrid effectively reduces the processivity of the template-containing telomerase. This suggests that strand separation and template realignment occur outside the active site, preceding the binding of realigned hybrid to the active site. Our results provide new insights into the ancient RNA/DNA hybrid binding ability of telomerase and its role in template translocation. PMID:21989387

  8. Regulation of translocated c-myc genes transfected into plasmacytoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feo, S.; Harvey, R.; Showe, L.; Croce, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have transfected two translocated c-myc oncogene clones, derived from two human lymphomas carrying the t(8;14) chromosome translocation, into mouse plasmacytoma cells to study the regulation of their expression. In one case, the transfected clone contained the two coding exons of the c-myc oncogene translocated to an immunoglobulin heavy-chain switch region; in the other case, the two coding exons were translocated 5' of the enhancer element located between the heavy-chain joining region (J/sub H/) and the switch region S/sub μ/. Nuclease S1 protection experiments indicate that only the c-myc translocated 5' of the enhancer element is transcribed in the plasmacytoma cells. Thus, 5'-truncation of the c-myc gene per se does not lead to c-myc deregulation. Further, since the level of c-myc transcripts in the parental human lymphoma cells was 3- to 4-fold higher than in the transfectants, it seems likely that additional elements within the heavy-chain locus may play a role in the enhancement of c-myc gene transcription in lymphoma cells

  9. Genetic background of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Stanisław Proskura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.

  10. Statistically tuned Gaussian background subtraction technique for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Tuning factor; background segmentation; unmanned aerial vehicle; aerial surveillance; thresholding. Abstract. Background subtraction is one of the efficient techniques to segment the targets from non-informative background of a video. The traditional background subtraction technique suits for videos with static ...

  11. Motion of photons in a gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhe; Huang, Chao-Guang; Zhao, Zhi-Chao

    2017-09-01

    Photon motion in a Michelson interferometer is re-analyzed in terms of both geometrical optics and wave optics. The classical paths of the photons in the background of a gravitational wave are derived from the Fermat principle, which is the same as the null geodesics in general relativity. The deformed Maxwell equations and the wave equations of electric fields in the background of a gravitational wave are presented in a flat-space approximation. Both methods show that even the envelope of the response of an interferometer depends on the frequency of a gravitational wave, but it is almost independent of the frequency of the mirror’s vibrations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275207, 11375203, 11690022, 11675182) and Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Multi-waveband Gravitational Wave Universe” (XDB23040000)

  12. Influence of a stochastic background of gravitational waves on the timing of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the influence of a random and isotropic cosmic background of gravitational radiation on the timing analysis of pulsars is further developed. General expressions are derived for the correlation functions of frequency shifts and timing residuals of pulsars due to a stochastic background. The coherence properties of the background are discussed, and it is shown that the timing analysis of an ensemble of Earth-pulsar systems may be used to establish upper limits on the energy density of an incoherent background for frequencies νsub(g) -8 Hz. (author)

  13. Transfer of alien genes by means of induced translocation in oats and other crop species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.; Taing Aung

    1977-01-01

    Some of the best sources of resistance to mildew, which is the most important disease of the oat crop in the United Kingdom, occur in related weed species. The mildew resistance found in a genotype of the tetraploid species Avena barbata has been transferred into the germ plasm of the cultivated hexaploid species A. sativa by means of an induced translocation. The procedures adopted to isolate the desirable translocation and to determine its breeding behaviour are described. A number of alien genes have been transferred into wheat by means of induced translocations and genetic induction, but their successful introduction into commercial varieties has been limited. In this paper, the use and limitations of alien transfers as breeding material are discussed. (author)

  14. Assessment of an in vitro model of pulmonary barrier to study the translocation of nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Dekali

    2014-01-01

    The use of Calu-3 cells allowed high transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER values (>1000 Ω cm2 in co-cultures with or without macrophages. After 24 h of exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of non-functionalized PS nanobeads, the relative TEER values (%/t0 were significantly decreased in co-cultures. Epithelial cells and macrophages were able to internalize PS nanobeads. Regarding translocation, Transwell® membranes per se limit the passage of nanoparticles between apical and basal side. However, small non-functionalized PS nanobeads (51 nm were able to translocate as they were detected in the basal side of co-cultures. Altogether, these results show that this co-culture model present good barrier properties allowing the study of nanoparticle translocation but research effort need to be done to improve the neutrality of the porous membrane delimitating apical and basal sides of the model.

  15. Uptake, translocation, and control of trumpet flower (Tecoma stans) with aminocyclopyrachlor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Fabrícia Cristina Dos; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luis; Cason, João Batista; Dias, Ana Carolina Ribeiro; Freitas, Melissa; Sotomayor, Jaime Felipe; Barroso, Arthur A M; Victória Filho, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the physiology of the herbicide aminocyclopyrachlor in young plants of trumpet flower, the uptake and translocation were evaluated after the application of herbicide. This was determined by treating individual leaves with formulated herbicides plus (14)C-aminocyclopyrachlor after the application of the formulated herbicide. This experiment used a randomized experimental design with three replications. In addition, field studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of foliar applications of aminocyclopyrachlor in association with metsulfuton-methyl. The plant absorbed 20% of the herbicide applied. The translocation percentage did not surpass 5% of the total amount applied. Only 1% of the herbicide applied was translocated to the roots. Rate of 40 + 13 g a.i. 100 L(-1) of aminocyclopyrachlor+metsulfuron-methyl was effective to control T. stans.

  16. c-Met must translocate to the nucleus to initiate calcium signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Dawidson A; Rodrigues, Michele A; Leite, M Fatima; Gomez, Marcus V; Varnai, Peter; Balla, Tamas; Bennett, Anton M; Nathanson, Michael H

    2008-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and related activities. HGF acts through its receptor c-Met, which activates downstream signaling pathways. HGF binds to c-Met at the plasma membrane, where it is generally believed that c-Met signaling is initiated. Here we report that c-Met rapidly translocates to the nucleus upon stimulation with HGF. Ca(2+) signals that are induced by HGF result from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation within the nucleus rather than within the cytoplasm. Translocation of c-Met to the nucleus depends upon the adaptor protein Gab1 and importin beta1, and formation of Ca(2+) signals in turn depends upon this translocation. HGF may exert its particular effects on cells because it bypasses signaling pathways in the cytoplasm to directly activate signaling pathways in the nucleus.

  17. Influence of nitrogen supply on uptake and translocation of strontium and calcium in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Supplying nitrate to N-depleted wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cv. Knox) stimulated the uptake and translocation of both 83Sr and 45Ca. Since the increase in 45Ca accumulation was greater, the 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the plant tissue was decreased. Nitrate had relatively little influence on the amo......Supplying nitrate to N-depleted wheat seedlings (Triticum vulgare cv. Knox) stimulated the uptake and translocation of both 83Sr and 45Ca. Since the increase in 45Ca accumulation was greater, the 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the plant tissue was decreased. Nitrate had relatively little influence...... on the amount of the divalent cations and 85Sr/45Ca ratio in the exchangeable fraction on the root surfaces, whereas it greatly increased the uptake into root tissue and translocation to shoots. The increase in percent transported to shoots occurred largely in the period of most rapid nitrate uptake. A split...

  18. A cryptic translocation leading to NUP98-PHF23 fusion in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Chromosome translocations leading to gene fusions have emerged as important oncogenic drivers of various types of malignancies. Detection and characterization of these fusion genes not only help diagnosis and management of specific malignancies, but also contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis and pathogenesis of these diseases. NUP98 gene encodes a 98 kDa nucleoporin, which is a component of the nuclear pore complex that mediates transport of mRNA and proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Due to its participation in translocations leading to the formation of fusion with at least 29 different partner genes, NUP98 is considered one of the most promiscuous fusion genes in hematologic malignancies. We discuss our identification and characterization of a NUP98-PHF23 fusion from a cryptic translocation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Na+-K+ pump location and translocation during muscle contraction  in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Juel, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction may up-regulate the number of Na+-K+ pumps in the plasma membrane by translocation of subunits. Since there is still controversy about where this translocation takes place from and if it takes place at all, the present study used different techniques to characterize...... the translocation. Electrical stimulation and biotin labeling of rat muscle revealed a 40% and 18% increase in the amounts of the Na+-K+ pump a2 subunit and caveolin-3 (Cav-3), respectively, in the sarcolemma. Exercise induced a 36% and 19% increase in the relative amounts of the a2 subunit and Cav-3, respectively......, in an outer-membrane-enriched fraction and a 41% and 17% increase, respectively, in sarcolemma giant vesicles. The Na+-K+ pump activity measured with the 3-O-MFPase assay was increased by 37% in giant vesicles from exercised rats. Immunoprecipitation with Cav-3 antibody showed that 17%, 11% and 14% of the a1...

  20. Studies on the translocation of Cs-134 from leaves to fruit of apple trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katana, H.; Bunnenberg, C.; Kuehn, W.

    1988-01-01

    Besides the commonly considered pathway of radionulides into plant products, namely root uptake and surface deposition, another contamination process of edible parts of plants may occur when activity is intercepted by exposed plant surfaces and translocated within the plant into the fruit under consideration. This pathway seems especially relevant in case of fruit trees having large total leaf areas compared to the actual fruit surface. Besides the plant species and the nutritive element the most relevant parameters of the uptake and translocation efficiencies seem to be the age and the time and way of application, where these parameters include a number of sub-parameters. The present studies concern the translocation of cesium in apple tress from differently labeled plant parts into fruit in view of its possible contribution to fruit contamination

  1. The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E.

    2004-12-31

    Franzreb, Kathleen, E. 2004 The effect of using a "soft" release on translocation success of red-cockaded woodpeckers. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 6. Translocation. Pp 301-306. Abstract: Translocations of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker have been conducted since 1986 to enhance critically small subpopulations, to minimize the likelihood of local extirpations, and to reduce the adverse effects of fragmentation and isolation among existing populations. Such attempts have had mixed success. This article compares "hard" releases with a "soft" release technique where the birds are temporarily interned in a large aviary at the release point for a period of 9 to 14 days.

  2. Analysis of initial events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis. Investigation of chromosome aberration including translocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the contribution of chromosome aberrations in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis, chromosome G-banding analysis of the lymphoma cells (8 groups and 34 kinds of cells), of which each group was derived from a single donor by intra-thymic injection of a limited number of prelymphoma cells, was performed. Many numerical and structural aberrations were observed in the donor-derived T cell lymphomas. Common aberrations including translocations were found almost in the lymphomas of all groups. Translocations between chromosomes 11 and 12, 12 and 15, 7 and 10, 1 and 13, 6 and X were found in D, E, F, G, H, groups, respectively. There were also common aberrations such as trisomy 15 in A and F groups. These results indicate that chromosome aberrations including translocations may be important candidates of initiating events in radiation-induced lymphomagenesis

  3. Probing large-scale magnetism with the cosmic microwave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    Prior to photon decoupling magnetic random fields of comoving intensity in the nano-Gauss range distort the temperature and the polarization anisotropies of the microwave background, potentially induce a peculiar B-mode power spectrum and may even generate a frequency-dependent circularly polarized V-mode. We critically analyze the theoretical foundations and the recent achievements of an interesting trialogue involving plasma physics, general relativity and astrophysics.

  4. The tumor suppressor gene TRC8/RNF139 is disrupted by a constitutional balanced translocation t(8;22(q24.13;q11.21 in a young girl with dysgerminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorio Patrizia

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNF139/TRC8 is a potential tumor suppressor gene with similarity to PTCH, a tumor suppressor implicated in basal cell carcinomas and glioblastomas. TRC8 has the potential to act in a novel regulatory relationship linking the cholesterol/lipid biosynthetic pathway with cellular growth control and has been identified in families with hereditary renal (RCC and thyroid cancers. Haploinsufficiency of TRC8 may facilitate development of clear cell-RCC in association with VHL mutations, and may increase risk for other tumor types. We report a paternally inherited balanced translocation t(8;22 in a proposita with dysgerminoma. Methods The translocation was characterized by FISH and the breakpoints cloned, sequenced, and compared. DNA isolated from normal and tumor cells was checked for abnormalities by array-CGH. Expression of genes TRC8 and TSN was tested both on dysgerminoma and in the proposita and her father. Results The breakpoints of the translocation are located within the LCR-B low copy repeat on chromosome 22q11.21, containing the palindromic AT-rich repeat (PATRR involved in recurrent and non-recurrent translocations, and in an AT-rich sequence inside intron 1 of the TRC8 tumor-suppressor gene at 8q24.13. TRC8 was strongly underexpressed in the dysgerminoma. Translin is underexpressed in the dysgerminoma compared to normal ovary. TRC8 is a target of Translin (TSN, a posttranscriptional regulator of genes transcribed by the transcription factor CREM-tau in postmeiotic male germ cells. Conclusion A role for TRC8 in dysgerminoma may relate to its interaction with Translin. We propose a model in which one copy of TRC8 is disrupted by a palindrome-mediated translocation followed by complete loss of expression through suppression, possibly mediated by miRNA.

  5. Comparison of translocation methods to conserve metallophyte communities in the Southeastern D.R. Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Stradic, Soizig; Séleck, Maxime; Lebrun, Julie; Boisson, Sylvain; Handjila, Guylain; Faucon, Michel-Pierre; Enk, Terrence; Mahy, Grégory

    2016-07-01

    In southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo, unique metallophyte communities supporting numerous endemic species occurred on the highly mineralized copper cobalt (Cu-Co) hills throughout the province. These hills are economically valuable mineral reserves; mining activities represent therefore a threat to the long-term persistence of these communities. Ex situ conservation program was set up by a mining company to rescue and conserve the diversity of Cu-Co communities until restoration activities are initiated. Two kinds of Cu-Co communities: the steppe and the steppic savanna, were translocated using topsoil spreading and whole-turf translocation. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of these two techniques in conserving Cu-Co communities and their potential use in future restoration programs. More than 2 years after the translocation, whole-turf translocation appeared to be the better technique for ex situ conservation of endemic Cu-Co species. Not only did whole-turf successfully translocate numerous target species that were not present in the topsoil areas, but it also resulted in fewer ruderal and non-target species compared to topsoil spreading. Topsoil spreading recorded low seedling emergence from seed bank due to large proportions of dormant seeds or the absence of a seed bank, especially for the steppic savanna. Restoration of the steppe is currently more successful than for steppic savanna where the lack of dominant and structuring species likely contributed to divergence in species composition compared to reference ecosystem. Our study stresses the fact that tropical old-growth grasslands, which require probably several centuries to assemble, are difficult to restore or translocate.

  6. Rewilding the tropics, and other conservation translocations strategies in the tropical Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Julien; Corlett, Richard T; Price, Gilbert J; Hawkins, Stuart; Piper, Philip J

    2014-11-01

    Alarm over the prospects for survival of species in a rapidly changing world has encouraged discussion of translocation conservation strategies that move beyond the focus of 'at-risk' species. These approaches consider larger spatial and temporal scales than customary, with the aim of recreating functioning ecosystems through a combination of large-scale ecological restoration and species introductions. The term 'rewilding' has come to apply to this large-scale ecosystem restoration program. While reintroductions of species within their historical ranges have become standard conservation tools, introductions within known paleontological ranges-but outside historical ranges-are more controversial, as is the use of taxon substitutions for extinct species. Here, we consider possible conservation translocations for nine large-bodied taxa in tropical Asia-Pacific. We consider the entire spectrum of conservation translocation strategies as defined by the IUCN in addition to rewilding. The taxa considered are spread across diverse taxonomic and ecological spectra and all are listed as 'endangered' or 'critically endangered' by the IUCN in our region of study. They all have a written and fossil record that is sufficient to assess past changes in range, as well as ecological and environmental preferences, and the reasons for their decline, and they have all suffered massive range restrictions since the late Pleistocene. General principles, problems, and benefits of translocation strategies are reviewed as case studies. These allowed us to develop a conservation translocation matrix, with taxa scored for risk, benefit, and feasibility. Comparisons between taxa across this matrix indicated that orangutans, tapirs, Tasmanian devils, and perhaps tortoises are the most viable taxa for translocations. However, overall the case studies revealed a need for more data and research for all taxa, and their ecological and environmental needs. Rewilding the Asian-Pacific tropics remains

  7. Structural Basis of Chaperone Recognition of Type III Secretion System Minor Translocator Proteins*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Viviana; Matteï, Pierre-Jean; Lemaire, David; Attree, Ina; Dessen, Andréa

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a complex nanomachine employed by many Gram-negative pathogens, including the nosocomial agent Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to inject toxins directly into the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. A key component of all T3SS is the translocon, a proteinaceous channel that is inserted into the target membrane, which allows passage of toxins into target cells. In most bacterial species, two distinct membrane proteins (the “translocators”) are involved in translocon formation, whereas in the bacterial cytoplasm, however, they remain associated to a common chaperone. To date, the strategy employed by a single chaperone to recognize two distinct translocators is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of a complex between the Pseudomonas translocator chaperone PcrH and a short region from the minor translocator PopD. PcrH displays a 7-helical tetratricopeptide repeat fold that harbors the PopD peptide within its concave region, originally believed to be involved in recognition of the major translocator, PopB. Point mutations introduced into the PcrH-interacting region of PopD impede translocator-chaperone recognition in vitro and lead to impairment of bacterial cytotoxicity toward macrophages in vivo. These results indicate that T3SS translocator chaperones form binary complexes with their partner molecules, and the stability of their interaction regions must be strictly maintained to guarantee bacterial infectivity. The PcrH-PopD complex displays homologs among a number of pathogenic strains and could represent a novel, potential target for antibiotic development. PMID:20385547

  8. Highly delayed systemic translocation of aluminum-based adjuvant in CD1 mice following intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépeaux, Guillemette; Eidi, Housam; David, Marie-Odile; Tzavara, Eleni; Giros, Bruno; Exley, Christopher; Curmi, Patrick A; Shaw, Christopher A; Gherardi, Romain K; Cadusseau, Josette

    2015-11-01

    Concerns regarding vaccine safety have emerged following reports of potential adverse events in both humans and animals. In the present study, alum, alum-containing vaccine and alum adjuvant tagged with fluorescent nanodiamonds were used to evaluate i) the persistence time at the injection site, ii) the translocation of alum from the injection site to lymphoid organs, and iii) the behavior of adult CD1 mice following intramuscular injection of alum (400 μg Al/kg). Results showed for the first time a strikingly delayed systemic translocation of adjuvant particles. Alum-induced granuloma remained for a very long time in the injected muscle despite progressive shrinkage from day 45 to day 270. Concomitantly, a markedly delayed translocation of alum to the draining lymph nodes, major at day 270 endpoint, was observed. Translocation to the spleen was similarly delayed (highest number of particles at day 270). In contrast to C57BL/6J mice, no brain translocation of alum was observed by day 270 in CD1 mice. Consistently neither increase of Al cerebral content, nor behavioral changes were observed. On the basis of previous reports showing alum neurotoxic effects in CD1 mice, an additional experiment was done, and showed early brain translocation at day 45 of alum injected subcutaneously at 200 μg Al/kg. This study confirms the striking biopersistence of alum. It points out an unexpectedly delayed diffusion of the adjuvant in lymph nodes and spleen of CD1 mice, and suggests the importance of mouse strain, route of administration, and doses, for future studies focusing on the potential toxic effects of aluminum-based adjuvants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Translocation of Helicobacter pylori CagA into Gastric Epithelial Cells by Type IV Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenbreit, Stefan; Püls, Jürgen; Sedlmaier, Bettina; Gerland, Elke; Fischer, Wolfgang; Haas, Rainer

    2000-02-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in humans. Strains producing the CagA antigen (cagA+) induce strong gastric inflammation and are strongly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. We show here that such strains translocate the bacterial protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells by a type IV secretion system, encoded by the cag pathogenicity island. CagA is tyrosine-phosphorylated and induces changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation state of distinct cellular proteins. Modulation of host cells by bacterial protein translocation adds a new dimension to the chronic Helicobacter infection with yet unknown consequences.

  10. Studies on uptake and translocation of some nutrient elements in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, S.S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to study the uptake and translocation of some nutrients. In this respect, two experiments, dealing with 3 2 P and 6 5 Zn, were conducted using a sandy clay loam soil where corn plants were grown to study such influence on the uptake and translocation of P, Zn, N and K.The utilization of P and Zn fertilizers by corn plants as well as the production of dry matter yield were considered. Chemical analysis of some mineral components and assay of radioactive materials 3 2 P and 6 5 Zn of both plant and soil and the dry weight of corn plants were estimated

  11. Neutralisation of specific surface carboxylates speeds up translocation of botulinum neurotoxin type B enzymatic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirazzini, Marco; Henke, Tina; Rossetto, Ornella; Mahrhold, Stefan; Krez, Nadja; Rummel, Andreas; Montecucco, Cesare; Binz, Thomas

    2013-11-29

    Botulinum neurotoxins translocate their enzymatic domain across vesicular membranes. The molecular triggers of this process are unknown. Here, we tested the possibility that this is elicited by protonation of conserved surface carboxylates. Glutamate-48, glutamate-653 and aspartate-877 were identified as possible candidates and changed into amide. This triple mutant showed increased neurotoxicity due to faster cytosolic delivery of the enzymatic domain; membrane translocation could take place at less acidic pH. Thus, neutralisation of specific negative surface charges facilitates membrane contact permitting a faster initiation of the toxin membrane insertion. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Novel Dipeptide Translocator Protein Ligand, Referred to As GD-23, Exerts Anxiolytic and Nootropic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Povarnina, P. Yu.; Yarkov, S. A.; Gudasheva, T. A.; Yarkova, M. A.; Seredenin, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) promotes the translocation of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediates steroid formation. In this study, we first report on a biological evaluation of the dipeptide GD-23 (N-carbobenzoxy-L tryptophanyl-L isoleucine amide), a structural analogue of Alpidem, the principal TSPO ligand. We show that GD-23 in a dose range of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg (i.p.) exhibits anxiolytic activity in the elevated plus maze test and nootropic activity in the object r...

  13. Kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle fibers from living mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Hans Peter M. Mortensen; Galbo, Henrik; Toyoda, Taro

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is an important strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This is due in part to an increase in glucose transport that occurs in the working skeletal muscles. Glucose transport is regulated by GLUT4 translocation in muscle, but the molecular machinery mediating this process is poorly...... understood. The purpose of this study was to 1) use a novel imaging system to elucidate the kinetics of contraction-induced GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and 2) determine the function of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha2 (AMPKalpha2) in this process....

  14. Studies on absorption and translocation of phosphorus using radioactive superphosphate (32P) in coffee plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.H.; Vasudeva, N.; Balasubramanian, A.

    1976-01-01

    Absorption and translocation (downward as well as lateral) of phosphate ions from foliar applied superphosphate solution (pH 6.5, labelled with 32 P) were considerably higher in Coffea arabica L. cv.S. 795 than in Coffea canephera Pierre cv.S. 274 plants. The differential absorption and translocation of phosphate to various plant parts and its accumulation in enlarged flowers buds suggest the possibility that the requirement of phosphorus for flower bud enlargement and blossom (anthesis) is higher in arabica than in robusta. (auth.)

  15. Translocation 1;7 in hematologic disorders: a brief review of 22 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheres, J.M.; Hustinx, T.W.; Geraedts, J.P.; Leeksma, C.H.; Meltzer, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    A translocation t(1;7)(p11;p11), previously reported in patients with myelodysplasia or leukemia has been found in seven new cases. The present report briefly reviews the cytogenetic and clinical features of 22 patients with this translocation. The majority of these patients had a history of occupational or therapeutic exposure to toxic substances or radiation. Trisomy 8 or 21 were the most common additional abnormalities, especially in leukemic patients. The t(1;7) should be added to the group of specific cytogenetic abnormalities observed frequently in secondary myelodysplasia and leukemia

  16. Childhood-onset schizophrenia/autistic disorder and t(1;7) reciprocal translocation: identification of a BAC contig spanning the translocation breakpoint at 7q21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Guan, X Y; Green, E D; Nicolson, R; Yap, T K; Zhang, J; Jacobsen, L K; Krasnewich, D M; Kumra, S; Lenane, M C; Gochman, P; Damschroder-Williams, P J; Esterling, L E; Long, R T; Martin, B M; Sidransky, E; Rapoport, J L; Ginns, E I

    2000-12-04

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is defined by the development of first psychotic symptoms by age 12. While recruiting patients with COS refractory to conventional treatments for a trial of atypical antipsychotic drugs, we discovered a unique case who has a familial t(1;7)(p22;q21) reciprocal translocation and onset of psychosis at age 9. The patient also has symptoms of autistic disorder, which are usually transient before the first psychotic episode among 40-50% of the childhood schizophrenics but has persisted in him even after the remission of psychosis. Cosegregating with the translocation, among the carriers in the family available for the study, are other significant psychopathologies, including alcohol/drug abuse, severe impulsivity, and paranoid personality and language delay. This case may provide a model for understanding the genetic basis of schizophrenia or autism. Here we report the progress toward characterization of genomic organization across the translocation breakpoint at 7q21. The polymorphic markers, D7S630/D7S492 and D7S2410/D7S646, immediately flanking the breakpoint, may be useful for further confirming the genetic linkage for schizophrenia or autism in this region. Am. J. Med. Genet. (Neuropsychiatr. Genet.) 96:749-753, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Cosmic microwave background science at commercial airline altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Gudmundsson, Jon E.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia; Errard, Josquin

    2017-07-01

    Obtaining high-sensitivity measurements of degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization is the most direct path to detecting primordial gravitational waves. Robustly recovering any primordial signal from the dominant foreground emission will require high-fidelity observations at multiple frequencies, with excellent control of systematics. We explore the potential for a new platform for CMB observations, the Airlander 10 hybrid air vehicle, to perform this task. We show that the Airlander 10 platform, operating at commercial airline altitudes, is well suited to mapping frequencies above 220 GHz, which are critical for cleaning CMB maps of dust emission. Optimizing the distribution of detectors across frequencies, we forecast the ability of Airlander 10 to clean foregrounds of varying complexity as a function of altitude, demonstrating its complementarity with both existing (Planck) and ongoing (C-BASS) foreground observations. This novel platform could play a key role in defining our ultimate view of the polarized microwave sky.

  18. Image segmentation by background extraction refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Mitchell, O. Robert

    1990-01-01

    An image segmentation method refining background extraction in two phases is presented. In the first phase, the method detects homogeneous-background blocks and estimates the local background to be extracted throughout the image. A block is classified homogeneous if its left and right standard deviations are small. The second phase of the method refines background extraction in nonhomogeneous blocks by recomputing the shoulder thresholds. Rules that predict the final background extraction are derived by observing the behavior of successive background statistical measurements in the regions under the presence of dark and/or bright object pixels. Good results are shown for a number of outdoor scenes.

  19. Whitening of Background Brain Activity via Parametric Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Several signal subspace techniques have been recently suggested for the extraction of the visual evoked potential signals from brain background colored noise. The majority of these techniques assume the background noise as white, and for colored noise, it is suggested to be whitened, without further elaboration on how this might be done. In this paper, we investigate the whitening capabilities of two parametric techniques: a direct one based on Levinson solution of Yule-Walker equations, called AR Yule-Walker, and an indirect one based on the least-squares solution of forward-backward linear prediction (FBLP equations, called AR-FBLP. The whitening effect of the two algorithms is investigated with real background electroencephalogram (EEG colored noise and compared in time and frequency domains.

  20. The Radio Synchrotron Background: Conference Summary and Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, J.; Haider, J.; Ajello, M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bunn, E.; Condon, J.; Dowell, J.; Fixsen, D.; Fornengo, N.; Harms, B.; Holder, G.; Jones, E.; Kellermann, K.; Kogut, A.; Linden, T.; Monsalve, R.; Mertsch, P.; Murphy, E.; Orlando, E.; Regis, M.; Scott, D.; Vernstrom, T.; Xu, L.

    2018-03-01

    We summarize the radio synchrotron background workshop that took place 2017 July 19–21 at the University of Richmond. This first scientific meeting dedicated to the topic was convened because current measurements of the diffuse radio monopole reveal a surface brightness that is several times higher than can be straightforwardly explained by known Galactic and extragalactic sources and processes, rendering it by far the least well understood photon background at present. It was the conclusion of a majority of the participants that the radio monopole level is at or near that reported by the ARCADE 2 experiment and inferred from several absolutely calibrated zero-level lower frequency radio measurements, and unanimously agreed that the production of this level of surface brightness, if confirmed, represents a major outstanding question in astrophysics. The workshop reached a consensus on the next priorities for investigations of the radio synchrotron background.

  1. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyeme Musso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86. Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p n = 86 at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77. It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation.

  2. Temperature fluctuations superimposed on background temperature change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, James; Roberts, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Proxy data allows the temperature of the Earth to be mapped over long periods of time. In this work the temperature fluctuations for over 200 proxy data sets were examined and from this set 50 sets were analyzed to test for periodic and quasi-periodic fluctuations in the data sets. Temperature reconstructions over 4 different time scales were analyzed to see if patterns emerged. Data were put into four time intervals; 4,000 years, 14,000 years, 1,000,000 years, and 3,000,000 years and analyzed with a goal to understanding periodic and quasi-periodic patterns in global temperature change superimposed on a “background” average temperature change. Quasi-periodic signatures were identified that predate the Industrial Revolution, during much of which direct data on temperature are not available. These data indicate that Earth temperatures have undergone a number of periodic and quasi-periodic intervals that contain both global warming and global cooling cycles. The fluctuations are superimposed on a background of temperature change that has a declining slope during the two periods, pre-ice age and post ice age with a transition about 12,000 BCE. The data are divided into “events” that span the time periods 3,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 1,000,000 BCE to “0” CE, 12,000 BCE to 2,000 CE and 2,000 BCE to 2,000 CE. An equation using a quasi-periodic (frequency modulated sine waves) patterns was developed to analyze the date sets for quasi-periodic patterns. “Periodicities” which show reasonable agreement with the predictions of Milankovitch and other investigators were found in the data sets.

  3. Construindo uma política feminista translocal da tradução Enacting a Translocal Feminist Politics of Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E Alvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nosso projeto coletivo Translocalities/Translocalidades: Feminist Politics of Translation in the Latin/a Américas (Políticas Feministas de Tradução na América Latina explora como discursos e práticas feministas viajam por uma variedade de lugares e direções e acabam se tornando paradigmas interpretativos para a leitura/escrita de questões de classe, gênero, sexualidade, migração, saúde, cidadania, política e circulação de identidades e textos. Sustentamos que a tradução é política e teoricamente indispensável para forjar epistemologias e alianças políticas feministas, antirracistas e pós-coloniais/pós-ocidentais, pois as Américas Latinas - enquanto formação cultural transfronteiriça e não territorialmente delimitada - devem ser entendidas como translocais em dois sentidos. O primeiro sentido que usamos - o de translocalidade - parte de movimentos além das concepções da "política da localização" empregadas pelo feminismo terceiro-mundista estadunidense. Mais do que "migrar" e "se assimilar", muitas pessoas nas Américas Latinas cada vez mais se movem de um lado para outro entre localidades, entre lugares historicamente situados e culturalmente específicos, ainda que porosos, atravessando múltiplas fronteiras, e não apenas entre nações (como deixa a entender o termo "migração transnacional", por exemplo. Empregamos a expressão translocal, então, em um segundo sentido, que chamamos de translocalidades, precisamente para capturar esses cruzamentos e movimentos multidirecionaisOur collective project on Translocalities/Translocalidades: Feminist Politics of Translation in the Latin/a Américas explores how feminist discourses and practices travel across a variety of sites and directionalities to become interpretive paradigms to read/write issues of class, gender, race, sexuality, migration, health, social movements, citizenship, politics, and the circulation of identities and texts. Translation is

  4. Multiple Frequency Parametric Sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-28

    300003 1 MULTIPLE FREQUENCY PARAMETRIC SONAR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...a method for increasing the bandwidth of a parametric sonar system by using multiple primary frequencies rather than only two primary frequencies...2) Description of Prior Art [0004] Parametric sonar generates narrow beams at low frequencies by projecting sound at two distinct primary

  5. Robertsonian translocations: An overview of a 30-year experience in a single tertiary medical center in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Chang

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Although AMA is an indication for amniocentesis in approximately two-fifths of cases with Robertsonian translocations, the indication of parent with abnormal karyotypes was more likely to lead to the detection of non-de novo Robertsonian translocations, suggesting that parents with abnormal karyotypes need careful prenatal consultation.

  6. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Gen

    2001-01-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  7. Fine mapping of the human renal oncocytoma-associated translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) breakpoint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinke, RJ; Dijkhuizen, T; Janssen, B; Weghuis, DO; Merkx, G; vandenBerg, E; Schuuring, E; Meloni, AM; deJong, B; vanKessel, AG

    1997-01-01

    Recent cytogenetic analysis of a series of human renal oncocytomas revealed the presence of a recurring chromosomal translocation (5;11)(q35;q13) as sole anomaly in a subset of the tumors. The molecular characterization of this translocation was initiated using two primary t(5;11)-positive renal

  8. OK-432 reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Masako; Uzawa, Akiko; Ogyu, Toshiaki [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Suzuki, Gen

    2001-06-01

    Acute radiation induces bacterial translocation from the gut, followed by systemic infection and sepsis. In order to reduce the mortality after acute whole body irradiation, it is essential to control bacterial translocation. In this study, we established a bacterial translocation assay as a sensitive method to detect minor mucosal injury by radiation. By utilizing this assay, we evaluated the adverse effects, if any, of hematopoietic reagents on the mucosal integrity in the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tracts. Bacterial translocation to the liver and spleen occurred after whole-body irradiation if the dose exceeded 6 Gy. The administration of G-CSF unexpectedly increased the bacterial translocation in 8 Gy-irradiated mice. The pharmaceutical preparation of low-virulent Streptococcus pyogenes, OK-432, significantly reduced the endotoxin levels in peripheral blood without any reduction of bacterial translocation. A combined treatment with G-CSF and OK-432 decreased bacterial translocation and prevented death. This result indicates that the early administration of G-CSF has an adverse effect on bacterial translocation, and that a combined treatment of G-CSF and OK-432 attenuates the adverse effect of G-CSF and improves the survival rate after acute irradiation. (author)

  9. Light-dependent uptake, translocation and foliar release of phosphorus by the intertidal seagrass Zostera noltii Hornem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Lloréns, J.J.; De Visscher, P.R.M.; Nienhuis, P.H.; Niell, F.X.

    1993-01-01

    Light-dependent P uptake by root-rhizomes, acropetal translocation and subsequent foliar release by Zostera noltii Hornem. was studied under laboratory conditions in two-compartment chambers using 32P. The uptake by underground parts was unaffected by light conditions but the acropetal translocation

  10. MYC translocation-negative classical Burkitt lymphoma cases: an alternative pathogenetic mechanism involving miRNA deregulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leucci, E.; Cocco, M.; Onnis, A.; Falco, G De; Cleef, P van; Bellan, C.; Rijk, A van; Nyagol, J.; Byakika, B.; Lazzi, S.; Tosi, P.; Krieken, H. van; Leoncini, L.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular feature of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the translocation that places c-Myc under the control of immunoglobulin gene regulatory elements. However, there is accumulating evidence that some cases may lack an identifiable MYC translocation. In addition, during the EUROFISH project, aiming at

  11. Specific Targeting of the Metallophosphoesterase YkuE to the Bacillus Cell Wall Requires the Twin-arginine Translocation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteferrante, Carmine G.; Miethke, Marcus; van der Ploeg, Rene; Glasner, Corinna; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway is dedicated to the transport of fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membranes of many bacteria and the chloroplast thylakoidal membrane. Accordingly, Tat-dependently translocated proteins are known to be delivered to the periplasm of

  12. Acute leukemias of different lineages have similar MLL gene fusions encoding related chimeric proteins resulting from chromosomal translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corral, J.; Forster, A.; Thompson, S.; Lampert, F.; Kaneko, Y.; Slater, R.; Kroes, W. G.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Ludwig, W. D.; Karpas, A.

    1993-01-01

    The MLL gene, on human chromosome 11q23, undergoes chromosomal translocation in acute leukemias, resulting in gene fusion with AF4 (chromosome 4) and ENL (chromosome 19). We report here translocation of MLL with nine different chromosomes and two paracentric chromosome 11 deletions in early B cell,

  13. Multi-frequency excitation

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-03-10

    Embodiments of multi-frequency excitation are described. In various embodiments, a natural frequency of a device may be determined. In turn, a first voltage amplitude and first fixed frequency of a first source of excitation can be selected for the device based on the natural frequency. Additionally, a second voltage amplitude of a second source of excitation can be selected for the device, and the first and second sources of excitation can be applied to the device. After applying the first and second sources of excitation, a frequency of the second source of excitation can be swept. Using the methods of multi- frequency excitation described herein, new operating frequencies, operating frequency ranges, resonance frequencies, resonance frequency ranges, and/or resonance responses can be achieved for devices and systems.

  14. Statistically tuned Gaussian background subtraction technique for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The non-parametric background modelling approach proposed by Martin Hofmann et al (2012) involves modelling of foreground by the history of recently ... background subtraction system with mixture of Gaussians, deviation scaling factor and max– min background model for outdoor environment. Selection of detection ...

  15. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology only... of the cognizant Program Manager, will negotiate a background rights provision. If the affected...

  16. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    measurements based on OAE suppression techniques and notched-noise masking data psychophysically measured for centre frequencies in the range 50-125 Hz, this study examines how individual differences in frequency selectivity, as well as in masking, may occur at very low CFs due to individual differences...

  17. Frequencies of X-ray induced chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of xeroderma pigmentosum and Fanconi anemia patients estimated by Giemsa and fluorescence in situ hybridization staining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Saraswathy,Radha; Natarajan,A.T.

    2000-01-01

    Blood lymphocytes from xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Fanconi anemia (FA) patients were assessed for their sensitivity to ionizing radiation by estimating the frequency of X-ray (1 and 2 Gy)-induced chromosome aberrations (CA). The frequencies of aberrations in the whole genome were estimated in Giemsa-stained preparations of lymphocytes irradiated at G0 or G2 stages. The frequencies of translocations and dicentrics involving chromosomes 1 and 3 as well as the X-chromosome were determined in ...

  18. Laboratory evaluation of interception and translocation of 131I in fenugreek and Okra plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, R.K.; Narayanan, U.; Bhat, I.S.

    1994-01-01

    The work reported here deals with the study of interception and translocation of airborne 131 I in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus), two very common vegetables in India. Activity was injected into the experimental chamber in the form of iodide aerosols having a size distribution of 0.3 to 5.0 μm (AMAD). Samples of plants were collected over a period of a few days at different time intervals after injection of the aerosols. Evaluation of interception with deposition and translocation of 131 I was done from the activity measured in air and in plant parts. For the deposition factor, the values are 1.22 m 3 kg -1 for fenugreek leaves, and 1.49 m 3 kg -1 for the plant as a whole. For okra plants these values are 0.02 and 0.16 m 3 kg -1 in edible okra and leaves, respectively. For the okra plant as a whole, the value is 0.19 m 3 kg -1 . The translocation factors vary from 0.62 to 0.86 and 0.47 to 0.87 for leaves and stem, respectively, in the case of fenugreek plants. For okra plants, the translocation factor varies from 0.21 to 0.82, 0.53 to 0.93, and 0.42 to 0.81 in edible okra, leaves, and stems, respectively. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Population-based survey of cancer risks in chromosome 3 translocation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodward, Emma R; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Cruger, Dorthe G

    2010-01-01

    Familial renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is genetically heterogeneous and may be associated with germline mutations in a number of genes. Twelve different constitutional translocations involving chromosome 3 have also been described in association with inherited RCC. In some families the lifetime risk...

  20. 226Ra translocation from soil to selected vegetation in the Crucea (Romania) uranium mining area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popa, K.; Tykva, Richard; Podracká, Eva; Humelnicu, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 278, č. 1 (2008), s. 211-213 ISSN 0236-5731 Grant - others:MEdC-ANCS(RO) CNCSIS160/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : translocation 226Ra * soil * vegetation * mining area Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.659, year: 2008