Sample records for background sensitizes skin

  1. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin. (United States)

    Buhé, Virginie; Vié, Katell; Guéré, Christelle; Natalizio, Audrey; Lhéritier, Céline; Le Gall-Ianotto, Christelle; Huet, Flavien; Talagas, Matthieu; Lebonvallet, Nicolas; Marcorelles, Pascale; Carré, Jean-Luc; Misery, Laurent


    Sensitive skin is a clinical syndrome characterized by the occurrence of unpleasant sensations, such as pruritus, burning or pain, in response to various factors, including skincare products, water, cold, heat, or other physical and/or chemical factors. Although these symptoms suggest inflammation and the activation of peripheral innervation, the pathophysiogeny of sensitive skin remains unknown. We systematically analysed cutaneous biopsies from 50 healthy women with non-sensitive or sensitive skin and demonstrated that the intraepidermal nerve fibre density, especially that of peptidergic C-fibres, was lower in the sensitive skin group. These fibres are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception, and their degeneration may promote allodynia and similar symptoms. These results suggest that the pathophysiology of skin sensitivity resembles that of neuropathic pruritus within the context of small fibre neuropathy, and that environmental factors may alter skin innervation.

  2. Infrared sensing based sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zheng-cai; FU Yi-li; WANG Shu-guo; JIN Bao


    Developed robotics sensitive skin is a modularized, flexible, mini-type array of infrared sensors with data processing capabilities, which can be used to cover the body of a robot. Depending on the infrared sensors and periphery processing circuit, robotics sensitive skin can in real-time provide existence and distance information about obstacles for robots within sensory areas. The methodology of designing sensitive skin and the algorithm of a mass of IR data fusion are presented. The experimental results show that the multi-joint robot with this sensitive skin can work autonomously in an unknown environment.

  3. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ... (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  4. Determinants of skin sensitivity to solar irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, W.M.R.; Vink, A.A.; Boelsma, E.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, W.A.A.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Poppel, G. van; Kardinaal, A.F.M.


    Background: Acute effects of UV irradiation include UV-induced erythema. Sunlight plays an important role in the development of skin cancer. Several predictive factors of UV-induced erythema could also be predictive for skin cancer. Objective: Our objective was to quantitatively assess phenotypical

  5. Skin Sensitizing Potency of Halogenated Platinum Salts. (United States)

    The relationship between occupational exposure to halogenated platinum (Pt) salts and Pt-specific allergic sensitization is well-established. Although human case reports and clinical studies demonstrate that Pt salts are potent skin sensitizers, no studies have been published tha...

  6. Sensitive skin and stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products. (United States)

    Goffin, V; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E


    Products intended for individuals with sensitive skin are being increasingly developed by formulators of household cleaning products. However, there is currently no consensus about the definition and recognition of the biological basis of sensitive skin. We sought to determine the relation between the nature of environmental threat perceived as aggressive by panelists, and the stratum corneum reactivity to household cleaning products as measured by the corneosurfametry test. Results indicate substantial differences in irritancy potential between proprietary products. Corneosurfametry data show significant differences in stratum corneum reactivity between, on the one hand, individuals with either non-sensitive skin or skin sensitive to climate/fabrics, and, on the other hand, individuals with detergent-sensitive skin. It is concluded that sensitive skin is not one single condition. Sound information in rating detergent-sensitive skin may be gained by corneosurfametry.

  7. Evaluating a Skin Sensitization Model and Examining Common Assumptions of Skin Sensitizers (QSAR conference) (United States)

    Skin sensitization is an adverse outcome that has been well studied over many decades. Knowledge of the mechanism of action was recently summarized using the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework as part of the OECD work programme (OECD, 2012). Currently there is a strong focus...

  8. Evaluating a Skin Sensitization Model and Examining Common Assumptions of Skin Sensitizers (ASCCT meeting) (United States)

    Skin sensitization is an adverse outcome that has been well studied over many decades. It was summarized using the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework as part of the OECD work programme (OECD, 2012). Currently there is a strong focus on how AOPs can be applied for different r...

  9. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part II: QSAR models of skin permeability and the relationships between skin permeability and skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical–Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Skin permeability is widely considered to be mechanistically implicated in chemically-induced skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been identified as skin sensitizers, there have been very few reports analyzing the relationships between molecular structure and skin permeability of sensitizers and non-sensitizers. The goals of this study were to: (i) compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset of chemicals studied for their skin permeability; (ii) develop and rigorously validate QSAR models to predict skin permeability; and (iii) explore the complex relationships between skin sensitization and skin permeability. Based on the largest publicly available dataset compiled in this study, we found no overall correlation between skin permeability and skin sensitization. In addition, cross-species correlation coefficient between human and rodent permeability data was found to be as low as R{sup 2} = 0.44. Human skin permeability models based on the random forest method have been developed and validated using OECD-compliant QSAR modeling workflow. Their external accuracy was high (Q{sup 2}{sub ext} = 0.73 for 63% of external compounds inside the applicability domain). The extended analysis using both experimentally-measured and QSAR-imputed data still confirmed the absence of any overall concordance between skin permeability and skin sensitization. This observation suggests that chemical modifications that affect skin permeability should not be presumed a priori to modulate the sensitization potential of chemicals. The models reported herein as well as those developed in the companion paper on skin sensitization suggest that it may be possible to rationally design compounds with the desired high skin permeability but low sensitization potential. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin permeability dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin permeability. • No concordance between skin

  10. Prognostic value of asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe


    immunological mechanisms in asymptomatic skin sensitization might provide new insights into the natural history and treatment of respiratory allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Research on asymptomatic skin sensitization is rare, and the present review unites previous studies with recent findings. It is a common...... positive skin test must be ruled out before allergen avoidance measures are initiated. SUMMARY: Surprisingly few papers exist on asymptomatic skin sensitization epidemiology and immunology, despite the intriguing question as to why symptoms do not develop in IgE-sensitized patients. It is a common...

  11. Machine Learning Approaches for Predicting Human Skin Sensitization Hazard (United States)

    One of ICCVAM’s top priorities is the development and evaluation of non-animal approaches to identify potential skin sensitizers. The complexity of biological events necessary for a substance to elicit a skin sensitization reaction suggests that no single in chemico, in vit...

  12. Skin sensitization: Modeling based on skin metabolism simulation and formation of protein conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Sabcho; Low, Lawrence; Patlewicz, Grace


    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) system for estimating skin sensitization potency has been developed that incorporates skin metabolism and considers the potential of parent chemicals and/or their activated metabolites to react with skin proteins. A training set of diverse...... chemicals was compiled and their skin sensitization potency assigned to one of three classes. These three classes were, significant, weak, or nonsensitizing. Because skin sensitization potential depends upon the ability of chemicals to react with skin proteins either directly or after appropriate metabolism......, a metabolic simulator was constructed to mimic the enzyme activation of chemicals in the skin. This simulator contains 203 hierarchically ordered spontaneous and enzyme controlled reactions. Phase I and phase II metabolism were simulated by using 102 and 9 principal transformations, respectively. The covalent...

  13. Skin Autofluorescence and Complications of Diabetes : Does Ethnic Background or Skin Color Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahdi, Mohamed; Gerdes, Victor E. A.; Graaff, Reindert; Kuipers, Saskia; Smit, Andries J.; Meesters, Eelco W.


    Aims: Skin autofluorescence (AF) has been associated with complications of diabetes. We evaluated the influence of skin color and ethnicity on the association between skin AF and the presence of diabetes-related complications. Materials and Methods: In a multiethnic type 2 diabetes cohort we investi

  14. Quantitative risk assessment for skin sensitization: Success or failure? (United States)

    Kimber, Ian; Gerberick, G Frank; Basketter, David A


    Skin sensitization is unique in the world of toxicology. There is a combination of reliable, validated predictive test methods for identification of skin sensitizing chemicals, a clearly documented and transparent approach to risk assessment, and effective feedback from dermatology clinics around the world delivering evidence of the success or failure of the hazard identification/risk assessment/management process. Recent epidemics of contact allergy, particularly to preservatives, have raised questions of whether the safety/risk assessment process is working in an optimal manner (or indeed is working at all!). This review has as its focus skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment (QRA). The core toxicological principles of QRA are reviewed, and evidence of use and misuse examined. What becomes clear is that skin sensitization QRA will only function adequately if two essential criteria are met. The first is that QRA is applied rigourously, and the second is that potential exposure to the sensitizing substance is assessed adequately. This conclusion will come as no surprise to any toxicologist who appreciates the basic premise that "risk = hazard x exposure". Accordingly, use of skin sensitization QRA is encouraged, not least because the essential feedback from dermatology clinics can be used as a tool to refine QRA in situations where this risk assessment tool has not been properly used.

  15. Tactile-direction-sensitive and stretchable electronic skins based on human-skin-inspired interlocked microstructures. (United States)

    Park, Jonghwa; Lee, Youngoh; Hong, Jaehyung; Lee, Youngsu; Ha, Minjeong; Jung, Youngdo; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Sung Youb; Ko, Hyunhyub


    Stretchable electronic skins with multidirectional force-sensing capabilities are of great importance in robotics, prosthetics, and rehabilitation devices. Inspired by the interlocked microstructures found in epidermal-dermal ridges in human skin, piezoresistive interlocked microdome arrays are employed for stress-direction-sensitive, stretchable electronic skins. Here we show that these arrays possess highly sensitive detection capability of various mechanical stimuli including normal, shear, stretching, bending, and twisting forces. Furthermore, the unique geometry of interlocked microdome arrays enables the differentiation of various mechanical stimuli because the arrays exhibit different levels of deformation depending on the direction of applied forces, thus providing different sensory output patterns. In addition, we show that the electronic skins attached on human skin in the arm and wrist areas are able to distinguish various mechanical stimuli applied in different directions and can selectively monitor different intensities and directions of air flows and vibrations.

  16. A Background-Free Direction-Sensitive Neutron Detector2 A Background-Free Direction-Sensitive Neutron Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roccaro, Alvaro; Ahlen, S; Avery, D; Inglis, A; Battat, J; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P; Henderson, S; Kaboth, A; Kohse, G; Lanza, R; Monroe, J; Sciolla, G; Skvorodnev, N; Wellenstein, H; Yamamoto, R


    We show data from a new type of detector that can be used to determine neutron flux, energy distribution, and direction of neutron motion for both fast and thermal neutrons. Many neutron detectors are plagued by large backgrounds from x-rays and gamma rays, and most current neutron detectors lack single-event energy sensitivity or any information on neutron directionality. Even the best detectors are limited by cosmic ray neutron backgrounds. All applications (neutron scattering and radiography, measurements of solar and cosmic ray neutron flux, measurements of neutron interaction cross sections, monitoring of neutrons at nuclear facilities, oil exploration, and searches for fissile weapons of mass destruction) will benefit from the improved neutron detection sensitivity and improved measurements of neutron properties made possible by this detector. The detector is free of backgrounds from x-rays, gamma rays, beta particles, relativistic singely charged particles and cosmic ray neutrons. It is sensitive to th...

  17. Fragment-based prediction of skin sensitization using recursive partitioning. (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Zheng, Mingyue; Wang, Yong; Shen, Qiancheng; Luo, Xiaomin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chen, Kaixian


    Skin sensitization is an important toxic endpoint in the risk assessment of chemicals. In this paper, structure-activity relationships analysis was performed on the skin sensitization potential of 357 compounds with local lymph node assay data. Structural fragments were extracted by GASTON (GrAph/Sequence/Tree extractiON) from the training set. Eight fragments with accuracy significantly higher than 0.73 (precursive partitioning tree (RP tree) for classification. The balanced accuracy of the training set, test set I, and test set II in the leave-one-out model were 0.846, 0.800, and 0.809, respectively. The results highlight that fragment-based RP tree is a preferable method for identifying skin sensitizers. Moreover, the selected fragments provide useful structural information for exploring sensitization mechanisms, and RP tree creates a graphic tree to identify the most important properties associated with skin sensitization. They can provide some guidance for designing of drugs with lower sensitization level.

  18. A new ten-item questionnaire for assessing sensitive skin: the Sensitive Scale-10. (United States)

    Misery, Laurent; Jean-Decoster, Catherine; Mery, Sophie; Georgescu, Victor; Sibaud, Vincent


    Sensitive skin is common but until now there has been no scale for measuring its severity. The Sensitive Scale is a new scale with a 14-item and a 10-item version that was tested in 11 countries in different languages on 2,966 participants. The aim of this study was to validate the pertinence of using the Sensitive Scale to measure the severity of sensitive skin. The internal consistency was high. Correlations with the dry skin type, higher age, female gender, fair phototypes and Dermatology Life Quality Index were found. Using the 10-item version appeared to be preferable because it was quicker and easier to complete, with the same internal consistency and the 4 items that were excluded were very rarely observed in patients. The mean initial scores were around 44/140 and 37/100. The use of a cream for sensitive skin showed the pertinence of the scale before and after treatment.

  19. 78 FR 68076 - Request for Information on Alternative Skin Sensitization Test Methods and Testing Strategies and... (United States)


    ... workers and consumers exposed to skin-sensitizing chemicals and products. Pesticides and other marketed... relationship (SAR) models to predict skin sensitization. NICEATM collaboration with industry scientists to... sensitization. Participating in validation management groups sponsored by ICATM partner organizations to...

  20. Integrated Computational Solution for Predicting Skin Sensitization Potential of Molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konda Leela Sarath Kumar

    Full Text Available Skin sensitization forms a major toxicological endpoint for dermatology and cosmetic products. Recent ban on animal testing for cosmetics demands for alternative methods. We developed an integrated computational solution (SkinSense that offers a robust solution and addresses the limitations of existing computational tools i.e. high false positive rate and/or limited coverage.The key components of our solution include: QSAR models selected from a combinatorial set, similarity information and literature-derived sub-structure patterns of known skin protein reactive groups. Its prediction performance on a challenge set of molecules showed accuracy = 75.32%, CCR = 74.36%, sensitivity = 70.00% and specificity = 78.72%, which is better than several existing tools including VEGA (accuracy = 45.00% and CCR = 54.17% with 'High' reliability scoring, DEREK (accuracy = 72.73% and CCR = 71.44% and TOPKAT (accuracy = 60.00% and CCR = 61.67%. Although, TIMES-SS showed higher predictive power (accuracy = 90.00% and CCR = 92.86%, the coverage was very low (only 10 out of 77 molecules were predicted reliably.Owing to improved prediction performance and coverage, our solution can serve as a useful expert system towards Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment for skin sensitization. It would be invaluable to cosmetic/ dermatology industry for pre-screening their molecules, and reducing time, cost and animal testing.

  1. Risk group, skin lesion history, and sun sensitivity reliability in squamous cell skin cancer progression. (United States)

    Clouser, Mary C; Harris, Robin B; Roe, Denise J; Saboda, Kathylynn; Ranger-Moore, James; Duckett, Laura; Alberts, David S


    In studies of skin cancer, participants are often classified into risk groups based on self-reported history of sun exposure or skin characteristics. We sought to determine the reliability of self-reported skin characteristics among participants of a study to evaluate markers for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Multiple questionnaires and screening protocols were administered over a 3-month period to individuals from three risk groups: existing sun damage on forearms but no visible actinic keratoses (n = 91), visible actinic keratoses (n = 38), and history of resected squamous cell skin cancer in the last 12 months (n = 35). We assessed consistency of risk group assignment between telephone screen and study dermatologist assignment, self-reported sun sensitivity (telephone recruitment form versus participant completed profile), and self-reported history of NMSC skin lesions (telephone recruitment form versus health history). There was substantial agreement between probable risk group and final assignment (kappa = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.85) and agreement did not differ by gender. Agreement for self-reported sun sensitivity was moderate (kappa weighted = 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.56) with higher agreement for women. For self-reported NMSC lesion history between two interviews, 24 days apart, kappa estimates ranged from 0.66 to 0.78 and were higher for women than men. Overall, there was evidence for substantial reproducibility related to risk group assignment and self-reported history of NMSC, with self-reported sun sensitivity being less reliable. In all comparisons, women had higher kappa values than men. These results suggest that self-reported measures of skin cancer risk are reasonably reliable for use in screening subjects into studies.

  2. Epoxy resin monomers with reduced skin sensitizing potency. (United States)

    O'Boyle, Niamh M; Niklasson, Ida B; Tehrani-Bagha, Ali R; Delaine, Tamara; Holmberg, Krister; Luthman, Kristina; Karlberg, Ann-Therese


    Epoxy resin monomers (ERMs), especially diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A and F (DGEBA and DGEBF), are extensively used as building blocks for thermosetting polymers. However, they are known to commonly cause skin allergy. This research describes a number of alternative ERMs, designed with the aim of reducing the skin sensitizing potency while maintaining the ability to form thermosetting polymers. The compounds were designed, synthesized, and assessed for sensitizing potency using the in vivo murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). All six epoxy resin monomers had decreased sensitizing potencies compared to those of DGEBA and DGEBF. With respect to the LLNA EC3 value, the best of the alternative monomers had a value approximately 2.5 times higher than those of DGEBA and DGEBF. The diepoxides were reacted with triethylenetetramine, and the polymers formed were tested for technical applicability using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Four out of the six alternative ERMs gave polymers with a thermal stability comparable to that obtained with DGEBA and DGEBF. The use of improved epoxy resin monomers with less skin sensitizing effects is a direct way to tackle the problem of contact allergy to epoxy resin systems, particularly in occupational settings, resulting in a reduction in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis.

  3. Asymptomatic skin sensitization to birch predicts later development of birch pollen allergy in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, Uffe; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, Hans-Jørgen


    The skin prick test is the allergologic test of choice, but asymptomatic skin sensitization to aeroallergens is common. However, no data in the literature describe the clinical phenotype of asymptomatic sensitized adults....

  4. Attenuated noradrenergic sensitivity during local cooling in aged human skin (United States)

    Thompson, Caitlin S; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W. Larry


    Reflex-mediated cutaneous vasoconstriction (VC) is impaired in older humans; however, it is unclear whether this blunted VC also occurs during local cooling, which mediates VC through different mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that the sensitization of cutaneous vessels to noradrenaline (NA) during direct skin cooling seen in young skin is blunted in aged skin. In 11 young (18–30 years) and 11 older (62–76 years) men and women, skin blood flow was monitored at two forearm sites with laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry while local skin temperature was cooled and clamped at 24°C. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LD flux/mean arterial pressure) was expressed as percentage change from baseline (%ΔCVCbase). At one site, five doses of NA (10−10–10−2m) were sequentially infused via intradermal microdialysis during cooling while the other 24°C site served as control (Ringer solution + cooling). At control sites, VC due to cooling alone was similar in young versus older (−54 ± 5 versus −56 ± 3%ΔCVCbase, P= 0.46). In young, NA infusions induced additional dose-dependent VC (10−8, 10−6, 10−4 and 10−2m: −70 ± 2, −72 ± 3, −78 ± 3 and −79 ± 4%ΔCVCbase; P older skin does not display enhanced VC capacity until treated with saturating doses of NA, possibly due to age-associated decrements in Ca2+ availability or α2C-adrenoceptor function. PMID:15705648

  5. What is sensitive skin? A systematic literature review of objective measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richters, R.J.H.; Falcone, D.; Uzunbajakava, N.; Verkruysse, W.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    Despite sensitive skin being highly prevalent, no consensus on the definition and pathomechanism of sensitive skin exists. Here we report the results of a systematic literature review of diagnostic methods for sensitive skin at clinical, histological and biophysical levels. A systematic search revea

  6. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization potential and potency? Refuting the notion of a LogKow threshold for Skin Sensitization (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW < 500, are assumed and widely accepted as self-evident truths. Objective...

  7. Contact sensitizers induce skin inflammation via ROS production and hyaluronic acid degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp R Esser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD represents a severe health problem with increasing worldwide prevalence. It is a T cell-mediated skin disease induced by protein-reactive organic and inorganic chemicals. A key feature of contact allergens is their ability to trigger an innate immune response that leads to skin inflammation. Previous evidence from the mouse contact hypersensitivity (CHS model suggests a role for endogenous activators of innate immune signaling. Here, we analyzed the role of contact sensitizer induced ROS production and concomitant changes in hyaluronic acid metabolism on CHS responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed in vitro and in vivo ROS production using fluorescent ROS detection reagents. HA fragmentation was determined by gel electrophoresis. The influence of blocking ROS production and HA degradation by antioxidants, hyaluronidase-inhibitor or p38 MAPK inhibitor was analyzed in the murine CHS model. Here, we demonstrate that organic contact sensitizers induce production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and a concomitant breakdown of the extracellular matrix (ECM component hyaluronic acid (HA to pro-inflammatory low molecular weight fragments in the skin. Importantly, inhibition of either ROS-mediated or enzymatic HA breakdown prevents sensitization as well as elicitation of CHS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data identify an indirect mechanism of contact sensitizer induced innate inflammatory signaling involving the breakdown of the ECM and generation of endogenous danger signals. Our findings suggest a beneficial role for anti-oxidants and hyaluronidase inhibitors in prevention and treatment of ACD.

  8. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K;


    BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized...

  9. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi


    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  10. Sensitivity analysis on an AC600 aluminum skin component (United States)

    Mendiguren, J.; Agirre, J.; Mugarra, E.; Galdos, L.; Saenz de Argandoña, E.


    New materials are been introduced on the car body in order to reduce weight and fulfil the international CO2 emission regulations. Among them, the application of aluminum alloys is increasing for skin panels. Even if these alloys are beneficial for the car design, the manufacturing of these components become more complex. In this regard, numerical simulations have become a necessary tool for die designers. There are multiple factors affecting the accuracy of these simulations e.g. hardening, anisotropy, lubrication, elastic behavior. Numerous studies have been conducted in the last years on high strength steels component stamping and on developing new anisotropic models for aluminum cup drawings. However, the impact of the correct modelling on the latest aluminums for the manufacturing of skin panels has been not yet analyzed. In this work, first, the new AC600 aluminum alloy of JLR-Novelis is characterized for anisotropy, kinematic hardening, friction coefficient, elastic behavior. Next, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on the simulation of a U channel (with drawbeads). Then, the numerical an experimental results are correlated in terms of springback and failure. Finally, some conclusions are drawn.

  11. Evaluation of a topical treatment for the relief of sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinicke IR


    Full Text Available Ingrid R Heinicke,1 Damian H Adams,2 Tanya M Barnes,1 Kerryn A Greive1 1Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, VIC, Australia; 2Mawson Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA, Australia Background: Approximately, 50% of the population claim to have sensitive skin, which has created an important challenge for dermatologists and the cosmetic industry. This study evaluates the properties of QV Face Rescue Gel (Rescue Gel that contains a combination of moisturizing and anti-irritant ingredients, and which is used to relieve the symptoms of sensitive facial skin. Methods: The ability of Rescue Gel to induce collagen types I and III in cultured neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts compared to transforming growth factor beta 1, a known potent inducer of collagen types I and III, was measured using immunofluorescence staining. Furthermore, healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the potential for Rescue Gel to reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation on the skin compared to 0.5% hydrocortisone cream (positive control as well as it's ability to decrease transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. In addition, the formulation was tested for its potential to be 1 nonstinging using a facial sting/discomfort assay performed on volunteers who reacted positively to lactic acid, 2 nonirritating as determined by repeat insult patch tests, and 3 noncomedogenic. Results: Rescue Gel significantly induced collagen types I and III in cultured human foreskin fibroblasts similarly to transforming growth factor beta 1. In volunteers, Rescue Gel was shown to significantly reduce erythema induced by solar-simulated ultraviolet radiation similarly to 0.5% hydrocortisone, and to significantly reduce transepidermal water loss compared to baseline levels. Further, the formulation was found to be nonstinging, nonirritating, and noncomedogenic. No adverse events were observed. Conclusion: In this study, Rescue Gel has been shown

  12. The critical review of methodologies and approaches to assess the inherent skin sensitization potential (skin allergies) of chemicals. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre;


    To critically review currently available methods, or methods under development (in vivo, in vitro, in silico, etc.) used in the evaluation of skin sensitization potential and their applicability in the derivation of quantitative 'safety thresholds'.......To critically review currently available methods, or methods under development (in vivo, in vitro, in silico, etc.) used in the evaluation of skin sensitization potential and their applicability in the derivation of quantitative 'safety thresholds'....

  13. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing --Comparative Judging of Body Sections' Cold Sensitivity Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WANG Yun-yi; WU Hai-yan


    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design. By a new psychological & physical researching method, the subjective psychological perception of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulus are studied, and with Thurstone comparative judgement the main human body sections' cold sensitivity sequences are obtained. Furthermore the physiological causes for skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing are suggested.

  14. Discrimination of skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers by interleukin-1α and interleukin-6 production on cultured human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Jung, Daun; Che, Jeong-Hwan; Lim, Kyung-Min; Chun, Young-Jin; Heo, Yong; Seok, Seung Hyeok


    In vitro testing methods for classifying sensitizers could be valuable alternatives to in vivo sensitization testing using animal models, such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the guinea pig maximization test (GMT), but there remains a need for in vitro methods that are more accurate and simpler to distinguish skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Thus, the aim of our study was to establish an in vitro assay as a screening tool for detecting skin sensitizers using the human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. HaCaT cells were exposed to 16 relevant skin sensitizers and 6 skin non-sensitizers. The highest dose used was the dose causing 75% cell viability (CV75) that we determined by an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The levels of extracellular production of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and IL-6 were measured. The sensitivity of IL-1α was 63%, specificity was 83% and accuracy was 68%. In the case of IL-6, sensitivity: 69%, specificity: 83% and accuracy: 73%. Thus, this study suggests that measuring extracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and IL-6 by human HaCaT cells may potentially classify skin sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A fluorescence high throughput screening method for the detection of reactive electrophiles as potential skin sensitizers (United States)

    Skin sensitization is an important toxicological end-point in the risk assessment of chemical allergens. Because of the complexity of the biological mechanisms associated with skin sensitization integrated approaches combining different chemical, biological and in silico methods are recommended to r...

  16. SA-I Mechanoreceptor Position in Fingertip Skin May Impact Sensitivity to Edge Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Gerling


    Full Text Available Background: The skin plays a role in conditioning mechanical indentation into distributions of stress/strain that mechanoreceptors convert into neural signals. Solid mechanics methods have modelled the skin to predict the in vivo neural response from mechanoreceptors. Despite their promise, current models cannot explain the role that anatomical positioning and receptor organ morphology play in producing differences in neural response. This work hypothesises that the skin's intermediate ridges may help explain, in part, the sensitivity of slowly adapting type I (SA-I mechanoreceptors to edge stimuli. Method: Two finite-element models of the fingertip were built, validated and used to analyse the functionality of the intermediate ridges. One of the two-dimensional, cross-sectional models included intermediate ridges, while the other did not. The analysis sought to determine if intermediate ridges (1 increase the magnitude of strain energy density (SED near the SA-I location and (2 help differentiate one 2.0-mm indenter from two 0.5-mm wide indenters with a 1.0-mm gap. Results: Higher concentrations of SED were found near the tips of the intermediate ridges, the anatomical location that coincides with the SA-I receptors. This first result suggested that the location of the SA-Is in the stiffer epidermal tissue helps magnify their response to edge stimuli. The second result was that both models were equally capable of predicting the spatial structure within the in vivo neural responses, and therefore the addition of intermediate ridges did not help in differentiating the indenters. Conclusion: The finding, a 15%–35% increase in response when the sampling point lies within the stiffer tissue at the same depth, seeks to inform the positioning of force sensors in robotic skin substrates.

  17. Background odour induces adaptation and sensitization of olfactory receptors in the antennae of houseflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelling, F.J; Ialenti, F.; den Otter, C.J


    The presence of background odour was found to have a small but significant effect on the sensitivity of the antennal olfactory system of houseflies, Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae), to new pulses of odour. We show that cross-adaptation and cross-sensitization between a background odour

  18. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products. (United States)

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y


    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  19. Assessment of a new questionnaire for self-reported sun sensitivity in an occupational skin cancer screening program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinebrunner Beatrix


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sun sensitivity of the skin is a risk factor for the development of cutaneous melanoma and other skin cancers. Epidemiological studies on causal factors for the development of melanoma must control for sun sensitivity as a confounder. A standardized instrument for measuring sun sensitivity has not been established yet. It is assumed that many studies show a high potential of residual confounding for sun sensitivity. In the present study, a new questionnaire for the assessment of self-reported sun sensitivity is administered and examined. Methods Prior to an occupational skin cancer screening program, the 745 participating employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire for self-assessment of sun sensitivity. The questionnaire was developed by experts of the working group "Round Table Sunbeds" (RTS to limit the health hazards of sunbed use in Germany. A sun sensitivity score (RTS-score was calculated using 10 indicators. The internal consistency of the questionnaire and the agreement with other methods (convergent validity were examined. Results The RTS-score was calculated for 655 study participants who were 18 to 65 years of age. The correlation of the items among each other was between 0.12 and 0.62. The items and the RTS-score correlated between 0.46 and 0.77. The internal consistency showed a reliability coefficient with 0.82 (Cronbach's alpha. The comparison with the Fitzpatrick classification, the prevailing standard, was possible in 617 cases with a rank correlation of rs = 0.65. The categorization of the RTS-score in four risk groups showed correct classification to the four skin types of Fitzpatrick in 75% of the cases. Other methods for the assessment of sun sensitivity displayed varying agreements with the RTS-score. Conclusion The RTS questionnaire showed a sufficient internal consistency. There is a good convergent validity between the RTS-score and the Fritzpatrick classification avoiding shortcomings of the

  20. Skin irritants and contact sensitizers induce Langerhans cell migration and maturation at irritant concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.J.L.; Lehé, C.L.; Hasegawa, H.; Elliott, G.R.; Das, P.K.


    Skin irritants and contact allergens reduce the number of Langerhans cells (LCs). It has been assumed that this reduction is due their migration to the draining lymph node (LN) for initiating immune sensitization in a host. Skin irritation, however, as opposed to contact allergy is not considered to

  1. Proteomic allergen-peptide/protein interaction assay for the identification of human skin sensitizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, L.; Kinzebach, S.; Ohnesorge, S.; Franke, B.; Goette, I.; Koenig-Gressel, D.; Thierse, H.J.


    Modification of proteins by skin sensitizers is a pivotal step in T cell mediated allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). In this process small reactive chemicals interact covalently or non-covalently with cellular or extracellular skin self-proteins or self-peptides to become recognized by the human imm

  2. A skin sensitization risk assessment approach for evaluation of new ingredients and products. (United States)

    Gerberick, G F; Robinson, M K


    Skin sensitization risk assessment of new ingredients or products is critical before their introduction into the marketplace. The risk assessment process described in this article involves evaluation of skin sensitization hazard, consideration of all potential human exposures, comparative ingredient/product benchmarking, and, when appropriate, the management of the risk. In this article, a risk assessment process is reviewed along with a description of the risk assessment tools that are employed for evaluating a new ingredient or product. The basic process we use for evaluating the skin sensitization risk of a new product or ingredient is considered a no effect/safety factor approach. The tools used for conducting a risk assessment include structure activity relationship analysis, exposure assessment, preclinical testing (e.g., local lymph node assay [LNNA]) and clinical testing (e.g., human repeat insult patch testing [HRIPT]). The skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this paper has been used successfully for many years for the safe introduction of new products into the marketplace. This process is dynamic--it can be applied to a diversity of product categories (e.g., shampoo, transdermal drug). In summary, the skin sensitization risk assessment process described in this article allows one to carefully assess the skin sensitization potential of a new ingredient or product so that it can be safely introduced into the marketplace.

  3. Prediction of Skin Sensitization with a Particle Swarm Optimized Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhong Cao


    Full Text Available Skin sensitization is the most commonly reported occupational illness, causing much suffering to a wide range of people. Identification and labeling of environmental allergens is urgently required to protect people from skin sensitization. The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT and murine local lymph node assay (LLNA are the two most important in vivo models for identification of skin sensitizers. In order to reduce the number of animal tests, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs are strongly encouraged in the assessment of skin sensitization of chemicals. This paper has investigated the skin sensitization potential of 162 compounds with LLNA results and 92 compounds with GPMT results using a support vector machine. A particle swarm optimization algorithm was implemented for feature selection from a large number of molecular descriptors calculated by Dragon. For the LLNA data set, the classification accuracies are 95.37% and 88.89% for the training and the test sets, respectively. For the GPMT data set, the classification accuracies are 91.80% and 90.32% for the training and the test sets, respectively. The classification performances were greatly improved compared to those reported in the literature, indicating that the support vector machine optimized by particle swarm in this paper is competent for the identification of skin sensitizers.

  4. Touch perceptions across skin sites: differences between sensitivity, direction discrimination and pleasantness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle eAckerley


    Full Text Available Human skin is innervated with different tactile afferents over the body, which are found at varying densities. We investigate how the relationships between tactile pleasantness, sensitivity and discrimination differ across the skin. Tactile pleasantness was assessed by stroking a soft brush over the skin, using five velocities (0.3, 1, 3, 10, 30 cm s-1, known to differentiate hedonic touch, and pleasantness ratings were gained. The ratings velocity-profile is known to correlate with firing in unmyelinated C-tactile afferents. Tactile sensitivity thresholds were determined using monofilament force detection and the tactile discrimination level was obtained in the direction discrimination of a moving probe; both tasks readily activate myelinated touch receptors. Perceptions were measured over five skin sites: forehead, arm, palm, thigh and shin. The assessment of tactile pleasantness over the skin resulted in a preference for the middle velocities (1-10 cm s-1, where higher ratings were gained compared to the slowest and fastest velocities. This preference in tactile pleasantness was found across all the skin sites, apart from at the palm, where no decrease in pleasantness for the faster stroking velocities was seen. We find that tactile sensitivity and discrimination vary across the skin, where the forehead and palm show increased acuity. Tactile sensitivity and discrimination levels also correlated significantly, although the tactile acuity did not relate to the perceived pleasantness of touch. Tactile pleasantness varied in a subtle way across skin sites, where the middle velocities were always rated as the most pleasant, but the ratings at hairy skin sites were more receptive to changes in stroking velocity. We postulate that although the mechanoreceptive afferent physiology may be different over the skin, the perception of pleasant touch can be interpreted using all of the available incoming somatosensory information in combination with

  5. Gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. (United States)

    Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S


    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis.

  6. Sensitization to Aeroallergens in Patients with Respiratory Allergies Based on Skin-Prick Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Bejtullahu


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to identify the most common aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis.Methods: The study enrolled 102 participants including 64 patients with respiratory allergies (among them 15 were clinically diagnosed as asthma patients, 41 with rhinitis, 8 were both and 38 healthy controls. All of participants were subject of skin prick tests (SPT with series of common allergenic extracts. Sera from all participants were tested for total IgE and eosinophil count. To measure airflow limitation and reversibility in asthma patients the pulmonary function testing were carried out.Results: M/F ratio was 1:1.6 in patients and 1:0.7 in control group with mean age 28.88 year (SD 13.16; range 6 – 55year and 20.47 respectively (SD 1.16; range 19-23 year. The most common risk factors in these patients were total IgE more than 100 IU/ml, eosinophils above 4% and positive family history of atopy. Skin prick testing results showed prevalence rates for allergen groups in this manner: house dust mites 81.3 %, pollens 57.8 %, animal dandruff12.5% and moulds 4.9%. Polysensitization was common in 51.6% of all sensitized patients being positive to more than one group of allergens.Conclusion: House dust mites are the main sensitizing allergens among our allergic patients as well as healthy controls. Next in importance, in all participants, are grasses. This pattern of prevalence was expected based on herbal geography, climate and specially lifestyle. It was also compatible with the results from studies carried out in places with the same habitat.

  7. Intense pain influences the cortical processing of visual stimuli projected onto the sensitized skin (United States)

    Torta, DM; Van Den Broeke, EN; Filbrich, L; Jacob, B; Lambert, J; Mouraux, A


    Sensitization is a form of implicit learning produced by the exposure to a harmful stimulus. In humans and other mammals, sensitization following skin injury increases the responsiveness of peripheral nociceptors, and enhances the synaptic transmission of nociceptive input in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we show that sensitization-related changes in the CNS are not restricted to nociceptive pathways and, instead, also affect other sensory modalities, especially if that modality conveys information relevant for the sensitized body part. Specifically, we show that after sensitizing the forearm using high-frequency electrical stimulation of the skin (HFS), visual stimuli projected onto the sensitized forearm elicit significantly enhanced brain responses. Whereas mechanical hyperalgesia was present both 20 and 45 minutes after HFS, the enhanced responsiveness to visual stimuli was present only 20 minutes after HFS. Taken together, our results indicate that sensitization involves both nociceptive-specific and multimodal mechanisms, having distinct time courses. PMID:28030473

  8. Skin exposure promotes a Th2 - dependent sensitization to peanut allergens (United States)

    Sensitization to foods often occurs in infancy without known prior oral exposure, which suggests that alternative routes of exposure contribute to food allergy. We hypothesized that peanut activates innate immune pathways in the skin that promote sensitization. We tested this hypothesis by topical...

  9. Prediction of skin sensitizers using alternative methods to animal experimentation. (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin


    Regulatory frameworks within the European Union demand that chemical substances are investigated for their ability to induce sensitization, an adverse health effect caused by the human immune system in response to chemical exposure. A recent ban on the use of animal tests within the cosmetics industry has led to an urgent need for alternative animal-free test methods that can be used for assessment of chemical sensitizers. To date, no such alternative assay has yet completed formal validation. However, a number of assays are in development and the understanding of the biological mechanisms of chemical sensitization has greatly increased during the last decade. In this MiniReview, we aim to summarize and give our view on the recent progress of method development for alternative assessment of chemical sensitizers. We propose that integrated testing strategies should comprise complementary assays, providing measurements of a wide range of mechanistic events, to perform well-educated risk assessments based on weight of evidence.

  10. Low sensitivity of type VII collagen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita : serration pattern analysis on skin biopsy is required for diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, J. B.; Jonkman, M. F.; Diercks, G. F. H.; Pas, H. H.


    BackgroundThe type VII collagen (coll VII) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been reported to have high sensitivity (>93%) and specificity (>96%) for diagnosing epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) in patients who are seropositive on indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin (SSS).

  11. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G


    the clinical relevance of positive skin prick test reactions against inhalant allergens considering the predominating type of symptoms in a pan-European population of patients presenting with suspected allergic disease. METHODS: Clinical relevance of skin prick tests was recorded with regard to patient history...... the clinical relevance of positive skin prick tests and calls for further studies, which may, ultimately, help increase the positive predictive value of allergy testing.......BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance...

  12. Selective skin sensitivity changes and sensory reweighting following short-duration space flight. (United States)

    Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R


    Skin sensory input from the foot soles is coupled with vestibular input to facilitate body orientation in a gravitational environment. Anecdotal observations suggest that foot sole skin becomes hypersensitive following space flight. The veritable level of skin sensitivity and its impact on postural disequilibrium observed post space flight have not been documented. Skin sensitivity of astronauts (n = 11) was measured as vibration perception at the great toe, fifth metatarsal and heel. Frequencies targeted four classes of receptors: 3 and 25 Hz for slow-adapting (SA) receptors and 60 and 250 Hz for fast-adapting (FA) receptors. Data were collected pre- and post-space flight. We hypothesized that skin sensitivity would increase post-space flight and correlate to balance measures. Decreased skin sensitivity was found on landing day at 3 and 25 Hz on the great toe. Hypersensitivity was found for a subset of astronauts (n = 6) with significantly increased sensitivity to 250 Hz at the heel. This subset displayed a greater reduction in computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) equilibrium (EQ) scores (-54%) on landing vs. non-hypersensitive participants (-11%). Observed hyposensitivity of SA (pressure) receptors may indicate a strategy to reduce pressure input during periods of unloading. Hypersensitivity of FAs coupled with reduced EQ scores may reflect targeted sensory reweighting. Altered gravito-inertial environments reduce vestibular function in balance control which may trigger increased weighting of FAs (that signal foot contact, slips). Understanding modulations to skin sensitivity has translational implications for mitigating postural disequilibrium following space flight and for on-Earth preventative strategies for imbalance in older adults.

  13. Predicting chemically-induced skin reactions. Part I: QSAR models of skin sensitization and their application to identify potentially hazardous compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Vinicius M. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Muratov, Eugene [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry, A.V. Bogatsky Physical-Chemical Institute NAS of Ukraine, Odessa 65080 (Ukraine); Fourches, Denis [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Strickland, Judy; Kleinstreuer, Nicole [ILS/Contractor Supporting the NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM), P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Andrade, Carolina H. [Laboratory of Molecular Modeling and Design, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO 74605-220 (Brazil); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: [Laboratory for Molecular Modeling, Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)


    Repetitive exposure to a chemical agent can induce an immune reaction in inherently susceptible individuals that leads to skin sensitization. Although many chemicals have been reported as skin sensitizers, there have been very few rigorously validated QSAR models with defined applicability domains (AD) that were developed using a large group of chemically diverse compounds. In this study, we have aimed to compile, curate, and integrate the largest publicly available dataset related to chemically-induced skin sensitization, use this data to generate rigorously validated and QSAR models for skin sensitization, and employ these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying putative sensitizers among environmental chemicals. We followed best practices for model building and validation implemented with our predictive QSAR workflow using Random Forest modeling technique in combination with SiRMS and Dragon descriptors. The Correct Classification Rate (CCR) for QSAR models discriminating sensitizers from non-sensitizers was 71–88% when evaluated on several external validation sets, within a broad AD, with positive (for sensitizers) and negative (for non-sensitizers) predicted rates of 85% and 79% respectively. When compared to the skin sensitization module included in the OECD QSAR Toolbox as well as to the skin sensitization model in publicly available VEGA software, our models showed a significantly higher prediction accuracy for the same sets of external compounds as evaluated by Positive Predicted Rate, Negative Predicted Rate, and CCR. These models were applied to identify putative chemical hazards in the Scorecard database of possible skin or sense organ toxicants as primary candidates for experimental validation. - Highlights: • It was compiled the largest publicly-available skin sensitization dataset. • Predictive QSAR models were developed for skin sensitization. • Developed models have higher prediction accuracy than OECD QSAR Toolbox. • Putative

  14. A magneto-sensitive skin for robots in space (United States)

    Chauhan, D. S.; Dehoff, P. H.


    The development of a robot arm proximity sensing skin that can sense intruding objects is described. The purpose of the sensor would be to prevent the robot from colliding with objects in space including human beings. Eventually a tri-mode system in envisioned including proximity, tactile, and thermal. To date the primary emphasis was on the proximity sensor which evolved from one based on magneto-inductive principles to the current design which is based on a capacitive-reflector system. The capacitive sensing element, backed by a reflector driven at the same voltage and in phase with the sensor, is used to reflect field lines away from the grounded robot toward the intruding object. This results in an increased sensing range of up to 12 in. with the reflector on compared with only 1 in. with it off. It is believed that this design advances the state-of-the-art in capacitive sensor performance.

  15. Three-dimensional conformal graphene microstructure for flexible and highly sensitive electronic skin (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ran, Qincui; Wei, Dapeng; Sun, Tai; Yu, Leyong; Song, Xuefen; Pu, Lichun; Shi, Haofei; Du, Chunlei


    We demonstrate a highly stretchable electronic skin (E-skin) based on the facile combination of microstructured graphene nanowalls (GNWs) and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. The microstructure of the GNWs was endowed by conformally growing them on the unpolished silicon wafer without the aid of nanofabrication technology. Then a stamping transfer method was used to replicate the micropattern of the unpolished silicon wafer. Due to the large contact interface between the 3D graphene network and the PDMS, this type of E-skin worked under a stretching ratio of nearly 100%, and showed excellent mechanical strength and high sensitivity, with a change in relative resistance of up to 6500% and a gauge factor of 65.9 at 99.64% strain. Furthermore, the E-skin exhibited an obvious highly sensitive response to joint movement, eye movement and sound vibration, demonstrating broad potential applications in healthcare, body monitoring and wearable devices.

  16. Sensitivity to a Frequency-Dependent Circular Polarization in an Isotropic Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Tristan L


    We calculate the sensitivity to a circular polarization of an isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background (ISGWB) as a function of frequency for ground- and space-based interferometers and observations of the cosmic microwave background. The origin of a circularly polarized ISGWB may be due to exotic primordial physics (i.e., parity violation in the early universe) and may be strongly frequency dependent. We present calculations within a coherent framework which clarifies the basic requirements for sensitivity to circular polarization, in distinction from previous work which focused on each of these techniques separately. We find that the addition of an interferometer with the sensitivity of the Einstein Telescope in the southern hemisphere improves the sensitivity of the ground-based network to circular polarization by about a factor of two. The sensitivity curves presented in this paper make clear that the wide range in frequencies of current and planned observations ($10^{-18}\\ {\\rm Hz} \\lesssim f \\...

  17. Carbon dioxide instantly sensitizes female yellow fever mosquitoes to human skin odours. (United States)

    Dekker, Teun; Geier, Martin; Cardé, Ring T


    Female mosquitoes are noted for their ability to use odours to locate a host for a blood meal. Two sensory organs contribute to their sense of smell: the maxillary palps, which measure the level of CO2, and the antennae, which detect other host-released odours. To establish the relative importance and interactions of CO2 and other body emissions in freely flying mosquitoes, we presented female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti L. with broad plumes of human skin odour and CO2 at natural concentrations and dilutions thereof in a wind tunnel. 3-D video-recorded flight tracks were reconstructed. Activation, flight velocity, upwind turning and source finding waned quickly as skin odours were diluted, whereas in the presence of CO2 these parameters remained unchanged over more than a 100-fold dilution from exhaled concentrations. Although mosquitoes were behaviourally less sensitive to skin odours than to CO2, their sensitivity to skin odours increased transiently by at least fivefold immediately following a brief encounter with a filament of CO2. This sensitization was reflected in flight velocity, track angle, turning rate upon entering and exiting the broad odour plume and, ultimately, in the source-finding rate. In Ae. aegypti, CO2 thus functions as a ;releaser' for a higher sensitivity and responsiveness to skin odours. The initially low responsiveness of mosquitoes to skin odours, their high sensitivity to CO2, and the sensitization of the olfactory circuitry by CO2 are ecologically relevant, because rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels reliably signal a potential host. Possible mechanisms of the instantaneous sensitization are considered.

  18. Skin Cancer Risk in Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplant Recipients Compared With Background Population and Renal Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Gniadecki, Robert; Hædersdal, Merete


    IMPORTANCE: While a high risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer is well recognized in solid-organ transplant recipients, the risk of skin cancer in hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) recipients has not been extensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of cutaneous cancer in HSCT recipients...... and compare it with the risk in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) and individuals who have not received any transplant. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A nationwide population-based cohort study from the Danish National Hospital Register including 3302 patients who underwent HSCT (1007 allogeneic, 2295...... cancer between transplant recipients and background population, we used a stratified proportional hazard regression model for hazard ratio (HR) estimations. By use of the cumulative incidence, we estimated 5- and 10-year risks of skin cancers. All RTR and HSCT recipients were treated and followed up...

  19. The pilosebaceous unit—a phthalate-induced pathway to skin sensitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsson, Carl, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Stenfeldt, Anna-Lena; Karlberg, Ann-Therese [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ericson, Marica B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jonsson, Charlotte A.M. [Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Gothenburg (Sweden)


    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is caused by low-molecular weight compounds called haptens. It has been shown that the potency of haptens can depend on the formulation in which they are applied on the skin. Specifically the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates, a group of haptens which can be released from e.g. adhesive tapes and neoprene materials, increases with the presence of phthalates; however, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. A better understanding of the mechanisms governing the potency of haptens is important, e.g. to improve the risk assessment and the formulation of chemicals in consumer products. In this study we have explored phthalate-induced effects on the sensitization potency, skin distribution, and reactivity of fluorescent model isothiocyanate haptens using non-invasive two-photon microscopy to provide new insights regarding vehicle effects in ACD. The data presented in this paper indicate that the sensitization potency of isothiocyanates increases when applied in combination with dibutylphthalate due to a specific uptake via the pilosebaceous units. The results highlight the importance of shunt pathways when evaluating the bioavailability of skin sensitizers. The findings also indicate that vehicle-dependent hapten reactivity towards stratum corneum proteins regulates the bioavailability, and thus the potency, of skin sensitizers. -- Highlights: ► Vehicle effects on sensitization potency were investigated in the LLNA. ► In vivo cutaneous absorption of contact sensitizers was visualized using TPM. ► Sensitizing potency of isothiocyanates depends on the presence of a phthalate. ► Phthalate induced cutaneous absorption via the pilosebaceous units. ► Vehicle-dependent reactivity regulates sensitization potency.

  20. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability. (United States)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong


    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa(-1)) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.


    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in MiceJie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2 and Curtis D. Klaassen1 ABSTRACTParenteral administrati...

  2. An Animal Model of Trichloroethylene-Induced Skin Sensitization in BALB/c Mice. (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jia-xiang; Li, Shu-long; Wang, Feng; Zha, Wan-sheng; Shen, Tong; Wu, Changhao; Zhu, Qi-xing


    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a major occupational hazard and environmental contaminant that can cause multisystem disorders in the form of occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis. Development of dermatitis involves several proinflammatory cytokines, but their role in TCE-mediated dermatitis has not been examined in a well-defined experimental model. In addition, few animal models of TCE sensitization are available, and the current guinea pig model has apparent limitations. This study aimed to establish a model of TCE-induced skin sensitization in BALB/c mice and to examine the role of several key inflammatory cytokines on TCE sensitization. The sensitization rate of dorsal painted group was 38.3%. Skin edema and erythema occurred in TCE-sensitized groups, as seen in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) positive control. Trichloroethylene sensitization-positive (dermatitis [+]) group exhibited increased thickness of epidermis, inflammatory cell infiltration, swelling, and necrosis in dermis and around hair follicle, but ear painted group did not show these histological changes. The concentrations of serum proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-2 were significantly increased in 24, 48, and 72 hours dermatitis [+] groups treated with TCE and peaked at 72 hours. Deposition of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 into the skin tissue was also revealed by immunohistochemistry. We have established a new animal model of skin sensitization induced by repeated TCE stimulations, and we provide the first evidence that key proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-2 play an important role in the process of TCE sensitization.

  3. Mechanisms of carcinogenesis in human skin against the background of papillomavirus infection. (United States)

    Reva, I V; Reva, G V; Yamamoto, T; Tolmachyov, V E


    The cells in the skin tumor developing under conditions of persisting papillomavirus infection are morphologically identical to blast cells in a blood smear from a leukemia patient. The cells filling the lesion focus are morphologically and immunohistochemically related to blood stem cells. A mechanism of epithelial layer modification under conditions of papillomavirus infection leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. The dynamics of structural changes in the skin is characterized by disturbed interactions between the epithelium and adjacent connective tissue, destruction of the basal membrane, disorders in the cambial keratinocyte differentiation, and absence of the spinous and granular layers. We conclude that detection of blast leukocytes in the human skin lesion can be explained by disorders in the cell-cell interactions in the epithelium-mesenchymal tissue system. High proliferative activity followed by death of cambial keratinocytes, migration of effector antigen-presenting CD68 cells to the adjacent connective tissue are the factors inducing migration of blast leukocytic forms to the focus. Not only keratinocyte restitution capacity, but also epithelium-dependent differentiation of young leukocytes disappeared. Undifferentiated cells are migrated from the blood to the epithelium alteration zone, but not in the reverse direction. The insufficiency or the absence of blood blast cell differentiation of the in the focus of epidermal injury and adjacent tissue triggers carcinogenesis. The authors suggest their model of carcinogenesis. The conclusions offer a new concept of cancer pathogenesis and suggest a new strategy in the search for methods for early diagnosis of carcinogenesis.

  4. What happens after the activation of ascaridole? Reactive compounds and their implications for skin sensitization (United States)

    To replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. Along with induction of Nrf2 target gene and upregulation of CD86 and C54 markers, the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agen...

  5. In silico risk assessment for skin sensitization using artificial neural network analysis. (United States)

    Tsujita-Inoue, Kyoko; Atobe, Tomomi; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Kouzuki, Hirokazu


    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is usually identified and characterized using in vivo methods such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Due to regulatory constraints and ethical concerns, alternatives to animal testing are needed to predict the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. For this purpose, an integrated evaluation system employing multiple in vitro and in silico parameters that reflect different aspects of the sensitization process seems promising. We previously reported that LLNA thresholds could be well predicted by using an artificial neural network (ANN) model, designated iSENS ver. 2 (integrating in vitro sensitization tests version 2), to analyze data obtained from in vitro tests focused on different aspects of skin sensitization. Here, we examined whether LLNA thresholds could be predicted by ANN using in silico-calculated descriptors of the three-dimensional structures of chemicals. We obtained a good correlation between predicted LLNA thresholds and reported values. Furthermore, combining the results of the in vitro (iSENS ver. 2) and in silico models reduced the number of chemicals for which the potency category was under-estimated. In conclusion, the ANN model using in silico parameters was shown to be have useful predictive performance. Further, our results indicate that the combination of this model with a predictive model using in vitro data represents a promising approach for integrated risk assessment of skin sensitization potential of chemicals.

  6. Experimental study of variations in background radiation and the effect on Nuclear Car Wash sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, J; Slaughter, D; Norman, E; Asztalos, S; Biltoft, P


    Error rates in a cargo screening system such as the Nuclear Car Wash [1-7] depend on the standard deviation of the background radiation count rate. Because the Nuclear Car Wash is an active interrogation technique, the radiation signal for fissile material must be detected above a background count rate consisting of cosmic, ambient, and neutron-activated radiations. It was suggested previously [1,6] that the Corresponding negative repercussions for the sensitivity of the system were shown. Therefore, to assure the most accurate estimation of the variation, experiments have been performed to quantify components of the actual variance in the background count rate, including variations in generator power, irradiation time, and container contents. The background variance is determined by these experiments to be a factor of 2 smaller than values assumed in previous analyses, resulting in substantially improved projections of system performance for the Nuclear Car Wash.

  7. Evolutionary concepts in ecotoxicology: tracing the genetic background of differential cadmium sensitivities in invertebrate lineages. (United States)

    Dallinger, Reinhard; Höckner, Martina


    In many toxicological and ecotoxicological studies and experimental setups, the investigator is mainly interested in traditional parameters such as toxicity data and effects of toxicants on molecular, cellular or physiological functions of individuals, species or statistical populations. It is clear, however, that such approaches focus on the phenotype level of animal species, whilst the genetic and evolutionary background of reactions to environmental toxicants may remain untold. In ecotoxicological risk assessment, moreover, species sensitivities towards pollutants are often regarded as random variables in a statistical approach. Beyond statistics, however, toxicant sensitivity of every species assumes a biological significance, especially if we consider that sensitivity traits have developed in lineages of species with common evolutionary roots. In this article, the genetic and evolutionary background of differential Cd sensitivities among invertebrate populations and species and their potential of adaptation to environmental Cd exposure will be highlighted. Important evolutionary and population genetic concepts such as genome structure and their importance for evolutionary adaptation, population structure of affected individuals, as well as micro and macroevolutionary mechanisms of Cd resistance in invertebrate lineages will be stressed by discussing examples of work from our own laboratory along with a review of relevant literature data and a brief discussion of open questions along with some perspectives for further research. Both, differences and similarities in Cd sensitivity traits of related invertebrate species can only be understood if we consider the underlying evolutionary processes and genetic (or epigenetic) mechanisms. Keeping in mind this perception can help us to better understand and interpret more precisely why the sensitivity of some species or species groups towards a certain toxicant (or metal) may be ranked in the lower or higher range of

  8. Polyvalent type IV sensitizations to multiple fragrances and a skin protection cream in a metal worker. (United States)

    Tanko, Zita; Shab, Arna; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Weisshaar, Elke


    Fragrances are very common in everyday products. A metalworker with chronic hand eczema and previously diagnosed type IV sensitizations to epoxy resin, balsam of Peru, fragrance mix and fragrance mix II was diagnosed with additional type IV sensitizations to geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, lilial, tree moss, oak moss absolute, citral, citronellol, farnesol, Lyral, fragrance mix II and fragrance mix (with sorbitan sesquioleate). In addition, a type IV sensitization to the skin protection cream containing geraniol and citronellol used at the workplace was detected, and deemed occupationally relevant in this case. The patient could have had contact to fragrances through private use of cosmetics and detergents. On the other hand, the fragrance-containing skin protection cream supports occupational exposure. This case report demonstrates that fragrance contact allergy has to be searched for and clarified individually, which requires a thorough history and a detailed analysis of the work place.

  9. Development of an underground low background instrument for high sensitivity measurements (United States)

    Sala, E.; Hahn, I. S.; Kang, W. G.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, M. H.; Leonard, D. S.; Park, Su Yeon


    The Center for Underground Physics has developed in collaboration with CANBERRA a low background instrument composed of 14 HPGe detectors divided in two arrays facing each other. The performance and the background of a single detector of the array have been studied in order to improve the array final configuration. An accurate material selection, through the measurements of building material samples and Monte Carlo simulations based on Geant4, has been performed to reach the lowest possible intrinsic background. Alternative materials and configurations have been considered for the final design of the array simulating the expected intrinsic background of the instrument considering the needed changes. The expected sensitivity of the improved array configuration, concerning the low background material selection for rare events physics experiments, has been evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations considering 232Th concentration in a Copper sample. Since the array can also be used for rare decays searches, the expected sensitivity on the 156Dy resonant double electron capture has thus been calculated.

  10. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj;


    Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-sensitized persons with positive skin prick test, but no allergy symptoms, are classified as being asymptomatic skin sensitized (AS). The allergic type 1 disease is dependant on IgE binding to the high affinity IgE-receptor (FcepsilonRI) expressed on basophils and mast cells...

  11. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.


    Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion.......Asymptomatic skin sensitization (AS) is a risk factor for the development of allergic symptoms. A meticulous definition of this condition requires a systematic assessment of clinical symptoms before inclusion....

  12. Cooling-sensitive TRPM8 is thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Tajino

    Full Text Available We have shown that cutaneous cooling-sensitive receptors can work as thermostats of skin temperature against cooling. However, molecule of the thermostat is not known. Here, we studied whether cooling-sensitive TRPM8 channels act as thermostats. TRPM8 in HEK293 cells generated output (y when temperature (T was below threshold of 28.4°C. Output (y is given by two equations: At T >28.4°C, y = 0; At T <28.4°C, y  =  -k(T - 28.4°C. These equations show that TRPM8 is directional comparator to elicits output (y depending on negative value of thermal difference (ΔT  =  T - 28.4°C. If negative ΔT-dependent output of TRPM8 in the skin induces responses to warm the skin for minimizing ΔT recursively, TRPM8 acts as thermostats against cooling. With TRPM8-deficient mice, we explored whether TRPM8 induces responses to warm the skin against cooling. In behavioral regulation, when room temperature was 10°C, TRPM8 induced behavior to move to heated floor (35°C for warming the sole skin. In autonomic regulation, TRPM8 induced activities of thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT against cooling. When menthol was applied to the whole trunk skin at neutral room temperature (27°C, TRPM8 induced a rise in core temperature, which warmed the trunk skin slightly. In contrast, when room was cooled from 27 to 10°C, TRPM8 induced a small rise in core temperature, but skin temperature was severely reduced in both TRPM8-deficient and wild-type mice by a large heat leak to the surroundings. This shows that TRPM8-driven endothermic system is less effective for maintenance of skin temperature against cooling. In conclusion, we found that TRPM8 is molecule of thermostat of skin temperature against cooling.

  13. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad R


    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  14. Evaluation of in silico tools to predict the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. (United States)

    Verheyen, G R; Braeken, E; Van Deun, K; Van Miert, S


    Public domain and commercial in silico tools were compared for their performance in predicting the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. The packages were either statistical based (Vega, CASE Ultra) or rule based (OECD Toolbox, Toxtree, Derek Nexus). In practice, several of these in silico tools are used in gap filling and read-across, but here their use was limited to make predictions based on presence/absence of structural features associated to sensitization. The top 400 ranking substances of the ATSDR 2011 Priority List of Hazardous Substances were selected as a starting point. Experimental information was identified for 160 chemically diverse substances (82 positive and 78 negative). The prediction for skin sensitization potential was compared with the experimental data. Rule-based tools perform slightly better, with accuracies ranging from 0.6 (OECD Toolbox) to 0.78 (Derek Nexus), compared with statistical tools that had accuracies ranging from 0.48 (Vega) to 0.73 (CASE Ultra - LLNA weak model). Combining models increased the performance, with positive and negative predictive values up to 80% and 84%, respectively. However, the number of substances that were predicted positive or negative for skin sensitization in both models was low. Adding more substances to the dataset will increase the confidence in the conclusions reached. The insights obtained in this evaluation are incorporated in a web database that provides a potential end user context for the scope and performance of different in silico tools with respect to a common dataset of curated skin sensitization data.

  15. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrekt Ann-Sofie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests.

  16. Phenolic Contents and Compositions in Skins of Red Wine Grape Cultivars among Various Genetic Backgrounds and Originations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu


    Full Text Available In order to analyze and compare the phenolic characteristics of red wine grapes with diverse genetic backgrounds, skin phenolics among 21 different cultivars belonging to Vitis vinifera L., East Asian and North American Vitis species and hybrids, as well as 2 varieties of muscadine grapes were estimated by HPLC-MS/MS. There were 45 anthocyanins, 28 flavonols, 8 flavan-3-ols, 9 cinnamic acids, 5 benzoic acids, 5 ellagic acids and 2 stilbenes detected in all the samples. Total contents of each phenolic type varied significantly among the different grape cultivars investigated. There was also a large variability in the phenolic compositions of different grape groups. The differences in anthocyanin composition were obvious between V. vinifera and non-V. vinifera grapes and also between the grapes originating from Eurasia and North America. Quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-glucoside were marker flavonol compounds for Euvitis grape skins. Flavan-3-ol monomers were dominant in the skins of muscadine and non-V. amurensis East Asian grapes, whereas polymers were more common in V. vinifera and North American grapes. The muscadine grapes were very rich in flavonols, flavan-3-ols and ellagic acids. Via principal component analysis, these grape cultivars were clustered into three groups according to their characteristic phenolic content and composition.

  17. A nanofiber based artificial electronic skin with high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability (United States)

    Zhong, Weibin; Liu, Qiongzhen; Wu, Yongzhi; Wang, Yuedan; Qing, Xing; Li, Mufang; Liu, Ke; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Dong


    Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The protuberances composed of intertwined elastic POE nanofibers and PPy@PVA-co-PE nanofibers afford a tunable effective elastic modulus that is capable of capturing varied strains and stresses, thereby contributing to a high sensitivity for pressure sensing. This electronic skin-like sensor demonstrates an ultra-high sensitivity (1.24 kPa-1) below 150 Pa with a detection limit as low as about 1.3 Pa. The pixelated sensor array and a RGB-LED light are then assembled into a circuit and show a feasibility for visual detection of spatial pressure. Furthermore, a nanofiber based proof-of-concept wireless pressure sensor with a bluetooth module as a signal transmitter is proposed and has demonstrated great promise for wireless monitoring of human physiological signals, indicating a potential for large scale wearable electronic devices or e-skin.Pressure sensors with 3D conformability are highly desirable components for artificial electronic skin or e-textiles that can mimic natural skin, especially for application in real-time monitoring of human physiological signals. Here, a nanofiber based electronic skin with ultra-high pressure sensitivity and 3D conformability is designed and built by interlocking two elastic patterned nanofibrous membranes. The patterned membrane is facilely prepared by casting conductive nanofiber ink into a silicon mould to form an array of semi-spheroid-like protuberances. The

  18. Laser-interferometric Detectors for Gravitational Wave Background at 100 MHz : Detector Design and Sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Akutsu, Tomotada; Arai, Koji; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Nishida, Erina; Sakagami, Masa-aki; Chiba, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Sugiyama, Naoshi


    Recently, observational searches for gravitational wave background (GWB) have developed and given direct and indirect constraints on the energy density of GWB in a broad range of frequencies. These constraints have already rejected some theoretical models of large GWB spectra. However, at 100 MHz, there is no strict upper limit from direct observation, though the indirect limit by He4 abundance due to big-bang nucleosynthesis exists. In this paper, we propose an experiment with laser interferometers searching GWB at 100 MHz. We considered three detector designs and evaluated the GW response functions of a single detector. As a result, we found that, at 100 MHz, the most sensitive detector is the design, a so-called synchronous recycling interferometer, which has better sensitivity than an ordinary Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer by a factor of 3.3 at 100 MHz. We also give the best sensitivity achievable at 100 MHz with realistic experimental parameters.

  19. A histamine release assay to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses with skin hypersensitivity. (United States)

    Wagner, Bettina; Childs, Bronwen A; Erb, Hollis N


    Skin hypersensitivity is an allergic disease induced in horses by allergens of Culicoides midges. The condition is typically diagnosed by clinical signs and in some horses in combination with allergy testing such as intradermal skin testing or serological allergen-specific IgE determination. Here, we describe an alternative method for allergy testing: a histamine release assay (HRA) that combines the functional aspects of skin testing with the convenience of submitting a blood sample. The assay is based on the principle that crosslinking of allergen-specific IgE bound via high-affinity IgE receptors to the surfaces of mast cells and basophils induces the release of inflammatory mediators. One of these mediators is histamine. The histamine was then detected by a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The histamine assay was used to test 33 horses with skin hypersensitivity and 20 clinically healthy control animals for histamine release from their peripheral blood basophils after stimulation with Culicoides allergen extract or monoclonal anti-IgE antibody. An increased histamine release was observed in the horses with skin hypersensitivity compared to the control group after allergen-specific stimulation with Culicoides extract (p=0.023). In contrast, stimulation with anti-IgE induced similar amounts of released histamine in both groups (p=0.46). For further evaluation of the HRA, we prepared a receiver operating-characteristic (ROC) curve and performed a likelihood-ratio analysis for assay interpretation. Our results suggested that the assay is a valuable diagnostic tool to identify sensitization to Culicoides allergens in horses. Because some of the clinically healthy horses also showed sensitization to Culicoides extract, the assay cannot be used to distinguish allergic from non-allergic animals. The observation that sensitization is sometimes detectable in non-affected animals suggested that clinically healthy horses use immune mechanisms to control the

  20. Differential modulation of CXCR4 and CD40 protein levels by skin sensitizers and irritants in the FSDC cell line


    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Francisco, Vera; Gonçalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Américo; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, Maria Celeste


    The development of non-animal methods for skin sensitization testing is an urgent challenge. Some of the most promising in vitro approaches are based on the analysis of phenotypical and functional modifications induced by sensitizers in dendritic cell models. In this work, we evaluated, for the first time, a fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line (FSDC) as a model to discriminate between sensitizers and irritants, through analysis of their effects on CD40 and CXCR4 protein expression. The che...

  1. A theoretical justification for the study of skin sensitivity in patients with bell's palsy


    Cárdenas Palacios, Carlos Andrés; Universidad de la Sabana-Bogotá,Colombia


    The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of conducting studies to estimate the level of association between measures of skin sensitivity, facial region, facial paralysis level, and time of evolution, in patients with Bells palsy; the above stems from the theoretical review of various studies that have found differences in measures of pressure threshold, two-point discrimination and appreciation of the vibration between different facial regions, both in patients with this kind...

  2. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring (United States)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan


    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa-1, a fast response time of 15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  3. Large-area semi-transparent light-sensitive nanocrystal skins. (United States)

    Akhavan, Shahab; Guzelturk, Burak; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Demir, Hilmi Volkan


    We report a large-area, semi-transparent, light-sensitive nanocrystal skin (LS-NS) platform consisting of single monolayer colloidal nanocrystals. LS-NS devices, which were fabricated over areas up to 48 cm(2) using spray-coating and several cm-squares using dip-coating, are operated on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, unlike the conventional charge collection. Implementing proof-of-concept devices using CdTe nanocrystals with ligand removal, we observed a substantial sensitivity enhancement factor of ~73%, accompanied with a 3-fold faster response time (smart buildings.

  4. A Polarization Sensitive Bolometric Detector for Observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, W C; Bock, J J; Lange, A E


    We have developed a bolometric detector that is intrinsically sensitive to linear polarization which is optimized for making measurements of the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The receiver consists of a pair of co-located silicon nitride micromesh absorbers which couple anisotropically to linearly polarized radiation through a corrugated waveguide structure. This system allows simultaneous background limited measurements of the Stokes I and Q parameters over ~ 30% bandwidths at frequencies from ~ 60 to 600 GHz. Since both linear polarizations traverse identical optical paths from the sky to the point of detection, the susceptibility to systematic effects is minimized. The amount of uncorrelated noise between the two polarization senses is limited to the quantum limit of thermal and photon shot noise, while drifts in the relative responsivity to orthogonal polarizations are limited to the effect of non-uniformity in the thin film deposition of the leads and the intrinsic thermistor ...

  5. Confidence limits with multiple channels and arbitrary probability distributions for sensitivity and expected background

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, A


    A MC method is proposed to compute upper limits, in a pure Bayesian approach, when the errors associated with the experimental sensitivity and expected background content are not Gaussian distributed or not small enough to apply usual approximations. It is relatively easy to extend the procedure to the multichannel case (for instance when different decay branching, luminosities or experiments have to be combined). Some of the searches for supersymmetric particles performed in the DELPHI experiment at the LEP electron- positron collider use such a procedure to propagate systematics into the calculation of cross-section upper limits. One of these searches is described as an example. (6 refs).

  6. Food Sensitivity in Children with Acute Urticaria in Skin Prick Test: Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Eke Gungor


    Full Text Available Aim: Families of children with acute urticaria often think that there is food allergy in children with urticaria and insist for skin tests. In this study, it was aimed to determine whether skin prick tests are necessary in cases presented with acute urticaria, in whom other causes of acute urticaria are excluded. Material and Method: A test panel involving cow milk, egg white, wheat, hazelnut, peanut, soybean, walnut, sesame, and tuna fish antigens was applied to the children presented with acute urticaria between 1 August 2013 and 1 August 2014, in whom other causes of acute urticaria were excluded and suspected food allergy was reported by parents. Results: Overall, 574 children aged 1-14 years were included to the study. Of the patients, sensitization against at least one food antigen was detected in 22.3% (128/574 of the patients. This rate was found to be 31.9% among those younger than 3 years, while 19.3% in those older than 3 years. Overall, sensitization rates against food allergen in panel were as follows: egg white, 7.3%; wheat, 3.3%; cow milk, 2.7%,; sesame, 2.8%; hazelnut, 2.4%; soybean, 2.3%; peanut, 1.9%, walnut, 1.6%; tuna fish, 1.6%. In general, the history of patients wasn%u2019t compatible with food sensitization detected. Discussion: Sensitization to food allergens is infrequent in children presented with acute urticaria, particularly among those older than 3 years despite expressions of parent and skin prick tests seems to be unnecessary unless strongly suggestive history is present.

  7. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  8. Overview of the status of predictive computer models for skin sensitization (JRC Expert meeting on pre- and pro-haptens ) (United States)

    No abstract was prepared or requested. This is a short presentation aiming to present a status of what in silico models and approaches exists in the prediction of skin sensitization potential and/or potency.

  9. Quantitative study of stratum corneum ceramides contents in patients with sensitive skin. (United States)

    Cho, Hee Jin; Chung, Bo Young; Lee, Hee Bong; Kim, Hye One; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon


    People with sensitive skin (SS) are those who state their skin is more sensitive than that of average persons. The stratum corneum is responsible for maintaining skin barrier function. Ceramides, major constituents of stratum corneum lipids, have been shown to predominantly contribute to the role. It has been suggested that barrier function in SS is decreased. However, we could find very few reports about stratum corneum ceramides in SS. This study was done to find out differences in stratum corneum ceramides between SS and non-SS groups. Fifty individuals (20 with SS and 30 with non-SS) were recruited. Lactic acid sting test (LAST) was performed on the left cheek. On six sites including the right cheek, arm, thigh, leg, back and palm, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema index (EI) were measured. On the above six sites, stratum corneum sheets were obtained by stripping with cyanoacrylate resin and stratum corneum lipids were extracted, then, analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. LAST scores were higher in the SS group, but not statistically significant. There were no differences in TEWL and EI values between the two groups. The mean value of the quantity of stratum corneum ceramides on the face was significantly lower in the SS group. On other sites, mean values were also lower in the SS group, but not statistically significant. The quantity of ceramides was significantly decreased in the face of the SS group compared to that of the non-SS group. These results suggest that the decrease in stratum corneum ceramides on facial skin could be related to SS development.

  10. Assessment of Chemical Skin-Sensitizing Potency by an In Vitro Assay Based on Human Dendritic Cells


    Lambrechts, Nathalie; Vanheel, Hanne; Nelissen, Inge; Witters, Hilda; VAN DEN HEUVEL Rosette; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Schoeters, Greet; HOOYBERGHS, Jef


    The skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals is an important concern for public health and thus a significant end point in the hazard identification process. To determine skin-sensitizing capacity, large research efforts focus on the development of assays, which do not require animals. As such, an in vitro test has previously been developed based on the differential expression of CREM and CCR2 transcripts in CD34(+) progenitor-derived dendritic cells (CD34-DC), which allows to classify chemica...

  11. Chemical reactivity and skin sensitization potential for benzaldehydes: can Schiff base formation explain everything? (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Gfeller, Hans; Haupt, Tina; Brunner, Gerhard


    Skin sensitizers chemically modify skin proteins rendering them immunogenic. Sensitizing chemicals have been divided into applicability domains according to their suspected reaction mechanism. The widely accepted Schiff base applicability domain covers aldehydes and ketones, and detailed structure-activity-modeling for this chemical group was presented. While Schiff base formation is the obvious reaction pathway for these chemicals, the in silico work was followed up by limited experimental work. It remains unclear whether hydrolytically labile Schiff bases can form sufficiently stable epitopes to trigger an immune response in the living organism with an excess of water being present. Here, we performed experimental studies on benzaldehydes of highly differing skin sensitization potential. Schiff base formation toward butylamine was evaluated in acetonitrile, and a detailed SAR study is presented. o-Hydroxybenzaldehydes such as salicylaldehyde and the oakmoss allergens atranol and chloratranol have a high propensity to form Schiff bases. The reactivity is highly reduced in p-hydroxy benzaldehydes such as the nonsensitizing vanillin with an intermediate reactivity for p-alkyl and p-methoxy-benzaldehydes. The work was followed up under more physiological conditions in the peptide reactivity assay with a lysine-containing heptapeptide. Under these conditions, Schiff base formation was only observable for the strong sensitizers atranol and chloratranol and for salicylaldehyde. Trapping experiments with NaBH₃CN showed that Schiff base formation occurred under these conditions also for some less sensitizing aldehydes, but the reaction is not favored in the absence of in situ reduction. Surprisingly, the Schiff bases of some weaker sensitizers apparently may react further to form stable peptide adducts. These were identified as the amides between the lysine residues and the corresponding acids. Adduct formation was paralleled by oxidative deamination of the parent

  12. Altered thermal sensitivity in facial skin in chronic whiplash-associated disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Birgitta Haggman-Henrikson; Ewa Lampa; Erik Nordh


    There is a close functional relationship between the jaw and neck regions and it has been suggested that trigeminal sensory impairment can follow whiplash injury. Inclusion of manageable routines for valid assessment of the facial sensory capacity is thus needed for comprehensive evaluations of patients exposed to such trauma. The present study investigated facial thermal thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WADs) with both a qualitative method and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Ten women with pain and dysfunction following a whiplash injury were compared to 10 healthy age-matched women. Thermal detection thresholds were assessed by qualitative chair-side testing and by QST according to the method-of-limits. Seven test sites in the facial skin (overlying each trigeminal branch bilaterally, and the midpoint of the chin) were examined. The detection warm and cold thresholds were defined as the mean values of 10 individual thresholds. For the WAD patients, the qualitative assessment demonstrated both reduced and increased sensitivity compared to the healthy, whereas QST systematically showed significantly higher detection thresholds (i.e., decreased sensitivity) for both cold and warm stimuli. For the individuals who were assessed as having increased sensitivity in the qualitative assessment, the QST displayed either normal or higher thresholds, i.e., decreased sensitivity. The results suggest that QST is more sensitive for detecting thermal sensory disturbances in the face than a qualitative method. The impaired thermal sensitivity among the patients corroborates the notion of altered thermal detection capacity induced by WAD-related pain.

  13. Niacin Skin Sensitivity Is Increased in Adolescents at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor E Berger

    Full Text Available Most studies provide evidence that the skin flush response to nicotinic acid (niacin stimulation is impaired in schizophrenia. However, only little is known about niacin sensitivity in the ultra-high risk (UHR phase of psychotic disorders.We compared visual ratings of niacin sensitivity between adolescents at UHR for psychosis according to the one year transition outcome (UHR-T n = 11; UHR-NT n = 55 with healthy controls (HC n = 25 and first episode schizophrenia patients (FEP n = 25 treated with atypical antipsychotics.Contrary to our hypothesis niacin sensitivity of the entire UHR group was not attenuated, but significantly increased compared to the HC group, whereas no difference could be found between the UHR-T and UHR-NT groups. As expected, niacin sensitivity of FEP was attenuated compared to HC group. In UHR individuals niacin sensitivity was inversely correlated with omega-6 and -9 fatty acids (FA, but positively correlated with phospholipase A2 (inPLA2 activity, a marker of membrane lipid repair/remodelling.Increased niacin sensitivity in UHR states likely indicates an impaired balance of eicosanoids and omega-6/-9 FA at a membrane level. Our findings suggest that the emergence of psychosis is associated with an increased mobilisation of eicosanoids prior to the transition to psychosis possibly reflecting a "pro-inflammatory state", whereas thereafter eicosanoid mobilisation seems to be attenuated. Potential treatment implications for the UHR state should be further investigated.

  14. Sensitivity of different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm to corticosteroid-induced skin blanching. (United States)

    Meyer, E; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M


    The intensity of corticosteroid-induced blanching has been found to vary at different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm. A retrospective analysis of 38,880 observations of skin blanching in 56 volunteers was conducted to assess the sensitivity of forearm skin to betamethasone 17-valerate. The mid-forearm appears to be more sensitive to the blanching response than do the areas close to the wrist or elbow. These results indicate that each preparation under evaluation should be applied to several sites along the forearm when using the human skin blanching assay in order to obtain an accurate comparative assessment of corticosteroid release from topical delivery vehicles.

  15. Development of an in vitro dendritic cell-based test for skin sensitizer identification. (United States)

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Rosa, Susana Carvalho; Martins, João Demétrio; Silva, Ana; Gonçalo, Margarida; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa


    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is currently assessed using animal models. However, ethical and economic concerns and the recent European legislative framework triggered intensive research efforts in the development and validation of alternative methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an in vitro predictive test based on the analysis and integration of gene expression and intracellular signaling profiles of chemical-exposed skin-derived dendritic cells. Cells were treated with four known sensitizers and two nonsensitizers, and the effects on the expression of 20 candidate genes and the activation of MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and NF-κB signaling pathways were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively. Genes Trxr1, Hmox1, Nqo1, and Cxcl10 and the p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways were identified as good predictor variables and used to construct a dichotomous classifier. For validation of the model, 12 new chemicals were then analyzed in a blind assay, and from these, 11 were correctly classified. Considering the total of 18 compounds tested here, 17 were correctly classified, representing a concordance of 94%, with a sensitivity of 92% (12 of 13 sensitizers identified) and a specificity of 100% (5 of 5 nonsensitizers identified). Additionally, we tested the ability of our model to discriminate sensitizers from nonallergenic but immunogenic compounds such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS was correctly classified as a nonsensitizer. Overall, our results indicate that the analysis of proposed gene and signaling pathway signatures in a mouse fetal skin-derived dendritic cell line represents a valuable model to be integrated in a future in vitro test platform.

  16. Reproducibility of the heat/capsaicin skin sensitization model in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallone LF


    Full Text Available Laura F Cavallone,1 Karen Frey,1 Michael C Montana,1 Jeremy Joyal,1 Karen J Regina,1 Karin L Petersen,2 Robert W Gereau IV11Department of Anesthesiology, Washington University in St Louis, School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA; 2California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, CA, USAIntroduction: Heat/capsaicin skin sensitization is a well-characterized human experimental model to induce hyperalgesia and allodynia. Using this model, gabapentin, among other drugs, was shown to significantly reduce cutaneous hyperalgesia compared to placebo. Since the larger thermal probes used in the original studies to produce heat sensitization are now commercially unavailable, we decided to assess whether previous findings could be replicated with a currently available smaller probe (heated area 9 cm2 versus 12.5–15.7 cm2.Study design and methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, 15 adult healthy volunteers participated in two study sessions, scheduled 1 week apart (Part A. In both sessions, subjects were exposed to the heat/capsaicin cutaneous sensitization model. Areas of hypersensitivity to brush stroke and von Frey (VF filament stimulation were measured at baseline and after rekindling of skin sensitization. Another group of 15 volunteers was exposed to an identical schedule and set of sensitization procedures, but, in each session, received either gabapentin or placebo (Part B.Results: Unlike previous reports, a similar reduction of areas of hyperalgesia was observed in all groups/sessions. Fading of areas of hyperalgesia over time was observed in Part A. In Part B, there was no difference in area reduction after gabapentin compared to placebo.Conclusion: When using smaller thermal probes than originally proposed, modifications of other parameters of sensitization and/or rekindling process may be needed to allow the heat/capsaicin sensitization protocol to be used as initially intended. Standardization and validation of

  17. Confidence Limits with Multiple Channels and Arbitrary Probability Distributions for Sensitivity and Expected Background (United States)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    A MC method is proposed to compute upper limits, in a pure Bayesian approach, when the errors associated to the experimental sensitivity and to the expected background content are not Gaussian distributed or not small enough to apply the usual approximations. It is relatively easy to extend the procedure to the multichannel case (for instance when different decay branchings, or luminosities or experiments have to be combined). Some of the searches for supersymmetric particles performed in the DELPHI experiment at the LEP electron-positron collider use such a procedure to propagate the systematics into the calculation of the cross-section upper limits. One of these searches will be described as an example.

  18. Scalable background-limited polarization-sensitive detectors for mm-wave applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rostem, Karwan; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe A; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A; Moseley, Samuel H; Stevenson, Thomas R; Towner, Deborah W; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J


    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  19. Scalable Background-Limited Polarization-Sensitive Detectors for mm-wave Applications (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Crowe, Erik; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Towner, Deborah W.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.


    We report on the status and development of polarization-sensitive detectors for millimeter-wave applications. The detectors are fabricated on single-crystal silicon, which functions as a low-loss dielectric substrate for the microwave circuitry as well as the supporting membrane for the Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers. The orthomode transducer (OMT) is realized as a symmetric structure and on-chip filters are employed to define the detection bandwidth. A hybridized integrated enclosure reduces the high-frequency THz mode set that can couple to the TES bolometers. An implementation of the detector architecture at Q-band achieves 90% efficiency in each polarization. The design is scalable in both frequency coverage, 30-300 GHz, and in number of detectors with uniform characteristics. Hence, the detectors are desirable for ground-based or space-borne instruments that require large arrays of efficient background-limited cryogenic detectors.

  20. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing--Multiple Analysis of Skin Surface Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 吴海燕; 张渭源


    A new researching method on clothing comfort perception is developed.By it the skin surface temperature changes and subjective psychological perception of human body sections stimulated by the same cold stimulation are studied.With the multiple comparison analysis method the changing laws of skin temperature of main human body sections is obtained.

  1. Reduction of Radioactive Backgrounds in Electroformed Copper for Ultra-Sensitive Radiation Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Eric W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Aalseth, Craig E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Farmer, Orville T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hossbach, Todd W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liezers, Martin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Overman, Nicole R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Reeves, James H. [Reeves and Son LLC., Richland, WA (United States)


    Abstract Ultra-pure construction materials are required for the next generation of neutrino physics, dark matter and environmental science applications. These new efforts require materials with purity levels at or below 1 uBq/kg 232Th and 238U. Yet radiometric analysis lacks sensitivity below ~10 uBq/kg for the U and Th decay chains. This limits both the selection of clean materials and the validation of purification processes. Copper is an important high-purity material for low-background experiments due to the ease with which it can be purified by electrochemical methods. Electroplating for purification into near-final shapes, known as electroforming, is one such method. Continued refinement of the copper electroforming process is underway, for the first time guided by an ICP-MS based assay method that can measure 232Th and 238U near the desired purity levels. An assay of electroformed copper at 10 uBq/kg for 232Th has been achieved and is described. The implications of electroformed copper at or better than this purity on next-generation low-background experiments are discussed.

  2. State of the art in non-animal approaches for skin sensitization testing: from individual test methods towards testing strategies. (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Braakhuis, Hedwig M; Vandebriel, Rob J


    The hazard assessment of skin sensitizers relies mainly on animal testing, but much progress is made in the development, validation and regulatory acceptance and implementation of non-animal predictive approaches. In this review, we provide an update on the available computational tools and animal-free test methods for the prediction of skin sensitization hazard. These individual test methods address mostly one mechanistic step of the process of skin sensitization induction. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization describes the key events (KEs) that lead to skin sensitization. In our review, we have clustered the available test methods according to the KE they inform: the molecular initiating event (MIE/KE1)-protein binding, KE2-keratinocyte activation, KE3-dendritic cell activation and KE4-T cell activation and proliferation. In recent years, most progress has been made in the development and validation of in vitro assays that address KE2 and KE3. No standardized in vitro assays for T cell activation are available; thus, KE4 cannot be measured in vitro. Three non-animal test methods, addressing either the MIE, KE2 or KE3, are accepted as OECD test guidelines, and this has accelerated the development of integrated or defined approaches for testing and assessment (e.g. testing strategies). The majority of these approaches are mechanism-based, since they combine results from multiple test methods and/or computational tools that address different KEs of the AOP to estimate skin sensitization potential and sometimes potency. Other approaches are based on statistical tools. Until now, eleven different testing strategies have been published, the majority using the same individual information sources. Our review shows that some of the defined approaches to testing and assessment are able to accurately predict skin sensitization hazard, sometimes even more accurate than the currently used animal test. A few defined approaches are developed to provide an

  3. Influence of background noise on the performance in the odor sensitivity task: effects of noise type and extraversion. (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Hähner, Antje; Gudziol, Volker; Scheibe, Mandy; Hummel, Thomas


    Recent research demonstrated that background noise relative to silence impaired subjects' performance in a cognitively driven odor discrimination test. The current study aimed to investigate whether the background noise can also modulate performance in an odor sensitivity task that is less cognitively loaded. Previous studies have shown that the effect of background noise on task performance can be different in relation to degree of extraversion and/or type of noise. Accordingly, we wanted to examine whether the influence of background noise on the odor sensitivity task can be altered as a function of the type of background noise (i.e., nonverbal vs. verbal noise) and the degree of extraversion (i.e., introvert vs. extrovert group). Subjects were asked to conduct an odor sensitivity task in the presence of either nonverbal noise (e.g., party sound) or verbal noise (e.g., audio book), or silence. Overall, the subjects' mean performance in the odor sensitivity task was not significantly different across three auditory conditions. However, with regard to the odor sensitivity task, a significant interaction emerged between the type of background noise and the degree of extraversion. Specifically, verbal noise relative to silence significantly impaired or improved the performance of the odor sensitivity task in the introvert or extrovert group, respectively; the differential effect of introversion/extraversion was not observed in the nonverbal noise-induced task performance. In conclusion, our findings provide new empirical evidence that type of background noise and degree of extraversion play an important role in modulating the effect of background noise on subjects' performance in an odor sensitivity task.

  4. Assessing the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses to increasing anemia severity levels (United States)

    Baranoski, Gladimir V. G.; Dey, Ankita; Chen, Tenn F.


    Anemia is a prevalent medical condition that seriously affects millions of people all over the world. In many regions, not only its initial detection but also its monitoring are hindered by limited access to laboratory facilities. This situation has motivated the development of a wide range of optical devices and procedures to assist physicians in these tasks. Although noticeable progress has been achieved in this area, the search for reliable, low-cost, and risk-free solutions still continues, and the strengthening of the knowledge base about this disorder and its effects is essential for the success of these initiatives. We contribute to these efforts by closely examining the sensitivity of human skin hyperspectral responses (within and outside the visible region of the light spectrum) to reduced hemoglobin concentrations associated with increasing anemia severity levels. This investigation, which involves skin specimens with distinct biophysical and morphological characteristics, is supported by controlled in silico experiments performed using a predictive light transport model and measured data reported in the biomedical literature. We also propose a noninvasive procedure to be employed in the monitoring of this condition at the point-of-care.

  5. Hypnosis as sole anaesthesia for skin tumour removal in a patient with multiple chemical sensitivity. (United States)

    Facco, E; Pasquali, S; Zanette, G; Casiglia, E


    A female patient with multiple chemical sensitivity and previous anaphylactoid reactions to local anaesthetics was admitted for removal of a thigh skin tumour under hypnosis as sole anaesthesia. The hypnotic protocol included hypnotic focused analgesia and a pre-operative pain threshold test. After inducing hypnosis, a wide excision was performed, preserving the deep fascia, and the tumour was removed; the patient's heart rate and blood pressure did not increase during the procedure. When the patient was de-hypnotised, she reported no pain and was discharged immediately. Our case confirms the efficacy of hypnosis and demonstrates that it may be valuable as a sole anaesthetic method in selected cases. Hypnosis can prevent pain perception and surgical stress as a whole, comparing well with anaesthetic drugs.

  6. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ


    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin s

  7. Efficacy of the combined use of a facial cleanser and moisturizers for the care of mild acne patients with sensitive skin. (United States)

    Isoda, Kenichi; Seki, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yosuke; Umeda, Koji; Nishizaka, Takahiro; Tanabe, Hisateru; Takagi, Yutaka; Ishida, Koichi; Mizutani, Hitoshi


    Acne is a common skin disease that involves the seborrheic area of the face and results from the obstruction of hair follicles followed by inflammation. Careful face washing helps to improve and prevent acne; however, intensive washing has a risk of inducing skin barrier impairment and dry skin, especially in sensitive skin. We hypothesized that skin care combining mild skin cleansing and intensive moisturizing ("combination skin care") may be effective in the care of acne in subjects with dry skin and/or sensitive skin. We developed a combination skin care with a weakly acidic foaming facial skin cleanser based on a mild detergent, an aqueous lotion with eucalyptus extract and a moisturizing gel containing pseudo-ceramide and eucalyptus extract. To optimize an ideal facial skin care system for mild acne on sensitive skin, we performed a 4-week clinical trial with 29 post-adolescent Japanese women with mild acne with dry and sensitive skin. The acne significantly decreased after this trial accompanied by the improvement of dry skin, a significantly increased endogenous ceramide level in the stratum corneum and an elongated alkyl chain length of the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type ceramide. No adverse events due to the test samples were observed. Based on diagnosis by a dermatologist, 97% of the subjects found the combination skin care to be "useful" or "slightly useful". Based on these findings, the combined use of a facial skin cleanser and moisturizers is safe and effective for the care of acne in post-adolescent Japanese women with sensitive skin.

  8. Assessment of chemical skin-sensitizing potency by an in vitro assay based on human dendritic cells. (United States)

    Lambrechts, Nathalie; Vanheel, Hanne; Nelissen, Inge; Witters, Hilda; Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Van Tendeloo, Viggo; Schoeters, Greet; Hooyberghs, Jef


    The skin-sensitizing potential of chemicals is an important concern for public health and thus a significant end point in the hazard identification process. To determine skin-sensitizing capacity, large research efforts focus on the development of assays, which do not require animals. As such, an in vitro test has previously been developed based on the differential expression of CREM and CCR2 transcripts in CD34(+) progenitor-derived dendritic cells (CD34-DC), which allows to classify chemicals as skin (non-)sensitizing. However, skin sensitization is not an all-or-none phenomenon, and up to now, the assessment of relative potency can only be derived using the in vivo local lymph node assay (LLNA). In our study, we analyzed the feasibility to predict the sensitizing potency, i.e., the LLNA EC3 values, of 15 skin sensitizers using in vitro data from the CD34-DC-based assay. Hereto, we extended the in vitro-generated gene expression data set by an additional source of information, the concentration of the compound that causes 20% cell damage (IC20) in CD34-DC. We statistically confirmed that this IC20 is linearly independent from the gene expression changes but that it does correlate with LLNA EC3 values. In a further analysis, we applied a robust linear regression with both IC20 and expression changes of CREM and CCR2 as explanatory variables. For 13 out of 15 compounds, a high linear correlation was established between the in vitro model and the LLNA EC3 values over a range of four orders of magnitude, i.e., from weak to extreme sensitizers.

  9. What Happens after Activation of Ascaridole? Reactive Compounds and Their Implications for Skin Sensitization. (United States)

    Chittiboyina, Amar G; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Ikhlas A


    To replace animal testing and improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of alternative methods. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), the regulatory agencies' approved alternative in chemico method, has been applied for understanding the sensitization capacity of activated ascaridole. Ascaridole, the oxidative metabolite of α-terpinene, is considered to be one of the components responsible for the contact allergy associated with essential oils derived from Chenopodium and Melaleuca species. The recently developed high-throughput screening based on the dansyl cysteamine (HTS-DCYA) method was applied to understand the reported enhanced reactivity of activated ascaridole and possibly to identify the resulting elusive radical or other reactive species. For the first time, a substituted cyclohexenone was identified as a potential electrophilic intermediate resulting in higher depletion of nucleophilic DCYA, along with several nonreactive byproducts of ascaridole via a radical degradation mechanism. Formation of electrophilic species via radical degradation is one of the possible pathways should be considered for the peptide reactivity of in aged tea tree oil or oils rich in terpinenes along with commonly believed reactants, allylic-epoxides and allylic-peroxides.

  10. Development, fabrication, and modeling of highly sensitive conjugated polymer based piezoresistive sensors in electronic skin applications (United States)

    Khalili, Nazanin; Naguib, Hani E.; Kwon, Roy H.


    Human intervention can be replaced through development of tools resulted from utilizing sensing devices possessing a wide range of applications including humanoid robots or remote and minimally invasive surgeries. Similar to the five human senses, sensors interface with their surroundings to stimulate a suitable response or action. The sense of touch which arises in human skin is among the most challenging senses to emulate due to its ultra high sensitivity. This has brought forth novel challenging issues to consider in the field of biomimetic robotics. In this work, using a multiphase reaction, a polypyrrole (PPy) based hydrogel is developed as a resistive type pressure sensor with an intrinsically elastic microstructure stemming from three dimensional hollow spheres. Furthermore, a semi-analytical constriction resistance model accounting for the real contact area between the PPy hydrogel sensors and the electrode along with the dependency of the contact resistance change on the applied load is developed. The model is then solved using a Monte Carlo technique and the sensitivity of the sensor is obtained. The experimental results showed the good tracking ability of the proposed model.

  11. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors. (United States)

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J


    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings.

  12. Thresholds of skin sensitivity are partially influenced by mechanical properties of the skin on the foot sole


    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Triano, John J; Lam, Chris K; Templeton, Cale A; Bent, Leah R


    Across the foot sole, there are vibration and monofilament sensory differences despite an alleged even distribution of cutaneous afferents. Mechanical property differences across foot sole sites have been proposed to account for these differences. Vibration (VPT; 3 Hz, 40 Hz, 250 Hz), and monofilament (MF) perception threshold measurements were compared with skin hardness, epidermal thickness, and stretch response across five foot sole locations in young healthy adults (n = 22). Perceptual th...

  13. Comprehensive Monte-Carlo simulator for optimization of imaging parameters for high sensitivity detection of skin cancer at the THz (United States)

    Ney, Michael; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim


    Skin cancer detection at its early stages has been the focus of a large number of experimental and theoretical studies during the past decades. Among these studies two prominent approaches presenting high potential are reflectometric sensing at the THz wavelengths region and polarimetric imaging techniques in the visible wavelengths. While THz radiation contrast agent and source of sensitivity to cancer related tissue alterations was considered to be mainly the elevated water content in the cancerous tissue, the polarimetric approach has been verified to enable cancerous tissue differentiation based on cancer induced structural alterations to the tissue. Combining THz with the polarimetric approach, which is considered in this study, is examined in order to enable higher detection sensitivity than previously pure reflectometric THz measurements. For this, a comprehensive MC simulation of radiative transfer in a complex skin tissue model fitted for the THz domain that considers the skin`s stratified structure, tissue material optical dispersion modeling, surface roughness, scatterers, and substructure organelles has been developed. Additionally, a narrow beam Mueller matrix differential analysis technique is suggested for assessing skin cancer induced changes in the polarimetric image, enabling the tissue model and MC simulation to be utilized for determining the imaging parameters resulting in maximal detection sensitivity.

  14. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge. (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar


    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  15. Investigating the Reliability and Validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) against Chinese Cultural Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涵; Salasiah Che Lah


    Intercultural Communication Competence (ICC), as one of the research ifelds of intercultural communication, has been given much importance from scholars all around the world. Intercultural sensitivity is one of the three dimensions in Dr Chen’s ICC model. This research investigates the reliability and validity of Chen and Starosta’s Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS) (2000) against Chinese cultural background by using Chinese university students majoring in English as respondents.

  16. Open source software implementation of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization potency based on a Bayesian network. (United States)

    Pirone, Jason R; Smith, Marjolein; Kleinstreuer, Nicole C; Burns, Thomas A; Strickland, Judy; Dancik, Yuri; Morris, Richard; Rinckel, Lori A; Casey, Warren; Jaworska, Joanna S


    An open-source implementation of a previously published integrated testing strategy (ITS) for skin sensitization using a Bayesian network has been developed using R, a free and open-source statistical computing language. The ITS model provides probabilistic predictions of skin sensitization potency based on in silico and in vitro information as well as skin penetration characteristics from a published bioavailability model (Kasting et al., 2008). The structure of the Bayesian network was designed to be consistent with the adverse outcome pathway published by the OECD (Jaworska et al., 2011, 2013). In this paper, the previously published data set (Jaworska et al., 2013) is improved by two data corrections and a modified application of the Kasting model. The new data set implemented in the original commercial software package and the new R version produced consistent results. The data and a fully documented version of the code are publicly available (

  17. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice on a 129/Sv background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Groenink, L.; Oosting, R.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Maes, R.A.A.; Olivier, B.


    Previous studies in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (1AKO) mice on a mixed Swiss Websterx129/Sv (SWx129/Sv) and a pure 129/Sv genetic background suggest a differential gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in both strains, independent from the anxious phenotype. To

  18. Filling the concept with data: integrating data from different in vitro and in silico assays on skin sensitizers to explore the battery approach for animal-free skin sensitization testing. (United States)

    Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham


    Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients. Significant efforts are made to replace the current animal tests. It is widely recognized that this cannot be accomplished with a single in vitro test, but that rather the integration of results from different in vitro and in silico assays will be needed for the prediction of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. This has been proposed as a theoretical scheme so far, but no attempts have been made to use experimental data to prove the validity of this concept. Here we thus try for the first time to fill this widely cited concept with data. To this aim, we integrate and report both novel and literature data on 116 chemicals of known skin sensitization potential on the following parameters: (1) peptide reactivity as a surrogate for protein binding, (2) induction of antioxidant/electrophile responsive element dependent luciferase activity as a cell-based assay; (3) Tissue Metabolism Simulator skin sensitization model in silico prediction; and (4) calculated octanol-water partition coefficient. The results of the in vitro assays were scaled into five classes from 0 to 4 to give an in vitro score and compared to the local lymph node assay (LLNA) data, which were also scaled from 0 to 4 (nonsensitizer/weak/moderate/strong/extreme). Different ways of evaluating these data have been assessed to rate the hazard of chemicals (Cooper statistics) and to also scale their potency. With the optimized model an overall accuracy for predicting sensitizers of 87.9% was obtained. There is a linear correlation between the LLNA score and the in vitro score. However, the correlation needs further improvement as there is still a relatively high variation in the in vitro score between chemicals belonging to the same sensitization potency class.

  19. Relationships between Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pain, Skin Temperature Indices of Autonomic Dysregulation, and Sensitivity to Thermal Cutaneous Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fong Wong


    Full Text Available This study evaluated relationships between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS pain, sympathetic dysregulation, and thermal pain sensitivity. Eight female patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS and ten healthy female controls were tested for sensitivity to thermal stimulation of the left palm. A new method of response-dependent thermal stimulation was used to maintain pain intensity at a predetermined level (35% by adjusting thermal stimulus intensity as a function of pain ratings. Clinical pain levels were assessed prior to each testing session. Skin temperatures were recorded before and after pain sensitivity testing. The temperature of palmar skin dropped (1.5∘C when the corresponding location on the opposite hand of control subjects was subjected to prolonged thermal stimulation, but this response was absent for IBS pain patients. The patients also required significantly lower stimulus temperatures than controls to maintain a 35% pain rating. Baseline skin temperatures of patients were significantly correlated with thermode temperatures required to maintain 35% pain ratings. IBS pain intensity was not significantly correlated with skin temperature or pain sensitivity. The method of response-dependent stimulation revealed thermal hyperalgesia and increased sympathetic tone for chronic pain patients, relative to controls. Similarly, a significant correlation between resting skin temperatures and thermal pain sensitivity for IBS but not control subjects indicates that tonic sympathetic activation and a thermal hyperalgesia were generated by the chronic presence of visceral pain. However, lack of a significant relationship between sympathetic tone and ratings of IBS pain casts doubt on propositions that the magnitude of IBS pain is determined by psychological stress.

  20. Optimization of spectral sensitivities of mosaic five-band camera for estimating chromophore densities from skin images including shading and surface reflections (United States)

    Hirose, Misa; Akaho, Rina; Maita, Chikashi; Sugawara, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi


    In this paper, the spectral sensitivities of a mosaic five-band camera were optimized using a numerical skin phantom to perform the separation of chromophore densities, shading and surface reflection. To simulate the numerical skin phantom, the spectral reflectance of skin was first calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration for different concentrations of melanin, blood and oxygen saturation levels. The melanin and hemoglobin concentration distributions used in the numerical skin phantom were obtained from actual skin images by independent component analysis. The calculated components were assigned as concentration distributions. The spectral sensitivities of the camera were then optimized using a nonlinear technique to estimate the spectral reflectance for skin separation. In this optimization, the spectral sensitivities were assumed to be normally distributed, and the sensor arrangement was identical to that of a conventional mosaic five-band camera. Our findings demonstrated that spectral estimation could be significantly improved by optimizing the spectral sensitivities.

  1. Skin sensitization risk assessment model using artificial neural network analysis of data from multiple in vitro assays. (United States)

    Tsujita-Inoue, Kyoko; Hirota, Morihiko; Ashikaga, Takao; Atobe, Tomomi; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Aiba, Setsuya


    The sensitizing potential of chemicals is usually identified and characterized using in vivo methods such as the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA). Due to regulatory constraints and ethical concerns, alternatives to animal testing are needed to predict skin sensitization potential of chemicals. For this purpose, combined evaluation using multiple in vitro and in silico parameters that reflect different aspects of the sensitization process seems promising. We previously reported that LLNA thresholds could be well predicted by using an artificial neural network (ANN) model, designated iSENS ver.1 (integrating in vitro sensitization tests version 1), to analyze data obtained from two in vitro tests: the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) and the SH test. Here, we present a more advanced ANN model, iSENS ver.2, which additionally utilizes the results of antioxidant response element (ARE) assay and the octanol-water partition coefficient (LogP, reflecting lipid solubility and skin absorption). We found a good correlation between predicted LLNA thresholds calculated by iSENS ver.2 and reported values. The predictive performance of iSENS ver.2 was superior to that of iSENS ver.1. We conclude that ANN analysis of data from multiple in vitro assays is a useful approach for risk assessment of chemicals for skin sensitization.

  2. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G


    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe....... It was, therefore, crucial to standardize and harmonize procedures in allergy diagnosis and treatment within Europe. AIMS: The Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN), with partners and collaborating centres across Europe, was in a unique position to take on this task. The current study...

  3. Imaging of skin birefringence for human scar assessment using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography aided by vascular masking (United States)

    Gong, Peijun; Chin, Lixin; Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Liew, Yih Miin; Wood, Fiona M.; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.


    We demonstrate the in vivo assessment of human scars by parametric imaging of birefringence using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT). Such in vivo assessment is subject to artifacts in the detected birefringence caused by scattering from blood vessels. To reduce these artifacts, we preprocessed the PS-OCT data using a vascular masking technique. The birefringence of the remaining tissue regions was then automatically quantified. Results from the scars and contralateral or adjacent normal skin of 13 patients show a correspondence of birefringence with scar type: the ratio of birefringence of hypertrophic scars to corresponding normal skin is 2.2±0.2 (mean±standard deviation), while the ratio of birefringence of normotrophic scars to normal skin is 1.1±0.4. This method represents a new clinically applicable means for objective, quantitative human scar assessment.

  4. Knockdown of Filaggrin Impairs Diffusion Barrier Function and Increases UV Sensitivity in a Human Skin Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Mildner; J. Jin; L. Eckhart; S. Kezic; F. Gruber; C. Barresi; C. Stremnitzer; M. Buchberger; V. Mlitz; C. Ballaun; B. Sterniczky; D. Födinger; E. Tschachler


    Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene are associated with ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic dermatitis. To investigate the impact of filaggrin deficiency on the skin barrier, filaggrin expression was knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology in an organotypic skin model in vit

  5. RAMBO-K: Rapid and Sensitive Removal of Background Sequences from Next Generation Sequencing Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon H Tausch

    Full Text Available The assembly of viral or endosymbiont genomes from Next Generation Sequencing (NGS data is often hampered by the predominant abundance of reads originating from the host organism. These reads increase the memory and CPU time usage of the assembler and can lead to misassemblies.We developed RAMBO-K (Read Assignment Method Based On K-mers, a tool which allows rapid and sensitive removal of unwanted host sequences from NGS datasets. Reaching a speed of 10 Megabases/s on 4 CPU cores and a standard hard drive, RAMBO-K is faster than any tool we tested, while showing a consistently high sensitivity and specificity across different datasets.RAMBO-K rapidly and reliably separates reads from different species without data preprocessing. It is suitable as a straightforward standard solution for workflows dealing with mixed datasets. Binaries and source code (java and python are available from

  6. An electrically and mechanically self-healing composite with pressure- and flexion-sensitive properties for electronic skin applications (United States)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Wang, Chao; Allen, Ranulfo; Bao, Zhenan


    Pressure sensitivity and mechanical self-healing are two vital functions of the human skin. A flexible and electrically conducting material that can sense mechanical forces and yet be able to self-heal repeatably can be of use in emerging fields such as soft robotics and biomimetic prostheses, but combining all these properties together remains a challenging task. Here, we describe a composite material composed of a supramolecular organic polymer with embedded nickel nanostructured microparticles, which shows mechanical and electrical self-healing properties at ambient conditions. We also show that our material is pressure- and flexion-sensitive, and therefore suitable for electronic skin applications. The electrical conductivity can be tuned by varying the amount of nickel particles and can reach values as high as 40 S cm-1. On rupture, the initial conductivity is repeatably restored with ~90% efficiency after 15 s healing time, and the mechanical properties are completely restored after ~10 min. The composite resistance varies inversely with applied flexion and tactile forces. These results demonstrate that natural skin's repeatable self-healing capability can be mimicked in conductive and piezoresistive materials, thus potentially expanding the scope of applications of current electronic skin systems.

  7. Proposal of abolition of the skin sensitivity test before equine rabies immune globulin application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUPO Palmira


    Full Text Available An epizootic outbreak of rabies occurred in 1995 in Ribeirão Preto, SP, with 58 cases of animal rabies (54 dogs, 3 cats and 1 bat confirmed by the Pasteur Institute of São Paulo, and one human death. The need to provide care to a large number of people for the application of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG prevented the execution of the skin sensitivity test (SST and often also the execution of desensitization, procedures routinely used up to that time at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (EU-UHFMRP-USP, a reference hospital for the application of heterologous sera. In view of our positive experience of several years with the abolition of SST and of the use of premedication before the application of antivenom sera, we used a similar schedule for ERIG application. Of the 1489 victims of animal bites, 1054 (71% received ERIG; no patient was submitted to SST and all received intravenously anti-histamines (anti-H1 + anti-H2 and corticosteroids before the procedure. The patients were kept under observation for 60 to 180 minutes and no adverse reaction was observed. On the basis of these results, since December 1995 ERIG application has been decentralized in Ribeirão Preto and has become the responsibility of the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital and the Central Basic Health Unit, where the same routine is used. Since then, 4216 patients have received ERIG (1818 at the Basic Health Unit and 2398 at the EU-UHFMRP, with no problems. The ideal would be the routine use of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG in public health programs, but this is problematic, because of their high cost. However, while this does not occur, the use of SST is no longer justified at the time of application of ERIG, in view of the clinical evidence of low predictive value and low sensitivity of SST involving the application of heterologous sera. It is very important to point out

  8. Evaluation of the skin sensitizing potency of chemicals by using the existing methods and considerations of relevance for elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basketter, David A; Andersen, Klaus E; Liden, Carola;


    The Technical Committee of Classification and Labelling dealing with harmonized classification of substances and classification criteria under Directive 67/548/EEC on behalf of the European Commission nominated an expert group on skin sensitization in order to investigate further the possibility...... for potency consideration of skin sensitizers for future development of the classification criteria. All substances and preparations should be classified on the basis of their intrinsic properties and should be labelled accordingly with the rules set up in the Directive 67/548/EEC. The classification should...... be the same under their full life cycle and in the case that there is no harmonized classification the substance or preparation should be self-classified by the manufacturer in accordance with the same criteria. The Directive does not apply to certain preparations in the finished state, such as medical...

  9. Extending the Sensitivity to the Detection of WIMP Dark Matter with an Improved Understanding of the Limiting Neutron Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamat, Sharmila [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) uses position-sensitive Germanium and Silicon crystals in the direct detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) believed to constitute most of the dark matter in the Universe. WIMP interactions with matter being rare, identifying and eliminating known backgrounds is critical for detection. Event-by-event discrimination by the detectors rejects the predominant gamma and beta backgrounds while Monte Carlo simulations help estimate, and subtract, the contribution from the neutrons. This thesis describes the effort to understand neutron backgrounds as seen in the two stages of the CDMS search for WIMPs. The first stage of the experiment was at a shallow site at the Stanford Underground Facility where the limiting background came from high-energy neutrons produced by cosmic-ray muon interactions in the rock surrounding the cavern. Simulations of this background helped inform the analysis of data from an experimental run at this site and served as input for the background reduction techniques necessary to set new exclusion limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross-section, excluding new parameter space for WIMPs of masses 8-20 GeV/c2. This thesis considers the simulation methods used as well as how various event populations in the data served as checks on the simulations to allow them to be used in the interpretation of the WIMP-search data. The studies also confirmed the presence of a limiting neutron background at the shallow site, necessitating the move to the 713-meter deep Soudan Underground Facility. Similar computer-based studies helped quantify the neutron background seen at the deeper site and informed the analysis of the data emerging from the first physics run of the experiment at Soudan. In conjunction with the WIMP-search and calibration data, the simulations confirmed that increased depth considerably reduced the neutron backgrounds seen, greatly improving the sensitivity to WIMP detection. The data

  10. Polarization-Sensitive Hyperspectral Imaging in vivo: A Multimode Dermoscope for Skin Analysis (United States)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Saager, Rolf B.; Durkin, Anthony J.; Chave, Robert; Lindsley, Erik H.; Farkas, Daniel L.


    Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.

  11. Assessment of the sensitizing potency of preservatives with chance of skin contact by the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). (United States)

    Sonnenburg, Anna; Schreiner, Maximilian; Stahlmann, Ralf


    Parabens, methylisothiazolinone (MI) and its derivative methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), are commonly used as preservatives in personal care products. They can cause hypersensitivity reactions of the human skin. We have tested a set of nine parabens, MI alone and in combination with MCI in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA). The coculture of primary human keratinocytes and allogenic dendritic cell-related cells (DC-rc) in this assay emulates the in vivo situation of the human skin. Sensitization potency of the test substances was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of the DC-rc maturation marker CD86. Determination of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86-expression (EC50sens) allowed a quantitative evaluation. The cytotoxicity of test substances as indicator for irritative potency was measured by 7-AAD (7-amino-actinomycin D) staining. Parabens exhibited weak (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and isopropylparaben) or strong (butyl-, isobutyl-, pentyl- and benzylparaben) effects, whereas phenylparaben was found to be a moderate sensitizer. Sensitization potencies of parabens correlated with side chain length. Due to a pronounced cytotoxicity, we could not estimate an EC50sens value for MI, whereas MI/MCI was classified as sensitizer and also showed cytotoxic effects. Parabens showed no (methyl- and ethylparaben) or weak irritative potencies (propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, isobutyl-, phenyl- and benzylparaben), only pentylparaben was rated to be irritative. Overall, we were able to demonstrate and compare the sensitizing potencies of parabens in this in vitro test. Furthermore, we showed an irritative potency for most of the preservatives. The data further support the usefulness of the LCSA for comparison of the sensitizing potencies of xenobiotics.

  12. Face Detection under Complex Background and Illumination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Dong Lv; Yong-Duan Song; Mei Xu; Cong-Ying Huang


    Abstract⎯For face detection under complex background and illumination, a detection method that combines the skin color segmentation and cost-sensitive Adaboost algorithm is proposed in this paper. First, by using the characteristic of human skin color clustering in the color space, the skin color area inYCbCr color space is extracted and a large number of irrelevant backgrounds are excluded; then for remedyingthe deficiencies of Adaboost algorithm, the cost-sensitive function is introduced into the Adaboost algorithm; finally the skin color segmentation and cost-sensitive Adaboost algorithm are combined for the face detection. Experimental results show that the proposed detection method has a higher detection rate and detection speed, which can more adapt to the actual field environment.

  13. Ba2+- and bupivacaine-sensitive background K+ conductances mediate rapid EPSP attenuation in oligodendrocyte precursor cells. (United States)

    Chan, Chu-Fang; Kuo, Tzu-Wei; Weng, Ju-Yun; Lin, Yen-Chu; Chen, Ting-Yu; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Lien, Cheng-Chang


    Glutamatergic transmission onto oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) may regulate OPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. Dendritic integration of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) is critical for neuronal functions, and mechanisms regulating dendritic propagation and summation of EPSPs are well understood. However, little is known about EPSP attenuation and integration in OPCs. We developed realistic OPC models for synaptic integration, based on passive membrane responses of OPCs obtained by simultaneous dual whole-cell patch-pipette recordings. Compared with neurons, OPCs have a very low value of membrane resistivity, which is largely mediated by Ba(2+)- and bupivacaine-sensitive background K(+) conductances. The very low membrane resistivity not only leads to rapid EPSP attenuation along OPC processes but also sharpens EPSPs and narrows the temporal window for EPSP summation. Thus, background K(+) conductances regulate synaptic responses and integration in OPCs, thereby affecting activity-dependent neuronal control of OPC development and function.

  14. Sensitivity of the distribution of mutational fitness effects to environment, genetic background, and adaptedness: a case study with Drosophila. (United States)

    Wang, Alethea D; Sharp, Nathaniel P; Agrawal, Aneil F


    Heterogeneity in the fitness effects of individual mutations has been found across different environmental and genetic contexts. Going beyond effects on individual mutations, how is the distribution of selective effects, f(s), altered by changes in genetic and environmental context? In this study, we examined changes in the major features of f(s) by estimating viability selection on 36 individual mutations in Drosophila melanogaster across two different environments in two different genetic backgrounds that were either adapted or nonadapted to the two test environments. Both environment and genetic background affected selection on individual mutations. However, the overall distribution f(s) appeared robust to changes in genetic background but both the mean, E(s), and the variance, V(s) were dependent on the environment. Between these two properties, V(s) was more sensitive to environmental change. Contrary to predictions of fitness landscape theory, the match between genetic background and assay environment (i.e., adaptedness) had little effect on f(s).

  15. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case. (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank


    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  16. A link between skin and airways regarding sensitivity to fragrance products?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Linneberg, A; Mosbech, Holger Fausbøll;


    Exposure to volatile fragrances is commonplace and may be related to various eye and airway symptoms. Skin exposure to fragrances is known to cause perfume contact allergy and eczema, but it is unknown whether eye or airway symptoms elicited by fragrance products are associated with contact allergy...

  17. NOTE: Initial evaluation of acoustic reflectors for the preservation of sensitive abdominal skin areas during MRgFUS treatment (United States)

    Gorny, Krzysztof R.; Chen, Shigao; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Hesley, Gina K.; Woodrum, David A.; Brown, Douglas L.; Felmlee, Joel P.


    During MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) treatments of uterine fibroids using ExAblate®2000 (InSightec, Haifa, Israel), individual tissue ablations are performed extracorporeally through the patient's abdomen using an annular array FUS transducer embedded within the MR table. Ultrasound intensities in the near field are below therapeutic levels and, under normal conditions, heating of the patient skin is minimal. However, increased absorption of ultrasound energy within sensitive skin areas or areas with differing acoustic properties, such as scars, may lead to skin burns and therefore these areas must be kept outside the near field of the FUS beam. Depending on their location and size the sensitive areas may either obstruct parts of the fibroid from being treated or prevent the entire MRgFUS treatment altogether. The purpose of this work is to evaluate acoustic reflector materials that can be applied to protect skin and the underlying sensitive areas. Reflection coefficients of cork (0.88) and foam (0.91) based materials were evaluated with a hydrophone. An ExAblate 2000 MRgFUS system was used to simulate clinical treatment with discs of reflector materials placed in a near field underneath a gel phantom. MR thermometry was used to monitor temperature elevations as well as the integrity of the focal spot. The phantom measurements showed acoustic shadow zones behind the reflectors with zone depths changing between 7 and 27 mm, for reflector disc diameters increasing from 10 to 30 mm (40 mm diameter discs completely blocked the FUS beam at the depth evaluated). The effects on thermal lesions due to the presence of the reflectors in the FUS beam were found to diminish with decreasing disc diameter and increasing sonication depth. For a 20 mm diameter disc and beyond 50 mm sonication depth, thermal lesions were minimally affected by the presence of the disc. No heating was observed on the skin side of the foam reflectors, as confirmed by measurements performed

  18. Cyclophosphamide-induced blood and tissue eosinophilia in contact sensitivity: mechanism of hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment into the skin. (United States)

    Satoh, T; Chen, Q J; Sasaki, G; Yokozeki, H; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K


    The mechanism leading to selective production and accumulation of eosinophils in certain allergic skin diseases is unknown. Cyclophosphamide treatment (150 mg/kg) of BALB/c mice 48 h before sensitization with picryl chloride (PCl) resulted in striking blood and tissue eosinophilia, maximal at 13 days. Blood eosinophilia was not induced by the sensitization with oxazolone and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene. Challenge with 1 % PCl, but not croton oil caused preferential eosinophil accumulation into the dermis, which was associated with the enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells. Intravenous administration of anti-VCAM-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated eosinophil infiltration. In this murine model, we examined the role of several cytokines, including chemokines in inducing selective tissue eosinophilia in vivo. Local administration of antibodies against interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-4, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and RANTES, but not against IL-5 before challenge inhibited hapten-induced eosinophil recruitment. Intradermal injection of recombinant (r)IL-1beta, rIL-4, rTNF-alpha, rRANTES, and rMIP-1alpha induced marked eosinophil accumulation. Nonetheless, intradermal rIL-5 was not a chemoattractant for eosinophils in vivo. Our findings suggest that IL-1beta, IL-4, TNF-alpha, and RANTES contribute to the selective accumulation of eosinophils in contact sensitivity reaction. Although circulating IL-5 can activate eosinophils and prolong their survival, locally secreted IL-5 is not crucial for inducing eosinophil recruitment into the skin.

  19. On the contribution of Aitken mode particles to cloud droplet populations at continental background areas – a parametric sensitivity study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.-M. Kerminen


    Full Text Available Aitken mode particles are potentially an important source of cloud droplets in continental background areas. In order to find out which physico-chemical properties of Aitken mode particles are most important regarding their cloud-nucleating ability, we applied a global sensitivity method to an adiabatic air parcel model simulating the number of cloud droplets formed on Aitken mode particles, CD2. The technique propagates uncertainties in the parameters describing the properties of Aitken mode to CD2. The results show that if the Aitken mode particles do not contain molecules that are able to reduce the particle surface tension more than 30% and/or decrease the mass accommodation coefficient of water, α, below 10−2, the chemical composition and modal properties may have roughly an equal importance at low updraft velocities characterized by maximum supersaturations <0.1%. For larger updraft velocities, however, the particle size distribution is clearly more important than the chemical composition. In general, CD2 exhibits largest sensitivity to the particle number concentration, followed by the particle size. Also the shape of the particle mode, characterized by the geometric standard deviation (GSD, can be as important as the mode mean size at low updraft velocities. Finally, the performed sensitivity analysis revealed also that the chemistry may dominate the total sensitivity of CD2 to the considered parameters if: 1 the value of α varies at least one order of magnitude more than what is expected for pure water surfaces (10−2–1, or 2 the particle surface tension varies more than roughly 30% under conditions close to reaching supersaturation.

  20. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults (United States)


    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  1. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI


    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many uncertain

  2. Delayed-type hypersensitivity, contact sensitivity, and phytohemagglutinin skin-test responses of heat- and cold-stressed calves. (United States)

    Kelley, K W; Greenfield, R E; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Perryman, L E


    Three-week-old Holstein bull calves were used to investigate the effect of a 2-week chronic heat (35 C) or cold (-5 C) exposure on delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to purified protein derivative after sensitization with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, contact sensitivity (CS) reactions to 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin tests. Heat exposure reduced expression of DTH reactions by 42% and CS reactions by 38% at 24 hours after elicitation of the responses. The PHA-induced skin tests were not affected after 1 week of heat exposure, but this reaction was reduced by 20% after 2 weeks of heat exposure. The immune response of calves exposed to cold air temperatures was more complex. Cold exposure suppressed CS reactions by 39% at the end of both the 1st and 2nd weeks. The PHA response was reduced by 39% after 2 weeks of cold exposure. The DTH response depended on duration of cold exposure. The DTH reaction was increased by 42% after 1 week, but was reduced by 14% after 2 weeks. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental stressors alter host resistance by affecting the immune system. Furthermore, these stress-induced changes in immune events depend on the type of immune response, the nature of the environmental stressor, and the length of time that calves are exposed to the stressor.

  3. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  4. Demonstration of tyrosinase in the vitiligo skin of human beings by a sensitive fluorometric method as well as by 14C(U)-L-tyrosine incorporation into melanin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husain, I.; Vijayan, E.; Ramaiah, A.; Pasricha, J.S.; Madan, N.C.


    Tyrosinase activity (Monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine: oxygen oxidoreductase EC in vitiligo and normal epidermal homogenates of skin from human beings was measured by estimating beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) by a highly sensitive fluorometric method described in this paper. The tyrosine activity in the vitiligo skin was about 4 to 37% of corresponding normal skin. The activity of tyrosinase in normal human skin from different individuals and from different regions of the body was in the range of 4 to 140 picomoles of beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine formed per min/mg protein of epidermal homogenate. The enzyme from vitiligo and normal skin was severely inhibited by substance(s) of low molecular weight. The enzyme exhibits a lag of about 4 hr in the absence of added beta 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and 1 hr in presence of 5 microM dopa. Tyrosinase from the normal and vitiligo skin was inhibited by excess concentration of tyrosine. The homogenates from vitiligo skin could synthesize melanin from C14(U)-L-Tyrosine. The rate of tyrosine incorporation into melanin by the epidermal homogenates is increased by 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) disproportionate to its effect on tyrosinase activity. Based on the data presented in this paper it is concluded that melanocytes are present in the vitiligo skin. A tentative hypothesis is put forward to explain the lack of melanin synthesis by the vitiligo skin under in vivo conditions, although melanocytes are present.

  5. Is Cytox 3522 (10% methylene-bis-thiocyanate) a human skin sensitizer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hamann, K


    Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test and the O......Methylene-bis-thiocyanate is an antimicrobial agent in Cytox 3522 (American Cyanamid Corporation) and Nalco 206 (Nalco Chemical Company). Both are wide-spectrum industrial biocides. Cytox 3522 showed a strong sensitization potential in guineau pigs using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test...

  6. Evaluation of a high-throughput peptide reactivity format assay for assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Lin eWong


    Full Text Available The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA is a validated method for in vitro assessment of the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. In the present work, we describe a peptide reactivity assay using 96-well plate format and systematically identified the optimal assay conditions for accurate and reproducible classification of chemicals with known sensitizing capacity. The aim of the research is to ensure that the analytical component of the peptide reactivity assay is robust, accurate and reproducible in accordance with criteria that are used for the validation of bioanalytical methods. Analytical performance was evaluated using quality control samples (QCs; heptapeptides at low, medium and high concentrations and incubation of control chemicals (chemicals with known sensitization capacity, weak, moderate, strong, extreme and non-sensitizers with each of three synthetic heptapeptides, viz Cor1-C420 (Ac-NKKCDLF, cysteine- (Ac-RFAACAA and lysine- (Ac-RFAAKAA containing heptapeptides. The optimal incubation temperature for all three heptapeptides was 25°C. Apparent heptapeptide depletion was affected by vial material composition. Incubation of test chemicals with Cor1-C420, showed that peptide depletion was unchanged in polypropylene vials over 3-days storage in an autosampler but this was not the case for borosilicate glass vials. For cysteine-containing heptapeptide, the concentration was not stable by day 3 post-incubation in borosilicate glass vials. Although the lysine-containing heptapeptide concentration was unchanged in both polypropylene and borosilicate glass vials, the apparent extent of lysine-containing heptapeptide depletion by ethyl acrylate, differed between polypropylene (24.7% and glass (47.3% vials. Additionally, the peptide-chemical complexes for Cor1-C420-cinnamaldehyde and cysteine-containing heptapeptide-2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene were partially reversible during 3-days of autosampler storage. These observations further

  7. Quantification of Eosinophilic Granule Protein Deposition in Biopsies of Inflammatory Skin Diseases by Automated Image Analysis of Highly Sensitive Immunostaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kiehl


    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulocytes are major effector cells in inflammation. Extracellular deposition of toxic eosinophilic granule proteins (EGPs, but not the presence of intact eosinophils, is crucial for their functional effect in situ. As even recent morphometric approaches to quantify the involvement of eosinophils in inflammation have been only based on cell counting, we developed a new method for the cell‐independent quantification of EGPs by image analysis of immunostaining. Highly sensitive, automated immunohistochemistry was done on paraffin sections of inflammatory skin diseases with 4 different primary antibodies against EGPs. Image analysis of immunostaining was performed by colour translation, linear combination and automated thresholding. Using strictly standardized protocols, the assay was proven to be specific and accurate concerning segmentation in 8916 fields of 520 sections, well reproducible in repeated measurements and reliable over 16 weeks observation time. The method may be valuable for the cell‐independent segmentation of immunostaining in other applications as well.

  8. Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3)levels in adult New Zealanders with ethnicity, skin color and self-reported skin sensitivity to sun exposure. (United States)

    Nessvi, Sofia; Johansson, Lisa; Jopson, Jan; Stewart, Alistair; Reeder, Anthony; McKenzie, Richard; Scragg, Robert K


    The study aim was to determine the contribution of ethnicity, objectively measured skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure to variations in 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3) ]. A multiethnic sample (European, Maori, Pacific and Asian) of 503 adult volunteers aged 18-85 years, recruited from Auckland and Dunedin in New Zealand, answered a questionnaire on sun exposure and self-defined ethnicity. Skin color was measured using a spectrophotometer and the Individual Typology Angle (ITA) calculated. A blood sample was collected 4 weeks later to measure 25(OH)D(3). 25(OH)D(3) was associated with ethnicity, but not self-reported skin reaction-to-sun exposure. Amongst the ethnic groups, Asians had the lowest mean 25(OH)D level (37.0 nmol L(-1)) and Europeans with lighter colored skin had the highest (57.9 nmol L(-1)). An association also was seen between 25(OH)D(3) and skin color, with an increase of 2-3 nmol L(-1) per 10° increase in ITA value, indicating higher 25(OH)D(3) with lighter skin color; but much of this association disappeared after adjusting for ethnicity. In contrast, ethnicity remained associated with 25(OH)D(3) after adjusting for ITA skin color and skin reaction-to-sun exposure. These results indicate that self-defined ethnicity was a major determinant of variations in serum 25(OH)D(3), while objective measures of skin color explained relatively little additional variation.

  9. Tactile surface classification for limbed robots using a pressure sensitive robot skin. (United States)

    Shill, Jacob J; Collins, Emmanuel G; Coyle, Eric; Clark, Jonathan


    This paper describes an approach to terrain identification based on pressure images generated through direct surface contact using a robot skin constructed around a high-resolution pressure sensing array. Terrain signatures for classification are formulated from the magnitude frequency responses of the pressure images. The initial experimental results for statically obtained images show that the approach yields classification accuracies [Formula: see text]. The methodology is extended to accommodate the dynamic pressure images anticipated when a robot is walking or running. Experiments with a one-legged hopping robot yield similar identification accuracies [Formula: see text]. In addition, the accuracies are independent with respect to changing robot dynamics (i.e., when using different leg gaits). The paper further shows that the high-resolution capabilities of the sensor enables similarly textured surfaces to be distinguished. A correcting filter is developed to accommodate for failures or faults that inevitably occur within the sensing array with continued use. Experimental results show using the correcting filter can extend the effective operational lifespan of a high-resolution sensing array over 6x in the presence of sensor damage. The results presented suggest this methodology can be extended to autonomous field robots, providing a robot with crucial information about the environment that can be used to aid stable and efficient mobility over rough and varying terrains.

  10. Detection of potentially skin sensitizing hydroperoxides of linalool in fragranced products. (United States)

    Kern, Susanne; Dkhil, Hafida; Hendarsa, Prisca; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas


    On prolonged exposure to air, linalool can form sensitizing hydroperoxides. Positive hydroperoxide patch tests in dermatitis patients have frequently been reported, but their relevance has not been established. Owing to a lack of analytical methods and data, it is unclear from which sources the public might be exposed to sufficient quantities of hydroperoxides for induction of sensitization to occur. To address this knowledge gap, we developed analytical methods and performed stability studies for fine fragrances and deodorants/antiperspirants. In parallel, products recalled from consumers were analysed to investigate exposure to products used in everyday life. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with high mass resolution was found to be optimal for the selective and sensitive detection of the organic hydroperoxide in the complex product matrix. Linalool hydroperoxide was detected in natural linalool, but the amount was not elevated by storage in a perfume formulation exposed to air. No indication of hydroperoxide formation in fine fragrances was found in stability studies. Aged fine fragrances recalled from consumers contained a geometric mean linalool concentration of 1,888 μg/g and, corrected for matrix effects, linalool hydroperoxide at a concentration of around 14 μg/g. In antiperspirants, we detected no oxidation products. In conclusion, very low levels of linalool hydroperoxide in fragranced products may originate from raw materials, but we found no evidence for oxidation during storage of products. The levels detected are orders of magnitude below the levels inducing sensitization in experimental animals, and these results therefore do not substantiate a causal link between potential hydroperoxide formation in cosmetics and positive results of patch tests.

  11. Risk of sensitization in healthy adults following repeated administration of rdESAT-6 skin test reagent by the Mantoux injection technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Bergstedt, Winnie; Tingskov, Pernille N;


    1 open clinical trial was to assess the sensitization risk and safety of repeated administration of rdESAT-6 reagent in 31 healthy adult volunteers. Three groups of volunteers received two fixed doses of 0.1 microg rdESAT-6 28, 56 or 112 days apart, respectively. After the second injection......Limited specificity of the tuberculin skin test incited the development of the intradermal Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific rdESAT-6 skin test. Animal studies have shown, however, that there is a possible risk of sensitization when repeated injections of rdESAT-6 are given. The aim of this phase...


    New regulations have emerged in recent years giving guidance on how best to conduct skin sensitization testing on new chemical entities. For example, recently The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) in the U.S. and the European Ce...

  13. MC1R gene polymorphism affects skin color and phenotypic features related to sun sensitivity in a population of French adult women. (United States)

    Latreille, Julie; Ezzedine, Khaled; Elfakir, Anissa; Ambroisine, Laurence; Gardinier, Sophie; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Gruber, Florian; Rees, Jonathan; Tschachler, Erwin; Guinot, Christiane


    The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is known to play a major role in skin and hair pigmentation and to be highly polymorphic in Caucasians. This study was performed to investigate the relationships between MC1R gene polymorphisms and skin color in a large sample of French middle-aged Caucasian women. The codons 60 to 265 and the codon 294 of the MC1R gene were sequenced in 488 women. The skin color was measured on the inner side of the forearm using a spectrophotometric instrument. Fifteen variants were identified: Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Arg142His, Asp294His, Ile155Thr, Asp84Glu, Val60Leu, Val92Met, Arg163Gln, Ser83Pro, Thr95Met, Pro256Ser, Val265Ile, Ala166Ala and Gln233Gln. Women carrying Arg151Cys, Asp294His, Arg160Trp and Asp84Glu variants had a significantly higher reflectance in the red region, which indicates a lower level of functional melanin. This association was the most pronounced for women carrying Asp84Glu. In contrast, no significant difference was observed for other variants. Moreover, associations between MC1R polymorphisms and the risks of experiencing sunburn and of having freckles were found independently of skin color. Our findings support the hypothesis that MC1R polymorphisms do not necessarily alter the skin color but should sensitize the skin to UV-induced DNA damage.

  14. A contrast-sensitive channelized-Hotelling observer to predict human performance in a detection task using lumpy backgrounds and Gaussian signals (United States)

    Park, Subok; Badano, Aldo; Gallas, Brandon D.; Myers, Kyle J.


    Previously, a non-prewhitening matched filter (NPWMF) incorporating a model for the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system was introduced for modeling human performance in detection tasks with different viewing angles and white-noise backgrounds by Badano et al. But NPWMF observers do not perform well detection tasks involving complex backgrounds since they do not account for random backgrounds. A channelized-Hotelling observer (CHO) using difference-of-Gaussians (DOG) channels has been shown to track human performance well in detection tasks using lumpy backgrounds. In this work, a CHO with DOG channels, incorporating the model of the human contrast sensitivity, was developed similarly. We call this new observer a contrast-sensitive CHO (CS-CHO). The Barten model was the basis of our human contrast sensitivity model. A scalar was multiplied to the Barten model and varied to control the thresholding effect of the contrast sensitivity on luminance-valued images and hence the performance-prediction ability of the CS-CHO. The performance of the CS-CHO was compared to the average human performance from the psychophysical study by Park et al., where the task was to detect a known Gaussian signal in non-Gaussian distributed lumpy backgrounds. Six different signal-intensity values were used in this study. We chose the free parameter of our model to match the mean human performance in the detection experiment at the strongest signal intensity. Then we compared the model to the human at five different signal-intensity values in order to see if the performance of the CS-CHO matched human performance. Our results indicate that the CS-CHO with the chosen scalar for the contrast sensitivity predicts human performance closely as a function of signal intensity.

  15. In vitro percutaneous absorption of tenoxicam from pressure-sensitive adhesive matrices across the hairless mouse skin. (United States)

    Gwak, H S; Chun, I K


    To investigate the feasibility of developing a new tenoxicam plaster, the effects of vehicles and penetration enhancers on the in vitro permeation of tenoxicam from a pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) matrices across the dorsal hairless mouse skin were studied. Vehicles employed in this study were propylene glycol (PG)-oleyl alcohol (OAI), PG-oleic acid (OA), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME)-propylene glycol monolaurate (PGML) cosolvents with/without fatty acids. In this study, amines such as triethanolamine (TEA) and tromethamine (TM) were additionally used as a solubilizer. Among PSAs used, Duro-Tak 87-2510 showed much higher release rate than either Duro-Tak 87-2100 or Duro-Tak 87-2196. The relatively high flux rate was obtained with the formulation of DGME-PGML (40:60, v/v) with 3% OA and 5% TM, and the flux increased as a function of the dose; the initial flux up to 12 h was 4.98 +/- 1.38 microg/cm2/h at the tenoxicam dose of 50 mg/70 cm2. This flux was much higher than that of a commercial piroxicam patch (Trast) (1.24 +/- 0.73 microg/ cm2/hr) with almost only one-third that of the commercial patch. Therefore, these observations indicated that these composition of tenoxicam plaster may be practically applicable.


    Altered sensitivity of the mouse fetus to impaired prostatic bud formation by dioxin: Influence of genetic background and null expression of TGF and EGF. Rasmussen, N.T., Lin T-M., Fenton, S.E., Abbott, B.D. and R.E. Peterson. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...

  17. Contrasting effects of ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet B exposure on induction of contact sensitivity in human skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Hansen, Henrik; Barker, J. N.


    Ultraviolet-B (UVB), in addition to direct effects on DNA, induces immunological changes in the skin that predispose to the development of skin cancer. Whether ultraviolet-A (UVA) induces similar changes is unknown. This effect can be investigated in humans in vivo using epicutaneous antigens...

  18. Optimization of biotinyl-tyramide-based in situ hybridization for sensitive background-free applications on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliesky Holly A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past five years in situ hybridization techniques employing tyramide amplification reagents have been developed and promise the potential detection of low/single-copy nucleic acid sequences. However the increased sensitivity that tyramide amplification brings about may also lead to problems of background staining that confound data interpretation. Methods In this study those factors enabling background-free biotinyl-tyramide based in situ hybridization assay of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues have been examined. SiHa, HeLa and CaSki cell lines known to contain HPV integrated into the cell genome, and archival cervical pre-invasive lesions and carcinomas have been successfully assessed using biotinylated HPV and centromeric probes. Results The single most important factor both for sensitivity and clean background was a tissue unmasking regimen that included treatment with 10 mM sodium citrate pH 6.0 at 95°C followed by digestion with pepsin/0.2 M HCl. Concentrations both of probe and primary streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate and pH of hybridization mix and stringency washes were also critical for sensitivity. Certain probes were more associated with background staining than others. This problem was not related to probe purity or size. In these instances composition of hybridization mix solution was especially critical to avoid background. 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole was preferred over 3,3'-diaminobenzidene as a chromogen because background was cleaner and the 1–2 copies of HPV16 integrated in SiHa cells were readily demonstrable. HPV detection on metaphase spreads prepared from SiHa cells was only successful when a fluorescent detection method was combined with tyramide reagent. 'Punctate' and 'diffuse' signal patterns were identified amongst tissues consistent with the former representing integration and 'diffuse' representing episomal HPV. Only punctate signals were detected amongst the cell lines and were

  19. Improving Sensitivity and Specificity when Measuring Environmental Exposure to Engineered Nanoparticle Releases with the use of Low-Background Techniques


    Papinchak, Heather Laine


    As applications of nanotechnology expand, there is an increasing need to develop inexpensive, sensitive, and specific procedures to measure occupational exposures to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). The use of hand-held direct reading instruments to screen for airborne ENPs is attractive due to the relatively low cost of such commercially available instruments and the immediate feedback provided. However, because ambient air typically contains thousands of non-engineered nanoparticles per cu...

  20. Physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydrogels based on hydroxyethyl cellulose-hyaluronic acid and for applications as transdermal delivery systems for skin lesions. (United States)

    Kwon, Soon Sik; Kong, Bong Ju; Park, Soo Nam


    We investigated the physicochemical properties of pH-sensitive hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC)/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex hydrogels containing isoliquiritigenin (ILTG), and discussed potential applications as transdermal delivery systems for the treatment of skin lesions caused by pH imbalance. HA has skin compatibility and pH functional groups and HEC serves as scaffold to build hydrogels with varied HCE:HA mass ratio. Hydrogels were synthesized via chemical cross-linking, and three-dimensional network structures were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The swelling properties and polymer ratios of the hydrogels were investigated at pH values in the range 1-13. HECHA13 (i.e., an HEC:HA mass ratio of 1:3) was found to have optimal rheological and adhesive properties, and was used to investigate the drug release efficiency as a function of pH; the efficiency was greater than 70% at pH 7. Antimicrobial activity assays against Propionibacterium acnes were conducted to take advantage of the pH-sensitive properties of HECHA13. At pH 7, we found that HECHA13, which contained ILTG, inhibited the growth of P. acnes. Furthermore, HECHA13 was found to exhibit excellent permeability into the skin, which penetrated mostly via the hair follicle. These results indicate that this pH-sensitive hydrogel is effective as a transdermal delivery system for antimicrobial therapeutics, with potential applications in the treatment of acne.

  1. An in vitro skin sensitization assay termed EpiSensA for broad sets of chemicals including lipophilic chemicals and pre/pro-haptens. (United States)

    Saito, Kazutoshi; Takenouchi, Osamu; Nukada, Yuko; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi


    To evaluate chemicals (e.g. lipophilic chemicals, pre/pro-haptens) that are difficult to correctly evaluate using in vitro skin sensitization tests (e.g. DPRA, KeratinoSens or h-CLAT), we developed a novel in vitro test termed "Epidermal Sensitization Assay: EpiSensA" that uses reconstructed human epidermis. This assay is based on the induction of multiple marker genes (ATF3, IL-8, DNAJB4 and GCLM) related to two keratinocyte responses (inflammatory or cytoprotective) in the induction of skin sensitization. Here, we first confirmed the mechanistic relevance of these marker genes by focusing on key molecules that regulate keratinocyte responses in vivo (P2X7 for inflammatory and Nrf2 for cytoprotective responses). The up-regulation of ATF3 and IL-8, or DNAJB4 and GCLM induced by the representative sensitizer 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene in human keratinocytes was significantly suppressed by a P2X7 specific antagonist KN-62, or by Nrf2 siRNA, respectively, which supported mechanistic relevance of marker genes. Moreover, the EpiSensA had sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93%, 100% and 93% for 29 lipophilic chemicals (logKow≥3.5), and of 96%, 75% and 88% for 43 hydrophilic chemicals including 11 pre/pro-haptens, compared with the LLNA. These results suggested that the EpiSensA could be a mechanism-based test applicable to broad sets of chemicals including lipophilic chemicals and pre/pro-haptens.

  2. The efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturising cream for dry skin and itch relief: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial- study protocol



    Background Moisturisers prevent and treat dry skin. They can also protect sensitive skin, improve skin tone and texture, and mask imperfections. Herbal medicines or their extracts have been available as topical formulations and cosmetics. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) has been used to treat inflammatory disorders and various skin problems. It could be a candidate herbal medicine for treating dry skin condition. This study aims to establish the efficacy and safety of a proposed herbal moisturi...

  3. Sensitivity and specificity analysis of fringing-field dielectric spectroscopy applied to a multi-layer system modelling the human skin (United States)

    Huclova, Sonja; Baumann, Dirk; Talary, Mark S.; Fröhlich, Jürg


    The sensitivity and specificity of dielectric spectroscopy for the detection of dielectric changes inside a multi-layered structure is investigated. We focus on providing a base for sensing physiological changes in the human skin, i.e. in the epidermal and dermal layers. The correlation between changes of the human skin's effective permittivity and changes of dielectric parameters and layer thickness of the epidermal and dermal layers is assessed using numerical simulations. Numerical models include fringing-field probes placed directly on a multi-layer model of the skin. The resulting dielectric spectra in the range from 100 kHz up to 100 MHz for different layer parameters and sensor geometries are used for a sensitivity and specificity analysis of this multi-layer system. First, employing a coaxial probe, a sensitivity analysis is performed for specific variations of the parameters of the epidermal and dermal layers. Second, the specificity of this system is analysed based on the roots and corresponding sign changes of the computed dielectric spectra and their first and second derivatives. The transferability of the derived results is shown by a comparison of the dielectric spectra of a coplanar probe and a scaled coaxial probe. Additionally, a comparison of the sensitivity of a coaxial probe and an interdigitated probe as a function of electrode distance is performed. It is found that the sensitivity for detecting changes of dielectric properties in the epidermal and dermal layers strongly depends on frequency. Based on an analysis of the dielectric spectra, changes in the effective dielectric parameters can theoretically be uniquely assigned to specific changes in permittivity and conductivity. However, in practice, measurement uncertainties may degrade the performance of the system.

  4. Silicon-Based Antenna-Coupled Polarization-Sensitive Millimeter-Wave Bolometer Arrays for Cosmic Microwave Background Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Rostem, Karwan; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Brown, Ari; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe A; Costen, Nick; Denis, Kevin L; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Hu, Ron; Marriage, Tobias A; Moseley, Samuel H; Stevenson, Thomas R; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J; Xu, Zhilei


    We describe feedhorn-coupled polarization-sensitive detector arrays that utilize monocrystalline silicon as the dielectric substrate material. Monocrystalline silicon has a low-loss tangent and repeatable dielectric constant, characteristics that are critical for realizing efficient and uniform superconducting microwave circuits. An additional advantage of this material is its low specific heat. In a detector pixel, two Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are antenna-coupled to in-band radiation via a symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT). Each orthogonal linear polarization is coupled to a separate superconducting microstrip transmission line circuit. On-chip filtering is employed to both reject out-of-band radiation from the upper band edge to the gap frequency of the niobium superconductor, and to flexibly define the bandwidth for each TES to meet the requirements of the application. The microwave circuit is compatible with multi-chroic operation. Metalized silicon platelets are used to define th...

  5. From genome-wide arrays to tailor-made biomarker readout - Progress towards routine analysis of skin sensitizing chemicals with GARD. (United States)

    Forreryd, Andy; Zeller, Kathrin S; Lindberg, Tim; Johansson, Henrik; Lindstedt, Malin


    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) initiated by chemical sensitizers is an important public health concern. To prevent ACD, it is important to identify chemical allergens to limit the use of such compounds in various products. EU legislations, as well as increased mechanistic knowledge of skin sensitization have promoted development of non-animal based approaches for hazard classification of chemicals. GARD is an in vitro testing strategy based on measurements of a genomic biomarker signature. However, current GARD protocols are optimized for identification of predictive biomarker signatures, and not suitable for standardized screening. This study describes improvements to GARD to progress from biomarker discovery into a reliable and cost-effective assay for routine testing. Gene expression measurements were transferred to NanoString nCounter platform, normalization strategy was adjusted to fit serial arrival of testing substances, and a novel strategy to correct batch variations was presented. When challenging GARD with 29 compounds, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy could be estimated to 94%, 83% and 90%, respectively. In conclusion, we present a GARD workflow with improved sample capacity, retained predictive performance, and in a format adapted to standardized screening. We propose that GARD is ready to be considered as part of an integrated testing strategy for skin sensitization.

  6. Impact of Assimilation on Heavy Rainfall Simulations Using WRF Model: Sensitivity of Assimilation Results to Background Error Statistics (United States)

    Rakesh, V.; Kantharao, B.


    Data assimilation is considered as one of the effective tools for improving forecast skill of mesoscale models. However, for optimum utilization and effective assimilation of observations, many factors need to be taken into account while designing data assimilation methodology. One of the critical components that determines the amount and propagation observation information into the analysis, is model background error statistics (BES). The objective of this study is to quantify how BES in data assimilation impacts on simulation of heavy rainfall events over a southern state in India, Karnataka. Simulations of 40 heavy rainfall events were carried out using Weather Research and Forecasting Model with and without data assimilation. The assimilation experiments were conducted using global and regional BES while the experiment with no assimilation was used as the baseline for assessing the impact of data assimilation. The simulated rainfall is verified against high-resolution rain-gage observations over Karnataka. Statistical evaluation using several accuracy and skill measures shows that data assimilation has improved the heavy rainfall simulation. Our results showed that the experiment using regional BES outperformed the one which used global BES. Critical thermo-dynamic variables conducive for heavy rainfall like convective available potential energy simulated using regional BES is more realistic compared to global BES. It is pointed out that these results have important practical implications in design of forecast platforms while decision-making during extreme weather events

  7. Abrupt millennial variability and interdecadal-interstadial oscillations in a global coupled model: sensitivity to the background climate state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France); England, Matthew H. [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Verdiere, Alain Colin de; Huck, Thierry [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France)


    The origin and bifurcation structure of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions under steady external solar forcing and in the absence of atmospheric synoptic variability is studied by means of a global coupled model of intermediate complexity. We show that the origin of Dansgaard-Oeschger type oscillations in the model is caused by the weaker northward oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic basin. This is in agreement with previous studies realized with much simpler models, based on highly idealized geometries and simplified physics. The existence of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions during glacial times can therefore be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of the negative temperature-advection feedback. This is confirmed through a series of numerical experiments designed to explore the sensitivity of the bifurcation structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels under glacial boundary conditions. Contrasting with the cold, stadial, phases of millennial oscillations, we also show the emergence of strong interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic sector during warm interstadials. The instability driving these interdecadal-interstadial oscillations is shown to be identical to that found in ocean-only models forced by fixed surface buoyancy fluxes, that is, a large-scale baroclinic instability developing in the vicinity of the western boundary current in the North Atlantic. Comparisons with modern observations further suggest a physical mechanism similar to that driving the 30-40 years time scale associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. (orig.)

  8. Silicon-based antenna-coupled polarization-sensitive millimeter-wave bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background instruments (United States)

    Rostem, Karwan; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Brown, Ari; Chang, Meng-Ping; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe A.; Costen, Nick; Denis, Kevin L.; Essinger-Hileman, Tom; Hu, Ron; Marriage, Tobias A.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; U-Yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Xu, Zhilei


    We describe feedhorn-coupled polarization-sensitive detector arrays that utilize monocrystalline silicon as the dielectric substrate material. Monocrystalline silicon has a low-loss tangent and repeatable dielectric constant, characteristics that are critical for realizing efficient and uniform superconducting microwave circuits. An additional advantage of this material is its low specific heat. In a detector pixel, two Transition-Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers are antenna-coupled to in-band radiation via a symmetric planar orthomode transducer (OMT). Each orthogonal linear polarization is coupled to a separate superconducting microstrip transmission line circuit. On-chip filtering is employed to both reject out-of-band radiation from the upper band edge to the gap frequency of the niobium superconductor, and to flexibly define the bandwidth for each TES to meet the requirements of the application. The microwave circuit is compatible with multi-chroic operation. Metalized silicon platelets are used to define the backshort for the waveguide probes. This micro-machined structure is also used to mitigate the coupling of out-of-band radiation to the microwave circuit. At 40 GHz, the detectors have a measured efficiency of ˜90%. In this paper, we describe the development of the 90 GHz detector arrays that will be demonstrated using the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) ground-based telescope.

  9. Analysis of DNA methylation variation in wheat genetic background after alien chromatin introduction based on methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During the process of alien germplasm introduced into wheat genome by chromosome engineering,extensive genetic variations of genome structure and gene expression in recipient could be induced.In this study,we performed GISH(genome in situ hybridization)and AFLP(amplified fragment length polymorphism) on wheat-rye chromosome transIocation lines and their parents to detect the identity in genomic structure of different translocation lines.The results showed that the genome primary structure variations were not obviously detected in different translocation lines except the same 1RS chromosome translocation.Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism(MSAP)analyses on genomic DNA showed that the ratios of fully-methylated sites were significantly increased in translocation lines(CN12,20.15%;CN17,20.91%;CN18,22.42%),but the ratios of hemimethylated sites were significantly lowered(CN12,21.41%;CN17,23.43%;CN18,22.42%),whereas 16.37%were fully-methylated and 25.44%were hemimethylated in case of their wheat parent.Twenty-nine classes of methylation patterns were identified in a comparative assay of cytosine methylation patterns between wheat-rye translocation lines and their wheat parent,including 13 hypermethylation patterns(33.74%),9 demethylation patterns(22.76%)and 7 uncertain patterns(4.07%).In further sequence analysis,the alterations of methylation pattern affected both repetitive DNA sequences,such as retrotransposons and tandem repetitive sequences,and low-copy DNA.

  10. Two-tiered keratinocyte assay: IL-18 production by NCTC2544 cells to determine the skin sensitizing capacity and an epidermal equivalent assay to determine sensitizer potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunis, Marc; Corsini, Emanuela; Smits, Mieke;


    At present, the identification of potentially sensitizing chemicals is carried out using animal models. However, it should be very important, both from ethical and economic point of view, to discriminate allergy and irritation events, and to classify sensitizers according to their potency, without......2544 IL-18 assay can be used to identify the sensitizing capacity of a chemical (NCTC assay, tier 1) while the Epidermal Equivalent potency assay is used to quantify the potency of the sensitizing agent (EE assay, tier 2). These assays combined, may offer an unique opportunity to provide an alternative...

  11. Establishment of a Transgenic Zebrafish Line for Superficial Skin Ablation and Functional Validation of Apoptosis Modulators In Vivo



    BACKGROUND: Zebrafish skin is composed of enveloping and basal layers which form a first-line defense system against pathogens. Zebrafish epidermis contains ionocytes and mucous cells that aid secretion of acid/ions or mucous through skin. Previous studies demonstrated that fish skin is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that modulate skin cell apoptosis in zebrafish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to create a pla...

  12. On the (In)Efficiency of the Cross-Correlation Statistic for Gravitational Wave Stochastic Background Signals with Non-Gaussian Noise and Heterogeneous Detector Sensitivities

    CERN Document Server

    Lionel, Martellini


    Under standard assumptions including stationary and serially uncorrelated Gaussian gravitational wave stochastic background signal and noise distributions, as well as homogenous detector sensitivities, the standard cross-correlation detection statistic is known to be optimal in the sense of minimizing the probability of a false dismissal at a fixed value of the probability of a false alarm. The focus of this paper is to analyze the comparative efficiency of this statistic, versus a simple alternative statistic obtained by cross-correlating the \\textit{squared} measurements, in situations that deviate from such standard assumptions. We find that differences in detector sensitivities have a large impact on the comparative efficiency of the cross-correlation detection statistic, which is dominated by the alternative statistic when these differences reach one order of magnitude. This effect holds even when both the signal and noise distributions are Gaussian. While the presence of non-Gaussian signals has no mate...

  13. Influence of the Earth on the background and the sensitivity of the GRM and ECLAIRs instruments aboard the Chinese-French mission SVOM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Donghua; Sizun, Patrick; Wu, Bobing; Dong, Yongwei; Schanne, Stéphane; Song, Liming; Liu, Jiangtao


    SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Object Monitor) is a future Chinese-French satellite mission which is dedicated to Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) studies. Its anti-solar pointing strategy makes the Earth cross the field of view of its payload every orbit. In this paper, we present the variations of the gamma-ray background of the two high energy instruments aboard SVOM, the Gamma-Ray Monitor (GRM) and ECLAIRs, as a function of the Earth position. We conclude with an estimate of the Earth influence on their sensitivity and their GRB detection capability.

  14. Transfer of a two-tiered keratinocyte assay: IL-18 production by NCTC2544 to determine the skin sensitizing capacity and epidermal equivalent assay to determine sensitizer potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunis, Marc; Corsini, Emanuela; Smits, Mieke;


    At present, the identification of potentially sensitizing chemicals is carried out using animal models. However, it is very important from ethical, safety and economic point of view to have biological markers to discriminate allergy and irritation events, and to be able to classify sensitizers...

  15. Classification of skin sensitizing substances: a comparison between approaches used by the DFG-MAK Commission and the European Union legislation. (United States)

    Lessmann, H; Uter, W; Diepgen, T L; Drexler, H; Fartasch, M; Greim, H; Hartwig, A; Kreis, P; Löser, E; Merget, R; Merk, H; Nowak, D; Rothe, A; Stropp, G; Schnuch, A


    A systematic classification of substances (or mixtures of substances) with regard to various toxicological endpoints is a prerequisite for the implementation of occupational safety strategies. As its principal task the "Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area" of the "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" (DFG-MAK Commission) derives and recommends maximum workplace concentrations and biological tolerance values (MAK and BAT values) based exclusively on scientific arguments. Several endpoints are evaluated separately in detail, e.g. carcinogenicity, risks during pregnancy, germ cell mutagenicity or contribution to systemic toxicity after cutaneous absorption. Skin- and airway sensitization is also considered; the present paper focuses on these two endpoints.

  16. 达乌尔黄鼠对溴敌隆敏感性的测定%The determination on sensitive background of S. dauricus to Bromadiolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈显赫; 孙启廷; 张雁冰; 段天一


    Objective To establish sensitive background of S. dauricus to Bromadiolone and to provide scientific theoretical basis for checking resistance of S. dauricus to Bromadiolone. Methods With alternative feeding test and methods of WHO, upper limit of 95% effective dose were established as the most suitable dose for eliminating mice; With the methods of Litchfield, the sensitive background of S. dauricus to the second generation anticoagulant poison were calculated by eating poison period with death rate. Results The most dose was 4. 87mg/kg which sensitive background of Bromadiolone was determined on S. dauricus and eating poison period was twenty days. The rush hour of animal death arised in the third and fourth days and animals died overall in the seventh after feeding poisons. Conclusions Investigating resistance of S. dauricus to Bromadiolone has practical meaning with 0. 01% baits for sensitive determination and eating poison period 20 days as standard.%目的 确立达乌尔黄鼠对溴敌隆的敏感本底(即食毒期),为检测达乌尔黄鼠对溴敌隆抗药性提供科学的理论依据.方法 通过摄食试验,以世界卫生组织(WHO)提供的方法,ED95置信上限确立最适宜的灭鼠剂量;通过食毒期与其对应的死亡率,用Litchfield方法计算出达乌尔黄鼠对第2代抗凝血灭鼠剂的敏感本底.结果 达乌尔黄鼠对溴敌隆敏感本底测定最适宜的剂量为4.87 mg/kg,食毒期为20 d.测定中动物死亡高峰出现在饲毒后第3~4d,第10 d全部死亡.结论 以0.01%浓度配制毒饵进行敏感性测定,以20d为食毒期作为标准进行达乌尔黄鼠对溴敌隆的抗药性调查具有实际意义.

  17. Assessing the impacts of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimlin, Michael G., E-mail:; Guo, Yuming, E-mail:


    Background: Ultraviolet radiation exposure during an individuals' lifetime is a known risk factor for the development of skin cancer. However, less evidence is available on assessing the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Objectives: This study aims to assess the relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging using a non-invasive measure of exposure. Methods: We recruited 180 participants (73 males, 107 females) aged 18-83 years. Digital imaging of skin hyperpigmentation (skin damage) and skin wrinkling (skin aging) on the facial region was measured. Lifetime sun exposure (presented as hours) was calculated from the participants' age multiplied by the estimated annual time outdoors for each year of life. We analyzed the effects of lifetime sun exposure on skin damage and skin aging. We adjust for the influence of age, sex, occupation, history of skin cancer, eye color, hair color, and skin color. Results: There were non-linear relationships between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Younger participant's skin is much more sensitive to sun exposure than those who were over 50 years of age. As such, there were negative interactions between lifetime sun exposure and age. Age had linear effects on skin damage and skin aging. Conclusion: The data presented showed that self reported lifetime sun exposure was positively associated with skin damage and skin aging, in particular, the younger people. Future health promotion for sun exposure needs to pay attention to this group for skin cancer prevention messaging. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study finding the non-linear relationship between lifetime sun exposure and skin damage and skin aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study finds there is negative interaction between lifetime sun exposure and age for skin damage and aging. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggests that future

  18. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin Health and Skin Diseases Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin is the largest organ of your body? It ...

  19. Probabilistic hazard assessment for skin sensitization potency by dose–response modeling using feature elimination instead of quantitative structure–activity relationships (United States)

    McKim, James M.; Hartung, Thomas; Kleensang, Andre; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa


    Supervised learning methods promise to improve integrated testing strategies (ITS), but must be adjusted to handle high dimensionality and dose–response data. ITS approaches are currently fueled by the increasing mechanistic understanding of adverse outcome pathways (AOP) and the development of tests reflecting these mechanisms. Simple approaches to combine skin sensitization data sets, such as weight of evidence, fail due to problems in information redundancy and high dimension-ality. The problem is further amplified when potency information (dose/response) of hazards would be estimated. Skin sensitization currently serves as the foster child for AOP and ITS development, as legislative pressures combined with a very good mechanistic understanding of contact dermatitis have led to test development and relatively large high-quality data sets. We curated such a data set and combined a recursive variable selection algorithm to evaluate the information available through in silico, in chemico and in vitro assays. Chemical similarity alone could not cluster chemicals’ potency, and in vitro models consistently ranked high in recursive feature elimination. This allows reducing the number of tests included in an ITS. Next, we analyzed with a hidden Markov model that takes advantage of an intrinsic inter-relationship among the local lymph node assay classes, i.e. the monotonous connection between local lymph node assay and dose. The dose-informed random forest/hidden Markov model was superior to the dose-naive random forest model on all data sets. Although balanced accuracy improvement may seem small, this obscures the actual improvement in misclassifications as the dose-informed hidden Markov model strongly reduced "false-negatives" (i.e. extreme sensitizers as non-sensitizer) on all data sets. PMID:26046447

  20. In Chemico Evaluation of Tea Tree Essential Oils as Skin Sensitizers: Impact of the Chemical Composition on Aging and Generation of Reactive Species. (United States)

    Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Rua, Diego; Khan, Ikhlas A


    Tea tree oil (TTO) is an essential oil obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia, or M. dissitiflora. Because of the commercial importance of TTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka, or kanuka oils) is common and may pose significant risks along with perceived health benefits. The distinctive nature, qualitative and quantitative compositional variation of these oils, is responsible for the various pharmacological as well as adverse effects. Authentic TTOs (especially aged ones) have been identified as potential skin sensitizers, while reports of adverse allergic reactions to the other tea trees essential oils are less frequent. Chemical sensitizers are usually electrophilic compounds, and in chemico methods have been developed to identify skin allergens in terms of their ability to bind to biological nucleophiles. However, little information is available on the assessment of sensitization potential of mixtures, such as essential oils, due to their complexity. In the present study, 10 "tea tree" oils and six major TTO constituents have been investigated for their sensitization potential using a fluorescence in chemico method. The reactivity of authentic TTOs was found to correlate with the age of the oils, while the majority of nonauthentic TTOs were less reactive, even after aging. Further thio-trapping experiments with DCYA and characterization by UHPLC-DAD-MS led to the identification of several possible DCYA-adducts which can be used to deduce the structure of the candidate reactive species. The major TTO components, terpinolene, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, were unstable under accelerated aging conditions, which led to the formation of several DCYA-adducts.

  1. A case of advanced mycosis fungoides with comprehensive skin and visceral organs metastasis:sensitive to chemical and biological therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Qian Liu; Wei-You Zhu; Yong-Qian Shu; Yan-Hong Gu


    Mycosis fungoides is a common cutaneousT-cell lymphoma, which is usually characterized by chronic, indolence progression, with absence of typical symptoms in early stage, metastasis to lymph nodes, bone marrow and visceral organs in later stage and ultimately progression to systemic lymphoma. It can result in secondary skin infection which is a frequent cause of death. At present, no curative therapy existed. Therapeutic purpose is to induce remission, reduce tumor burden and protect immune function of patients. A case of patient with advanced severe mycosis fungoides receivingCHOP plus interferon α-2a was reported here, with disease-free survival of 7 months and overall survival of over17.0 months, and current status as well as developments of mycosis fungoides were briefly introduced.

  2. A case of advanced mycosis fungoides with comprehensive skin and visceral organs metastasis: sensitive to chemical and biological therapy. (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Qian; Zhu, Wei-You; Shu, Yong-Qian; Gu, Yan-Hong


    Mycosis fungoides is a common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, which is usually characterized by chronic, indolence progression, with absence of typical symptoms in early stage, metastasis to lymph nodes, bone marrow and visceral organs in later stage and ultimately progression to systemic lymphoma. It can result in secondary skin infection which is a frequent cause of death. At present, no curative therapy existed. Therapeutic purpose is to induce remission, reduce tumor burden and protect immune function of patients. A case of patient with advanced severe mycosis fungoides receiving CHOP plus interferon α-2a was reported here, with disease-free survival of 7 months and overall survival of over 17.0 months, and current status as well as developments of mycosis fungoides were briefly introduced.

  3. Morphology and epidermal thickness of normal skin imaged by optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Morsy, Hanan A.; Thrane, Lars;


    Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technology with a potential in the non-invasive diagnosis of skin cancer. To identify skin pathologies using OCT, it is of prime importance to establish baseline morphological features of normal skin. Aims: The aim of this study....... In glabrous skin the stratum corneum is visible. Children had larger ET (p skin-type-related differences in ET were found. Conclusion: This study contributes to understanding OCT and PS-OCT images of normal skin and indicates that OCT...... is to describe normal skin morphology using OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT), which is a way of representing birefringent tissue such as collagen in OCT images. Anatomical locations in 20 healthy volunteers were imaged, and epidermal thickness (ET) was measured and compared to age, gender and skin...

  4. The background of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup J increases the sensitivity of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy cells to 2,5-hexanedione toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ghelli

    Full Text Available Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON is a maternally inherited blinding disease due to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations in complex I subunit genes, whose incomplete penetrance has been attributed to both genetic and environmental factors. Indeed, the mtDNA background defined as haplogroup J is known to increase the penetrance of the 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 mutations. Recently it was also documented that the professional exposure to n-hexane might act as an exogenous trigger for LHON. Therefore, we here investigate the effect of the n-hexane neurotoxic metabolite 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD on cell viability and mitochondrial function of different cell models (cybrids and fibroblasts carrying the LHON mutations on different mtDNA haplogroups. The viability of control and LHON cybrids and fibroblasts, whose mtDNAs were completely sequenced, was assessed using the MTT assay. Mitochondrial ATP synthesis rate driven by complex I substrates was determined with the luciferine/luciferase method. Incubation with 2,5-HD caused the maximal loss of viability in control and LHON cells. The toxic effect of this compound was similar in control cells irrespective of the mtDNA background. On the contrary, sensitivity to 2,5-HD induced cell death was greatly increased in LHON cells carrying the 11778/ND4 or the 14484/ND6 mutation on haplogroup J, whereas the 11778/ND4 mutation in association with haplogroups U and H significantly improved cell survival. The 11778/ND4 mutation on haplogroup U was also more resistant to inhibition of complex I dependent ATP synthesis by 2,5-HD. In conclusion, this study shows that mtDNA haplogroups modulate the response of LHON cells to 2,5-HD. In particular, haplogroup J makes cells more sensitive to its toxic effect. This is the first evidence that an mtDNA background plays a role by interacting with an environmental factor and that 2,5-HD may be a risk element for visual loss in LHON. This proof of principle has broad

  5. Are basophil histamine release and high affinity IgE receptor expression involved in asymptomatic skin sensitization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Assing, K; Jensen, Lone Hummelshøj


    . However, a relationship between the AS status and FcepsilonRI has not been investigated. We aimed to characterize basophils from AS by looking at histamine release (HR) (sensitivity and reactivity) and the FcepsilonRI molecule, and compare it with nonatopic (NA) or allergic (A) persons....

  6. Sensitization according to skin prick testings in atopic patients with asthma or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Northern Europe and Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils E Eriksson


    Full Text Available Skin prick tests (SPT were performed on 2113 atopic patients (407 children and 1 706 adults with asthma and/or rhinitis at 24 allergy clinics in Iceland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Estonia, Lithuania and Russia. Test extracts were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae [D. farinae, cat, dog, horse, birch, timothy, mugwort, Cladosporium, Alternaria, cockroach, chironomids (red mosquito larvae, RML and shrimp. Among the allergens, timothy followed by cat, birch and dog gave the highest number of positive SPT. Positive SPT with house dust mites (HDM, furred animals, RML and Cladosporium were more common in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis; birch and timothy more common in patients with rhinitis. Sensitization against D. pteronyssinus, horse, timothy and Cladosporium was more common in men than in women. Although the general sensitization pattern of the atopic patients at the participating centers showed similarities, there were also significant differences between centers. Positive SPT with furred animals were most prevalent in Northern and Central Sweden and St Petersburg, and least common in Siberia and Denmark. Pollen allergy was most common in Novosibirsk and on the west coast of Sweden, and less common in Vladivostok. Sensitization against HDM was most common in Lithuania and least prevalent in Northern Sweden and Finland. Insect allergens gave the most positive reactions in St Petersburg and the least positive reaction in Novosibirsk. Sensitization against multiple allergens was found in 74% of the patients and a mono-allergy in 26%. The degree of atopy was higher in males than in females and higher in asthmatics than in patients with rhinitis. The month of birth of the patients did not influence significantly the test results. It is concluded that although the sensitization pattern shows similarities in different regions, it is also influenced to some extent by residence as well as by diagnosis, sex

  7. Estimation of mean-glandular dose from monitoring breast entrance skin air kerma using a high sensitivity metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeter system in mammography. (United States)

    Dong, S L; Chu, T C; Lee, J S; Lan, G Y; Wu, T H; Yeh, Y H; Hwang, J J


    Estimation of mean-glandular dose (MGD) has been investigated in recent years due to the potential risks of radiation-induced carcinogenesis associated with the mammographic examination for diagnostic radiology. In this study, a new technique for immediate readout of breast entrance skin air kerma (BESAK) using high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter after mammographic projection was introduced and a formula for the prediction of tube output with exposure records was developed. A series of appropriate conversion factors was applied to the MGD determination from the BESAK. The study results showed that signal response of the high sensitivity MOSFET exhibited excellent linearity within mammographic dose ranges, and that the energy dependence was less than 3% for each anode/filter combination at the tube potentials 25-30 kV. Good agreement was observed between the BESAK and the tube exposure output measurement for breasts thicker than 30 mm. In addition, the air kerma estimated from our prediction formula provided sufficient accuracy for thinner breasts. The average MGD from 120 Asian females was 1.5 mGy, comparable to other studies. Our results suggest that the high sensitivity MOSFET dosimeter system is a good candidate for immediately readout of BESAK after mammographic procedures.

  8. Your Skin (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Skin KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Skin Print A A ... are really dead skin cells. continue Bye-Bye Skin Cells These old cells are tough and strong, ...

  9. Estimation of the relative sensitivity of the comparative tuberculin skin test in tuberculous cattle herds subjected to depopulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Karolemeas

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB is one of the most serious economic animal health problems affecting the cattle industry in Great Britain (GB, with incidence in cattle herds increasing since the mid-1980s. The single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT test is the primary screening test in the bTB surveillance and control programme in GB and Ireland. The sensitivity (ability to detect infected cattle of this test is central to the efficacy of the current testing regime, but most previous studies that have estimated test sensitivity (relative to the number of slaughtered cattle with visible lesions [VL] and/or positive culture results lacked post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle. The slaughter of entire herds ("whole herd slaughters" or "depopulations" that are infected by bTB are occasionally conducted in GB as a last-resort control measure to resolve intractable bTB herd breakdowns. These provide additional post-mortem data for SICCT test-negative cattle, allowing a rare opportunity to calculate the animal-level sensitivity of the test relative to the total number of SICCT test-positive and negative VL animals identified post-mortem (rSe. In this study, data were analysed from 16 whole herd slaughters (748 SICCT test-positive and 1031 SICCT test-negative cattle conducted in GB between 1988 and 2010, using a bayesian hierarchical model. The overall rSe estimate of the SICCT test at the severe interpretation was 85% (95% credible interval [CI]: 78-91%, and at standard interpretation was 81% (95% CI: 70-89%. These estimates are more robust than those previously reported in GB due to inclusion of post-mortem data from SICCT test-negative cattle.

  10. The NuSTAR extragalactic survey: a first sensitive look at the high-energy cosmic x-ray background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Del Moro, A.;


    of broad-band ≈ 0.5-32 keV spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and broad-band ultraviolet-to-mid-infrared spectral energy distribution analyses. We find that the dominant source population is quasars with L10-40 keV > 1044 erg s-1, of which ≈ 50% are obscured with NH ≳ 1022 cm-2. However, none of the 10 NuSTAR......We report on the first 10 identifications of sources serendipitously detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) to provide the first sensitive census of the cosmic X-ray background source population at ≳ 10 keV. We find that these NuSTAR -detected sources are ≈ 100 times...... times higher than the median stellar mass of nearby high-energy selected AGNs, which may be at least partially driven by the order of magnitude higher X-ray luminosities of the NuSTAR sources. Within the low source-statistic limitations of our study, our results suggest that the overall properties...

  11. High-sensitive spectrometer of fast neutrons and the results of fast neutron background flux measurements at the Gallium-Germanium Solar Neutrino Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, J N; Kalikhov, A V; Matushko, V L; Shikhin, A A; Yants, V E; Zaborskaia, O S


    The principle of operation, design, registration system and main characteristics of a fast neutron spectrometer are described. The spectrometer is intended for direct measurements of ultra low fluxes of fast neutrons. It is sensitive to neutron fluxes of 10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 and lower. The detection efficiency of fast neutrons with simultaneous energy measurement was determined from Monte-Carlo simulation to be equal to 0.11+-0.01. The background counting rate in the detector corresponds to a neutron flux of (6.5+-2.1)x10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The natural neutron flux from the surrounding mine rock at the depth of 4600 m of water equivalent was measured to be (7.3+-2.4)x10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The flux of fast neutrons in the SAGE main room was measured to be <2.3x10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in 1.0-11.0 MeV energy range.

  12. The evaluation of the impact of age, skin tags, metabolic syndrome, body mass index, and smoking on homocysteine, endothelin-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein, and on the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Soliman El Safoury


    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags (STs are small, pedunculated skin-colored or brown papules that occur around any site where skin folds occur. The literature is short of comprehensive and controlled clinical studies aimed to evaluate the atherogenic risk factors in patients with STs. Aim of Work: The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of age, STs, metabolic syndrome (METs, body mass index (BMI, and smoking on homocysteine (Hcy, endothelin-1 (ET-1, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, and on cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: This study included 30 cardiac patients with STs, 30 non-cardiac patients with STs, and 30 healthy controls with neither heart disease nor STs. History of smoking, measurement of height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC, blood pressure, STs number, color, acanthosis nigricans, estimation of serum level of fasting glucose, triglycerides (TGs, cholesterol, high-dense lipoproteins (HDL, Hcy, ET-1, Hs-CRP, and the presence of the METs were elicited in the three groups. Results: Regarding the Hcy, ET-1, and Hs-CRP, the cardiac-STs group showed the highest levels and the control group showed the least ( P < 0.001. The percents of patients with METs were 56.7% in the cardiac-STs, 40% in the non-cardiac-STs, and 0% in the control group ( P < 0.001. Mean BMI exceeded the limit of obesity in the cardiac-STs group (30.9 ± 3.9 and the non-cardiac-STs group (32.6 ± 6 and was normal in the control group (24.7 ± 2.8. Hyperpigmented STs were present in 66.7% of the cardiac-STs group. Multivariate regression analysis for the independent effectors on Hcy level were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001, METs ( P = 0.001, and BMI ( P = 0.024. Regarding ET-1, the effectors were the presence of STs and METs ( P = 0.032. For Hs-CRP, effectors were the presence of STs ( P < 0.001 and smoking ( P = 0.040. Multivariate logistic regression of the predictors of cardiac disease showed that the independent predictors of the occurrence

  13. Mouse Prkar1a haploinsufficiency leads to an increase in tumors in the Trp53+/− or Rb1+/− backgrounds and chemically induced skin papillomas by dysregulation of the cell cycle and Wnt signaling (United States)

    Almeida, Madson Q.; Muchow, Michael; Boikos, Sosipatros; Bauer, Andrew J.; Griffin, Kurt J.; Tsang, Kit Man; Cheadle, Chris; Watkins, Tonya; Wen, Feng; Starost, Matthew F.; Bossis, Ioannis; Nesterova, Maria; Stratakis, Constantine A.


    PRKAR1A inactivation leads to dysregulated cAMP signaling and Carney complex (CNC) in humans, a syndrome associated with skin, endocrine and other tumors. The CNC phenotype is not easily explained by the ubiquitous cAMP signaling defect; furthermore, Prkar1a+/− mice did not develop skin and other CNC tumors. To identify whether a Prkar1a defect is truly a generic but weak tumorigenic signal that depends on tissue-specific or other factors, we investigated Prkar1a+/− mice when bred within the Rb1+/− or Trp53+/− backgrounds, or treated with a two-step skin carcinogenesis protocol. Prkar1a+/− Trp53+/− mice developed more sarcomas than Trp53+/− mice (P < 0.05) and Prkar1a+/− Rb1+/− mice grew more (and larger) pituitary and thyroid tumors than Rb1+/− mice. All mice with double heterozygosity had significantly reduced life-spans compared with their single-heterozygous counterparts. Prkar1a+/− mice also developed more papillomas than wild-type animals. A whole-genome transcriptome profiling of tumors produced by all three models identified Wnt signaling as the main pathway activated by abnormal cAMP signaling, along with cell cycle abnormalities; all changes were confirmed by qRT–PCR array and immunohistochemistry. siRNA down-regulation of Ctnnb1, E2f1 or Cdk4 inhibited proliferation of human adrenal cells bearing a PRKAR1A-inactivating mutation and Prkar1a+/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts and arrested both cell lines at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. In conclusion, Prkar1a haploinsufficiency is a relatively weak tumorigenic signal that can act synergistically with other tumor suppressor gene defects or chemicals to induce tumors, mostly through Wnt-signaling activation and cell cycle dysregulation, consistent with studies in human neoplasms carrying PRKAR1A defects. PMID:20080939

  14. Papain Degrades Tight Junction Proteins of Human Keratinocytes In Vitro and Sensitizes C57BL/6 Mice via the Skin Independent of its Enzymatic Activity or TLR4 Activation. (United States)

    Stremnitzer, Caroline; Manzano-Szalai, Krisztina; Willensdorfer, Anna; Starkl, Philipp; Pieper, Mario; König, Peter; Mildner, Michael; Tschachler, Erwin; Reichart, Ursula; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika


    Papain is commonly used in food, pharmaceutical, textile, and cosmetic industries and is known to induce occupational allergic asthma. We have previously shown that the papain-like cysteine protease Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 from house dust mite exhibits percutaneous sensitization potential. We aimed here to investigate the potential of papain itself in epicutaneous sensitization. The effects of papain on tight junction (TJ) proteins were tested in vitro in human primary keratinocytes. Using C57BL/6 wild-type and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-deficient mice, we analyzed the sensitization potential of papain, its effects on the skin barrier, and immune cell recruitment. Our results show that papain affects the skin barrier by increasing transepidermal water loss, degrading TJ proteins and inducing vasodilation. When topically applied, papain exhibited a high epicutaneous inflammatory potential by recruiting neutrophils, mast cells, and CD3-positive cells and by induction of a TH2-biased antibody response. However, its high potency for specific sensitization via the skin was TLR4 independent and, in spite of its capacity to degrade epidermal TJ proteins, does not rely on its enzymatic function. From our data, we conclude that papain has all features to act as a strong allergen via the skin.

  15. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Grimsley


    Full Text Available Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL observational study. Dust (indoor and air (indoor and outdoor samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat. Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold, sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions.

  16. Sensitivity of Satellite-Based Skin Temperature to Different Surface Emissivity and NWP Reanalysis Sources Demonstrated Using a Single-Channel, Viewing-Angle-Corrected Retrieval Algorithm (United States)

    Scarino, B. R.; Minnis, P.; Yost, C. R.; Chee, T.; Palikonda, R.


    Single-channel algorithms for satellite thermal-infrared- (TIR-) derived land and sea surface skin temperature (LST and SST) are advantageous in that they can be easily applied to a variety of satellite sensors. They can also accommodate decade-spanning instrument series, particularly for periods when split-window capabilities are not available. However, the benefit of one unified retrieval methodology for all sensors comes at the cost of critical sensitivity to surface emissivity (ɛs) and atmospheric transmittance estimation. It has been demonstrated that as little as 0.01 variance in ɛs can amount to more than a 0.5-K adjustment in retrieved LST values. Atmospheric transmittance requires calculations that employ vertical profiles of temperature and humidity from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Selection of a given NWP model can significantly affect LST and SST agreement relative to their respective validation sources. Thus, it is necessary to understand the accuracies of the retrievals for various NWP models to ensure the best LST/SST retrievals. The sensitivities of the single-channel retrievals to surface emittance and NWP profiles are investigated using NASA Langley historic land and ocean clear-sky skin temperature (Ts) values derived from high-resolution 11-μm TIR brightness temperature measured from geostationary satellites (GEOSat) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR). It is shown that mean GEOSat-derived, anisotropy-corrected LST can vary by up to ±0.8 K depending on whether CERES or MODIS ɛs sources are used. Furthermore, the use of either NOAA Global Forecast System (GFS) or NASA Goddard Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the radiative transfer model initial atmospheric state can account for more than 0.5-K variation in mean Ts. The results are compared to measurements from the Surface Radiation Budget Network (SURFRAD), an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program ground

  17. Skin Conditions (United States)

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  18. Introgression of Brown Norway CYP4A genes on to the Dahl salt-sensitive background restores vascular function in SS-5(BN) consomic rats. (United States)

    Lukaszewicz, Kathleen M; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Lombard, Julian H


    The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome 5 from the normotensive BN (Brown Norway) introgressed on to the SS genetic background. Cerebral arteries from SS-5(BN) rats had less CYP4A protein than arteries from SS rats fed either NS (normal-salt, 0.4% NaCl) or HS (high-salt, 4.0% NaCl) diet. ACh (acetylcholine)-induced dilation of MCAs (middle cerebral arteries) from SS and SS-5(BN) rats was present in SS-5(BN) rats fed on either an NS or HS diet, but absent in SS rats. In SS rats fed on either diet, ACh-induced dilation was restored by acute treatment with the CYP4A inhibitor DDMS (N-methyl-sulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide) or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid]. The restored response to ACh in DDMS-treated SS rats was inhibited by L-NAME (N(G)nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and unaffected by indomethacin or MS-PPOH [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide]. Vascular relaxation responses to the NO donor C(5)FeN(6)Na(2)O were intact in both SS and SS-5(BN) rats and unaffected by the acute addition of DDMS, indicating that the vascular dysfunction of the SS rat is due to a reduced bioavailability of NO instead of failure of the VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) to respond to the vasodilator. Superoxide levels in cerebral arteries of SS-5(BN) rats [evaluated semi-quantitatively by DHE (dihydroethidium) fluorescence] were lower than those in the arteries of SS rats. These findings indicate that SS rats have an up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE pathway resulting in elevated ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO bioavailability causing vascular dysfunction.

  19. Skin Infections (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Skin ... (bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues beneath) are typical childhood skin infections. The usual bacterial culprits in skin ...

  20. Skin Biomes. (United States)

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A


    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders.

  1. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl;


    Background: Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment...... of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. Objectives: To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Methods: Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples...... of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Results: Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01–0.20 µg...

  2. Reconstruction of the penile skin loss due to 'radical' circumcision with a full thickness skin graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Ivan


    Full Text Available Background. Excessive resection of penile skin is a rare but important complication of circumcision. Penis 'trapping' under the skin and consequent sexual dysfunction occur as a result. Case report. Excessive circumcision with complete resection of the penile skin is shown. Penis, trapped under the skin, was deliberated and skin defect was substituted with the full thickness skin graft. One year after the surgery penis has a good cosmetic appearance, adequate size and sexual function. Conclusion. Full thickness skin graft is a good option for augmentation of the penile skin loss in cases with intact hypodermal tissue and extensive skin loss, for the reconstruction in a single act.

  3. Thermodynamic Insights and Conceptual Design of Skin-Sensitive Chitosan Coated Ceramide/PLGA Nanodrug for Regeneration of Stratum Corneum on Atopic Dermatitis


    Sang-Myung Jung; Gwang Heum Yoon; Hoo Chul Lee; Moon Hee Jung; Sun Il Yu; Seung Ju Yeon; Seul Ki Min; Yeo Seon Kwon; Jin Ha Hwang; Hwa Sung Shin


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex skin disease primarily characterized by psoriasis of the stratum corneum. AD drugs have usually been used in acidic and hydrophilic solvents to supply moisture and prevent lipid defects. Ceramide is a typical treatment agent to regenerate the stratum corneum and relieve symptoms of AD. However, ceramide has limitation on direct use for skin because of its low dispersion properties in hydrophilic phase and side effects at excessive treatment. In this study, ...

  4. The effect of background hydrometeorological conditions on the sensitivity of evapotranspiration to model parameters: analysis with measurements from an Italian alpine catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montaldo


    Full Text Available Recent developments have made land-surface models (LSMs more complex through the inclusion of more processes and controlling variables, increasing numbers of parameters and uncertainty in their estimates. To overcome these uncertainties, prior to applying a distributed LSM over the whole Toce basin (Italian Alps, a field campaign was carried out at an experimental plot within the basin before exploring the skill and parameter importance (sensitivity using the TOPLATS model, an existing LSM. In the summer and autumn of 1999, which included both wet (atmosphere controlled and dry (soil controlled periods, actual evapotranspiration estimates were performed using Bowen ratio and, for a short period, eddy correlation methods. Measurements performed with the two methods are in good agreement. The calibrated LSM predicts actual evapotranspiration quite well over the whole observation period. A sensitivity analysis of the evapotranspiration to model parameters was performed through the global multivariate technique during both wet and dry periods of the campaign. This approach studies the influence of each parameter without conditioning on certain values of the other variables. Hence, all parameters are varied simultaneously using, for instance, a uniform sampling strategy through a Monte Carlo simulation framework. The evapotranspiration is highly sensitive to the soil parameters, especially during wet periods. However, the evapotranspiration is also sensitive to some vegetation parameters and, during dry periods, wilting point is the most critical for evapotranspiration predictions. This result confirms the importance of correct representation of vegetation properties which, in water-limited conditions, control evapotranspiration. Keywords: evapotranspiration, sensitivity analysis, land surface model, eddy correlation, Alpine basin

  5. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... are round and lie directly under squamous cells. Melanocytes are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. It also protects the ...

  6. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  7. Sagging Skin (United States)

    ... Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of your skin (TM) Public Resources Dermatologic Surgery Conditions Treatments and ... learn-more"> 3 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or ...

  8. Skin tears. (United States)

    Baranoski, S


    Skin tears are a serious, painful problem for older patients. Find out how your staff can recognize patients at risk, what they can do to prevent skin tears, and how to manage them effectively if they occur.

  9. Skin turgor (United States)

    ... arm or abdomen is checked. The skin is held for a few seconds then released. Skin with ... University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  10. Skin Segmentation Based on Graph Cuts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhilan; WANG Guijin; LIN Xinggang; YAN Hong


    Skin segmentation is widely used in many computer vision tasks to improve automated visualiza-tion. This paper presents a graph cuts algorithm to segment arbitrary skin regions from images. The detected face is used to determine the foreground skin seeds and the background non-skin seeds with the color probability distributions for the foreground represented by a single Gaussian model and for the background by a Gaussian mixture model. The probability distribution of the image is used for noise suppression to alle-viate the influence of the background regions having skin-like colors. Finally, the skin is segmented by graph cuts, with the regional parameter y optimally selected to adapt to different images. Tests of the algorithm on many real wodd photographs show that the scheme accurately segments skin regions and is robust against illumination variations, individual skin variations, and cluttered backgrounds.

  11. Skin Aging (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  12. 导入透明质酸猪脱细胞真皮基质的刺激性及致敏性研究%Skin irritation and sensitization of swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁少南; 赵筱卓; 王慧英; 张国安


    Objective To evaluate the skin irritation and sensitization potential of the swine acellular dermal matrix treated with hyaluronic acid (SADM-HA).Methods (1) Skin irritation test.Twelve New Zealand rabbits were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 4 rabbits in each group.Four test sites were designed on the back of each rabbit.Two test sites of each rabbit in the three groups were covered with SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,respectively.Another test site was covered with gauze containing 200 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate solution as positive control.The last test site was covered with gauze containing normal saline as negative control.The primary irritation index and cumulative irritation index of each material were calculated.(2) Skin closed-patch test.Sixty guinea pigs were used.Fifty-four guinea pigs were divided into SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and (human) xeno-skin group according to the random number table,with 18 guinea pigs in each group.Twelve guinea pigs in each of the three groups were correspondingly induced and stimulated by SADM-HA,allogeneic skin,and xeno-skin,with 6 guinea pigs in each group treated with ethanol-soaked gauze to serve as negative control.The remaining 6 guinea pigs were treated with gauze containing 25% α-hexylcinnamaldehyde ethanol solution as positive control.The rating scales of Magnusson and Kligman were used to grade the condition of skin after being treated with above-mentioned materials to evaluate skin sensitivity to them at post stimulation hour 24 and 48.Data were processed with the nonparametric test of independent samples.Results (1) In the skin irritation test,the primary irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were respectively-0.04,0.13,and 0.08.The cumulative irritation indexes of the three dressings in SADM-HA group,allogeneic skin group,and xeno-skin group were

  13. Lower corticosteroid skin blanching response is associated with severe COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J M Hoonhorst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airflow limitation caused by ongoing inflammatory and remodeling processes of the airways and lung tissue. Inflammation can be targeted by corticosteroids. However, airway inflammation is generally less responsive to steroids in COPD than in asthma. The underlying mechanisms are yet unclear. This study aimed to assess whether skin corticosteroid insensitivity is associated with COPD and COPD severity using the corticosteroid skin blanching test. METHODS: COPD patients GOLD stage I-IV (n = 27, 24, 22, and 16 respectively and healthy never-smokers and smokers (n = 28 and 56 respectively were included. Corticosteroid sensitivity was assessed by the corticosteroid skin blanching test. Budesonide was applied in 8 logarithmically increasing concentrations (0-100 μg/ml on subject's forearm. Assessment of blanching was performed after 7 hours using a 7-point scale (normal skin to intense blanching. All subjects performed spirometry and body plethysmography. RESULTS: Both GOLD III and GOLD IV COPD patients showed significantly lower skin blanching responses than healthy never-smokers and smokers, GOLD I, and GOLD II patients. Their area under the dose-response curve values of the skin blanching response were 586 and 243 vs. 1560, 1154, 1380, and 1309 respectively, p<0.05. Lower FEV1 levels and higher RV/TLC ratios were significantly associated with lower skin blanching responses (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004 respectively. GOLD stage I, II, III and IV patients had similar age and packyears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, severe and very severe COPD patients had lower skin corticosteroid sensitivity than mild and moderate COPD patients and non-COPD controls with comparable age and packyears. Our findings together suggest that the reduced skin blanching response fits with a subgroup of COPD patients that has an early-onset COPD phenotype.

  14. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;


    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  15. Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Xiao


    Full Text Available Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds, and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm, which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.

  16. Chicken skin virome analyzed by high-throughput sequencing shows a composition highly different from human skin. (United States)

    Denesvre, Caroline; Dumarest, Marine; Rémy, Sylvie; Gourichon, David; Eloit, Marc


    Recent studies show that human skin at homeostasis is a complex ecosystem whose virome include circular DNA viruses, especially papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. To determine the chicken skin virome in comparison with human skin virome, a chicken swabs pool sample from fifteen indoor healthy chickens of five genetic backgrounds was examined for the presence of DNA viruses by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results indicate a predominance of herpesviruses from the Mardivirus genus, coming from either vaccinal origin or presumably asymptomatic infection. Despite the high sensitivity of the HTS method used herein to detect small circular DNA viruses, we did not detect any papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or circoviruses, indicating that these viruses may not be resident of the chicken skin. The results suggest that the turkey herpesvirus is a resident of chicken skin in vaccinated chickens. This study indicates major differences between the skin viromes of chickens and humans. The origin of this difference remains to be further studied in relation with skin physiology, environment, or virus population dynamics.

  17. Sensitization to palladium and nickel in Europe and the relationship with oral disease and dental alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, J.; Goossens, A.; Gonçalo, M.; Bircher, A.J.; Giménez-Arnau, A.; Foti, C.; Rustemeyer, T.; Feilzer, A.J.; Kleverlaan, C.J.


    Background The role of palladium and nickel sensitization in oral disease and dermatitis is not fully understood. Objectives To investigate whether sensitization to these metals was associated with exposure to dental alloys and oral and skin complaints/symptoms in a European multicentre study. Metho

  18. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong


    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  19. In chemico evaluation of tea tree essential oils as skin sensitizers. Impact of the chemical composition on aging and generation of reactive species (United States)

    Tea tree oil (TTO) is a popular skin remedy obtained from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia, M. linariifolia or M dissitiflora. Due to the commercial importance ofTTO, substitution or adulteration with other tea tree species (such as cajeput, niaouli, manuka and kanuka oils) is common and may p...

  20. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen;


    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  1. Thermodynamic Insights and Conceptual Design of Skin-Sensitive Chitosan Coated Ceramide/PLGA Nanodrug for Regeneration of Stratum Corneum on Atopic Dermatitis. (United States)

    Jung, Sang-Myung; Yoon, Gwang Heum; Lee, Hoo Chul; Jung, Moon Hee; Yu, Sun Il; Yeon, Seung Ju; Min, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yeo Seon; Hwang, Jin Ha; Shin, Hwa Sung


    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex skin disease primarily characterized by psoriasis of the stratum corneum. AD drugs have usually been used in acidic and hydrophilic solvents to supply moisture and prevent lipid defects. Ceramide is a typical treatment agent to regenerate the stratum corneum and relieve symptoms of AD. However, ceramide has limitation on direct use for skin because of its low dispersion properties in hydrophilic phase and side effects at excessive treatment. In this study, ceramide imbedded PLGA nanoparticles were developed with chitosan coating (Chi-PLGA/Cer) to overcome this problem. The chitosan coating enhanced initial adherence to the skin and prevented the initial burst of ceramide, but was degraded by the weakly acidic nature of skin, resulting in controlled release of ceramide with additional driving force of the squeezed PLGA nanoparticles. Additionally, the coating kinetics of chitosan were controlled by manipulating the reaction conditions and then mathematically modeled. The Chi-PLGA/Cer was not found to be cytotoxic and ceramide release was controlled by pH, temperature, and chitosan coating. Finally, Chi-PLGA/Cer was demonstrated to be effective at stratum corneum regeneration in a rat AD model. Overall, the results presented herein indicated that Chi-PLGA/Cer is a novel nanodrug for treatment of AD.

  2. 579 The Frequency of Positivity in Autologous Serum Skin Test in Patients with Chronic Idiopatic Urticaria


    Filho, Silvio Lima


    Background Describe the frequency of positive results in autologus serum skin test among patients with cronic urticaria. Methods Trans-sectional study of patients with CIU refered to traitment in policlínica geral do Rio de Janeiro, brazil. Autologus serum intradermal injections were used to estabilished the sensitivity. Negative and positive controls were made with 0.9% intradermal saline solution and skin prick test with histamina 1:100 solution. Autoreactivity was considered positive when ...

  3. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya


    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  4. Skin interaction with absorbent hygiene products. (United States)

    Runeman, Bo


    Skin problems due to the use of absorbent hygiene products, such as diapers, incontinence pads, and feminine sanitary articles, are mostly due to climate or chafing discomfort. If these conditions are allowed to prevail, these may develop into an irritant contact dermatitis and eventually superficial skin infections. Skin humidity and aging skin are among the most significant predisposing and aggravating factors for dermatitis development. Improved product design features are believed to explain the decline in observed diaper dermatitis among infants. Where adult incontinence-related skin problems are concerned, it is very important to apply a holistic perspective to understand the influences due to the individual's incontinence level and skin condition, as well as the hygiene and skin care measures provided. Individuals with frail, sensitive skin or with skin diseases may preferably have to use high-quality products, equipped with superabsorbent polymers and water vapor-permeable back sheets, to minimize the risk of skin complications.

  5. Your Skin (United States)

    ... your body. Without skin, people's muscles, bones, and organs would be hanging out all over the place. Skin holds everything together. It also: protects our bodies helps keep our bodies at just the right temperature allows us to have the sense of touch Don't Miss Your Epidermis The ...

  6. Oily skin (United States)

    ... keep your skin clean using warm water and soap, or a soapless cleanser. Clean your face with astringent pads if frequent face washing causes irritation. Use only water-based or oil-free cosmetics if you have oily skin. Your ...

  7. Light protection of the skin after photodynamic therapy reduces inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B; Wiegell, S R; Wulf, H C


    BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is followed by significant inflammation. Protoporphyrin (Pp)IX is still formed in the skin after PDT and patients are sensitive to daylight 24-48 h after treatment. Exposure to daylight after PDT may therefore increase inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To investigate...... whether protection with inorganic sunscreen, foundation or light-blocking plaster after PDT can reduce inflammation caused by daylight-activated PpIX. METHODS: On the right arm of 15 subjects with sun-damaged skin, four identical squares (3 × 3 cm) were given conventional PDT treatment. Immediately after...... red-light illumination the squares were either left unprotected or protected by inorganic sunscreen [sun protection factor (SPF) 50], foundation (SPF50) or light-blocking plaster. The skin was then illuminated with artificial daylight for 2 h and afterwards covered for 24 h. Fluorescence and erythema...

  8. Sensitive and background-free determination of thiols from wastewater samples by MOF-5 extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using a novel fluorescence probe of carbazole-9-ethyl-2-maleimide. (United States)

    Lv, Zhengxian; Sun, Zhiwei; Song, Cuihua; Lu, Shuaimin; Chen, Guang; You, Jinmao


    A sensitive and background-free pre-column derivatization method for the determination of thiol compounds using metal-organic framework material (MOF-5) as dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) adsorbent followed by high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) has been developed. In this paper, a novel labeling reagent, carbazole-9-ethyl-2-maleimide(CAEM), was synthesized and reacted with thiols at 40°C for 10min in the presence of PBS buffer (0.02mol/L, pH 7.5). Interestingly, CAEM itself had no fluorescence, while its derivatives exhibited intense fluorescence with an excitation maximum at λex 274nm and an emission maximum at λem 363nm, which greatly reduced the background interference and improved the sensitivity of the method. Furthermore, the MOF-5 was prepared and used as DSPE adsorbent for the selective adsorption of thiols from wastewater sample. Under the optimized experimental conditions, an excellent linearity for all analytes over their concentration ranges of 0.01-1.0μmol/L (R(2)>0.9986)were obtained with the limit of detection (LOD) ranging from 8 to 17.1pmol/L for nine tested thiols. The feasibility of this method for the determination of thiols in wastewater samples had been evaluated and satisfactory average recoveries (n=3) were achieved with the range of 86.6-98.5%.

  9. Intact skin and not stripped skin is crucial for the safety and efficacy of peanut epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondoulet Lucie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT on intact skin with an epicutaneous delivery system has already been used in preclinical and clinical studies. In epicutaneous vaccination and immunotherapy, the stripping of skin before application of the allergen is suggested to facilitate the passage of allergen through immune cells. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the immunological response induced by EPIT performed on intact and stripped skin in a mouse model of peanut allergy. Methods After oral sensitization with peanut and cholera toxin, BALB/c mice were epicutaneously treated using an epicutaneous delivery system (Viaskin® (DBV Technologies, Paris applied either on intact skin or on stripped skin. Following EPIT, mice received an exclusive oral peanut regimen, aimed at triggering esophageal and jejunal lesions. We assessed eosinophil infiltration by histology, mRNA expression in the esophagus, antibody levels and peripheral T-cell response. Results EPIT on intact skin significantly reduced Th2 immunological response (IgE response and splenocyte secretion of Th2 cytokines as well as esophageal eosinophilia (2.7 ± 0.9, compared to Sham 19.9 ± 1.5, p  Conclusions Epicutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy needs the integrity of superficial layers of the stratum corneum to warranty safety of treatment and to induce a tolerogenic profile of the immune response.

  10. Nanoscale alterations of corneocytes indicate skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, J; Beutel, M; Gevers, K


    BACKGROUND: The skin barrier protects the organism against exogenous stressors and simultaneously prevents excessive water loss. While the delicate regulation of skin barrier is not completely understood, morphological and histological evaluation remain key features of clinical investigations. Here...... dermatitis, a common inflammatory skin condition. CONCLUSION: The presence of these corneocyte-nanostructures might be used as a diagnostic parameter for skin disorders - even in cases below a clinical threshold....

  11. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H


    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure.......Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  12. 0.1%他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤的疗效和观察%Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus ointment for facial sensitive skin in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹源; 谢志强; 张春雷


    目的:观察0.1%的他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤的疗效和安全性。方法给予36例诊断为敏感性皮肤的患者外用0.1%他克莫司软膏,每日2次,共3周,如果用药不到3周痊愈,可停止用药。于治疗前及治疗后1、3周和停药后4周各随访1次,评估病情严重程度及临床疗效。采用皮肤病生活质量调查问卷评估敏感性皮肤对生活质量的影响。结果36例患者中32例完成临床试验。治疗3周后皮炎症状的临床痊愈率、显效率分别为46.9%、40.6%,有效率为87.5%。治疗3周后10项评估指标及生活质量均有明显改善(P <0.001)。主观症状改善最明显的是自觉干燥、针刺感。客观症状中脱屑、干燥症状对治疗的反应最好。药物不良反应发生率为72.2%(瘙痒占30.8%,烧灼感占69.2%,刺痛占7.7%),其中有50%只出现于用药后2d 内。结论0.1%他克莫司软膏治疗成年人面部敏感性皮肤安全、有效,刺激反应较普遍,多为一过性,可耐受。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment in the treatment of adults patient with facial sensitive skin. Methods Total 36 cases were treated with topical 0.1% tacrolimus ointment, twice daily, and the clinical symptom and sign scores were recorded before and after the treatment. A new scale, which including 6 subjective skin conditions (pricking, burning sensation, itching, pain, dry sensation, tightness) and 4 visible skin conditions (erythema, swelling, scaling, dryness) was adopted for assessment at the baseline and succeeding improvement of skin condition. Dermatology life quality index was used to evaluate the impact of sensitive skin on life quality. Meanwhile the adverse events were observed. Results Thirty-two of the 36 cases completed the whole course of treatment. The cure rate was 46.9%(15/32), markedly improvement rate was 40.6%(13/32), moderate

  13. Aging skin. (United States)

    Bolognia, J L


    Aging of the skin is a composite of actinic damage, chronologic aging, and hormonal influences. The majority of changes associated with aging, such as wrinkles and solar lentigines ("liver spots"), are due to photoaging and reflect cumulative sun exposure as well as skin pigmentation. Classically, chronologic aging includes those cutaneous changes that occur in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the buttocks, and are observed in both men and women. A clinical example would be soft tissue sagging due to elastic fiber degeneration. In women, investigations into the effect of hormones on aging of the skin have concentrated on estrogens; in men, there have been a limited number of studies on the influence of testosterone. The latter have shown an age-dependent decrease in tissue androgens in pubic skin, but not scrotal or thigh skin. To date, age has not been shown to have an effect on androgen receptor binding, although a decrease in foreskin 5 alpha-reductase activity with increasing age has been described. In fibroblast cultures from foreskins, there have been conflicting results as to whether 5 alpha-reductase activity decreases in an age-dependent manner. Some of the skin changes that have been categorized as secondary to chronologic aging, such as decreased sebaceous gland activity and decreased hair growth, may actually represent a decline in the concentration of tissue androgens with increasing age. The influence of androgens on age-related changes in keratinocyte and fibroblast function remains speculative.

  14. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  15. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  16. Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  17. Dry Skin (Xerosis) (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Dry skin Overview Dry, ashy skin: People who had atopic ... often have very dry skin as adults. Dry skin: Overview Also called xerosis Dry skin is common. ...

  18. TIMES-SS - A promising tool for the assessment of skin sensitization hazard. A characterization with respect to the OECD validation principles for (Q)SARs and an external evaluation for predictivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patlewicz, Grace; Dimitrov, Sabcho D.; Low, Lawrence K.;


    with an overall good concordance (83%) between experimental and predicted values. Further evaluation of these results highlighted certain inconsistencies which were rationalized by a consideration of reaction chemistry principles for sensitization. Improvements for TIMES-SS were proposed where appropriate. TIMES...... and to be scientifically valid in accordance with the OECD principles for (Q)SAR validation. TIMES-SS encodes structure-toxicity and structure-skin metabolism relationships through a number of transformations, some of which are underpinned by mechanistic 3D QSARs. Here, we describe the extent to which the five OECD...... principles are met and in particular the results from an external evaluation exercise that was recently carried out. As part of this exercise, data were generated for 40 new chemicals in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and then compared with predictions made by TIMES-SS. The results were promising...

  19. Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and beyond: potential multiple mechanisms of action and importance of T-cell assays for in vitro screening. (United States)

    Vukmanović, Stanislav; Sadrieh, Nakissa


    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by repeated contact with sensitizers. The ability of a chemical to act as a sensitizer has most frequently been tested in animals. As the use of animals for these purposes is gradually and globally being phased out, there is a need for reliable in vitro surrogate assays. Currently proposed in vitro assays are designed to test four key events of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) involving covalent modification of self-proteins by sensitizers (haptenation) and presentation of new antigens (hapten/carrier complexes) to the immune system. There appears to be imperfect alignment of in vitro assays with clinical and/or animal data, suggesting possibly additional mechanisms of ACD development. Indeed, studies on allergies to small drugs, small chemical-induced HLA-peptide exchange for vaccination purposes and cosmetic ingredient-induced exposure of autoantigens suggest a possibility of DTH response promotion by hapten/carrier-independent mechanisms. Therefore, there is a need for additional appropriate in vitro assays, in order to achieve maximal concordance between clinical and/or animal data and in vitro assays. In this paper, we will review evidence supporting the idea of diverse mechanisms of ACD development. We will also discuss the impact of these multiple mechanisms, on the AOP and on the in vitro assays that should be used for allergen detection. We will propose alloreactivity-like reactions, aided by computer modeling and biochemical tests of compound-HLA binding, as additional tools for better prediction of DTH reactions, resulting from exposure to ingredients in cosmetic products. The combination of the proposed tests, along with the existing assays, should further enhance animal-free assessment of sensitizing potential of individual chemicals.

  20. Optical skin friction measurement using shear-sensitive liquid-crystal coatings%基于剪敏液晶涂层的光学摩阻测量技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 毕志献; 宫建; 姚大鹏; 文帅


    剪切敏感液晶涂层具有对剪切应力敏感的光学特性,液晶涂层的显色不但与所受到的应力大小有关,而且与应力方向有关.在白色光垂直照射下,利用相机拍摄液晶涂层所反射的空间光谱图像,结合标定结果可以获得涂层受到的表面剪切应力矢量分布.基于这样的理论,开展了液晶涂层光学摩阻测量技术研究,包括:液晶材料喷涂工艺研究,搭建相应的测量系统,液晶涂层标定方法研究,表面摩阻测量实验研究等.低速喷流实验定量测量了喷流—平板干扰区表面剪切应力矢量分布.Ma=5的高超声速风洞实验获得了尖前缘平板表面摩阻分布定量测量结果,以此判断了平板边界层的转捩.%Shear-sensitive liquid-crystal coatings (SSLCCs) have an optical characteristic that is sensitive to the applied shear stress. Color-change response of a liquid-crystal coating (LCC) depends on both the magnitude of the applied shear vector and its direction. Images of spatial reflection spectrum of the LCC with illumination of white light from normal direction can be gained utilizing a camera, and then processed to get the surface shear stress vector distribution on the coating with the calibration data. Based on this theory, we did investigations on skin friction measurement using the LCCs, including spraying skills of the liquid crystals, construction of a measurement system, shear calibration, experimental measurement of skin friction and so on. In the low speed jet flow experiment, surface shear stress vector distribution in a jet flow/flat plate interaction region was quantitatively measured. In the Ma = 5 hypersonic wind tunnel experiment, distribution of skin friction on a sharp leading edge flat plate was obtained, from which the flat plate boundary layer transition could be determined.

  1. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M


    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient...... as sensitized using results of the new Pan-European GA(2)LEN skin prick test study. Method: In a large Pan-European multicenter (17 centers in 14 countries) patient based study, a standardized panel of 18 allergens has been prick tested using a standardized procedure. Conditional approach allowed to determine...

  2. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlier Corinne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical settings. Methods Corneosurfametry and corneoxenometry are two in vitro bioessays which were selected for their good reproducibility, sensitivity and ease of use. A Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test followed by the Dunn test was realized to compare series of data obtained. Results Significant differences in efficacy were obtained between the two assayed skin protection creams. One of the two tested creams showed a real protective effect against mild irritants, but the other tested cream presented an irritant potential in its application with mild irritants. Conclusion The differences observed for the two tested skin protection creams were probably due to their galenic composition and their possible interactions with the offending products. As a result, the present in vitro bioassays showed contrasted effects of the creams corresponding to either a protective or an irritant effect on human stratum corneum.

  3. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos


    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  4. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... you ever get a bad sunburn that caused blisters when you were a child?Does your skin ... Cancer InstituteMelanoma International FoundationAmerican Cancer Society ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma by BG Goldstein, AO Goldstein( ...

  5. Skin cancer in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Thyssen, J P; Gislason, G H


    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that is commonly treated with ultraviolet phototherapy and systemic immunosuppressant drugs, which may confer a risk of skin cancer. Previous studies on the risk of skin cancer in patients with psoriasis have shown conflicting results....... OBJECTIVES: We investigated the risk of new-onset melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), respectively, in a large cohort of patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Data on all Danish individuals aged ≥18 years between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2012 were linked at individual...... of skin cancer is only modestly increased in patients with psoriasis, clinicians should remain vigilant....

  6. Squamous cell skin cancer (United States)

    ... that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and areas that are painted white. The higher ... - skin - squamous cell; Skin cancer - squamous cell; Nonmelanoma skin cancer - squamous ...

  7. Contact dermatitis and other skin conditions in instrumental musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitag Marcus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin is important in the positioning and playing of a musical instrument. During practicing and performing there is a permanent more or less intense contact between the instrument and the musician's skin. Apart from aggravation of predisposed skin diseases (e.g., atopic eczema or psoriasis due to music-making, specific dermatologic conditions may develop that are directly caused by playing a musical instrument. Methods To perform a systematic review on instrument-related skin diseases in musicians we searched the PubMed database without time limits. Furthermore we studied the online bibliography "Occupational diseases of performing artist. A performing arts medicine bibliography. October, 2003" and checked references of all selected articles for relevant papers. Results The most prevalent skin disorders of instrumental musicians, in particular string instrumentalists (e.g., violinists, cellists, guitarists, woodwind players (e.g., flautists, clarinetists, and brass instrumentalists (e.g., trumpeters, include a variety of allergic contact sensitizations (e.g., colophony, nickel, and exotic woods and irritant (physical-chemical noxae skin conditions whose clinical presentation and localization are usually specific for the instrument used (e.g., "fiddler's neck", "cellist's chest", "guitar nipple", "flautist's chin". Apart from common callosities and "occupational marks" (e.g., "Garrod's pads" more or less severe skin injuries may occur in musical instrumentalists, in particular acute and chronic wounds including their complications. Skin infections such as herpes labialis seem to be a more common skin problem in woodwind and brass instrumentalists. Conclusions Skin conditions may be a significant problem not only in professional instrumentalists, but also in musicians of all ages and ability. Although not life threatening they may lead to impaired performance and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, epidemiological

  8. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H


    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  9. Enhanced chlorhexidine skin penetration with eucalyptus oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worthington Tony


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG is a widely used skin antiseptic, however it poorly penetrates the skin, limiting its efficacy against microorganisms residing beneath the surface layers of skin. The aim of the current study was to improve the delivery of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG when used as a skin antiseptic. Method Chlorhexidine was applied to the surface of donor skin and its penetration and retention under different conditions was evaluated. Skin penetration studies were performed on full-thickness donor human skin using a Franz diffusion cell system. Skin was exposed to 2% (w/v CHG in various concentrations of eucalyptus oil (EO and 70% (v/v isopropyl alcohol (IPA. The concentration of CHG (μg/mg of skin was determined to a skin depth of 1500 μm by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results The 2% (w/v CHG penetration into the lower layers of skin was significantly enhanced in the presence of EO. Ten percent (v/v EO in combination with 2% (w/v CHG in 70% (v/v IPA significantly increased the amount of CHG which penetrated into the skin within 2 min. Conclusion The delivery of CHG into the epidermis and dermis can be enhanced by combination with EO, which in turn may improve biocide contact with additional microorganisms present in the skin, thereby enhancing antisepsis.

  10. Skin Cancer Foundation (United States)

    ... Host a Fundraising Event | About Us | Store The Skin Cancer Foundation The Skin Cancer Foundation is the ... A "Sunscreen Gene"? Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics The Skin Cancer Foundation's Champions for Change Gala 2016 Learn ...

  11. Skin Pigmentation Disorders (United States)

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  12. Skin Bleaching


    Ahmed, Samira M.


    In this project, I aim to investigate the reasoning behind the practice of skin bleaching by analyzing the documentary ”Dark Girls”, to gain a better understanding of race and colorism issues. Also this project tries to see if there is a connection with history and if this has been a part of making the european beauty ideal determine the choices black’s make in regards to beauty.

  13. [Dynamics of local expression of connexin-43 and basic fibroblast growth factor receptors in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections against the background of diabetes mellitus type II]. (United States)

    Vinnik, Iu S; Salmina, A B; Tepliakova, O V; Drobushevskaia, A I; Malinovskaia, N A; Pozhilenkova, E A; Morgun, A V; Gitlina, A G


    Clinical results of wound healing dynamics were studied in 60 patients with soft-tissue infection against the background of diabetes mellitus type II. At the same time the study considered indices of intercellular contacts protein tissue expression such as connexin 43 (Cx43) and basic fibroblast growth factor receptors (bFGFR). The basic therapy of biopsy material of wound borders was applied. The reduction of bFGFR expression and the minor growth of Cx43 expression were observed. The pain syndrome proceeded for a long time and there were signs of perifocal inflammation, retard wound healing with granulation tissue. The application of combined method of ozone therapy which included autohemotherapy with ozone and an external management of wound by ozone-oxygen mixture facilitated to considerable shortening of inflammatory phase and regeneration. It was associated with increased Cx43 expression (in 1.9 times) in comparison with initial level and bFGFR was enlarged in 1.7 times to eighth day of postoperative period.

  14. Skin protection in the prevention of skin diseases. (United States)

    Elsner, Peter


    Occupational skin diseases comprise a wide spectrum of conditions. Under epidemiological aspects, occupational contact dermatitis that is usually manifested on the hands is the most frequent occupational skin disease with an estimated average incidence rate of 0.7-1.5 cases per 1,000 workers per year. Irritant dermatitis is due to individual susceptibility and the exposure to irritants such as wet work combined with detergents or other hydrophilic irritants or solvents at the workplace. Chronic irritant dermatitis is a risk factor for delayed-type sensitization and subsequently allergic contact dermatitis. It is therefore the prevention of chronic or cumulative irritant dermatitis that is the decisive factor in the prevention of occupational skin disease. Within prevention programs at the workplace, skin protection plays an important, but limited role. Others are technical and organizational means to avoid or reduce skin exposure to irritants and allergens. Educational measures to increase the awareness of workers for workplace hazards and to motivate them to use skin protection measures appropriately are just as important as the careful selection of skin protection materials.

  15. Cutaneous skin tag (United States)

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  16. GTP gamma S causes contraction of skinned frog skeletal muscle via the DHP-sensitive Ca2+ channels of sealed T-tubules. (United States)

    Somasundaram, B; Tregear, R T; Trentham, D R


    We have investigated the involvement of G-proteins in excitation-contraction coupling of fast-twitch skeletal muscle, using a fibre preparation designed to retain intact T-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The nonhydrolysable analogue of guanosine triphosphate, GTP gamma S (50-500 microM) caused a strong, transient isometric contraction in this preparation. Reduction of ethylene-bis(oxonitrilo)tetraacete (EGTA) in the sealed T-tubules from 5 mM to 0.1 mM lowered the threshold to GTP gamma S and removal of sodium reversibly raised it. The dihydropyridine (DHP) calcium channel antagonists nicardipine and nifedipine allowed a first contraction and then blocked subsequent GTP gamma S action. The phenylalkylamine methoxyverapamil (D-600) did likewise, reversibly, at 10 degrees C. The guanosine diphosphate analogue, GDP beta S, and procaine reversibly blocked the action of GTP gamma S; pertussis toxin also blocked it. Photolytic release of 40-100 microM GTP gamma S within 0.1 s from S-caged GTP gamma S caused contraction after a latent period of 0.3-20 s. We conclude that GTP gamma S can activate contraction in frog skeletal muscle via a route requiring both the integrity of the T-tubular DHP-sensitive calcium channel (DHPr) and the presence of sodium in the sealed T-tubules. We propose that in this preparation GTP gamma S activates a G-protein, which in turn activates the DHPr as a calcium channel and releases stored calcium from within the sealed T-tubule. Implications of these results for the excitation-contraction coupling mechanism in skeletal muscle are discussed.

  17. Development of an in vitro skin sensitization test using human cell lines: the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT). I. Optimization of the h-CLAT protocol. (United States)

    Ashikaga, T; Yoshida, Y; Hirota, M; Yoneyama, K; Itagaki, H; Sakaguchi, H; Miyazawa, M; Ito, Y; Suzuki, H; Toyoda, H


    The aim of this study is to optimize the experimental conditions for an in vitro skin sensitization test using the human cell lines THP-1 and U-937. As regards pre-culturing time, the expression of CD86 on DNCB-treated THP-1 cells tended to be higher after 48h and 72h pre-culture compared with other time points evaluated. Next, we investigated the effect of chemical treatment time, and found that induction of CD86 expression on THP-1 cells by DNCB reached a plateau after 24h. Augmentation of CD86 expression is often observed when cells are treated with a subtoxic dose of allergens. To determine the appropriate dose of test samples, the cytotoxicity of test samples to THP-1 and U-937 cells was assessed with MTT assay, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of each test sample was calculated. Based on the cytotoxicity assay data, four concentrations in the range between toxic and non-toxic were selected (0.1x, 0.5x, 1x and 2x IC50). Several kinds of antibodies were tested for staining THP-1 and U-937 cells treated with allergens/non-allergens (e.g., DNCB, Ni/SLS), and suitable antibodies for staining CD86 and CD54 were selected. We confirmed that the working dilutions of the selected CD86 and CD54 antibodies were appropriate for use in our method. The effect of an FcR blocking procedure was also evaluated. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI value) was decreased by the FcR blocking procedure, which indicated that non-specific staining was blocked. Therefore, this procedure should be included in the method. Based on our findings, the protocol for this assay was optimized and the experimental conditions to be used in a future validation study were identified. We propose to call this kind of in vitro skin sensitization test h-CLAT, which is short for human Cell Line Activation Test.

  18. Skin prick/puncture testing in North America: a call for standards and consistency


    Fatteh, Shahnaz; Rekkerth, Donna J.; Hadley, James A


    Background Skin prick/puncture testing (SPT) is widely accepted as a safe, dependable, convenient, and cost-effective procedure to detect allergen-specific IgE sensitivity. It is, however, prone to influence by a variety of factors that may significantly alter test outcomes, affect the accuracy of diagnosis, and the effectiveness of subsequent immunotherapy regimens. Proficiency in SPT administration is a key variable that can be routinely measured and documented to improve the predictive val...

  19. The skin-blanching assay. (United States)

    Smit, P; Neumann, H A M; Thio, H B


    The skin-blanching assay is used for the determination and bioequivalence of dermatologic glucocorticoids (GCs). The exact mechanism of the production of blanching is not fully understood, but it is considered that local vasoconstriction of the skin microvasculature and the consequent blood-flow reduction cause this phenomenon. Several factors influence skin blanching, including drug concentration, duration of application, nature of vehicle, occlusion, posture and location. The intensity of vasoconstriction can be measured in several ways: visual or quantitative methods, such as reflectance spectroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler velocimetry and chromametry. In literature, contradicting results in the correlation of the skin-blanching assay with different tests to determine GC sensitivity have been reported, limiting its clinical usefulness.

  20. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan


    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due......) and Th2 (AD) have been proposed as an explanation. Finally, there is convincing evidence that exposure to irritants increases the risk of CS, and patients with ICD are, therefore, at great risk of developing CA. Skin irritation leads to the release of IL-1 and TNF-α, which affects the function of antigen...

  1. Skin cancer in skin of color: an update on current facts, trends, and misconceptions. (United States)

    Battie, Claire; Gohara, Mona; Verschoore, Michèle; Roberts, Wendy


    For many fair-skinned individuals around the world, skin cancer is the leading malignancy. Although skin cancer comprises only 1% to 2% of all malignancies in those with darker complexions, the mortality rates in this subgroup are substantially higher when compared with their Caucasian counterparts. This discrepancy is largely as a result of delayed detection/treatment, and a false perception among patient and physician that brown skin confers complete protection against skin cancer. Recent studies show that 65% of surveyed African Americans never wore sunscreen, despite living in sunny climates, and that more than 60% of minority respondents erroneously believed that they were not at risk for skin cancer. Dark skin offers some protection from ultraviolet (UV) light. However, there is considerable heterogeneity in skin of color, a phenomenon that is accentuated by mixed heritage. Ethnicity does not confer skin type anymore. People of color do experience sunburn, and from a biological point of view, all skin types appear to be sensitive to UV-induced DNA damage, with an inverse relationship between skin color and sensitivity to UV light. Our population is changing rapidly, and within the next few decades minority populations will become the majority. It is therefore imperative to educate both physicians and patients on the perceived immunity against cutaneous malignancies, the need for sun protection, and the clinical signs of skin cancer in non-Caucasian people, so that future unnecessary mortality can be avoided.

  2. Skin Autofluorescence and Glycemic Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, M. J.; Lefrandt, J. D.; Graaff, R.; Smit, A. J.


    Background: Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is accelerated during glycemic and oxidative stress and is an important predictor of complications in diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: Here we both review and present original data on the relationship between skin autofluorescen

  3. Reference Values of Skin Autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Lutgers, H. L.; de Jonge, C.; Links, T. P.; Smit, A. J.; Graaff, R.


    Background: Skin autofluorescence (AF) as measured with the AGE Reader (DiagnOptics Technologies, Groningen, The Netherlands) is a noninvasive prognostic marker in diabetes mellitus and other diseases with increased cardiovascular risk. This study provides reference values of healthy Caucasian contr

  4. 240 Mold Sensitization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients



    Background It is estimated that about 10% of the population have IgE antibodies to common inhalant molds. Exposure to fungal allergens could be linked to the presence and persistence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Mold sensitization is a risk factor for development and deterioration of upper airway allergy, especially chronic rhinosinusitis. We addressed the incidence of mold allergy measured as specific IgE to molds and skin prick tests in chronic sinusitis patients. We assessed ...

  5. The 2008 ICOH Workshop on Skin Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, P; Ahlers, H W; Cherrie, J W


    BACKGROUND: On 29 March 2008 the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Scientific Committee on Occupational and Environmental Dermatoses organized a Skin Notation Workshop hosted by the 11th International Percutaneous Penetration Perspectives Conference (La Grande Motte, France)....

  6. Skin Keratins. (United States)

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A


    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin.

  7. The acute stress response of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, kept on a red or white background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Pavlidis, M.; Flik, G.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.


    The skin colour of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus, can be modified by exposure to different background colours. Red and white background colours brighten the dark skin colour that develops under common culture conditions in red porgy. To assess whether skin colour is also modified by aquaculture related h

  8. Evidence that radio-sensitive cells are central to skin-phase protective immunity in CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni as well as in naive mice protected with vaccine serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, V.S.; McLaren, D.J. (National Inst. for Medical Research, London (UK))


    Naive CBA/Ca mice and CBA/ca mice vaccinated 4 weeks previously with radiation-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were subjected to 550 rad of whole body (gamma) irradiation and then challenged 3 days later with normal cercariae. The perfusion recovery data showed that this procedure reduced the primary worm burden in naive mice by 22% and the challence worm burden in vaccinated mice by 82%. Irradiation also ablated the peripheral blood leucocytes of both mouse groups by 90-100% at the time of challenge. Histological data revealed that such treatment caused a dramatic change in number, size and leucocyte composition of cutaneous inflammatory skin reactions that characterize challenged vacccinated mice and are known to entrap invading larvae; cutaneous eosinophils were preferentially abolished by this treatment. Polyvaccine mouse serum that conferred protection passively upon naive recipient mice, failed to protect naive/irradiated mice when administered by the same protocol. Distraction of macrophages by treatment of mice with silica did not affect the establishment of a primary worm burden and reduced the protection exhibited by vaccinated mice by only 16%. These data indicade that radio-sensitive cells are important to both innate and specific acquired resistance in this mouse model and that macrophages contribute only marginally to the expression of vaccine immunity. (author).

  9. A preliminary study of skin ultrasound in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis: Does skin echogenicity matter? (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Liang; Li, Jian-chu; Jiang, Yu-xin; Wang, Qian; Li, Meng-tao; Zhang, Feng-chun; Zeng, Xiao-feng


    Objective To evaluate the usefulness of skin ultrasound and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) quantification in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc). Patients and methods 28 patients with dcSSc, and 15 age gender matched normal controls were recruited. Skin echogenicity, thickness, and ARFI quantification were measured by ultrasound at 17 sites corresponding to the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) in each participant. Compared with controls, skin echogenicity of dcSSc patients was classified into isoechoic, hypoechoic, and hyperechoic. The skin thickness, ARFI quantification and mRSS were compared between isoechoic, hypoechoic, hyperechoic and controls. Results In patients with dcSSc, the skin thickness increased as the echogenicity changed on the order of isoechoic, hypoechoic and hyperechoic. ARFI quantification was significantly higher in hyperechoic than isoechoic (p<0.001). The mRSS were significantly higher in hyperechoic and/or hypoechoic than isoechoic. For isoechoic patients and healthy controls, the skin echogenicity or thickness was no significant different, however, the ARFI quantification was significantly higher in isoechoic than controls. Conclusion Skin ultrasound is feasible for assessing the skin involvement in dcSSc. Skin echogenicity correlates with skin thickness, stiffness, and mRSS. ARFI quantification may be more sensitive to detect skin changes, compared with skin echogenicity and thickness. PMID:28339492

  10. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.


    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  11. Alp Rose stem cells, olive oil squalene and a natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier: Are they appropriate ingredients of skin moisturizers - in vivo efficacy on normal and sodium lauryl sulfate - irritated skin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Mila


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Since skin moisturization may be achieved by both actives and chosen carrier, plant stem cells, squalene and natural alkyl polyglucoside emulsifier may be potential components of contemporary cosmetic products. The aim of the study was in vivo evaluation of the skin irritation potential and the efficacy of Alpine Rose stem cells incorporated into li-posomes and olive oil squalene as ingredients of moisturizing creams, with respect to the novel emulsifier used for creams’ stabilization. Methods. With the employment of noninvasive skin biophysical measurements, skin hydration (EC, transepi-dermal water loss (TEWL, erythema index (EI and viscoelas-ticity were measured on 76 healthy volunteers. In the first phase, skin irritation after a 24-hour occlusion and the long-term efficacy of creams (a 21-day study on healthy skin were evaluated. Phase II of the study focused on the cream efficacy assessment after a 6-day treatment of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. Results. After a 24-hour occlusion, there were no significant changes in the EI for any tested sample. In the second phase of the study, the EI was not significantly altered for the cream containing squalene, while the application of all active samples resulted in a significant reduction of TEWL. In both phases of the study an EC increase was recorded, espe-cially for the squalene-containing cream. Conclusion. Due to the lack of skin irritation and skin barrier impairment along with the marked hydration effect, it could be said that the in-vestigated actives incorporated into alkyl polyglucoside emulsi-fier-stabilized creams may be safely applied as ingredients for "tailor-made" cosmetic moisturizers intended for normal and dry skin care, whereas olive oil squalene could be used for the treatment of irritated or sensitive skin as well. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR34031

  12. The biological mechanisms and behavioral functions of opsin-based light detection by the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Kelley


    Full Text Available Light detection not only forms the basis of vision (via visual retinal photoreceptors, but can also occur in other parts of the body, including many non-rod/non-cone ocular cells, the pineal complex, the deep brain, and the skin. Indeed, many of the photopigments (an opsin linked to a light-sensitive 11-cis retinal chromophore that mediate color vision in the eyes of vertebrates are also present in the skin of animals such as reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans and fishes (with related photoreceptive molecules present in cephalopods, providing a localized mechanism for light detection across the surface of the body. This form of non-visual photosensitivity may be particularly important for animals that can change their coloration by altering the dispersion of pigments within the chromatophores (pigment containing cells of the skin. Thus, skin coloration may be directly color matched or tuned to both the luminance and spectral properties of the local background environment, thereby facilitating behavioral functions such as camouflage, thermoregulation, and social signaling. This review examines the diversity and sensitivity of opsin-based photopigments present in the skin and considers their putative functional roles in mediating animal behavior. Furthermore, it discusses the potential underlying biochemical and molecular pathways that link shifts in environmental light to both photopigment expression and chromatophore photoresponses. Although photoreception that occurs independently of image formation remains poorly understood, this review highlights the important role of non-visual light detection in facilitating the multiple functions of animal coloration.

  13. Adaptive skin detection based on online training (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Rong, Gang


    Skin is a widely used cue for porn image classification. Most conventional methods are off-line training schemes. They usually use a fixed boundary to segment skin regions in the images and are effective only in restricted conditions: e.g. good lightness and unique human race. This paper presents an adaptive online training scheme for skin detection which can handle these tough cases. In our approach, skin detection is considered as a classification problem on Gaussian mixture model. For each image, human face is detected and the face color is used to establish a primary estimation of skin color distribution. Then an adaptive online training algorithm is used to find the real boundary between skin color and background color in current image. Experimental results on 450 images showed that the proposed method is more robust in general situations than the conventional ones.

  14. Are newly discovered drivers of immune-mediated skin disorders expressed in normal skin regenerating from standardized surface injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.G.M.; Keijsers, R.R.M.C.; Seyger, M.M.B.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de


    Background: In healthy skin, tape stripping induces a transient wave of histological changes resembling immune-mediated skin diseases, such as psoriasis. The response to surface trauma may harbor mechanisms which are also relevant to the development of Koebner-positive skin disorders. However, studi

  15. Skin color - patchy (United States)

    ... page: // Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  16. A Probabilistic Framework for Detection of Skin Cancer by Raman Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur


    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on objective methods for diagnosing skin cancer from Raman spectra. A method for suppressing background noise and dimension reduction in Raman spectra is suggested. A robust Bayesian framework for training a neural network is proposed, including an overfit control...... and outlier framework. Finally a visualization scheme for extracting important features from the trained neural network classifier based on sensitivity analysis is defined. The performance on two types of skin cancer showed that 97.9% of basal cell carcinoma were identified correctly and 85.5% of malignant....... These identified important features are shown to originate from molecular structure changes in lipids and proteins. While the theme of this dissertation is skin cancer diagnosis from Raman spectra, the dimension reduction and the neural network classifier can be applied in general to other types of pattern...

  17. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Contact Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Api, Anne Marie; Belsito, Donald; Bickers, David;


    Background: Contact hypersensitivity quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for fragrance ingredients is being used to establish new international standards for all fragrance ingredients that are potential skin sensitizers. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the retrospective clinical data...... on three fragrance ingredients in order to provide a practical assessment of the predictive value of the QRA approach. It is important to have data to assess that the methodology provides a robust approach for primary prevention of contact sensitization induction for fragrance ingredients identified...... as potential sensitizers. Methods: This article reviews clinical data for three fragrance ingredients cinnamic aldehyde, citral, and isoeugenol to assess the utility of the QRA approach for fragrance ingredients. Results: This assessment suggests that had the QRA approach been available at the time standards...

  18. 78 FR 70047 - Request for the Technical Review of 25 Draft Skin Notation Assignments and Skin Notation Profiles (United States)


    ... published Current Intelligence Bulletin (CIB) 61--A Strategy for Assigning New NIOSH Skin Notations . The... of multiple skin notations for distinguishing systemic (SYS), direct (DIR), and sensitizing (SEN... notation when they are identified to cause multiple effects resulting from skin exposure. For example, if...

  19. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.


    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the p

  20. 3D sensitivity of 6-electrode Focused Impedance Method (FIM) (United States)

    Masum Iquebal, A. H.; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.


    The present work was taken up to have an understanding of the depth sensitivity of the 6 electrode FIM developed by our laboratory earlier, so that it may be applied judiciously for the measurement of organs in 3D, with electrodes on the skin surface. For a fixed electrode geometry sensitivity is expected to depend on the depth, size and conductivity of the target object. With current electrodes 18 cm apart and potential electrodes 5 cm apart, depth sensitivity of spherical conductors, insulators and of pieces of potato of different diameters were measured. The sensitivity dropped sharply with depth gradually leveling off to background, and objects could be sensed down to a depth of about twice their diameters. The sensitivity at a certain depth increases almost linearly with volume for objects with the same conductivity. Thus these results increase confidence in the use of FIM for studying organs at depths of the body.

  1. Perforating disorders of the skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Arora


    Full Text Available Background: Perforating disorders of the skin, is an often overlooked entity characterized by transepidermal elimination of material from the upper dermis and are classified histopathologically according to the type of epidermal disruption and the nature of the eliminated material. They include Kyrle′s disease, perforating folliculitis, reactive perforating collagenosis, and elastosis perforans serpiginosa. Aim: The aim of this study was to delineate the clinical and histopathological features of perforating disorders of the skin. Materials and Methods: In our study, we reviewed last 2 years skin biopsies received by us. Hematoxylin and eosin sections were re-examined and histochemical stainings (elastic van Gieson and Masson trichrome stains were also used for histopathological evaluation. Results: We reviewed five cases of perforating disorders of skin which included two cases of Kyrle′s disease, two cases of reactive perforating collagenosis and a single case of perforating folliculitis. Two patients had family history of perforating dermatosis in their siblings and three had associated systemic disease. Conclusion: Perforating disorders of the skin should be considered when ulcer with keratotic plugs is found.

  2. Climate change and skin. (United States)

    Balato, N; Ayala, F; Megna, M; Balato, A; Patruno, C


    Global climate appears to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Climate change can be caused by several factors that include variations in solar radiation received by earth, oceanic processes (such as oceanic circulation), plate tectonics, and volcanic eruptions, as well as human-induced alterations of the natural world. Many human activities, such as the use of fossil fuel and the consequent accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, land consumption, deforestation, industrial processes, as well as some agriculture practices are contributing to global climate change. Indeed, many authors have reported on the current trend towards global warming (average surface temperature has augmented by 0.6 °C over the past 100 years), decreased precipitation, atmospheric humidity changes, and global rise in extreme climatic events. The magnitude and cause of these changes and their impact on human activity have become important matters of debate worldwide, representing climate change as one of the greatest challenges of the modern age. Although many articles have been written based on observations and various predictive models of how climate change could affect social, economic and health systems, only few studies exist about the effects of this change on skin physiology and diseases. However, the skin is the most exposed organ to environment; therefore, cutaneous diseases are inclined to have a high sensitivity to climate. For example, global warming, deforestation and changes in precipitation have been linked to variations in the geographical distribution of vectors of some infectious diseases (leishmaniasis, lyme disease, etc) by changing their spread, whereas warm and humid environment can also encourage the colonization of the skin by bacteria and fungi. The present review focuses on the wide and complex relationship between climate change and dermatology, showing the numerous factors that are contributing to modify the incidence and the clinical pattern of many

  3. Self-Powered Analogue Smart Skin. (United States)

    Shi, Mayue; Zhang, Jinxin; Chen, Haotian; Han, Mengdi; Shankaregowda, Smitha A; Su, Zongming; Meng, Bo; Cheng, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Haixia


    The progress of smart skin technology presents unprecedented opportunities for artificial intelligence. Resolution enhancement and energy conservation are critical to improve the perception and standby time of robots. Here, we present a self-powered analogue smart skin for detecting contact location and velocity of the object, based on a single-electrode contact electrification effect and planar electrostatic induction. Using an analogue localizing method, the resolution of this two-dimensional smart skin can be achieved at 1.9 mm with only four terminals, which notably decreases the terminal number of smart skins. The sensitivity of this smart skin is remarkable, which can even perceive the perturbation of a honey bee. Meanwhile, benefiting from the triboelectric mechanism, extra power supply is unnecessary for this smart skin. Therefore, it solves the problems of batteries and connecting wires for smart skins. With microstructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) films and silver nanowire electrodes, it can be covered on the skin with transparency, flexibility, and high sensitivity.

  4. Responsive corneosurfametry following in vivo skin preconditioning. (United States)

    Uhoda, E; Goffin, V; Pierard, G E


    Skin is subjected to many environmental threats, some of which altering the structure and function of the stratum corneum. Among them, surfactants are recognized factors that may influence irritant contact dermatitis. The present study was conducted to compare the variations in skin capacitance and corneosurfametry (CSM) reactivity before and after skin exposure to repeated subclinical injuries by 2 hand dishwashing liquids. A forearm immersion test was performed on 30 healthy volunteers. 2 daily soak sessions were performed for 5 days. At inclusion and the day following the last soak session, skin capacitance was measured and cyanoacrylate skin-surface strippings were harvested. The latter specimens were used for the ex vivo microwave CSM. Both types of assessments clearly differentiated the 2 hand dishwashing liquids. The forearm immersion test allowed the discriminant sensitivity of CSM to increase. Intact skin capacitance did not predict CSM data. By contrast, a significant correlation was found between the post-test conductance and the corresponding CSM data. In conclusion, a forearm immersion test under realistic conditions can discriminate the irritation potential between surfactant-based products by measuring skin conductance and performing CSM. In vivo skin preconditioning by surfactants increases CSM sensitivity to the same surfactants.

  5. Skin Exposure and Asthma: Is There a Connection?


    Redlich, Carrie A.


    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent...

  6. Skin Care and Aging (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Skin Care and Aging How Aging Affects Skin Your skin changes with age. It becomes thinner, ... to make it feel and look better. Dry Skin and Itching Click for more information Many older ...

  7. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the ... pigment, causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins ...

  8. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  9. Background simulations and shielding calculations (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.


    Key improvements in the sensitivity of the underground particle astrophysics experiments can only be achieved if the radiation causing background events in detectors is well understood and proper measures are taken to suppress it. The background radiation arising from radioactivity and cosmic-ray muons is discussed here together with the methods of its suppression. Different shielding designs are considered to attenuate gamma-rays and neutrons coming from radioactivity in rock and lab walls. Purity of materials used in detector construction is analysed and the background event rates due to the presence of radioactive isotopes in detector components are discussed. Event rates in detectors caused by muon-induced neutrons with and without active veto systems are presented leading to the requirements for the depth of an underground laboratory and the efficiency of the veto system.

  10. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.


    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Building Background Knowledge (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley


    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  12. Comparison of acetate tape impression with squeezing versus skin scraping for the diagnosis of canine demodicosis. (United States)

    Pereira, A V; Pereira, S A; Gremião, I D F; Campos, M P; Ferreira, A M R


    This study compared the sensitivity of acetate tape impression and skin squeezing with that of deep skin scraping for the diagnosis of demodicosis in dogs. Demodex canis was detected in 100% of acetate tape impressions obtained after skin squeezing and in 90% of deep skin scrapings. There was a significant difference (P scraping and is an alternative diagnostic method for canine demodicosis.

  13. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes


    Takken Willem; Knols Bart GJ; Beijleveld Hans; Verhulst Niels O; Schraa Gosse; Bouwmeester Harro J; Smallegange Renate C


    Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study ...

  14. [Sarcoidosis of the skin]. (United States)

    Suga, Y; Ogawa, H


    Sarcoidosis is characterized by formation of epithelioid-cell tubercules, without caseation, of the affected organ systems. The mediastinum, peripheral lymph nodes and eyes, in addition to the skin, are most frequently affected. Between 10% and 30% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis in Japan have skin lesions. Skin sarcoidosis is morphologically classified into three basic groups, erythema nodosum, scar sarcoidosis and skin sarcoid. Skin sarcoid is characterized by specific cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis, and may take nodular, plaque, angiolupoid, subcutaneous and some other forms. Clinical manifestations of the cutaneous lesions are usually asymptomatic and polymorphous. Skin biopsy is, however, often highly useful for confirming a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  15. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bock, J; Cooray, A R; Kawada, M; Keating, B; Lange, A; Lee, D H; Matsumoto, T; Matsuura, S; Pak, S; Renbarger, T; Sullivan, I; Tsumura, K; Wada, T; Watabe, T; Bock, James; Battle, John; Cooray, Asantha; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Keating, Brian; Lange, Andrew; Lee, Dae-Hea; Matsumoto, Toshio; Matsuura, Shuji; Pak, Soojong; Renbarger, Tom; Sullivan, Ian; Tsumura, Kohji; Wada, Takehiko; Watabe, Toyoki


    We are developing a rocket-borne instrument (the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment, or CIBER) to search for signatures of primordial galaxy formation in the cosmic near-infrared extra-galactic background. CIBER consists of a wide-field two-color camera, a low-resolution absolute spectrometer, and a high-resolution narrow-band imaging spectrometer. The cameras will search for spatial fluctuations in the background on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees over a range of angular scales poorly covered by previous experiments. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by the IRTS arise from first-light galaxies or have a local origin. In a short rocket flight CIBER has sensitivity to probe fluctuations 100 times fainter than IRTS/DIRBE. By jointly observing regions of the sky studied by Spitzer and ASTRO-F, CIBER will build a multi-color view of the near-infrared background, accurately assessing the contribution of local (z = 1-3) galaxies to the observed background fluctuations, allowing a de...

  16. The superhealing MRL background improves muscular dystrophy



    Abstract Background Mice from the MRL or “superhealing” strain have enhanced repair after acute injury to the skin, cornea, and heart. We now tested an admixture of the MRL genome and found that it altered the course of muscle pathology and cardiac function in a chronic disease model of skeletal and cardiac muscle. Mice lacking γ-sarcoglycan (Sgcg), a dystrophin-associated protein, develop muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy similar to their human counterparts with limb girdle muscular dyst...

  17. Degree of skin denervation and its correlation to objective thermal sensory test in leprosy patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Alves Rodrigues Júnior

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprosy is an infectious disease affecting skin and peripheral nerves resulting in increased morbidity and physical deformities. Early diagnosis provides opportune treatment and reduces its complications, relying fundamentally on the demonstration of impaired sensation in suggestive cutaneous lesions. The loss of tactile sensitivity in the lesions is preceded by the loss of thermal sensitivity, stressing the importance of the thermal test in the suspicious lesions approach. The gold-standard method for the assessment of thermal sensitivity is the quantitative sensory test (QST. Morphological study may be an alternative approach to access the thin nerve fibers responsible for thermal sensitivity transduction. The few studies reported in leprosy patients pointed out a rarefaction of thin dermo-epidermal fibers in lesions, but used semi-quantitative evaluation methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work aimed to study the correlation between the degree of thermal sensitivity impairment measured by QST and the degree of denervation in leprosy skin lesions, evaluated by immunohistochemistry anti-PGP 9.5 and morphometry. Twenty-two patients were included. There were significant differences in skin thermal thresholds among lesions and contralateral skin (cold, warm, cold induced pain and heat induced pain. The mean reduction in the density of intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers in lesions was 79.5% (SD = 19.6 and 80.8% (SD = 24.9, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We observed a good correlation between intraepidermal and subepidermal fibers deficit, but no correlation between these variables and those accounting for the degree of impairment in thermal thresholds, since the thin fibers rarefaction was homogeneously intense in all patients, regardless of the degree of sensory deficit. We believe that the homogeneously intense denervation in leprosy lesions should be objective of further investigations focused on its

  18. Cultivation of Intercultural Competence under Background of Sensitivity and Communication Educational Internationalization%教育国际化背景下文化敏感性和文化能力的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    On the basis of the explanation of intercultural sensitivity and the content of cultural competence, the introduction of cultural knowledge teaching to combine language knowledge with pragmatic competence is discussed, so as to overcome cultural conflicts in cultural communication, and the cultivation strategies of intercultural sensitivity and intercultural communication competence are raised.%在阐述文化敏感性和文化能力内涵的基础上,探讨文化教育的引入,在语言学习的过程中,实现语言知识与语用能力的有机结合,克服跨文化交际中的文化缺失与摩擦,研究培养文化敏感性和文化能力的策略。

  19. Skin Stem Cells in Skin Cell Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollapour Sisakht


    Full Text Available Context Preclinical and clinical research has shown that stem cell therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many diseases. This article describes skin stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications. Evidence Acquisition Compared with conventional methods, cell therapy reduces the surgical burden for patients because it is simple and less time-consuming. Skin cell therapy has been developed for variety of diseases. By isolation of the skin stem cell from the niche, in vitro expansion and transplantation of cells offers a surprising healing capacity profile. Results Stem cells located in skin cells have shown interesting properties such as plasticity, transdifferentiation, and specificity. Mesenchymal cells of the dermis, hypodermis, and other sources are currently being investigated to promote regeneration. Conclusions Because skin stem cells are highly accessible from autologous sources and their immunological profile is unique, they are ideal for therapeutic approaches. Optimization of administrative routes requires more investigation own to the lack of a standard protocol.

  20. Reflectance Confocal Microscopy for Inflammatory Skin Diseases. (United States)

    Agozzino, M; Gonzalez, S; Ardigò, M


    In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a relatively novel non-invasive tool for microscopic evaluation of the skin used prevalently for diagnosis and management of skin tumour. Its axial resolution, its non-invasive and easy clinical application represents the goals for a large diffusion of this technique. During the last 15 years, RCM has been demonstrated to be able to increase the sensibility and sensitivity of dermoscopy in the diagnosis of skin tumours integrating in real time clinic, dermoscopic and microscopic information useful for the definition of malignancy. Despite to date, no large comparative studies on inflammatory skin diseases has been published in the literature, several papers already showed that RCM has a potential for the evaluation of the descriptive features of the most common inflammatory skin diseases as psoriasis, lupus erythematosus, contact dermatitis and others. The aim of the application of this technique in non-neoplastic skin diseases has been prevalently focused on the possibility of clinical diagnosis confirmation, as well as therapeutic management. Moreover, the use of RCM as driver for an optimised skin biopsy has been also followed in order to reduce the number of unsuccessful histopathological examination. In this review article we describe the confocal features of the major groups of inflammatory skin disorders focusing on psoriasiform dermatitis, interface dermatitis and spongiotic dermatitis.

  1. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  2. Examine Your Skin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Support Donate Share Facebook Twitter Newsletter Examine Your Skin Watch the video below and in only two minutes, you can learn to examine your skin. A special thanks to Dr. Martin Weinstock, MD, ...

  3. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin (United States)

    ... Dermatologic Surgery Expertise for the life of your skin (TM) Public Resources Dermatologic Surgery Conditions Treatments and ... learn-more"> 3 million Americans are diagnosed with skin cancer every year Any suspicious new growths or ...

  4. Ultrasound-guided lateral infraclavicular block evaluated by infrared thermography and distal skin temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asghar, Semera; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg; Bjerregaard, Lars Stryhn


    BACKGROUND: Brachial plexus blocks cause changes in hand and digit skin temperature. We investigated thermographic patterns after the lateral infraclavicular brachial plexus block. We hypothesised that a successful lateral infraclavicular block could be predicted by increased skin temperature of ...

  5. Nationwide survey of the development of drug resistance in the pediatric field in 2000-2001, 2004, 2007, 2010, and 2012: evaluation of the changes in drug sensitivity of Haemophilus influenzae and patients' background factors. (United States)

    Shiro, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yoshitake; Toyonaga, Yoshikiyo; Hanaki, Hideaki; Sunakawa, Keisuke


    The Drug-Resistant Pathogen Surveillance Group in Pediatric Infectious Disease has conducted surveillance of pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections, meningitis, and sepsis five times (in 2000-2001 [period 1], 2004 [period 2], 2007 [period 3], 2010 [period 4], and 2012 [period 5]). With respect to the clinically isolated Haemophilus influenzae, the drug susceptibility, the frequency of drug-resistant strains, and patients' background factors in each period have already been reported. Here we evaluate trends in the development of drug resistance in H. influenzae, and the relationship between the development of drug resistance and patients' background factors in the aforementioned five periods. H. influenzae derived from pediatric patients with respiratory tract infections that had been previously collected (period 1, 448 isolates; period 2, 376 isolates; period 3, 386 isolates; period 4, 484 isolates; and period 5, 411 isolates) were analyzed. The proportions of ß-lactamase-nonproducing ampicillin (ABPC)-intermediate resistant (BLNAI) strains + β-lactamase-nonproducing ABPC-resistant (BLNAR) strains were 28.8% in period 1, 59.3% in period 2, 61.1% in period 3, 58.1% in period 4, and 63.5% in period 5, showing a rapid increase from period 1 to period 2 followed by an almost constant rate of approximately 60%. The proportion of ß-lactamase-producing ABPC-resistant (BLPAR) strains + ß-lactamase-producing clavulanic acid/amoxicillin-resistant (BLPACR) strains was 4.4% in period 3, which was somewhat low; however, there were no significant changes in the proportions of these strains, which ranged between 6.4% and 8.7% throughout the surveillance period except for period 3. The drugs whose MIC90 values against BLNAR strains were low throughout the surveillance included piperacillin (0.25 μg/mL) and tazobactam/piperacillin (0.125-0.25 μg/mL) in the penicillins; cefditoren and ceftriaxone (0.25-0.5 μg/mL for both) in the cephems; meropenem (0.5-1

  6. Skin Cancer Trends (United States)

    ... Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A Base Tan Is Not a Safe Tan Tanned Skin Is Not Healthy Skin Controlled Tanning Is Not Safe Tanning Guidelines for School ... Melanoma Surveillance in the U.S. Related Links ...

  7. On skin expansion. (United States)

    Pamplona, Djenane C; Velloso, Raquel Q; Radwanski, Henrique N


    This article discusses skin expansion without considering cellular growth of the skin. An in vivo analysis was carried out that involved expansion at three different sites on one patient, allowing for the observation of the relaxation process. Those measurements were used to characterize the human skin of the thorax during the surgical process of skin expansion. A comparison between the in vivo results and the numerical finite elements model of the expansion was used to identify the material elastic parameters of the skin of the thorax of that patient. Delfino's constitutive equation was chosen to model the in vivo results. The skin is considered to be an isotropic, homogeneous, hyperelastic, and incompressible membrane. When the skin is extended, such as with expanders, the collagen fibers are also extended and cause stiffening in the skin, which results in increasing resistance to expansion or further stretching. We observed this phenomenon as an increase in the parameters as subsequent expansions continued. The number and shape of the skin expanders used in expansions were also studied, both mathematically and experimentally. The choice of the site where the expansion should be performed is discussed to enlighten problems that can lead to frustrated skin expansions. These results are very encouraging and provide insight into our understanding of the behavior of stretched skin by expansion. To our knowledge, this study has provided results that considerably improve our understanding of the behavior of human skin under expansion.

  8. Skin self-exam (United States)

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  9. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.J.M.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  10. Microbiome and skin diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Kleerebezem, M.; Timmerman, H.M.; Schalkwijk, J.


    Purpose of review: This article reviews recent findings on the skin microbiome. It provides an update on the current understanding of the role of microbiota in healthy skin and in inflammatory and allergic skin diseases. Recent findings: Advances in computing and high-throughput sequencing technolog

  11. Ultrasound skin imaging. (United States)

    Alfageme Roldán, F


    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology.

  12. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin. (United States)

    Honeyman, Juan F


    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases.

  13. My Skin – a self-questionnaire for assessment of the emotional-cognitive representation of skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena M. Kossakowska


    Full Text Available Background The aims of this paper are: 1 to present the My Skin questionnaire, 2 to report the preliminary results of a study on the emotional-cognitive skin representation, and 3 to encourage dermatologists and other specialists to use the My Skin questionnaire in their research. The inspiration for a new tool measuring the emotional and cognitive representation of skin was the psychological conception of the ‘skin ego’. Participants and procedure My Skin, a self-questionnaire (MSQ, was used to measure the emotional and cognitive representation of an individual’s skin. It consists of two main scales: satisfaction with the skin condition (AB and awareness of the biopsychosocial functions of the skin (C. The Body Esteem Scale, Body Self Questionnaire and Self-Esteem Scale were used to validate the MSQ. The participants were: healthy individuals (n = 343 and dermatology patients (psoriasis, vitiligo, juvenile acne, n = 84. Results The psychometric parameters are presented in this article. The internal consistency reliabilities for subscales are in the range of .75 and .95. This article also presents preliminary basic statistics for the skin representation of dermatology patients and healthy people. Conclusions My Skin questionnaire is a valid tool for assessing cognitive and emotional representation of skin and may be used in psychodermatology and esthetic dermatology to assess satisfaction with and awareness of skin.

  14. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Oryszczyn; R. Ree; J. Maccario; R. Nadif; F. Kauffmann


    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test (SPT

  15. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.


    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  16. The Cosmic Microwave Background


    Silk, Joseph


    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  17. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women


    Dumoulin M; Gaudout D; Lemaire B


    Marion Dumoulin, David Gaudout, Benoit Lemaire Activ’Inside, Libourne, France Background: Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women.Methods: The open-label clinical stu...

  18. The Athena Background (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe


    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  19. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J G; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.


    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  20. Background illumination and automated perimetry. (United States)

    Klewin, K M; Radius, R L


    Visual field function in the right and left eyes of 31 normal volunteers was evaluated with an automated projection perimeter (OCTOPUS). Serial visual field evaluations were repeated in these same eyes with neutral filters of increasing optical density. We compared the results of threshold determinations with the different neutral filters in place before the examined eye. Significant reduction in threshold sensitivity at several test spots throughout the central 30 degrees visual field was seen with neutral density filters of 0.5 log units or greater. The low level of background illumination of the OCTOPUS perimeter (4.0 apostilbs) may allow relatively minor reduction in light transmission by the ocular media to produce significant changes in the recorded level of threshold sensitivity during visual field evaluation.

  1. 复方红参肽原液电离子导渗对面部敏感性皮肤的辅助疗效观察%Observation of clinical effects of red ginseng peptide ionotherapy on facial sensitive skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易文娟; 梁虹; 谢婷; 李慧; 胡英姿; 蒋长华


    目的观察复方红参肽原液电离子导渗对改善女性面部敏感性皮肤的有效性。方法30例女性面部敏感性皮肤志愿者随机分成两组,试验组20例接受维生素E霜和复方红参肽原液电离子导渗治疗,对照组10例接受维生素E霜治疗,均治疗8周。结果受试者自评量表提示,试验组满意度较高(P<0.05);皮肤分析仪检测提示试验组的皮肤水分、弹性、红血丝均明显改善(P<0.05);Photoshop CS5软件分析面部图像提示试验后面部皮肤皱纹、毛孔均明显改善(P<0.05),色斑平均减退率为11.23%。结论复方红参肽原液电离子导渗可以改善女性面部敏感性皮肤状况,并且在一定程度上改善肤质。%Objective To study the clinical effects of red ginseng peptide ionotherapy on facial sensitive skin. Methods Thirty facial sensitive skin volunteers are randomly allocated into two groups. The treatment group (20 cases) received topical vitamin E cream and ionotherapy, and the controlled group (10 cases) received vitamin E cream. Results Questionnaires results revealed that red ginseng peptide ionotherapy on facial sensitive skin was effective(P<0.05). Complexion analysis system results showed that facial moisture, resilience and telangiectasia improved signiifcantly(P<0.05). Photoshop CS5 software results indicated that facial wrinkles, and pores got improved(P<0.05). The mean reduction rate of pigmented patches is 11.23%. Conclusion Red ginseng peptide ionotherapy can improve the female facial sensitive skin, and improve complexion to a certain extent.

  2. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin (United States)

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan


    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals.

  3. Elucidation of xenobiotic metabolism pathways in human skin and human skin models by proteomic profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven van Eijl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human skin has the capacity to metabolise foreign chemicals (xenobiotics, but knowledge of the various enzymes involved is incomplete. A broad-based unbiased proteomics approach was used to describe the profile of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes present in human skin and hence indicate principal routes of metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Several in vitro models of human skin have been developed for the purpose of safety assessment of chemicals. The suitability of these epidermal models for studies involving biotransformation was assessed by comparing their profiles of xenobiotic metabolising enzymes with those of human skin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Label-free proteomic analysis of whole human skin (10 donors was applied and analysed using custom-built PROTSIFT software. The results showed the presence of enzymes with a capacity for the metabolism of alcohols through dehydrogenation, aldehydes through dehydrogenation and oxidation, amines through oxidation, carbonyls through reduction, epoxides and carboxylesters through hydrolysis and, of many compounds, by conjugation to glutathione. Whereas protein levels of these enzymes in skin were mostly just 4-10 fold lower than those in liver and sufficient to support metabolism, the levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes were at least 300-fold lower indicating they play no significant role. Four epidermal models of human skin had profiles very similar to one another and these overlapped substantially with that of whole skin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The proteomics profiling approach was successful in producing a comprehensive analysis of the biotransformation characteristics of whole human skin and various in vitro skin models. The results show that skin contains a range of defined enzymes capable of metabolising different classes of chemicals. The degree of similarity of the profiles of the in vitro models indicates their suitability for epidermal toxicity testing. Overall, these

  4. Assessment of Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer and Benign Lesions Versus Normal Skin:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Nürnberg, Birgit Meincke;


    BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess the diagn......BACKGROUND Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical imaging technique that may be useful in diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). OBJECTIVES To describe OCT features in NMSC such as actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and in benign lesions and to assess...... the diagnostic accuracy of OCT in differentiating NMSC from benign lesions and normal skin. METHODS AND MATERIALS OCT and polarization-sensitive (PS) OCT from 104 patients were studied. Observer-blinded evaluation of OCT images from 64 BCCs, 1 baso-squamous carcinoma, 39 AKs, two malignant melanomas, nine benign......-defined layering in OCT and PS-OCT images and dark lobules in BCC. Discrimination of AK from BCC had an error rate of 50% to 52%. CONCLUSION OCT features in NMSC are identified, but AK and BCC cannot be differentiated. OCT diagnosis is less accurate than clinical diagnosis, but high accuracy in distinguishing...

  5. Skin absorption through atopic dermatitis skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, A-S; Kezic, S; Jakasa, I


    Patients with atopic dermatitis have skin barrier impairment in both lesional and non-lesional skin. They are typically exposed to emollients daily and topical anti-inflammatory medicaments intermittently, hereby increasing the risk of developing contact allergy and systemic exposed to chemicals...... ingredients found in these topical preparations. We systematically searched for studies that investigated skin absorption of various penetrants, including medicaments, in atopic dermatitis patients, but also animals with experimentally induced dermatitis. We identified 40 articles, i.e. 11 human studies...... examining model penetrants, 26 human studies examining atopic dermatitis drugs and 3 animal studies. We conclude that atopic dermatitis patients have nearly two-fold increased skin absorption when compared to healthy controls. There is a need for well-designed epidemiological and dermato...

  6. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders. (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W


    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  7. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil ?


    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E


    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  8. Heterogeneous Stem Cells in Skin Homeostatis and Wound Repair


    Anna Meilana; Nurrani Mustika Dewi; Andi Wijaya


    BACKGROUND: The skin protects mammals from insults, infection and dehydration and enables thermoregulation and sensory perception. Various skin-resident cells carry out these diverse functions. Constant turnover of cells and healing upon injury necessitate multiple reservoirs of stem cells. The skin is a complex organ harboring several distinct populations of stem cells and a rich array of cell types. Advances in genetic and imaging tools have brought new findings about the lineage relationsh...

  9. Rosacea in skin of color: not a rare diagnosis


    Al-Dabagh, Amir; Davis, Scott A.; McMichael, Amy J; Feldman, Steven R.


    Background: The prevalence of rosacea in skin of color is not well characterized and may be underestimated. Physicians may not recognize and diagnose rosacea correctly in skin of color.Purpose: To assess the prevalence of rosacea in skin of color and determine if patients of color with rosacea symptoms are receiving a diagnosis of rosaceaMethods: We analyzed the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for 1993-2010 for racial and ethnic distribution of patients with rosacea. Common re...

  10. Skin Biophysical Characteristics in Patients with Keratoconus: A Controlled Study



    Background. Keratoconus is a relatively common corneal disease causing significant visual disability. Individuals with connective tissue disorders that affect the skin such as Marfan's syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome or patients with atopic dermatitis show an increased prevalence of keratoconus. It seems that there are some concurrent alterations of skin and cornea in patients with keratoconus. Objective. We plan to compare skin biophysical characteristics in patients with keratoconus and...

  11. A technique for pediatric total skin electron irradiation


    Bao Qinan; Hrycushko Brian A; Dugas Joseph P; Hager Frederick H; Solberg Timothy D


    Abstract Background Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special radiotherapy technique which has generally been used for treating adult patients with mycosis fungoides. Recently, two infants presented with leukemia cutis isolated to the skin requiring TSEI. This work discusses the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) methods for implementing a modified Stanford technique using a rotating harness system to position sedated pediatric patients treated with electrons to the total skin...

  12. Skin protection creams in medical settings: successful or evil?


    Charlier Corinne; Denooz Raphaël; Macarenko Elena; Xhauflaire-Uhoda Emmanuelle; Piérard Gérald E


    Abstract Background Chronic exposure to mild irritants including cleansing and antiseptic products used for hand hygiene generates insults to the skin. To avoid unpleasant reactions, skin protection creams are commonly employed, but some fail to afford protection against a variety of xenobiotics. In this study, two skin protection creams were assayed comparatively looking for a protective effect if any against a liquid soap and an alcohol-based gel designed for hand hygiene in medical setting...

  13. [The many facets of inherited skin fragility]. (United States)

    Has, C; Kiritsi, D


    The inherited skin fragility encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders, collectively designated as epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by recurrent mechanically induced blisters, erosions or wounds. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is broad, as well as the molecular background. Besides the skin, mucosal membranes and other organs can be affected. In real-world practice, patients with mild genetic skin fragility usually do not require medical care and often remain underdiagnosed. In contrast, the well-defined severe EB subtypes are recognized based on typical clinical features. The molecular diagnostics is usually performed in order to allow genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Besides wound care and careful management of the disease complications, new experimental targeted therapies are being developed. New very rare forms of inherited skin fragility have been identified with modern sequencing methods.

  14. 575 Photoaging Attenuates Skin Test Response to Histamine More Than Natural Aging


    King, Monroe James; Fitzhugh, David; Lockey, Richard F.


    Background Clinical experience suggests that skin test reactivity is often decreased in photo-exposed skin versus sun-protected skin in older individuals. The current study was designed to address whether photoaging or natural aging of skin causes a greater diminution in skin test reponse. Methods Prick-puncture skin tests to histamine were performed on sun-exposed and sun-protected areas in younger (n = 61, age 20–50) and older (n = 63, age 60–87) adult volunteers who were recruited for skin...

  15. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  16. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.


    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  17. 578 Comparison of the Modified Autologous Serum Skin Test and the Cd63 Basophil Activation Test in Chronic Urticaria


    Irinyi, B; Gyimesi, E.; Garaczi, E.; Bata, Zs.; Hodosi, K.; Zeher, M; Remenyik, É.; Szegedi, A.


    Background The modified CD63 basophil activation test in the diagnosis of chronic autoimmun urticaria was first described in 2004 by Szegedi et al. We demonstrated that the strongly sensitized basophils of atopic donors can be successfully used without the addition of IL-3 for the in vitro evaluation of autoimmun urticaria. Positive correlation was found between the basophil CD63 expression test and the autolog serum skin test (ASST), and between the CD63 test and the gold standard histamine ...

  18. Ultraviolet A phototherapy for sclerotic skin diseases: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroft, E.B.M.; Berkhof, N.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Gerritsen, R.M.; Jong, E.M.G.J. de


    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) A-1 phototherapy is now available for a variety of skin diseases. Increasingly since 1995, there have been investigations of the efficacy of UVA-1 (340-400 nm) therapy for sclerotic skin diseases. Most studies undertaken treated patients who had localized scleroderma, bu

  19. Microbiome dynamics of human epidermis following skin barrier disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeuwen, P.L.; Boekhorst, te J.; Bogaard, van den E.H.; Koning, de H.D.; Kerkhof, van de P.M.; Saulnier, D.M.; Swam, van I.I.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Kleerebezem, M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Timmerman, H.M.


    Background - Recent advances in sequencing technologies have enabled metagenomic analyses of many human body sites. Several studies have catalogued the composition of bacterial communities of the surface of human skin, mostly under static conditions in healthy volunteers. Skin injury will disturb th

  20. Disagreement between skin prick test and specific IgE in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, BLK; Følsgaard, N V;


    BACKGROUND: Skin prick test (SPT) and measurement of serum-specific IgE (sIgE) level are important tools for the clinician to diagnose allergic sensitization. However, little is known about the agreement between the two methods in young children. METHODS: SPT and sIgE levels were assessed...... points was analyzed using kappa statistics. RESULTS: The prevalence of inhalant allergen sensitization increased during childhood diagnosed by both sIgE levels (0.6% to 4.2% to 18.1% to 24.8%, P ... sensitization increased during childhood when diagnosed from sIgE (7.8% to 12.1% to 15.0% to 18.9%, P IgE levels was poor to moderate (all κ-coefficients ≤ 0.60) and decreased from...

  1. Dermal factors influencing measurement of skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Margaretha J.; Lefrandt, Johan; Graaff, Reindert; Smit, Andries J.


    Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a noninvasive marker of accumulation of advanced glycation end products. It predicts cardiovascular complications and mortality in diabetes and renal failure. We assessed the influence of potential common confounders in SAF measurement, by determining the e

  2. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, N.O.; Beijleveld, H.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.; Schraa, G.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Smallegange, R.C.


    Background - Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human

  3. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  4. Genetic determinants of hair, eye and skin pigmentation in Europeans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulem, P.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Stacey, S.N.; Helgason, A.; Rafnar, T.; Magnusson, K.P.; Manolescu, A.; Karason, A.; Palsson, A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Steinberg, S.; Palsson, S.; Jonasson, F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Olafsson, J.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Kong, A.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.


    Hair, skin and eye colors are highly heritable and visible traits in humans. We carried out a genome-wide association scan for variants associated with hair and eye pigmentation, skin sensitivity to sun and freckling among 2,986 Icelanders. We then tested the most closely associated SNPs from six re

  5. Genetic Variation in TLR10, an Inhibitory Toll-Like Receptor, Influences Susceptibility to Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, M.H.T.; Oosting, M.; Ioana, M.; Reimnitz, P.; Mouton, J.W.; Netea, M.G.; Gyssens, I.C.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.


    BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a central role in the innate immune response to complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs), with TLR10 being the first family member known to have an inhibitory function. This study assessed the role of TLR10 in recognition of cSSSI-related pa

  6. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P


    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  7. Spectrum of pediatric skin biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace D′costa


    Full Text Available Background: Skin diseases are common in childhood and they are common reasons for pediatric visits to the hospital. In spite of this high occurrence, there are very few prospective studies addressing this issue. Aims: The present study was directed at determining the spectrum of dermato-pathological lesions encountered in a large general tertiary care hospital, over a two-year period. Materials and Methods: 107 cases formed the total sample studied, in a part prospective and part retrospective study. A detailed clinical history was recorded on a proforma prepared for the purpose and gross photographs were taken wherever possible. Results: Skin biopsies accounted for 7.29% of the total surgical pathology load, 55.44% of the total pediatric biopsies and 10.82% of the total number of skin biopsies. The age and sex distribution pattern revealed that the maximum number of biopsies (62.61% were of older children, with a male preponderance (57.94%. The anatomic distribution pattern indicated predominant involvement of the limbs (59.82%. The maximum numbers of cases were of infectious nature (24.29%; the most frequently encountered being borderline tuberculoid Hansen′s disease (8.4%. A positive correlation with the clinical diagnosis was obtained in 56.07% cases. Conclusions: Histopathology contributed to the diagnosis in a significant number of (82.23% cases, indicating its importance and utility.

  8. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R


    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  9. Basophils and skin disorders. (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Granata, Francescopaolo; Marone, Gianni


    Since their discovery in 1879, basophils have been viewed as circulating blood granulocytes with limited immune function. New research tools for their functional analysis in vivo have revealed previously unrecognized roles for basophils in several skin disorders. Human basophils infiltrate different skin lesions and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diseases ranging from chronic idiopathic urticaria to systemic lupus erythematosus. In mouse models, basophils participate in IgE-mediated chronic allergic inflammation of the skin and have a protective role in tick infestation. In this review, we discuss critical advances in our understanding of basophil biology and their roles in the pathophysiology of skin disorders.

  10. Skin Images Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali E. Zaart


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image segmentation is a fundamental step in many applications of image processing. Skin cancer has been the most common of all new cancers detected each year. At early stage detection of skin cancer, simple and economic treatment can cure it mostly. An accurate segmentation of skin images can help the diagnosis to define well the region of the cancer. The principal approach of segmentation is based on thresholding (classification that is lied to the problem of the thresholds estimation. Approach: The objective of this study is to develop a method to segment the skin images based on a mixture of Beta distributions. We assume that the data in skin images can be modeled by a mixture of Beta distributions. We used an unsupervised learning technique with Beta distribution to estimate the statistical parameters of the data in skin image and then estimate the thresholds for segmentation. Results: The proposed method of skin images segmentation was implemented and tested on different skin images. We obtained very good results in comparing with the same techniques with Gamma distribution. Conclusion: The experiment showed that the proposed method obtained very good results but it requires more testing on different types of skin images.

  11. Differential volatile signatures from skin, naevi and melanoma: a novel approach to detect a pathological process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Abaffy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early detection of melanoma is of great importance to reduce mortality. Discovering new melanoma biomarkers would improve early detection and diagnosis. Here, we present a novel approach to detect volatile compounds from skin. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS to identify volatile signatures from melanoma, naevi and skin samples. We hypothesized that the metabolic state of tissue alters the profile of volatile compounds. Volatiles released from fresh biopsy tissue of melanoma and benign naevus were compared based on their difference in frequency distribution and their expression level. We also analyzed volatile profiles from frozen tissue, including skin and melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Three volatiles, 4-methyl decane, dodecane and undecane were preferentially expressed in both fresh and frozen melanoma, indicating that they are candidate biomarkers. Twelve candidate biomarkers evaluated by fuzzy logic analysis of frozen samples distinguished melanoma from skin with 89% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Our results demonstrate proof-of-principle that there is differential expression of volatiles in melanoma. Our volatile metabolomic approach will lead to a better understanding of melanoma and can enable development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies based on altered metabolism.

  12. A survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards skin and soft tissue infections in rural Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Raczniak


    Full Text Available Background: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus infections are common to south-western Alaska and have been associated with traditional steambaths. More than a decade ago, recommendations were made to affected communities that included preventive skin care, cleaning methods for steambath surfaces, and the use of protective barriers while in steambaths to reduce the risk of S. aureus infection. Objective: A review of community medical data suggested that the number of skin infection clinical encounters has increased steadily over the last 3 years and we designed a public health investigation to seek root causes. Study design: Using a mixed methods approach with in-person surveys, a convenience sample (n=492 from 3 rural communities assessed the range of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning skin infections, skin infection education messaging, prevention activities and home self-care of skin infections. Results: We described barriers to implementing previous recommendations and evaluated the acceptability of potential interventions. Prior public health messages appear to have been effective in reaching community members and appear to have been understood and accepted. We found no major misconceptions regarding what a boil was or how someone got one. Overall, respondents seemed concerned about boils as a health problem and reported that they were motivated to prevent boils. We identified current practices used to avoid skin infections, such as the disinfection of steambaths. We also identified barriers to engaging in protective behaviours, such as lack of access to laundry facilities. Conclusions: These findings can be used to help guide public health strategic planning and identify appropriate evidence-based interventions tailored to the specific needs of the region.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prema


    Full Text Available Skin detection in images or videos plays a vital role in a wide range of image processing applications like face detection, face tracking, gesture analysis, human-computer interaction etc. Due to its high processing speed and invariant against rotation, it has received significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision. The robustness of skin detection using color information depends on real world conditions such as background, noise, change of intensity and lightening effects. This situation can be improved by using texture as a descriptor to extract skin pixels in images. This study proposes color based skin detection algorithm (fusion of Cheddad’s approach with Cr of YCbCr color space with a texture based skin location algorithm called Modified Weber’s Law Descriptions (MWLD to evaluate region features. MWLD is based on the fact that the Human Visual System (HVS is more sensitive in lumens contrast than absolute luminance values. In MWLD, the differential excitation and gradient orientation of the current pixel are considered to extract the texture features. For differential excitation, Just Noticeable Distortion (JND is also used. Due to the absence of red component in Cheddad’s new color space for skin detection, the detection rate is not good for real time applications. To improve this situation, the Cr component of YCbCr color space is included to obtain the color features. According to experimental results, the proposed method exhibits satisfactory performance in terms of True Positive Rate (TPR, False Positive Rate (FPR and Accuracy with wide variations in size, color and orientation. Different window sizes for differential excitation such as 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 are also taken to check the performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prema


    Full Text Available Skin detection in images or videos plays a vital role in a wide range of image processing applications like face detection, face tracking, gesture analysis, human-computer interaction etc. Due to its high processing speed and invariant against rotation, it has received significant interest in pattern recognition and computer vision. The robustness of skin detection using color information depends on real world conditions such as background, noise, change of intensity and lightening effects. This situation can be improved by using texture as a descriptor to extract skin pixels in images. This study proposes color based skin detection algorithm (fusion of Cheddad’s approach with Cr of YCbCr color space with a texture based skin location algorithm called Modified Weber’s Law Descriptions (MWLD to evaluate region features. MWLD is based on the fact that the Human Visual System (HVS is more sensitive in lumens contrast than absolute luminance values. In MWLD, the differential excitation and gradient orientation of the current pixel are considered to extract the texture features. For differential excitation, Just Noticeable Distortion (JND is also used. Due to the absence of red component in Cheddad’s new color space for skin detection, the detection rate is not good for real time applications. To improve this situation, the Cr component of YCbCr color space is included to obtain the color features. According to experimental results, the proposed method exhibits satisfactory performance in terms of True Positive Rate (TPR, False Positive Rate (FPR and Accuracy with wide variations in size, color and orientation. Different window sizes for differential excitation such as 3×3, 5×5 and 7×7 are also taken to check the performance.

  15. Elastic Films for Cyrogenic Skin Friction Measurements Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Here we introduce a new sensor for measurement of skin friction and pressure, Surface Stress Sensitive Film (S3F). This technique can operate over a range of...

  16. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik


    -cultural construction of identity, and, as a matter of fact, that their role might be quite important. I argue that the DDAs are backgrounded but not peripheral, i.e. marginal or insignificant. And I introduce the notion of “contextualization cue” in this argument (Levinson, 2003a, Gumperz, 1992)....

  17. China: Background Notes Series. (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  18. Salt sensitivity correlates positively with insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC; Voordouw, JJ; Bakker, SJL; Gans, ROB


    Background The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between insulin sensitivity and salt sensitivity in healthy subjects who display a wide range of insulin sensitivity. As a secondary objective, we assessed the relationship between salt sensitivity and the other characteristics of the in

  19. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars


    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...... analysed. Results: Occlusion of healthy skin did not significantly influence skin barrier function, ceramide profile or the ceramide/cholesterol ratio. Occlusion of the skin after SLS irritation resulted in higher TEWL than in the control (P = 0.049). Occlusion of the skin after tape stripping resulted......Background: Occlusion of the skin is a risk factor for development of irritant contact dermatitis. Occlusion may, however, have a positive effect on skin healing. No consensus on the effect of occlusion has been reached. Objectives: To investigate skin barrier response to occlusion on intact...

  20. IgE-mediated soy protein sensitization in children with cow`s milk allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Santi


    Full Text Available Background Soy-based formula as an alternative to cow’s milk formula is preferable to extensively hydrolyzed protein formula because of the lower cost and more acceptable taste. However, cow’s milk allergy patients can subsequently develop a sensitivity to soy protein. Objective To compare soy protein sensitization in children with and without an allergy to cow’s milk. Methods This study was conducted in Yogyakarta from September 2007 until March 2008. Subjects were children aged below 4 years with an atopic history. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with a positive skin prick test to cow’s milk and those with a negative skin prick test to cow’s milk (control group. Both groups were given soy formula and tested at 6 weeks for sensitization to soy. Results There were 45 children in each group. Age, sex, and atopic history were similar in both groups. We found no soy protein sensitization (negative skin prick results in all subjects from both groups. Conclusion Risk of immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to soy protein was not proven in children with cow’s milk allergy. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:67-71].

  1. Skin tribology: Science friction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der E.; Zeng, X.; Masen, M.A.


    The application of tribological knowledge is not just restricted to optimizing mechanical and chemical engineering problems. In fact, effective solutions to friction and wear related questions can be found in our everyday life. An important part is related to skin tribology, as the human skin is fre

  2. Deformable skinning on bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bent Dalgaard; Petersen, Kim Steen; Jakobsen, Bjarke


    Applying skin to a model is a relatively simple task to implement. Nonetheless it seems that no good resource exists that describes both the concepts and math necessary to understand and implement skinning. The intention of this article is an attempt to give a thoroughly description of the theore...

  3. Skin Diseases: Skin and Sun—Not a good mix (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Skin and Sun —Not a good mix Past Issues / ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Good skin care begins with sun safety. Whether it is ...

  4. 240 Mold Sensitization in Chronic Rhinosinusitis Patients (United States)

    Gawlik, Radoslaw; Czecior, Eugeniusz


    Background It is estimated that about 10% of the population have IgE antibodies to common inhalant molds. Exposure to fungal allergens could be linked to the presence and persistence of asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Mold sensitization is a risk factor for development and deterioration of upper airway allergy, especially chronic rhinosinusitis. We addressed the incidence of mold allergy measured as specific IgE to molds and skin prick tests in chronic sinusitis patients. We assessed prevalence of allergic reactions to mould among surgery treated chronic sinusitis patients. Methods A group of 28 chronic sinusitis patients after surgery were included into the study. Routine medical examination, skin prick tests with common inhaled allergens and extended mold panel (Alternaria alternate, Cladosporium herbarium, Aspergilus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Mucor mucedo, Botrytis cinerea, Rhisopus nigricans, Penicilliumi notatum, Fusarum moniliforme Pullularia pullulans (Allergopharma, Germany), tIgE, asIgE measurement were performed (Phadia, Sweden). All investigated patients were consulted by laryngologist and mycological examination was performed. Results We found that sensitization to at least one allergen was present in 43.8(14/32) of sinusitis patients. The most prevalent was sensitization to house dust mite Dermatophagoides pt., found in 21.8 % (7/32) patients. Positive results of skin prick tests with Candida albicans we observed in 18.8% (6/32), with Alternaria alternate in 15,6% (5/32), Cladosporium herbarium in 6,3% (2/32), Aspergilus fumigatus in 3,13 % (1/32). None of investigated patients presented sensitization to other mold allergens. Microbiological methods demonstrated fungal infection only in 2 patients. Conclusions Almost half of chronic sinusitis patients presented sensitization to at least one allergen. Fungal allergy is relatively rare in chronic sinusitis patients.

  5. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled


    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  6. The extragalactic IR background

    CERN Document Server

    De Zotti, G; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L; De Zotti, G; Franceschini, A; Mazzei, P; Toffolatti, L; Danese, L


    Current limits on the intensity of the extragalactic infrared background are consistent with the expected contribution from evolving galaxies. Depending on the behaviour of the star formation rate and of the initial mass function, we can expect that dust extinction during early evolutionary phases ranges from moderate to strong. An example of the latter case may be the ultraluminous galaxy IRAS F10214 + 4724. The remarkable lack of high redshift galaxies in faint optically selected samples may be indirect evidence that strong extinction is common during early phases. Testable implications of different scenarios are discussed; ISO can play a key role in this context. Estimates of possible contributions of galaxies to the background under different assumptions are presented. The COBE/FIRAS limits on deviations from a blackbody spectrum at sub-mm wavelengths already set important constraints on the evolution of the far-IR emission of galaxies and on the density of obscured (``Type 2'') AGNs. A major progress in ...

  7. Epithelial ovarian cancer and the occurrence of skin cancer in the Netherlands: histological type connotations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, G.C. van; Bulten, J.; Verbeek, A.L.M.


    Background. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer have a high risk of (non-)melanoma skin cancer. The association between histological variants of primary ovarian cancer and skin cancer is poorly documented. Objectives. To further evaluate the risk of skin cancer based on the histology of the epit

  8. Bionanomaterials for skin regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Leonida, Mihaela D


    This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.

  9. Multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Marie Thi Dao; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Kupers, Ron;


    BACKGROUND: Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic condition characterized by recurrent, non-specific symptoms in response to chemically unrelated exposures in non-toxic concentrations. Although the pathophysiology of MCS remains unknown, central sensitization may be an important factor...

  10. Study of mast cell count in skin tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher Hesham


    Full Text Available Background: Skin tags or acrochordons are common tumors of middle-aged and elderly subjects. They consist of loose fibrous tissue and occur mainly on the neck and major flexures as small, soft, pedunculated protrusions. Objectives: The aim was to compare the mast cells count in skin tags to adjacent normal skin in diabetic and nondiabetic participants in an attempt to elucidate the possible role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of skin tags. Participants and Methods: Thirty participants with skin tags were divided into group I (15 nondiabetic participants and group II (15 diabetic participants. Three biopsies were obtained from each participant: a large skin tag, a small skin tag and adjacent normal skin. Mast cell count from all the obtained sections was carried out, and the mast cell density was expressed as the average mast cell count/high power field (HPF. Results: A statistically significant increase in mast cells count in skin tags in comparison to normal skin was detected in group I and group II. There was no statistically significant difference between mast cell counts in skin tags of both the groups. Conclusion: Both the mast cell mediators and hyperinsulinemia are capable of inducing fibroblast proliferation and epidermal hyperplasia that are the main pathologic abnormalities seen in all types of skin tags. However, the presence of mast cells in all examined skin tags regardless of diabetes and obesity may point to the possible crucial role of mast cells in the etiogenesis of skin tags through its interaction with fibroblasts and keratinocytes.

  11. Photonic skin for pressure and strain sensing (United States)

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, C.; van Hoe, B.; Webb, D. J.; Kalli, K.; van Steenberge, G.; Peng, G.-D.


    In this paper, we report on the strain and pressure testing of highly flexible skins embedded with Bragg grating sensors recorded in either silica or polymer optical fibre. The photonic skins, with a size of 10cm x 10cm and thickness of 1mm, were fabricated by embedding the polymer fibre or silica fibre containing Bragg gratings in Sylgard 184 from Dow Corning. Pressure sensing was studied using a cylindrical metal post placed on an array of points across the skin. The polymer fibre grating exhibits approximately 10 times the pressure sensitivity of the silica fibre and responds to the post even when it is placed a few centimetres away from the sensing fibre. Although the intrinsic strain sensitivities of gratings in the two fibre types are very similar, when embedded in the skin the polymer grating displayed a strain sensitivity approximately 45 times greater than the silica device, which also suffered from considerable hysteresis. The polymer grating displayed a near linear response over wavelength shifts of 9nm for 1% strain. The difference in behaviour we attribute to the much greater Young's modulus of the silica fibre (70 GPa) compared to the polymer fibre (3 GPa).

  12. Tips for Relieving Dry Skin (United States)

    ... skin is dry, stop using: Deodorant soaps Skin care products that contain alcohol, fragrance, retinoids, or alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) Avoiding these products will help your skin retain its natural oils. 6. Wear gloves. Our hands are often ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  14. Ceftobiprole: a new cephalosporin for the treatment of skin and skin structure infections. (United States)

    Schirmer, Patricia L; Deresinski, Stanley C


    Ceftobiprole is among the first of a new generation of cephalosporins with activity against aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, which extends to cefepime-sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and activity against Gram-positive organisms, which includes methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ceftobiprole is currently undergoing evaluation by the US FDA for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections, with a decision pending further evaluation of study site monitoring. It is also being evaluated for the treatment of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Two Phase III multicenter trials have demonstrated noninferiority in complicated skin and skin structure infections when tested against vancomycin in primarily Gram-positive bacterial infections, and when tested against vancomycin plus ceftazidime in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. It is well tolerated, with the most common side effects being nausea and dysgeusia. Ceftobiprole is likely to prove useful as an empiric as well as directed monotherapy in patients with complicated skin and skin structure infections, in which both Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative pathogens including cefepime-sensitive P. aeruginosa may be involved.

  15. Effectiveness of Pimecrolimus Cream for Women Patients with Sensitive Skin and Its Underlying Mechanism%吡美莫司乳膏治疗女性面部敏感性皮肤的疗效及其神经源机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志强; 兰宇贞


    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of pimecrolimus cream 1% for sensitive skin in adult women and its underlying mechanisms. Methods The changes of subjective symptoms and signs were evaluated before and after the application of pimecrolimus cream 1% based on the severity of pruritus ( SP) and severity of burning sensation (SB) scores, and on a basic syntax and molecular substrate (molecular psycho-physics) of nociception and pruriception established by temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Results The SP and SB scores were significantly decreased in 32 patients with sensitive skin after using topical pimecrolimus cream 1% (P<0. 05). Twenty (62. 5% ) patients showed positive cap-saicin-like response (i. e. burning with consequent rapid amelioration of pruritus or burning sensation) and 6 (18. 8% ) showed positive camphor-like response (i. e. warming with consequent rapitj amelioration of pruritus) on application sites after using the topical pimecrolimus cream 1% , and 6 ( 18. 8% ) showed negative capsaicin-like response and/or negative camphor-like response. Conclusions Pimecrolimus may rapidly inhibit or alleviate itch or burning sensation of patients with sensitive skin. The therapeutic effect of pimecrolimus is relevant to the mechanisms that activate or sensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 ( TRPV1 ) and desensitizes TRPV1 in the skin sensory afferents.%目的 探讨吡美莫司乳膏对敏感性皮肤的疗效及其机制.方法 采用烧灼感或瘙痒程度评分及参照由温度敏感型瞬时受体电位通道建立的痛痒觉基本规则和分子底物(即分子精神物理学)方法,评估外用1%吡美莫司乳膏治疗前、后敏感性皮肤患者面部烧灼感、瘙痒程度及皮肤感觉的变化.结果 外用1%吡美莫司乳膏可终止或显著降低32例敏感性皮肤患者面部烧灼感或瘙痒程度评分(P<0.05).20例(62.5%)患者外用1%吡美莫司乳膏后,应用部位产

  16. Validity of patient skin cancer report among organ transplant recipients. (United States)

    Dybbro, Eric; Mihalis, Eva; Hirose, Ryutaro; Arron, Sarah T


    Skin cancer is a common, potentially life-threatening malignancy in organ transplant recipients (OTR), and it is important for transplant physicians to be aware of patient history of skin cancer. Patient self-report represents a quick method of obtaining past medical history of skin cancer but no study has validated the self-report of skin cancer among OTR. Among 339 OTR with a history of skin cancer, the sensitivity and specificity of self-report of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were 1.00 and 0.92, with a correct classification rate of 0.92. Breakdown of NMSC into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) resulted in a decrease in correct classification, to 0.83 for SCC and 0.74 for BCC. For SCC, sensitivity was 0.81 and specificity was 0.83, while BCC had a sensitivity of 0.52 and specificity of 0.86. Melanoma self-report had a sensitivity of 0.90 and specificity of 0.86, with a correct classification rate of 0.90. Overall, OTR have comparable accuracy of self-report with the general population. Owing to the high prevalence and increased risk of metastatic potential of skin cancer in this population, the ability to distinguish between cancer types is an important consideration in the dermatologic care of OTR.

  17. The Relationship between Cultural Background and Organizational Commitment: Consistency Meaning and Different Sensitivity of Formation Paths%文化背景与组织承诺的关系:内涵一致性与形成路径敏感性的差异化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭; 樊耘; 颜静


    In this paper,the formation process model of commitment integrated with basic psychological needs satisfaction is used to analyze the influence of Chinese and western cultural background on sensitivity of formation paths of organizational commitment.Based on the comparison of volition,responsibility,and dedication in philosophy and ethics,this study proposes that the sensitive formation paths of organizational commitment are from "salience,control" and "autonomy need and competence need satisfaction" to "organizational commitment in western cultural background",and from "affect,trust" and "relatedness need satisfaction" to "organizational commitment" in Chinese cultural background.%以整合基本心理需求满意度的承诺形成过程模型作为分析中西文化背景对组织承诺形成路径敏感性影响的平台,通过在哲学和伦理学等方面对自主性、责任感和奉献的理论溯源与比较,研究得出在西方文化背景下,组织承诺的敏感性形成路径:显著性、控制→自主需求和胜任需求满意度→组织承诺;在中国文化背景下,组织承诺的敏感性形成路径:情感、信任→关系需求满意度→组织承诺.

  18. 同位素稀释气相色谱-质谱联用法监测芥子气染毒家兔尿液中的硫二甘醇%Monitoring Urine Thiodiglycol after Rabbit Skin Exposure to Sulfur Mustard Based on Highly-sensitive Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂志勇; 张雅姣; 吴弼东; 闫珑; 冯建林; 刘勤; 谢剑炜


    A sensitive determination method for sulfur mustard ( HD ) metabolites thiodiglycol ( TDG ) in rabbit urine was established and validated using isotope dilution negative ion chemical ionization ( NICI) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ( GC-MS ) , in which deuterated thiodiglycol ( TDG-d8 ) was used as internal standard. Two solid-phase extraction ( SPE) steps were established and optimized in order to reduce the interfering backgrounds, one was used to extract thiodiglycol ( TDG ) from urine with self-assemblied Florisil SPE cartridges, another cleaning treatment of the by-products after pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBZ) derivatization. The results showed that the limits of detection quantitation of this method were 0. 1 and 0. 3 μg/L, respectively. The exposure time-response relationship and exposure dose-response relationship of TDG in rabbit urine were studied after rabbit skin exposure to sulfur mustard (HD, 0. 02-0. 15 LD50). The TDG levels in the rabbit urine increased rapidly during the first day after application and then decreased over time for all dosage groups. A secondary release was also noted for the high-dose group, and the duration of high TDG excretion levels was correlated positively with the HD dosage levels. We thus concluded that abnormally high levels of TDG in urine could be used as a clear diagnostic indicator of HD exposure.%以硫二甘醇( TDG)的八氘代同位素( TDG-d8)为内标,采用自制Florisil固相萃取( SPE)柱提取尿样中的TDG,用五氟苯甲酰氯( PFBZ)衍生化后,再经SPE净化富集,通过考察优化两步固相萃取( SPE)等前处理步骤,建立了尿液中TDG的高灵敏同位素稀释-负化学电离-气相色谱/质谱( ID-NCI-GC/MS)分析方法。研究了家兔皮肤芥子气(HD)染毒(0.02~0.15 LD50)后,尿液中TDG随时间变化的时效关系及其与HD染毒剂量间的量效关系。结果显示,本方法的检出限为0.1μg/L,定量限为0.3μg/L;家兔染毒后尿液中TDG含量迅速升

  19. Skin Picking Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cetinay Aydin


    Full Text Available Skin picking disorder is not a dermatological disorder and it is a table characterized with picking skin excessively and repetitively, leading to damage in skin tissue. Unlike normal picking behaviour, psychogenic skin picking is repetitive and it can lead to severe damage in the skin and even complications which constitute vital danger. While some patients define frequent but short lasting picking attacks, others define rarer attacks which last a few hours. Skin picking disorder, which is not included in the classification systems up to DSM-5 as a separate diagnosis category, is included as an independent diagnosis in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Associated Disorders category in DSM-5. In case reports, open label studies and double blind studies selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are shown to be effective in the treatment of skin picking disorder. Mostly, cognitive-behaviourial techniques are used and have been proven to be useful in psychotherapy. Habit reversal is one of the behaviourial techniques which are frequently applied, give positive results in which well-being state can be maintained. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 401-428

  20. Archaea on human skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Probst

    Full Text Available The recent era of exploring the human microbiome has provided valuable information on microbial inhabitants, beneficials and pathogens. Screening efforts based on DNA sequencing identified thousands of bacterial lineages associated with human skin but provided only incomplete and crude information on Archaea. Here, we report for the first time the quantification and visualization of Archaea from human skin. Based on 16 S rRNA gene copies Archaea comprised up to 4.2% of the prokaryotic skin microbiome. Most of the gene signatures analyzed belonged to the Thaumarchaeota, a group of Archaea we also found in hospitals and clean room facilities. The metabolic potential for ammonia oxidation of the skin-associated Archaea was supported by the successful detection of thaumarchaeal amoA genes in human skin samples. However, the activity and possible interaction with human epithelial cells of these associated Archaea remains an open question. Nevertheless, in this study we provide evidence that Archaea are part of the human skin microbiome and discuss their potential for ammonia turnover on human skin.

  1. Skin and antioxidants. (United States)

    Poljsak, Borut; Dahmane, Raja; Godic, Aleksandar


    It is estimated that total sun exposure occurs non-intentionally in three quarters of our lifetimes. Our skin is exposed to majority of UV radiation during outdoor activities, e.g. walking, practicing sports, running, hiking, etc. and not when we are intentionally exposed to the sun on the beach. We rarely use sunscreens during those activities, or at least not as much and as regular as we should and are commonly prone to acute and chronic sun damage of the skin. The only protection of our skin is endogenous (synthesis of melanin and enzymatic antioxidants) and exogenous (antioxidants, which we consume from the food, like vitamins A, C, E, etc.). UV-induced photoaging of the skin becomes clinically evident with age, when endogenous antioxidative mechanisms and repair processes are not effective any more and actinic damage to the skin prevails. At this point it would be reasonable to ingest additional antioxidants and/or to apply them on the skin in topical preparations. We review endogenous and exogenous skin protection with antioxidants.

  2. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... treatment within families by gender and birth order does little to further increase our estimates of the importance of family-wide factors. We then go on to show that neighborhood effects, sibling peer effects, and parental income and education explain very little of these correlations. Parental...

  3. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint) (United States)


    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  4. Malaysia; Background Paper


    International Monetary Fund


    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  5. Skin Conditions in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoan Bernárdez Cruz


    Full Text Available Background: patients with human immunodeficiency virus frequently develop skin conditions that affect their quality of life and modify their prognosis. Objective: to describe the most common skin conditions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Methods: a case-series study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos. It included all patients diagnosed until February 2008 attending the internal medicine consultation for their follow-up. Forty-seven deceased patients, 12 patients not living in the province and 2 inmates were excluded from the study. Variables analyzed were: age, sex, skin color, self-reported skin conditions and diagnosed skin diseases. Results: Thirty-eight percent of patients were aged 25 to 34 years. Fifty-seven were white-skinned and 75% were male. Approximately half of the patients had AIDS and were under antiretroviral therapy. The skin infection of viral origin most commonly found was herpes simplex (30.0%; of fungal origin, onychomycosis (44 %; and of bacterial origin, folliculitis (43 %. Among papulosquamous disorders, seborrheic dermatitis (74 % predominated and among other skin disorders, lipodystrophy (23.6 %. Xerosis and pruritus shared equal percentage (16.3 %. Conclusions: viral and fungal skin infections predominated. An important number of these skin conditions were diagnosed during the study, particularly in AIDS patients.

  6. Human skin penetration of cobalt nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin. (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Crosera, Matteo; Timeus, Elisa; Adami, Gianpiero; Bovenzi, Massimo; Ponti, Jessica; Maina, Giovanni


    Cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) are produced for several industrial and biomedical applications but there is a lack of data on human cutaneous absorption. Cobalt is also a skin sensitizer that can cause allergic contact dermatitis. Co applied as NPs, due to their small size and high surface, can penetrate into the skin in higher amount that bulk material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the absorption of Co applied as NPs in both intact and damaged skin. Experiments were performed using Franz cells and 1.0 mg cm(-2) of CoNPs was applied as donor phase for 24h. Mean Co content of 8.5 ± 1.2 ng cm(-2) and 1.87 ± 0.86 μg cm(-2) were found in the receiving solutions of Franz cells when the CoNPs suspension was applied on intact skin and on damaged skin, respectively. Twenty-four hours Co flux permeation was 76 ± 49 ng cm(-2)h(-1) in damaged skin with a lag time of 2.8 ± 2.1h. This study suggests that Co applied as NPs is able to penetrate the human skin in an in vitro diffusion cell system.

  7. Nanoparticle exposure in animals can be visualized in the skin and analysed via skin biopsy (United States)

    Sykes, Edward A.; Dai, Qin; Tsoi, Kim M.; Hwang, David M.; Chan, Warren C. W.


    The increasing use of nanomaterials raises concerns about the long-term effects of chronic nanoparticle exposure on human health. However, nanoparticle exposure is difficult to evaluate non-invasively using current measurement techniques. Here we show that the skin is an important site of nanoparticle accumulation following systemic administration. Mice injected with high doses of gold nanoparticles have visibly blue skin while quantum dot-treated animals fluoresce under ultraviolet excitation. More importantly, elemental analysis of excised skin correlates with the injected dose and nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and spleen. We propose that skin analysis may be a simple strategy to quantify systemic nanoparticle exposure and predict nanoparticle fate in vivo. Our results suggest that in the future, dermal accumulation may also be exploited to trigger the release of ultraviolet and visible light-sensitive therapeutics that are currently impractical in vivo due to limits in optical penetration of tissues at these wavelengths.

  8. Leishmania Skin Test (United States)


    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  9. Ultrasound skin tightening. (United States)

    Minkis, Kira; Alam, Murad


    Ultrasound skin tightening is a noninvasive, nonablative method that allows for energy deposition into the deep dermal and subcutaneous tissue while avoiding epidermal heating. Ultrasound coagulation is confined to arrays of 1-mm(3) zones that include the superficial musculoaponeurotic system and connective tissue. This technology gained approval from the Food and Drug Administration as the first energy-based skin "lifting" device, specifically for lifting lax tissue on the neck, submentum, and eyebrows. Ultrasound has the unique advantage of direct visualization of treated structures during treatment. Ultrasound is a safe and efficacious treatment for mild skin tightening and lifting.

  10. Eicosanoids in skin inflammation. (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna


    Eicosanoids play an integral part in homeostatic mechanisms related to skin health and structural integrity. They also mediate inflammatory events developed in response to environmental factors, such as exposure to ultraviolet radiation, and inflammatory and allergic disorders, including psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. This review article discusses biochemical aspects related to cutaneous eicosanoid metabolism, the contribution of these potent autacoids to skin inflammation and related conditions, and considers the importance of nutritional supplementation with bioactives such as omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and plant-derived antioxidants as means of addressing skin health issues.

  11. Canine epidermal lipid sampling by skin scrub revealed variations between different body sites and normal and atopic dogs


    Angelbeck-Schulze, Mandy; Mischke, Reinhard; Rohn, Karl; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Naim, Hassan Y.; Bäumer, Wolfgang


    Background Previously, we evaluated a minimally invasive epidermal lipid sampling method called skin scrub, which achieved reproducible and comparable results to skin scraping. The present study aimed at investigating regional variations in canine epidermal lipid composition using the skin scrub technique and its suitability for collecting skin lipids in dogs suffering from certain skin diseases. Eight different body sites (5 highly and 3 lowly predisposed for atopic lesions) were sampled by ...

  12. Immunoelectron microscopy study of superficial skin nerves in drug-induced acute urticaria


    Criado, Paulo Ricardo; CRIADO, Roberta Fachini Jardim; TAKAKURA, CLEUSA F.H.; Pagliari, Carla; SOTTO, Mirian Nacagami; Cidia VASCONCELLOS


    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the ultrastructure of the superficial skin nerves in urticaria. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe findings in superficial skin nerves in cases of drug-induced acute urticaria. METHODS: Seven patients with drug-induced acute urticaria were included in the study. Skin biopsies were obtained from the urticarial lesion and from the apparently normal skin. The 14 fragments collected were processed for immunogold electron microscopy using ...

  13. Ribosomal protein s6-ps240 is expressed in lesional skin from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez


    Full Text Available Background: The in situ signaling transduction within skin biopsies from patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases is not well-characterized. Aim : In autoimmune skin blistering diseases, autoantibodies seem to trigger several intracellular signaling pathways and we investigated the presence of the phosphorylated form of ribosomal protein S6-pS240 within autoimmune skin blistering diseases biopsies. Materials and Methods: We utilized immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of S6-pS240 in lesional skin biopsies of patients affected by autoimmune skin blistering diseases including patients with an endemic and nonendemic pemphigus foliaceus (non EPF, with bullous pemphigoid (BP, pemphigus vulgaris (PV, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH, and the respective controls. Results: Most autoimmune bullous skin diseases biopsies stained positive for S6-pS240 around lesional blisters, including adjacent areas of the epidermis; and within upper dermal inflammatory infiltrates, and/or mesenchymal-endothelial cell junctions within the dermis. Conclusions: We document that S6-pS240 is expressed in lesional areas of skin biopsies from patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases, as well as on eccrine glands and piloerector muscles. Thus, the role of this molecule in autoimmune skin blistering diseases warrants further study.

  14. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus


    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G


    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a low pH, in addition to its role in skin colouration. In the current study, we investigated the responses of this fish to these two environmental challenges when it is exposed to both simultaneously. ...

  15. Towards skin polarization characterization using polarimetric technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pejhman GHASSEMI; Mohammad Hossein MIRANBAYGI


    Measurement of optical properties of skin is an expanding and growing field of research. Recent studies have shown that the biological tissue, especially skin, changes the polarization state of the incident light. Using this property will enable the study of abnormalities and diseases that alter not only the light intensity but also its polarization state. In this paper we report an experimental study for measuring changes of polarization state of the light scattered from a phantom similar to a sample model of scattering skin. Using the notation of Stokes vector for the polarized light and Mueller matrix for the sample with its polarization properties, we have shown that some elements of the matrix were particularly sensitive to the changes of the polarization-altering physical properties of the scatterers within the phantom.

  16. Aging changes in skin (United States)

    ... Stress Other causes of skin changes: Allergies to plants and other substances Climate Clothing Exposures to industrial and household chemicals Indoor heating Sunlight can cause: Loss of elasticity (elastosis) ...

  17. [Skin-picking disorder]. (United States)

    Niemeier, V; Peters, E; Gieler, U


    The disorder is characterized by compulsive repetitive skin-picking (SP), resulting in skin lesions. The patients must have undertaken several attempts to reduce or stop SP. The disorder must have led to clinically significant limitations in social, professional, or other important areas of life. The symptoms cannot be better explained by another emotional disorder or any other dermatological disease. In the new DSM-V, skin-picking disorder has been included in the diagnostic system as an independent disorder and describes the self-injury of the skin by picking or scratching with an underlying emotional disorder. SP is classified among the impulse-control disorders and is, thus, differentiated from compulsive disorders as such. There are often emotional comorbidities. In cases of pronounced psychosocial limitation, interdisciplinary cooperation with a psychotherapist and/or psychiatrist is indicated.

  18. Skin picking disorder. (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R; Keuthen, Nancy J; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J


    Although skin picking has been documented in the medical literature since the 19th century, only now is it receiving serious consideration as a DSM psychiatric disorder in discussions for DSM-5. Recent community prevalence studies suggest that skin picking disorder appears to be as common as many other psychiatric disorders, with reported prevalences ranging from 1.4% to 5.4%. Clinical evaluation of patients with skin picking disorder entails a broad physical and psychiatric examination, encouraging an interdisciplinary approach to evaluation and treatment. Approaches to treatment should include cognitive-behavioral therapy (including habit reversal or acceptance-enhanced behavior therapy) and medication (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, N-acetylcysteine, or naltrexone). Based on clinical experience and research findings, the authors recommend several management approaches to skin picking disorder.

  19. Designing pliable structural Skins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Peters, Brady; Nielsen, Stig Anton;


    Structural stability can be formed through structured or seemingly unstructured approaches to fold, plead or crumble paper. This paper reports on two projects that showcase how computational design approaches can help to widen the understanding and use of structural skins....

  20. Skin or nail culture (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  1. Skin, Hair, and Nails (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color. All people have roughly the same number of ...

  2. An elastic second skin (United States)

    Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert


    We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.

  3. Radiation therapy -- skin care (United States)

    ... this page: // Radiation therapy - skin care To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. When you have radiation treatment for cancer, you may have some changes ...

  4. Allergy testing - skin (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  5. Scalded skin syndrome (United States)

    ... Severe bloodstream infection ( septicemia ) Spread to deeper skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your provider or go to the emergency room if you have symptoms of this disorder. Prevention ... Alternative Names Ritter disease; Staphylococcal ...

  6. Skin lesion biopsy (United States)

    ... procedure will leave a small indented area. This type of biopsy is often done when a skin cancer is ... may have stitches to close the area. This type of biopsy is often done to diagnose rashes . EXCISIONAL BIOPSY ...

  7. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenefelt PD


    Full Text Available Philip D Shenefelt,1 Debrah A Shenefelt2 1Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, 2Congregation Or Ahavah, Lutz, FL, USA Abstract: Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, "goose bumps", redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. Keywords: skin, skin disorders, spiritual, religious

  8. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  9. Pet-keeping in early childhood and airway, nose and skin symptoms later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornehag, C.; Sundell, Jan; Hagerhed, L.;


    got rid of pets because of allergy in the family, and 27.3% reported 'avoidance' behaviour towards pets. In a cross-sectional analysis current pet-keeping was 'protective', but this may be due to the fact that people avoid exposing their child to something that they believe is a risk factor......Background: It is discussed whether exposure to pets during childhood is a risk or a protective factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pet-keeping at time of birth and allergic symptoms in airways, nose and skin among young...... children in Sweden. Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the parents of 14 077 children (1-6 years), the focus being on allergic symptoms, home environment and other background factors including pet-keeping and avoidance behaviour. The response rate was 79%. Results: Almost one-tenth of the population had...

  10. Cosmic microwave background theory. (United States)

    Bond, J R


    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  11. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.


    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  12. A comparison of the effect of certain inorganic salts on suppression acute skin irritation by human biometric assay: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayedali Fatemi


    Full Text Available Background: Strontium, zinc, and potassium salts have been demonstrated to inhibit irritation and inflammation when applied topically. Particularly, strontium chloride (SC and potassium nitrate (KN are reported to reduce skin and tooth sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-irritant effects of four inorganic salts and assign the ingredient which can suppress skin irritation due to chemical or environmental exposure, more effectively. We compared the anti-inflammatory effects of SC, strontium nitrate (SN, KN, and zinc chloride (ZC. Materials and Methods: This double-blind trial was conducted on 32 healthy volunteers with sensitive skin. Irritation was induced by 24 h exposure with 1.0% sodium lauryl sulfate on arms.. Treatments were applied by an ointment of SN, SC hexahydrate, KN, and ZC and their 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v concentrations were prepared. The dosage was twice daily for 6 days to the irritated areas. Skin reactions were evaluated instrumentally. Results: SC had a beneficial effect that was significant overall. All other treatments exert a protective effect in skin barrier function but not significantly. With the exception of ZC, all test substances improved skin hydration but the effect of SC was significant. In respect of colorimetric assessment, all treatments, excluding ZC, reduced erythema significantly compared with an untreated control 7 days after treatment start. There was no support for a dose-response effect. Conclusion: Analysis of the biometric measurements revealed that the strontium salts are best, not treating is worst, and there is little difference between the other treatments. Hence, the skin care products containing SC and SN may reduce the signs and symptoms of irritant contact dermatitis.

  13. The skin microbiome in healthy and allergic dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes in the microbial populations on the skin of animals have traditionally been evaluated using conventional microbiology techniques. The sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes has revealed that the human skin is inhabited by a highly diverse and variable microbiome that had previously not been demonstrated by culture-based methods. The goals of this study were to describe the microbiome inhabiting different areas of the canine skin, and to compare the skin microbiome of healthy and allergic dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DNA extracted from superficial skin swabs from healthy (n = 12 and allergic dogs (n = 6 from different regions of haired skin and mucosal surfaces were used for 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Principal coordinates analysis revealed clustering for the different skin sites across all dogs, with some mucosal sites and the perianal regions clustering separately from the haired skin sites. The rarefaction analysis revealed high individual variability between samples collected from healthy dogs and between the different skin sites. Higher species richness and microbial diversity were observed in the samples from haired skin when compared to mucosal surfaces or mucocutaneous junctions. In all examined regions, the most abundant phylum and family identified in the different regions of skin and mucosal surfaces were Proteobacteria and Oxalobacteriaceae. The skin of allergic dogs had lower species richness when compared to the healthy dogs. The allergic dogs had lower proportions of the Betaproteobacteria Ralstonia spp. when compared to the healthy dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study demonstrates that the skin of dogs is inhabited by much more rich and diverse microbial communities than previously thought using culture-based methods. Our sequence data reveal high individual variability between samples collected from different patients. Differences in species richness was also seen between

  14. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.  Created: 11/22/2006 by National Center for HIV, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 12/12/2006.

  15. Nicotinamide and the skin. (United States)

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L


    Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar


    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  17. Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. (United States)

    Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zalar, Peter; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Jinno, Hiroaki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kitanosako, Hiroki; Tachibana, Yutaro; Yukita, Wakako; Koizumi, Mari; Someya, Takao


    Thin-film electronics intimately laminated onto the skin imperceptibly equip the human body with electronic components for health-monitoring and information technologies. When electronic devices are worn, the mechanical flexibility and/or stretchability of thin-film devices helps to minimize the stress and discomfort associated with wear because of their conformability and softness. For industrial applications, it is important to fabricate wearable devices using processing methods that maximize throughput and minimize cost. We demonstrate ultraflexible and conformable three-color, highly efficient polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs) to realize optoelectronic skins (oe-skins) that introduce multiple electronic functionalities such as sensing and displays on the surface of human skin. The total thickness of the devices, including the substrate and encapsulation layer, is only 3 μm, which is one order of magnitude thinner than the epidermal layer of human skin. By integrating green and red PLEDs with OPDs, we fabricate an ultraflexible reflective pulse oximeter. The device unobtrusively measures the oxygen concentration of blood when laminated on a finger. On-skin seven-segment digital displays and color indicators can visualize data directly on the body.

  18. Establishment of a transgenic zebrafish line for superficial skin ablation and functional validation of apoptosis modulators in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Fang Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zebrafish skin is composed of enveloping and basal layers which form a first-line defense system against pathogens. Zebrafish epidermis contains ionocytes and mucous cells that aid secretion of acid/ions or mucous through skin. Previous studies demonstrated that fish skin is extremely sensitive to external stimuli. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that modulate skin cell apoptosis in zebrafish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study aimed to create a platform to conduct conditional skin ablation and determine if it is possible to attenuate apoptotic stimuli by overexpressing potential apoptosis modulating genes in the skin of live animals. A transgenic zebrafish line of Tg(krt4:NTR-hKikGR(cy17 (killer line, which can conditionally trigger apoptosis in superficial skin cells, was first established. When the killer line was incubated with the prodrug metrodinazole, the superficial skin displayed extensive apoptosis as judged by detection of massive TUNEL- and active caspase 3-positive signals. Great reductions in NTR-hKikGR(+ fluorescent signals accompanied epidermal cell apoptosis. This indicated that NTR-hKikGR(+ signal fluorescence can be utilized to evaluate apoptotic events in vivo. After removal of metrodinazole, the skin integrity progressively recovered and NTR-hKikGR(+ fluorescent signals gradually restored. In contrast, either crossing the killer line with testing lines or transiently injecting the killer line with testing vectors that expressed human constitutive active Akt1, mouse constitutive active Stat3, or HPV16 E6 element displayed apoptosis-resistant phenotypes to cytotoxic metrodinazole as judged by the loss of reduction in NTR-hKikGR(+ fluorescent signaling. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The killer/testing line binary system established in the current study demonstrates a nitroreductase/metrodinazole system that can be utilized to conditionally perform skin ablation in a real-time manner, and

  19. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: late skin manifestations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Nannie; Marckmann, Peter; Rossen, Kristian


    BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists and nephr......BACKGROUND: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a serious disease that occurs in patients with severe renal disease and is believed to be caused by gadolinium-containing contrast agents. A detailed description of the late skin manifestations of NSF is important to help dermatologists...... confluent dermal plaques with thickening and hardening. In contrast, 3 patients presented with wrinkled, redundant skin as seen in cutis laxa. Patients with NSF had significantly poorer scores than control patients on the Daily Life Quality Index (mean [SD], 11. 4 [7.4] vs 1.5 [2. 3]; P ...: This descriptive case series of patients with NSF gives a detailed clinical picture of the skin manifestations late in the disease. It demonstrates that the clinical picture in the late stage has a varied presentation and that NSF has a significant effect on the quality of life....

  20. Evaluation of pH of bathing soaps and shampoos for skin and hair care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tarun


    Full Text Available Background: Normal healthy skin has potential of hydrogen (pH range of 5.4-5.9 and a normal bacterial flora. Use of soap with high pH causes an increase in skin pH, which in turn causes an increase in dehydrative effect, irritability and alteration in bacterial flora. The majority of soaps and shampoos available in the market do not disclose their pH. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pH of different brands of bathing soaps and shampoos available in the market. Materials and Methods: The samples of soaps and shampoos were collected from shops in the locality. The samples of different brands are coded before the analysis of the pH. Solution of each sample was made and pH was measured using pH meter. Results: Majority of the soaps have a pH within the range of 9-10. Majority of the shampoos have a pH within the range of 6-7. Conclusions: The soaps and shampoos commonly used by the population at large have a pH outside the range of normal skin and hair pH values. Therefore, it is hoped that before recommending soap to patient especially those who have sensitive and acne prone skin, due consideration is given to the pH factor and also that manufacturers will give a thought to pH of soaps and shampoos manufactured by them, so that their products will be more skin and hair friendly.

  1. Background adaptation and water acidification affect pigmentation and stress physiology of tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salm, A.L. van der; Spanings, F.A.T.; Gresnigt, R.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Flik, G.


    The ability to adjust skin darkness to the background is a common phenomenon in fish. The hormone alpha-melanophore-stimulating hormone (alphaMSH) enhances skin darkening. In Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus L., alphaMSH acts as a corticotropic hormone during adaptation to water with a lo

  2. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  3. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.


    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  4. Cultured skin microbiota attracts malaria mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-seeking of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is guided by human odours. The precise nature of the odours, and the composition of attractive blends of volatiles, remains largely unknown. Skin microbiota plays an important role in the production of human body odours. It is hypothesized that host attractiveness and selection of An. gambiae is affected by the species composition, density, and metabolic activity of the skin microbiota. A study is presented in which the production and constituency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs by human skin microbiota is examined and the behavioural responses of An. gambiae to VOCs from skin microbiota are investigated. Methods Blood agar plates incubated with skin microbiota from human feet or with a reference strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis were tested for their attractiveness to An. gambiae in olfactometer bioassays and indoor trapping experiments. Entrained air collected from blood agar plates incubated with natural skin microbiota or with S. epidermidis were analysed using GC-MS. A synthetic blend of the compounds identified was tested for its attractiveness to An. gambiae. Behavioural data were analysed by a χ2-test and GLM. GC-MS results were analysed by fitting an exponential regression line to test the effect of the concentration of bacteria. Results More An. gambiae were caught with blood agar plates incubated with skin bacteria than with sterile blood agar plates, with a significant effect of incubation time and dilution of the skin microbiota. When bacteria from the feet of four other volunteers were tested, similar effects were found. Fourteen putative attractants were found in the headspace of the skin bacteria. A synthetic blend of 10 of these was attractive to An. gambiae. Conclusions The discovery that volatiles produced by human skin microorganisms in vitro mediate An. gambiae host-seeking behaviour creates new opportunities for the

  5. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... behind the scenes of the making of this book and connects contributions from three different fields - FM, CREM, and B2B marketing - to shed more light on the concept of added value of FM. It serves as an introduction to the research presented in the other chapters in this book....... expertise, the involvement in the process leading to this the book including a number of workshops, and a literature review of the development of their disciplinary fields: Facilities Management (FM), Corporate Real Estate Management (CREM) and Business to Business (B2B) Marketing. Findings: The difference...... in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to organisations...

  6. Recent Progress in Electronic Skin


    Wang, Xiandi; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Hanlu; Yu, Ruomeng; Pan, Caofeng; Wang, Zhong Lin


    The skin is the largest organ of the human body and can sense pressure, temperature, and other complex environmental stimuli or conditions. The mimicry of human skin's sensory ability via electronics is a topic of innovative research that could find broad applications in robotics, artificial intelligence, and human–machine interfaces, all of which promote the development of electronic skin (e‐skin). To imitate tactile sensing via e‐skins, flexible and stretchable pressure sensor arrays are co...

  7. Skin aging and oxidative stress


    Sayeeda Ahsanuddin; Minh Lam; Baron, Elma D.


    Skin aging occurs through two main pathways, intrinsic and extrinsic. These pathways have significant interaction in contributing to the aging phenotype, which includes skin laxity, wrinkling, pigmentation irregularities, and the appearance of neoplastic skin lesions. Here, we review the critical role that oxidative stress plays in skin aging, including its effects on signaling pathways involved in skin matrix formation and degradation, proteasome activity, as well as DNA structure. Furthermo...

  8. Skin involvement in Dupuytren's disease.


    Wade, R.; Igali, L; Figus, A


    Whether the palmar skin has a role in the development, propagation or recurrence of Dupuytren's disease remains unclear. Clinical assessment for skin involvement is difficult and its correlation with histology uncertain. We prospectively biopsied the palmar skin of consecutive patients undergoing single digit fasciectomy (for primary Dupuytren's disease without clinically involved skin) and dermofasciectomy (for clinically involved skin or recurrence) in order to investigate this relationship...

  9. Spiritual and religious aspects of skin and skin disorders (United States)

    Shenefelt, Philip D; Shenefelt, Debrah A


    Skin and skin disorders have had spiritual aspects since ancient times. Skin, hair, and nails are visible to self and others, and touchable by self and others. The skin is a major sensory organ. Skin also expresses emotions detectable by others through pallor, coldness, “goose bumps”, redness, warmth, or sweating. Spiritual and religious significances of skin are revealed through how much of the skin has been and continues to be covered with what types of coverings, scalp and beard hair cutting, shaving and styling, skin, nail, and hair coloring and decorating, tattooing, and intentional scarring of skin. Persons with visible skin disorders have often been stigmatized or even treated as outcasts. Shamans and other spiritual and religious healers have brought about healing of skin disorders through spiritual means. Spiritual and religious interactions with various skin disorders such as psoriasis, leprosy, and vitiligo are discussed. Religious aspects of skin and skin diseases are evaluated for several major religions, with a special focus on Judaism, both conventional and kabbalistic. PMID:25120377

  10. The skin prick test ¿ European standards


    Heinzerling Lucie; Mari Adriano; Bergmann Karl-Christian; Bresciani Megon; Burbach Guido; Darsow Ulf; Durham Stephen; Fokkens Wytske; Gjomarkaj Mark; Haahtela Tari; Bom Ana Todo; Wöhrl Stefan; Maibach Howard; Lockey Richard


    Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific alle...

  11. 人工皮肤用碳纳米管/硅胶压敏材料研究%Research of carbon nanotubes/silicon rubber pressure- sensitive composites for artificial skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉刚; 黄英; 刘彩霞; 葛运建


    利用溶液共混法制成了一种新型的碳纳米管(CNTs)/硅胶压敏复合材料.实验分析了碳纳米管的功能化、填充体积分数和长径比等对复合材料电学性能的影响.结果表明:功能化可以改善碳纳米管在聚合物中的分散性;改变填料的长径比及填料体积分数可以改变复合材料的压阻敏感性及线性.当功能化碳纳米管添加体积分数为25%时制备的复合材料具有良好的压阻线性,可以满足柔性触觉传感器的制作需要.%Based on the method of solution blending, carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/silicon rubber composites was prepared. The effects of functionalize, filler proportion, aspect ratio of the carbon nanotubes on the electrical properties of the composites was investigated. Analysis shows that functional-ized carbon nanotubes can improve their dispersion in polymers. Change the aspect ratio and the proportion of filler can change the sensitivity and linearity of piezo-resistivity of the composite materials, The better integrated performance of the sensitive rubber was obtained when the filler proportion of functionalized CNTs is 25%.

  12. Effect of Systemic Antioxidant Allopurinol Therapy on Skin Flap Survival (United States)

    Rasti Ardakani, Mehdi; Al-Dam, Ahmed; Rashad, Ashkan; Shayesteh Moghadam, Ali


    BACKGROUND It has been reported that systemic administration of allopurinol improves cell survival. This study was aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol on skin flaps in dogs. METHODS Twenty dogs underwent one skin flap surgery with a 2-week interval. The first procedure was performed according to the standard protocols. The second phase was started by a 1-week pretreatment with allopurinol. Length of the necrotic zone was measured and recorded daily. At each phase, flaps were removed and sent for histopathological study after 1 week observation. RESULTS Mean length of the necrotic zone in allopurinol treated skin flaps has been significantly less than normal flaps over all 7 days of observation (p<0.0001). Histopathology study showed less inflammation and more normal tissue structure in the allopurinol treated skin flaps. CONCLUSION It was demonstrated that systemic administration of allopurinol significantly improved skin flap survival. PMID:28289614

  13. [The role of sonic hedgehog pathway in skin carcinogenesis]. (United States)

    Lesiak, Aleksandra; Sysa-Jedrzejowska, Anna; Narbutt, Joanna


    Non melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) involving basal (BCC)--and squamosus cell carcinomas (SCC) and are the most frequent skin cancers in Caucasians. Ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor for NMSC development. The aim of this paper is to review the latest opinions concerning the role of sonic hedgehog pathway in non-melanoma skin cancers development. Experimental data indicate that sonic hedgehog pathway might be involved in skin carcinogenesis. Under physiological conditions sonic hedgehog pathway is responsible for normal embryogenesis, regeneration of damaged tissues and for regulation of cell proliferation. It was revealed that UVR caused inactivated mutation in PATCHED gene encoding Ptch1 protein. These events lead to deregulation of sonic hedgehog pathway trough activation of Smo protein and Gli transcriptional factors what stimulates cell proliferation and in consequence NMSC development. Literature data indicate that understanding of molecular background of skin cancers might be a reason for introduction of new therapeutic approaches including sonic hedgehog pathway inhibitors.

  14. Skin pH, Atopic Dermatitis, and Filaggrin Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandier, Josefine; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Petersen, Lars Jelstrup


    BACKGROUND: The acidic pH of the skin plays a role in antimicrobial defense by regulating the bacterial skin flora and aspects of barrier. Filaggrin is a co-factor in maintaining a low skin pH because of its degradation into acidic amino acids. Accordingly, lack of filaggrin due to filaggrin...... mutations may influence skin pH. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the epidermal pH in different groups stratified by filaggrin mutations and atopic dermatitis. Further, we investigated the changes in pH according to severity of mutational status among patients with dermatitis, irrespective of skin condition....... METHODS: pH was measured with a multiprobe system pH probe (PH 905), and the study population was composed of 67 individuals, who had all been genotyped for 3 filaggrin mutations (R501X, 2282del4, R2447X). RESULTS: We found no clear pattern in relation to filaggrin mutation carrier status. Individuals...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerendra Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choice of wound closure after a surgical procedure has been a surgeon’s dilemma . The concerns have been as to how fast , uneventful , less painful , with minimal complications and comfortable will the patient’s recovery be. A well - known technology is surgical staples which are easier to use , less time consuming and a needle free method o f wound closure. OBJECTIVE: To compare skin staples with non - absorbable skin suture for skin closure in surgical laparotomy procedures for the following character : wound infection , dehiscence , cosmesis and postoperative pain . METHODS: This is a comparative study conducted on 100 patients divided in two groups randomly at Bapuji Hospital for cases undergoing surgical laparotomy procedures. Skin closure was done with 2 - 0 polyamide skin sutures in one group and skin closure was achieved with skin staples in th e other group. The outcome of wound was assessed on 3rd , 5th and 7th postoperative days using ASEPSIS score. Wound cosmesis was assessed on the 7th postoperative day and followed up at 1st month and 3rd month , using modified Hollander cosmesis scale. Postoperative pain was assessed using the visual analogue scale on the 1st , 3rd and 7th postoperative days. RESULTS : The mean wound ASPESIS scores on day 3 for skin staples and sutured group was 0.28 and 0.36 (p=0.7 respectively. The score on day 5 for staples and sutured group was 0.12 and 0.28 (p=0.4 respectively. The results in both the groups were the same , 0.08 on day 7(p=0. Wound cosmesis mean score assessment on day 7 for skin staples suturing group was 5.84 and 5.68 respectively (p=0.3. The mean score for cosmesis assessment at 1 month , and 3 rd month for skin staples and suturing group was 5.92 and 5.68 (p=0.1 and was 6.00 and 5.92 (p=0.36 respectively which was not satistically significant . The visual analogue scale score for postopera tive pain on 1st day , 3 rd and 7 th day for skin staples and suturing group 54

  16. Sprayed skin turbine component (United States)

    Allen, David B


    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  17. Extreme skin depth waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Jahani, Saman


    Recently, we introduced a paradigm shift in light confinement strategy and introduced a class of extreme skin depth (e-skid) photonic structures (S. Jahani and Z. Jacob, "Transparent sub-diffraction optics: nanoscale light confinement without metal," Optica 1, 96-100 (2014)). Here, we analytically establish that figures of merit related to light confinement in dielectric waveguides are fundamentally tied to the skin depth of waves in the cladding. We contrast the propagation characteristics of the fundamental mode of e-skid waveguides and conventional waveguides to show that the decay constant in the cladding is dramatically larger in e-skid waveguides, which is the origin of sub-diffraction confinement. Finally, we propose an approach to verify the reduced skin depth in experiment using the decrease in the Goos-H\\"anchen phase shift.

  18. Skin Cancer Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Durga Rao


    Full Text Available : In recent days, skin cancer is seen as one of the most Hazardous form of the Cancers found in Humans. Skin cancer is found in various types such as Melanoma, Basal and Squamous cell Carcinoma among which Melanoma is the most unpredictable. The detection of Melanoma cancer in early stage can be helpful to cure it. Computer vision can play important role in Medical Image Diagnosis and it has been proved by many existing systems. In this paper, we present a survey on different steps which are being to detect the Melanoma Skin Cancer using Image Processing tools. In every step, what are the different methods are be included in our paper

  19. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T


    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  20. An antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids and vitamins improves the biomechanical parameters of facial skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran D


    Full Text Available Diana Tran, Joshua P Townley, Tanya M Barnes, Kerryn A Greive Ego Pharmaceuticals, Braeside, Victoria, Australia Background: The demand for antiaging products has dramatically increased in recent years, driven by an aging population seeking to maintain the appearance of youth. This study investigates the effects of an antiaging skin care system containing alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs in conjunction with vitamins B3, C, and E on the biomechanical parameters of facial skin. Methods: Fifty two volunteers followed an antiaging skin care regimen comprising of cleanser, eye cream, day moisturizer, and night moisturizer for 21 days. Wrinkle depth (Ry and skin roughness (Ra were measured by skin surface profilometry of the crow's feet area, and skin elasticity parameters R2 (gross elasticity, R5 (net elasticity, R6 (viscoelastic portion, and R7 (recovery after deformation were determined for facial skin by cutometer, preapplication and after 7, 14, and 21 days. Volunteers also completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, Ry and Ra significantly improved by 32.5% (P<0.0001 and 42.9% (P<0.0001, respectively, after 21 days of antiaging skin care treatment. These results were observed by the volunteers with 9 out of 10 discerning an improvement in skin texture and smoothness. Compared to baseline, R2 and R5 significantly increased by 15.2% (P<0.0001 and 12.5% (P=0.0449, respectively, while R6 significantly decreased by 17.7% (P<0.0001 after 21 days. R7 increased by 9.7% after 21 days compared to baseline but this was not significant over this time period. Conclusion: An antiaging skin care system containing AHAs and vitamins significantly improves the biomechanical parameters of the skin including wrinkles and skin texture, as well as elasticity without significant adverse effects. Keywords: alpha hydroxy acids, antiaging, nicotinamide, vitamin C, vitamin E, profilometry, cutometer

  1. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (United States)


    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. Methods In this 2-group, parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 74 women aged 20–65 years and Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I or II were recruited from the general community in Quebec City, for randomization to either HFC (n = 33) or low-flavanol chocolate (LFC) (n = 41). A blocked randomisation (4), considering date of entry, skin type and age as factors, generated a sequentially-numbered allocation list. Study participants and research assistants were blinded. Totally, 30 g of chocolate were consumed daily for 12 weeks, followed by a 3-week washout period. MED was assessed at baseline and at 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks. Main outcome was changes in MED at week 12. Results 33 participants in the HFC group and 41 in the LFC group were analyzed with 15 weeks of follow-up. Both groups showed similarly-increased MED at 12 weeks (HFC: 0.0252 ± 0.1099 J/cm2 [mean ± standard deviation (SD)]; LFC: 0.0151 ± 0.1118; mean difference (MD): 0.0100 J/cm2; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0417 to 0.0618). However, after 3-week washout, the HFC group presented decreased MED (-0.0248 ± 0.1145) whereas no effect was seen in the LFC group (0.0168 ± 0.1698) (MD: -0.0417; 95% CI: -0.1106 to 0.0272). Net temple elasticity increased slightly but significantly by 0.09 ± 0.12 mm in the HFC group at 12 weeks compared to 0.02 ± 0.12 mm in the LFC group (MD: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12 ). No significant adverse events were reported. Conclusion Our study failed to

  2. Effect of neutron skin thickness on projectile fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Z T; Ma, Y G; Cao, X G; Zhang, G Q; Shen, W Q


    The fragment production in collisions of $^{48,50}$Ca+$^{12}$C at 50 MeV/nucleon are simulated via the Isospin-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model followed by the {GEMINI code}. {By changing the diffuseness parameter of neutron density distribution to obtain different neutron skin size, the effects of neutron skin thickness (${\\delta}_{np}$) on projectile-like fragments (PLF) are investigated. The sensitivity of isoscaling behavior to neutron skin size is studied, from which it is found that the isoscaling parameter $\\alpha$ has a linear dependence on ${\\delta}_{np}$. A linear dependence between ${\\delta}_{np}$ and the mean $N/Z$ [N(Z) is neutron(proton) number] of PLF is obtained as well.} The results show that thicker neutron skin will lead to smaller {isoscaling parameter} $\\alpha$ and N/Z. Therefore, it may be probable to extract information of neutron skin thickness from {isoscaling parameter} $\\alpha$ and N/Z.

  3. Low Energy Background Spectrum in CDMSlite

    CERN Document Server

    Barker, D


    One trend in dark matter direct detection is the development of techniques which will lower experimental thresholds and achieve sensitivity to light mass dark matter particles. In doing so, it is necessary to have an understanding of the low energy spectrum of the major background components. Geant4 has a number of specialized low energy physics processes that can be implemented when simulating an experimental geometry. To understand this low energy region for the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS), a variety of these models have been simulated and compared against theoretical calculations and SuperCDMS calibration data. Most of the low energy processes include a more complete description of the atomic structure, allowing us to observe the phenomenon of Compton steps in the simulation. An important application of this low energy background modeling is for the SuperCDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite). CDMSlite has reached world-leading sensitivities in the search for low mass weakly...

  4. Disturbed skin barrier in children with chronic kidney disease



    Background There are limited data on skin lesions in children with end-stage renal failure. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the skin barrier in children with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of xerosis, its severity, as well as its link selected demographic factors, were examined. Methods The study included 103 children: 72 with CKD stages 3–5 (38 on conservative treatment and 34 on dialysis) and 31 patients with primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enur...

  5. Individual skin care during radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J.S. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie), Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel (Germany); Budach, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Eberhard-Carls-Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Doerr, W. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Medizinische Fakultaet Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden (Germany)


    Background: In many clinical settings, the irradiated patient feels additional discomfort by the inhibition of washing the treatment portals and interruption of his adapted skin care habits. Material and methods: An analysis of the scientific recommendations as well as an analysis of the skin dose to the irradiated portals has been performed. An individual scheme for skin care under radiation has been developed. Results: A substantial decrease of the skin dose is achieved in many modern radiation techniques. The consequent reduction of severe skin reactions allowed the use of water and mild soaps as has been approved within many radiotherapy departments. This has lead to an individualized concept for skin care under radiation treatment including the allowance of gentle washing. The skin marks may be saved by using highly tolerable adhesive plasters or small tattoo points, if they are not superfluous by using masks or single referee points instead of marks for the field borders. Conclusions: The individualized concept for skin care during radiation may offer improved life quality to the patient and may decrease the acute reactions of the skin at least in some cases. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: In vielen klinischen Situationen erfaehrt der bestrahlte Patient zusaetzliche Belastungen durch das frueher ausgesprochene Waschverbot der Bestrahlungsfelder wie auch durch die Unterbrechung seiner langjaehrigen Hygienegewohnheiten. Material und Methoden: Es wurde eine Analyse der wissenschaftlichen Empfehlungen wie auch der heutzutage bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken auftretenden Hautdosis durchgefuehrt. Ein individuelles Schema zur Pflege der bestrahlten Haut wurde entwickelt. Ergebnisse: Durch eine Verringerung der Hautdosis und damit der Inzidenz schwerer Hautreaktionen bei modernen Bestrahlungstechniken wird mittlerweile in vielen Abteilungen das `Waschverbot` fuer bestrahlte Haut gelockert. Dies hat zu einem individualisierten Hautpflegekonzept unter der Bestrahlung

  6. Skin tears: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R


    While skin tears are common among the elderly in general, and residents of long-term care facilities in particular, there has been limited research into their treatment. Many facilities voluntarily track skin tears, and some states require facilities to report these events. Risk factors include age, xerosis (abnormal eye, skin, or mouth dryness), need for help in activities of daily living, presence of senile purpura, visual impairment, and poor nutrition. Plans to prevent skin tears that employ skin sleeves, padded side rails, gentle skin cleansers, moisturizing lotions, as well as staff education, can decrease by half the number of skin tears incurred in a long-term care facility. Although the treatment process seems simple, it is time consuming and can be painful for the patient. Residents with dementia or agitation often try to remove bulky dressings used to cover skin tears. Dressing changes may injure the fragile wound via skin stripping.

  7. Skin innate immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy


    Full Text Available All multicellular organisms protect themselves from external universe and microorganisms by innate immune sytem that is constitutively present. Skin innate immune system has several different components composed of epithelial barriers, humoral factors and cellular part. In this review information about skin innate immune system and its components are presented to the reader. Innate immunity, which wasn’t adequately interested in previously, is proven to provide a powerfull early protection system, control many infections before the acquired immunity starts and directs acquired immunity to develop optimally

  8. Measurement of diffusion of fluorescent compounds and autofluorescence in skin in vivo using a confocal instrument (United States)

    Buttenschoen, K. K.; Sutton, E. E.; Daly, D.; Girkin, J. M.


    Using compact and affordable instrumentation based upon fluorescent confocal imaging we have tracked the movement of autofluorescent compounds through skin in near real time with high temporal and spatial resolution and sensitivity. The ability to measure the diffusion of compounds through skin with such resolution plays an important role for applications such as monitoring the penetration of pharmaceuticals applied to skin and assessing the integrity of the skin barrier. Several measurement methods exist, but they suffer from a number of problems such as being slow, expensive, non-portable and lacking sensitivity. To address these issues, we adapted a technique that we previously developed for tracking fluorescent compounds in the eye to measure the autofluorescence and the diffusion of externally applied fluorescent compounds in skin in vivo. Results are presented that show the change in autofluorescence of the volar forearm over the course of a week. We furthermore demonstrate the ability of the instrument to measure the diffusion speed and depth of externally applied fluorescent compounds both in healthy skin and after the skin barrier function has been perturbed. The instrument is currently being developed further for increased sensitivity and multi-wavelength excitation. We believe that the presented instrument is suitable for a large number of applications in fields such as assessment of damage to the skin barrier, development of topical and systemic medication and tracking the diffusion of fluorescent compounds through skin constructs as well as monitoring effects of skin products and general consumer products which may come into contact with the skin.

  9. Study of surfactant-skin interactions by skin impedance measurements. (United States)

    Lu, Guojin; Moore, David J


    The stratum corneum (SC) plays a very critical physiological role as skin barrier in regulating water loss through the skin and protects the body from a wide range of physical and chemical exogenous insults. Surfactant-containing formulations can induce skin damage and irritation owing to surfactant absorption and penetration. It is generally accepted that reduction in skin barrier properties occurs only after surfactants have penetrated/permeated into the skin barrier. To mitigate the harshness of surfactant-based cleansing products, penetration/permeation of surfactants should be reduced. Skin impedance measurements have been taken in vitro on porcine skin using vertical Franz diffusion cells to investigate the impact of surfactants, temperature and pH on skin barrier integrity. These skin impedance results demonstrate excellent correlation with other published methods for assessing skin damage and irritation from different surfactant chemistry, concentration, pH, time of exposure and temperature. This study demonstrates that skin impedance can be utilized as a routine approach to screen surfactant-containing formulations for their propensity to compromise the skin barrier and hence likely lead to skin irritation.

  10. Effects of Neutron Skin Thickness in Peripheral Nuclear Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG De-Qing; MA Yu-Gang; CAI Xiang-Zhou; TIAN Wen-Dong; WANG Hong-Wei


    Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA) model. The reaction cross section, neutron (proton) removal cross section, one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied. It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness. Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.%Effects of neutron skin thickness in peripheral nuclear collisions are investigated using the statistical abrasion ablation (SAA ) model.The reaction cross section,neutron (proton) removal cross section,one-neutron (proton) removal cross section as well as their ratios for nuclei with different neutron skin thickness are studied.It is demonstrated that there are good linear correlations between these observables and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei.The ratio between the (one-)neutron and proton removal cross section is found to be the most sensitive observable of neutron skin thickness.Analysis shows that the relative increase of this ratio could be used to determine the neutron skin size in neutron-rich nuclei.Determining the size and shape of a nucleus is one of the most important subjects since the discovery of atomic nuclei.The rms radii of the neutron (rn) and proton (rp) density distributions are among the most prominent observables for this purpose.Studies for stable nuclei have shown that the nuclear radii are proportional to A1/3,with A being the nuclear mass number.Meanwhile,the density distributions of neutrons and protons in stable nuclei are very similar.

  11. About Skin-to-Skin Care (Kangaroo Care) (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share About Skin-to-Skin Care Page Content Article Body You may be able ... care, also called kangaroo care. What is Kangaroo Care? Kangaroo care was developed in South America as ...

  12. The role of the skin barrier in modulating the effects of common skin microbial species on the inflammation, differentiation and proliferation status of epidermal keratinocytes


    Duckney, Patrick; Wong, Heng Kuan; Serrano, José; Yaradou, Diaraf; Oddos, Thierry; Georgios N. Stamatas


    Background Skin resident microbial species are often thought of either as pathogenic or commensal. However, little is known about the role of the skin barrier in modulating their potential for causing disease. To investigate this question we measured the effects of three microbial species commonly found on the skin (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Propionibacterium acnes) on a reconstructed human epidermal model by either applying the bacteria on the model surface (inta...

  13. Cross correlations of the cosmic infrared background

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P


    Cosmic infrared background (CIB) is a sensitive measure of the structure formation of the universe, especially the star formation history. But this background is overwhelmed by foregrounds. The cross correlation of CIB with galaxies is able to eliminate such foregrounds, minimize and localize several backgrounds which could bias the study of the star formation history. The cross correlation study of CIB has three advantages. (1) Combining the galaxy photometric redshift information, it directly measures the structure formation history. (2) The sky area used for CIB analysis is no long limited to the relatively clean sky. The utilization of CIB full sky data minimizes the sample variance. (3) The CIB measurement is no longer limited to several narrow frequency windows. This allows the measurement of CIB based on integrated intensity, whose theoretical prediction is based on energy conservation, thus is fairly model independent and robust. The cross correlation can be measured with 10% accuracy (statistical and...

  14. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  15. Cryoglobulin induced skin ulceration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Razvi


    Full Text Available Lupus Erythematosus (LE is a multi-organ auto-immune disease which results from complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The clinical spectrum ranges from minor cutaneous lesions to life threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The skin manifestations are variable and common and range from LE specific to LE non-specific cutaneous disease. Vasculitis is one of the most common non-specific skin lesion of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and appears as purpuric lesions, infarcts along lateral nail folds, peripheral gangrene, sub-cutaneous nodules and ulcers. Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (type II is associated with connective tissue disorders including SLE. Skin manifestations are seen in 60-100% patients and are more common in females. The most common manifestation is palpable purpura of lower extremities seen in 30-100% which often is triggered in winter or on cold exposure. Skin infarction, hemorrhagic crusts and ulcers are seen in 25% of patients. Wide spread necrotic ulcers are seen in 10-25% of patients which are often exacerbated by cold.

  16. Tuberculin Skin Testing (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  17. Immunopathology of skin lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Nazoora


    Full Text Available A study was conducted on 130 patients suffering from skin lesions which included psoriasis, lichen planus, DLE, pemphigus, vitiligo and alopecia areata. Forty age-and-sex-matched healthy individuals served as control. Serum IgG, IgM, and circulating immune complexes (CIC were estimated. Significant increase in serum IgG (1937.2 ± 1030.43 mg% and IgM (232.12 ± 136.98 mg% was observed in all the skin lesions when compared with controls except in lichen planus where they were significantly lowered, values being 580.61± 77.35 mg% and 66.88 ± 6.59mg% respectively. CIC levels were significantly raised (P<0.00 1 in various skin lesions (40.49±23.29 when compared with controls (17.68± 3.21, but no significance was observed in lichen planus( 17.72 ± 4.28. Serum IgG, IgM and CIC were statistically significantly altered depending on the extent of the lesion and lowered significantly to almost normal values following treatment, thereby confirming the role of immunity in the pathogenesis of these skin disorders.

  18. Influence of degree of specific allergic sensitivity on severity of rhinitis and asthma in Chinese allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Changqing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between sensitizations and severity of allergic diseases is controversial. Objective This study was to investigate the association between severity of asthma and rhinitis and degree of specific allergic sensitization in allergic patients in China. Method A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6304 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from 4 regions of China. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire documenting their respiratory and allergic symptoms, their impact on sleep, daily activities, school and work. They also underwent skin prick tests with 13 common aeroallergens. Among the recruited subjects, 2268 provided blood samples for serum measurement of specific IgE (sIgE against 16 common aeroallergens. Results Significantly higher percentage of patients with moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis were sensitized to outdoor allergens while percentage of patients sensitized to indoor allergens was increased with increasing severity of asthma. Moderate-severe intermittent rhinitis was associated with the skin wheal size and the level of sIgE to Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia (p Dermatophagoides (D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae (p Conclusions Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisifolia sensitizations are associated with the severity of intermittent rhinitis and D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae sensitizations are associated with increasing severity of asthma in China. Increase in number of allergens the patients are sensitized to may also increase the severity of rhinitis and asthma.

  19. Gluten intolerance and skin diseases. (United States)

    Humbert, Philippe; Pelletier, Fabien; Dreno, Brigitte; Puzenat, Eve; Aubin, François


    Gluten sensitivity with or without coeliac disease (CD) symptoms and intestinal pathology has been suggested as a potentially treatable cause of various diseases. CD is a chronic disease which improves on withdrawal of wheat gliadins and barley, rye and oat prolamins from the diet. There have been numerous reports linking CD with several skin conditions. A body of evidence shows that dermatitis herpetiformis is actually a cutaneous manifestation of CD. Autoimmune diseases, allergic diseases, psoriasis and miscellaneous diseases have also been described with gluten intolerance. Dermatologists should be familiar with the appraisal of gluten sensitive enteropathy and should be able to search for an underlying gluten intolerance (GI). Serological screening by means of antigliadin, antiendomysial and transglutaminase antibodies should be performed. HLA typing is often useful in association with serologic tests. Intestinal biopsy is usually needed to establish the diagnosis of CD or GI. Thus, gluten intolerance gives rise to a variety of dermatological manifestations which may benefit from a gluten-free diet.

  20. First-in-man open clinical trial of a combined rdESAT-6 and rCFP-10 tuberculosis specific skin test reagent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnie Bergstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculin is still the only available skin test reagent for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infection. The product has a remarkable sensitivity, but poor specificity. Previous studies, including two human phase I clinical trials, have indicated that rdESAT-6 has a potential as an improved skin test reagent. Animal studies have shown that the sensitivity may be increased by inclusion of the genetically related CFP-10 antigen in the preparation without loosing specificity. METHODOLOGY: In this study a Lactococcus fermented, recombinant skin test reagent consisting of a 1ratio1 wt/wt of rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 was manufactured according to GMP standards and tested for the first time in 42 healthy adult volunteers. The two doses of 0.01 microg or 0.1 microg were injected intradermally by the Mantoux technique with 6 or 12 weeks interval. No serious adverse events and only mild adverse reactions were reported. The reagent elicited a positive skin test reaction after the first injection in one participant, who most likely was latently infected with M. tuberculosis as indicated by an appreciable IFN gamma response just below the Quantiferon(R cut-off level at the screening visit. None of the remaining participants in the four groups had any skin test reactions and sensitisation by the reagent could therefore be excluded. CONCLUSION: The investigational skin test reagent rdESAT-6 and CFP-10 appeared safe and non-sensitising in this first-in-man clinical trial in human volunteers and can now be tested in larger clinical trials involving individuals with latent M. tuberculosis infection or active TB disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00793702.

  1. Skin color independent assessment of aging using skin autofluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetsier, M.; Nur, E.; Chunmao, H.; Lutgers, H.L.; Links, T.P.; Smit, A.J.; Rakhorst, G.; de Graaff, R.


    Skin autofluorescence (AF) for the non-invasive assessment of the amount of accumulated tissue Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs) increases with aging. In subjects with darker skin colors, measurements typically result in lower AF values than in subjects with fair skin colors, e. g. due to select

  2. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.


    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...

  3. Allergic sensitization: screening methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladics, Gregory S.; Fry, Jeremy; Goodman, Richard


    conformational epitopes, and protein families that become allergens. Some common challenges for predicting protein sensitization are addressed: (a) exposure routes; (b) frequency and dose of exposure; (c) dose-response relationships; (d) role of digestion, food processing, and the food matrix; (e) role...... of infection; (f) role of the gut microbiota; (g) influence of the structure and physicochemical properties of the protein; and (h) the genetic background and physiology of consumers. The consensus view is that sensitization screening models are not yet validated to definitively predict the de novo sensitizing...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Tanvir Ahmed Siddiqui


    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of animes makes it vulnerable to unwanted usages like copyright violations and pornography. That’s why, we need to develop a method to detect and recognize animation characters. Skin detection is one of the most important steps in this way. Though there are some methods to detect human skin color, but those methods do not work properly for anime characters. Anime skin varies greatly from human skin in color, texture, tone and in different kinds of lighting. They also vary greatly among themselves. Moreover, many other things (for example leather, shirt, hair etc., which are not skin, can have color similar to skin. In this paper, we have proposed three methods that can identify an anime character’s skin more successfully as compared with Kovac, Swift, Saleh and Osman methods, which are primarily designed for human skin detection. Our methods are based on RGB values and their comparative relations.

  5. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang


    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  6. Eldercare at Home: Skin Problems (United States)

    ... disorders that give rise to serious medical problems. Older skin is less oily, less elastic, and thinner. It ... of old age." Response Yes, it is true older skin is less oily and it is thinner than ...

  7. Skin - abnormally dark or light (United States)

    ... ency/article/003242.htm Skin - abnormally dark or light To use the sharing features on this page, ... the hands. The bronze color can range from light to dark (in fair-skinned people) with the ...

  8. Maintaining Healthy Skin -- Part 2 (United States)

    ... from seams or elastic binding. Check also for blisters, bumps, insect bites, dry flaky skin or pimples. ... always check your skin carefully after wearing new shoes or clothing. Too loose — Loose clothing can form ...

  9. The management of skin tears. (United States)

    Meuleneire, Frans

    During the ageing process the layers of the skin start to atrophy; the epidermis becomes thin and fragile, and dermal thickness decreases by 20 per cent (White et al, 1994). This makes skin tears a common problem among older people.

  10. Staining of skin with dihydroxyacetone. (United States)



    The reaction of skin with dihydroxyacetone to produce a brown "artificial tan" appears to proceed through combination with free amino groups in skin proteins, and particularly by combination of dihydroxyacetone with the free guanido group in arginine.

  11. TLR1, TLR2, and TLR6 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Increased Susceptibility to Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, M.H.T.; Thys, Y.; Oosting, M.; Plantinga, T.S.; Ioana, M.; Reimnitz, P.; Mouton, J.W.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Gyssens, I.C.J.


    BACKGROUND: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) are characterized by infections with gram-positive or gram-negative aerobic or anaerobic bacteria, as well as by a polymicrobial etiology. These invading microorganisms are recognized by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) of the i

  12. Body mass index, chronological age and hormonal status are better predictors of biological skin age than arm skin autofluorescence in healthy women who have never smoked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randag, A. C.; Graaff, R.; Dreise, M. M.; Vierkoetter, A.; Werker, P. M. N.; Stenekes, M. W.


    Background As life expectancy is increasing and healthy ageing becomes more and more important, skin ageing is a growing topic of interest from both a medical and a commercial point of view. The urgency to unravel the causes of skin ageing is rising. However, there is a lack of objective, simple, no

  13. Effect of Age on Tooth Shade, Skin Color and Skin-Tooth Color Interrelationship in Saudi Arabian Subpopulation (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B


    Background: Dental restoration or prosthesis in harmony with adjacent natural teeth color is indispensable part for the successful esthetic outcome. The studies indicate is existence of correlation between teeth and skin color. Teeth and skin color are changed over the aging process. The aim of the study was to explore the role of age on the tooth and skin color parameters, and to investigate the effect of ageing on teeth-skin color correlation. Materials and Methods: Total of 225 Saudi Arabian ethnic subjects was divided into three groups of 75 each. The groups were divided according to participant’s age. The participant’s age for Group I, Group II, and Group III was 18-29 years, 30-50 years, and above 50 years, respectively. The tooth color was identified by spectrophotometer in CIE Lab parameters. The skin color was registered with skin surface photography. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and correlation tests with SPSS 18 software. Results: The Group I had the highest ‘L’ value of 80.26, Group III recorded the least value of 76.66. The Group III had highest yellow value ‘b’ at 22.72, while Group I had 19.19. The skin ‘L’ value was highest in the young population; the elder population had the increased red value ‘a’ in comparison to younger subjects. The ‘L’ tooth color parameter had a strong positive linear correlation with skin color in young and adult subjects. While Group III teeth showed the strong positive correlation with ‘b’ parameter at malar region. Conclusion: The elder subjects had darker and yellow teeth in comparison with younger subjects. The reddening of the skin was observed as age-related skin color change. The age had a strong influence on the teeth-skin color correlation. PMID:26464536

  14. A comparative study of mitochondrial ultrastructure in melanocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and perilesional halo nevi skin. (United States)

    Ding, Gao-Zhong; Zhao, Wen-E; Li, Xue; Gong, Qing-Li; Lu, Yan


    Vitiligo and halo nevi are both pigmentary disorders of the skin characterized by the acquired loss of functional epidermal melanocytes manifesting as white macules and patches. The cellular mechanism(s) and biochemical changes that result in the appearance of these two types of achromic lesions are still uncertain; and the relationship between vitiligo and halo nevi has been in dispute. In this study, we investigated the ultrastructure of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin using Transmission Electron Microscopy. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology through a stereological study. As previously reported, we found that melanocytes from perilesional active vitiligo skin were loosely connected with their surroundings by their retracted dendrites. The surface density and the volume density of mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional vitiligo skin are increased significantly compared with the controls, especially in active vitiligo. In contrast, there are no significant differences in mitochondria in melanocytes and in keratinocytes from perilesional halo nevi skin compared with the controls. In summary, the tendency of different morphologic alterations in mitochondria from perilesional vitiligo skin and from perilesional halo nevi skin reflect heterogeneous backgrounds between the two diseases, revealing that vitiligo and halo nevi may have separate pathogenic mechanisms. These findings may help elucidate the relationship of these two diseases and their underlying mechanisms.

  15. Nicotinamide for skin cancer chemoprevention. (United States)

    Damian, Diona L


    Nicotinamide (vitamin B3 ) has a range of photoprotective effects in vitro and in vivo; it enhances DNA repair, reduces UV radiation-induced suppression of skin immune responses, modulates inflammatory cytokine production and skin barrier function and restores cellular energy levels after UV exposure. Pharmacological doses of nicotinamide have been shown to reduce actinic keratoses and nonmelanoma skin cancer incidence in high-risk individuals, making this a nontoxic and accessible option for skin cancer chemoprevention in this population.



    S. Ramya Silpa; Chidvila V


    Skin cancer can be of 2 types mainly. They are malignant melanoma and non-malignant melanoma. Skin cancer mainly occurs due to exposure of sunlight. Ozone depletion and chemical exposures are other factors involved in precipitating skin cancer. Mutations of p53 gene are involved in UV- induced carcinogenesis. P53 gene acts vital in development of SCC. So, prevention of skin cancer is the main criteria. Regular application of sunscreens could be one of the primary prevention. The purpose of pr...

  17. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit


    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  18. Skin cancer: Etiology and management. (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran


    Nowadays, occurrence of skin cancer is very common in humans. It is reported that the most common cause of the skin cancer is excessive exposure to sunlight as it contains harmful radiations; the ultra violet rays. Different management strategies are used for different types of skin cancers, which are chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

  19. Skin Pedagogies and Abject Bodies (United States)

    Kenway, Jane; Bullen, Elizabeth


    How does the beauty industry "narrate the skin"? What does it teach women from different cultural groups about the female body? How does skin function as a site where female subjection and abjection are produced and reproduced? In this paper we examine the skin industry pointing to its extreme commodification of the female body and to the…

  20. Heterogeneous Stem Cells in Skin Homeostatis and Wound Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meilana


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The skin protects mammals from insults, infection and dehydration and enables thermoregulation and sensory perception. Various skin-resident cells carry out these diverse functions. Constant turnover of cells and healing upon injury necessitate multiple reservoirs of stem cells. The skin is a complex organ harboring several distinct populations of stem cells and a rich array of cell types. Advances in genetic and imaging tools have brought new findings about the lineage relationships between skin stem cells and their progeny. Such knowledge may offer novel avenues for therapeutics and regenerative medicine. CONTENT: In the past years, our view of the mechanisms that govern skin homeostasis and regeneration have markedly changed. New populations of stem cells have been identified that behave spatio-temporally differently in healthy tissues and in situations of damage, indicating that a great level of stem cell heterogeneity is present in the skin. There are believed to be distinct populations of stem cells in different locations. The lineages that they feed are normally constrained by signals from their local environment, but they can give rise to all epidermal lineages in response to appropriate stimuli. Given the richness of structures such as blood vessels, subcutaneous fat, innervation and the accumulation of fibroblasts under the upper parts of the rete ridges (in the case of human skin, it is reasonable to speculate that the microenvironment might be essential for interfollicular epidermal homeostasis. The bloodstream is probably the main source of long-range signals reaching the skin, and cues provided by the vascular niche might be essential for skin homeostasis. SUMMARY: A key function of the interfollicular epidermis is to act as a protective interface between the body and the external environment, and it contains several architectural elements that enable it to fulfill this function. All elements of the epidermis play

  1. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand; Kovalenko, Sergey; Simkovic, Fedor


    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380 000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the Big Bang. Probably the most promising method to `see' the Cosmic Neutrino Background is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562 keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The `KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino' (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time KATRIN can also look by the reaction: electron neutrino (~1.95 Kelvin) + 3H --> 3He + e- (with the energy Q = 18.6 keV + electron neutrino mass). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spe...

  2. Using ELISPOT to expose false positive skin test conversion in tuberculosis contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeat tuberculin skin tests may be false positive due to boosting of waned immunity to past mycobacterial exposure. We evaluated whether an ELISPOT test could identify tuberculosis (TB contacts with boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted tuberculin and ELISPOT tests in 1665 TB contacts: 799 were tuberculin test negative and were offered a repeat test after three months. Those with tuberculin test conversion had an ELISPOT, chest X-ray and sputum analysis if appropriate. We compared converters with non-converters, assessed the probability of each of four combinations of ELISPOT results over the two time points and estimated boosting with adjustment for ELISPOT sensitivity and specificity. 704 (72% contacts had a repeat tuberculin test; 176 (25% had test conversion, which increased with exposure to a case (p = 0.002, increasing age (p = 0.0006 and BCG scar (p = 0.06. 114 tuberculin test converters had ELISPOT results: 16(14% were recruitment positive/follow-up positive, 9 (8% positive/negative, 34 (30% negative/positive, and 55 (48% were negative/negative. There was a significant non-linear effect of age for ELISPOT results in skin test converters (p = 0.038. Estimates of boosting ranged from 32%-41% of skin test converters with increasing age. Three converters were diagnosed with TB, two had ELISPOT results: both were positive, including one at recruitment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We estimate that approximately one third of tuberculin skin test conversion in Gambian TB case contacts is due to boosting of immunity to non-tuberculous mycobacterial exposure. Further longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether ELISPOT can reliably identify case contacts with tuberculin test conversion that would benefit most from prophylactic treatment.

  3. Development and validation of a bedside risk score for MRSA among patients hospitalized with complicated skin and skin structure infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilberberg Marya D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a frequent cause of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI. Patients with MRSA require different empiric treatment than those with non-MRSA infections, yet no accurate tools exist to aid in stratifying the risk for a MRSA cSSSI. We sought to develop a simple bedside decision rule to tailor empiric coverage more accurately. Methods We conducted a large multicenter (N=62 hospitals retrospective cohort study in a US-based database between April 2005 and March 2009. All adult initial admissions with ICD-9-CM codes specific to cSSSI were included. Patients admitted with MRSA vs. non-MRSA were compared with regard to baseline demographic, clinical and hospital characteristics. We developed and validated a model to predict the risk of MRSA, and compared its performance via sensitivity, specificity and other classification statistics to the healthcare-associated (HCA infection risk factors. Results Of the 7,183 patients with cSSSI, 2,387 (33.2% had MRSA. Factors discriminating MRSA from non-MRSA were age, African-American race, no evidence of diabetes mellitus, cancer or renal dysfunction, and prior history of cardiac dysrhythmia. The score ranging from 0 to 8 points exhibited a consistent dose–response relationship. A MRSA score of 5 or higher was superior to the HCA classification in all characteristics, while that of 4 or higher was superior on all metrics except specificity. Conclusions MRSA is present in 1/3 of all hospitalized cSSSI. A simple bedside risk score can help discriminate the risk for MRSA vs. other pathogens with improved accuracy compared to the HCA definition.

  4. Optical skin friction measurement technique in hypersonic wind tunnel (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Yao, Dapeng; Wen, Shuai; Pan, Junjie


    Shear-sensitive liquid-crystal coatings (SSLCCs) have an optical characteristic that they are sensitive to the applied shear stress. Based on this, a novel technique is developed to measure the applied shear stress of the model surface regarding both its magnitude and direction in hypersonic flow. The system of optical skin friction measurement are built in China Academy of Aerospace Aerodynamics (CAAA). A series of experiments of hypersonic vehicle is performed in wind tunnel of CAAA. Global skin friction distribution of the model which shows complicated flow structures is discussed, and a brief mechanism analysis and an evaluation on optical measurement technique have been made.

  5. Dye Sensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S. Freeman


    Full Text Available Photofrin® was first approved in the 1990s as a sensitizer for use in treating cancer via photodynamic therapy (PDT. Since then a wide variety of dye sensitizers have been developed and a few have been approved for PDT treatment of skin and organ cancers and skin diseases such as acne vulgaris. Porphyrinoid derivatives and precursors have been the most successful in producing requisite singlet oxygen, with Photofrin® still remaining the most efficient sensitizer (quantum yield = 0.89 and having broad food and drug administration (FDA approval for treatment of multiple cancer types. Other porphyrinoid compounds that have received approval from US FDA and regulatory authorities in other countries include benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD-MA, meta-tetra(hydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC, N-aspartyl chlorin e6 (NPe6, and precursors to endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX: 1,5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA, methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, hexaminolevulinate (HAL. Although no non-porphyrin sensitizer has been approved for PDT applications, a small number of anthraquinone, phenothiazine, xanthene, cyanine, and curcuminoid sensitizers are under consideration and some are being evaluated in clinical trials. This review focuses on the nature of PDT, dye sensitizers that have been approved for use in PDT, and compounds that have entered or completed clinical trials as PDT sensitizers.

  6. Sensitivity analysis (United States)

    ... page: // Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  7. Serotonin in human skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Huang; Qiying Gong; Guiming Li


    In this review the authors summarize data of a potential role for serotonin in human skin physiology and pathology. The uncovering of endogenous serotonin synthesis and its transformation to melatonin underlines a putative important role of this pathway in melanocyte physiology and pathology. Pathways of the biosynthesis and biodegradation of serotonin have been characterized in human beings and its major cellular populations. Moreover, receptors of serotonin are expressed on keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts and these mediate phenotypic actions on cellular proliferation and differentiation. And the widespread expression of a cutaneous seorotoninergic system indicates considerable selectivity of action to facilitate intra-, auto-, or paracrine mechanisms that define and influence skin function in a highly compartmentalized manner. Melatonin, in turn, can also act as a hormone, neurotransmitter, cytokine, biological modifier and immunomodulator. Thus, Serotonin local synthesis and cellular localization could thus become of great importance in the diagnosis and management of cutaneous pathology.

  8. Skin contamination dosimeter (United States)

    Hamby, David M.; Farsoni, Abdollah T.; Cazalas, Edward


    A technique and device provides absolute skin dosimetry in real time at multiple tissue depths simultaneously. The device uses a phoswich detector which has multiple scintillators embedded at different depths within a non-scintillating material. A digital pulse processor connected to the phoswich detector measures a differential distribution (dN/dH) of count rate N as function of pulse height H for signals from each of the multiple scintillators. A digital processor computes in real time from the differential count-rate distribution for each of multiple scintillators an estimate of an ionizing radiation dose delivered to each of multiple depths of skin tissue corresponding to the multiple scintillators embedded at multiple corresponding depths within the non-scintillating material.

  9. Double-Skin Facade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena

    difficulties experienced by scientists when attempting to model DSF thermal and energy performance were examined. In addition, the lack of experimental studies and empirical validation of models was realized, many numerical models have not been empirically validated and most of them require an expert knowledge...... IEA Annex 34/43, subtask E "Double-Skin Facade". The results of empirical validation are discussed in this work. Discussion and analysis of experimental results is carried out. It has lead to hypothesis of recirculation flow phenomenon in the DSF cavity. Finally, a suggestion of a new numerical model......Double-Skin Facades (DSF) are gaining popularity that, in fact, appears to be independent from sturdy critics of the concept in the past years. DSF buildings are being built in Europe and worldwide, DSF concept is being taught at schools of architecture and fully glazed office buildings are being...

  10. 青海湖裸鲤体表白点病病原菌的分离与药敏试验%Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of Pathogenic Bacteria of White-spot Disease From Skin Surface of Gymnocypris przewaiskii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增魁; 李长忠; 康明; 圈华; 张勤文; 刘道鑫; 马东红; 夏若措毛; 李英


    To assure the pathogenic bacteria of white-spot disease from skin surface in Gymnocypris prze-waiskii and treat the disease,three bacterial strains (Citrobacter freundii ,Aeromonas veronii ,Morganella fulton)were isolated from naturally infected Gymnocypris przewaiskii and identified by morphology,cul-tural characteristics,physical and chemical characters,and 16 S rRNA sequence analysis.The three strains were Gram negative.Colony morphologies were consistent.Drug sensitivity test revealed that the three strains were highly sensitive to cefepime,amikacin and gentamicin,which will benefit the treatment of dis-ease in Gymnocypris przewaiskii .%为确定养殖青海湖裸鲤(Gymnocypris przewaiskii )体表白点病的病原,分别对患病鱼白色点状囊泡样物进行了细菌分离、生理生化特性鉴定、16 S rRNA 基因分析和药敏感试验,分离到了以弗氏柠檬酸杆菌(Citrobacter freundii )、维氏气单胞菌(Aeromonas veronii ,AV)和摩氏摩根菌(Morganella fulton )为代表的菌落形态一致、革兰阴性细菌;且分离到的3种菌都对头孢吡肟、丁胺卡那霉素、庆大霉素等药物敏感。

  11. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis (United States)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck


    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  13. Skin changes in menopause. (United States)

    Bolognia, J L; Braverman, I M; Rousseau, M E; Sarrel, P M


    Skin signs and symptoms were examined in 46 menopausal women prior to estrogen replacement therapy. Several symptoms such as pruritus, bruising, dryness and thinning were seen more frequently in sun-exposed skin emphasizing the contribution of photoaging. At the end of a 6-mth treatment period, no significant difference was observed in the prevalence or severity of the cutaneous signs and symptoms when patients receiving transdermal 17 beta-estradiol (Estraderm) were compared with controls (the only exception was cutaneous flushing). Elastic fibers from sun-protected (buttock) skin of menopausal women were studied by light and electron microscopy. In 3 women (ages 30-37) with a history of premature menopause, the elastic fibers had several degenerative changes including coalescence of cystic spaces into lacunae, peripheral fragmentation, granular degeneration and splitting of the fibers into strands. Similar age-related ultrastructural changes are normally found in individuals that are at least 20 yrs older than these patients. These findings are suggestive of a relationship between premature aging of the dermal elastic fibers and estrogen deprivation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan


    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  15. Development of human skin equivalents to unravel the impaired skin barrier in atopic dermatitis skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eweje, M.O.


    The studies in this thesis describes the barrier defects in Atopic Dermatitis (AD) skin and various techniques to develop AD Human Skin Equivalents (HSEs) which can be used to better understand the role of several factors in the pathogenesis of AD skin. The results described show that Inflammation p

  16. Deceased donor skin allograft banking: Response and utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Madhuri


    Full Text Available Background: In the absence of xenograft and biosynthetic skin substitutes, deceased donor skin allografts is a feasible option for saving life of patient with extensive burn injury in our country. Aims: The first deceased donor skin allograft bank in India became functional at Lokmanya Tilak Municipal (LTM medical college and hospital on 24 th April 2000. The response of Indian society to this new concept of skin donation after death and the pattern of utilization of banked allografts from 2000 to 2010 has been presented in this study. Settings and Design: This allograft skin bank was established by the department of surgery. The departments of surgery and microbiology share the responsibility of smooth functioning of the bank. Materials and Methods: The response in terms of number of donations and the profile of donors was analyzed from records. Pattern and outcome of allograft utilization was studied from specially designed forms. Results: During these ten years, 262 deceased donor skin allograft donations were received. The response showed significant improvement after counselling was extended to the community. Majority of the donors were above 70 years of age and procurement was done at home for most. Skin allografts from 249 donors were used for 165 patients in ten years. The outcome was encouraging with seven deaths in 151 recipients with burn injuries. Conclusions: Our experience shows that the Indian society is ready to accept the concept of skin donation after death. Use of skin allografts is life saving for large burns. We need to prepare guidelines for the establishment of more skin banks in the country.

  17. Wilsonian flows and background fields

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Pawlowski, Jan M.


    We study exact renormalisation group flows for background field dependent regularisations. It is shown that proper-time flows are approximations to exact background field flows for a specific class of regulators. We clarify the role of the implicit scale dependence introduced by the background field. Its impact on the flow is evaluated numerically for scalar theories at criticality for different approximations and regularisations. Implications for gauge theories are discussed.

  18. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed


    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  19. Piezoresistive pressure sensor array for robotic skin (United States)

    Mirza, Fahad; Sahasrabuddhe, Ritvij R.; Baptist, Joshua R.; Wijesundara, Muthu B. J.; Lee, Woo H.; Popa, Dan O.


    Robots are starting to transition from the confines of the manufacturing floor to homes, schools, hospitals, and highly dynamic environments. As, a result, it is impossible to foresee all the probable operational situations of robots, and preprogram the robot behavior in those situations. Among human-robot interaction technologies, haptic communication is an intuitive physical interaction method that can help define operational behaviors for robots cooperating with humans. Multimodal robotic skin with distributed sensors can help robots increase perception capabilities of their surrounding environments. Electro-Hydro-Dynamic (EHD) printing is a flexible multi-modal sensor fabrication method because of its direct printing capability of a wide range of materials onto substrates with non-uniform topographies. In past work we designed interdigitated comb electrodes as a sensing element and printed piezoresistive strain sensors using customized EHD printable PEDOT:PSS based inks. We formulated a PEDOT:PSS derivative ink, by mixing PEDOT:PSS and DMSO. Bending induced characterization tests of prototyped sensors showed high sensitivity and sufficient stability. In this paper, we describe SkinCells, robot skin sensor arrays integrated with electronic modules. 4x4 EHD-printed arrays of strain sensors was packaged onto Kapton sheets and silicone encapsulant and interconnected to a custom electronic module that consists of a microcontroller, Wheatstone bridge with adjustable digital potentiometer, multiplexer, and serial communication unit. Thus, SkinCell's electronics can be used for signal acquisition, conditioning, and networking between sensor modules. Several SkinCells were loaded with controlled pressure, temperature and humidity testing apparatuses, and testing results are reported in this paper.

  20. High correlation of double Debye model parameters in skin cancer detection. (United States)

    Truong, Bao C Q; Tuan, H D; Fitzgerald, Anthony J; Wallace, Vincent P; Nguyen, H T


    The double Debye model can be used to capture the dielectric response of human skin in terahertz regime due to high water content in the tissue. The increased water proportion is widely considered as a biomarker of carcinogenesis, which gives rise of using this model in skin cancer detection. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide a specific analysis of the double Debye parameters in terms of non-melanoma skin cancer classification. Pearson correlation is applied to investigate the sensitivity of these parameters and their combinations to the variation in tumor percentage of skin samples. The most sensitive parameters are then assessed by using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plot to confirm their potential of classifying tumor from normal skin. Our positive outcomes support further steps to clinical application of terahertz imaging in skin cancer delineation.