WorldWideScience

Sample records for background current state

  1. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  2. The Current State and Historico-geographical Background of Mt. Chirisan Region Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the historico-geographical background and current state of immigrants in the area designated as the “Mt. Chirisan Region,” their characteristics, and related integration issues. This article defines the Mt. Chirisan Region as the 7 cities/kuns of Namwŏn-si, Changsu-kun, Koksŏng-kun, Kurye-kun, Hadong-kun, Sanchŏng-kun, and Hamyang-kun. As the Mt. Chirisan Region mainly consists of mountainous and agricultural areas, the immigrant induction effect socio-economically was low relative to urban and industrial areas. It was also noted that, as the percentage of marriage immigration in Mt. Chirisan was high relative to urban or industrial areas, the female foreigner ratio was higher than that of male foreigners. In regard to the home countries of immigrants, women from South-East Asia and North-East Asia accounted for the majority. Also, this article examines the current situation of support programs of 7 local Multicultural Family Support Centers in the Mt. Chirisan Region, their problems, and probably solutions. Based on the historical development of the region and recent social changes, our society and government need to actively develop a higher level of social integration and employment education support programs, and carry out policies that will protect the diverse cultural identities of immigrants. In addition, differentiated multicultural family support programs appropriate for Mt. Chirisan, an inland mountain region, need to be developed.

  3. Documentation of technical background for realize a comparison study of the current state of four optical and photonic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Alpizar, Cristian; Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres; Goldini Garcia, Luis Diego; Ruiz Campos, David

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of four application systems of the optics and photonics is proposes, which are considered important for local disclosure. These four systems can appear in components, techniques, instruments or equipment, but from the standpoint of the analytical approach you want to work, are considered systems and will be studied all its constitutive parts. A thorough job is requested that includes not only the objective search, collecting and analysis of technical background to understand the development of these systems and their initial limitations, but to study improvements, the current state, applications, rules in force of quality control, utilization and maintenance, for its later use in LAFTLA. The four optical and photonic systems proposed are: 1. Meter the optical spectrum, the subject of physical optics, the application of interferometry and diffraction, optoelectronics and spectroscopy. The utilization to obtain optical spectra and the application in calibrations and trials is analyzed. 2. In radiometry, the application of photodetectors in a calibrated meter of radiant power and radiant energy for use with laser devices. The utilization for measuring of power or radiant energy of a laser beam, for calibrations and trials is analyzed, either in free space beam or optical fiber. 3. In optoelectronics, the development of LED and application of white LED, OLED, IRED and UVED. Infinity of applications are performed, but will analyze indicators and lighting as luminescent source and for flat screen projection, research in UV and IR radiometry. 4. In photometry, the measurement of the photopic spectral luminous efficiency V (λ) CIE 1924 of photometric normalized observer. To the photometry and calibration of photometric magnitudes has been vital. (author) [es

  4. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  5. Tritium-caused background currents in electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, M.E.

    1979-05-01

    One channel electron multiplier (Galileo No. 4501) and one 14 stage Be/Cu multiplier (Dumont No. SPM3) were exposed to tritium pressures between approx. 10 -7 Torr to 10 -3 Torr in amounts from approx. 10 -5 Torr-s to 60 Torr-s and the β-decay caused currents in the multipliers measured. The background currents in both multipliers consisted of two components: (1) a high, reversible current which was proportional to the tritium exposure pressure; and (2) a lower, irreversible background current which increased with increasing cumulative tritium exposure. The β-decay caused currents in each multiplier increased the same way with exposure, suggesting the detected electrons arose from decaying tritium adsorbed on surfaced external to the multipliers

  6. Landscape assessment in New Zealand: background and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swaffield

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available One result of the growth in environmental awareness in the latter half of the twentieth century has been the recognition in New Zealand legislation of a public interest in landscape. The focus of environmental and landscape management in New Zealand is the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA91. The stated purpose of the RMA91 is the sustainable management of natural and physical resources, and this includes a concern for aspects of landscape quality. In particular, councils' preparation of district and regional plans under the RMA91 requires, amongst other things, protection of 'outstanding natural features and landscapes' from 'inappropriate subdivision, use and development' (RMA91 s 6(b. As a consequence, councils have commissioned a large number of regional and district landscape assessments over the past decade, the results of which are now being translated into policy. Significant criticism has been expressed by some stakeholders - specifically landowners - of the outcomes of this process. Assessment of the effects of development on the landscape is also an important part of the resource consent process, and landscape assessment reports are frequently used by the Environment Court in its adjudication of resource consent cases. As a consequence, the practice of landscape assessment has come under increasing public, professional and judicial scrutiny. This article reviews the background to and summarises a recent survey of current practice in New Zealand landscape assessment. Issues in landscape assessment practice are then discussed, drawing on three professional workshops held in late 1998.

  7. Background Paper on State and Local Taxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, Eugene

    This paper represents part of a comprehensive study of the existing New York State school support formulae. The report consists of (1) analysis of the 1969 State revenue increases -- wage increases and inflation, expansion of State and local government services, property tax relief, and increased annual revenue needs; (2) explication of factors…

  8. Current State of Dental Education: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    This executive summary for Section 1 of the "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century" project provides a composite picture of information from 12 background articles on the current state of dental education in the United States. The summary includes the following topics: the current status of the dental curriculum, the implications of student debt and dental school finances, the expansion of enrollment, student diversity, pre- and postdoctoral education, safety net status of dental school clinics, and trends in faculty.

  9. Radiopharmaceuticals - current state and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenze, R.

    1981-07-01

    The current state as well as the tendencies of modern radiopharmaceutical development and application is reviewed. After an evaluation of the fundamental preconditions of decay characteristics and pharmaceutical properties the problems concerning sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, metabolizable compounds and the use of specific biological interactions are discussed. (author)

  10. Alzheimer’s Disease: Background, Current and Future Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Chou

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder, and its treatment has posed a big challenge. Proposed causes of Alzheimer’s disease include the cholinergic, amyloid and tau hypothesis. Current therapeutic treatments have been aimed at dealing with neurotransmitter imbalance. These include cholinesterase inhibitors and N-methyl D-aspartate receptor antagonists. However, current therapeutics have been unable to halt its progression. The future of Alzheimer’s disease tre...

  11. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-27

    example, if designers calculated that a certain amount of plutonium was the minimum at which the warhead would work, they might add only a small extra... burnup as it reenters the atmosphere at high speed and minimizes degradation of accuracy. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and

  12. Background radiation study of Offa industrial area of Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the external background radiation in Offa industrial area of Kwara State is hereby reported. An in-situ measurement using two Digilert radiation monitors at five different stations were carried out. A mean exposure rate of 0.0132mR/hr, which represents 20% elevation from the standard background radiation, was ...

  13. Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Background Ionising Radiation Levels in Benue State University Teaching Hospital Makurdi North Central Nigeria. H Mohammad, J T Iortile, J E Ekediwe, L Alumuku, E A Okon, D M Chia, E Ejeh, F U Ugbo ...

  14. Helicopter Rotor Noise Prediction: Background, Current Status, and Future Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter noise prediction is increasingly important. The purpose of this viewgraph presentation is to: 1) Put into perspective the recent progress; 2) Outline current prediction capabilities; 3) Forecast direction of future prediction research; 4) Identify rotorcraft noise prediction needs. The presentation includes an historical perspective, a description of governing equations, and the current status of source noise prediction.

  15. Kosovo and U.S. Policy: Background and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Julie; Woehrel, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    In 1998 and 1999, the United States and its NATO allies attempted to put an end to escalating violence between ethnic Albanian guerrillas and Yugoslav/Serb forces in Yugoslavia's Kosovo province in southern Serbia...

  16. NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl W

    2008-01-01

    Member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contribute to the activities of the alliance in several ways, the chief of which is through the deployment of their own armed forces, funded by their national budgets...

  17. NATO Common Funds Burdensharing: Background and Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ek, Carl W

    2009-01-01

    Member states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) contribute to the activities of the alliance in several ways, the chief of which is through the deployment of their own armed forces, funded by their national budgets...

  18. Current Economic Issues in Employee Benefits. Background Paper No. 39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Stephen A.

    A multitude of public policy issues currently surround the tax treatment of employee benefits, particularly since the tax-favored status of employer contributions to pensions and health insurance has been blamed for a shrinking tax base that has exacerbated the federal budget deficit, an inefficient and bloated health-care sector, overinsurance by…

  19. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Non- Proliferation and Disarmament Initiative (Australia, Canada, Chile , Germany, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Turkey and the United Arab...site at Novaya Zemlya; other reports stated that U.S. reviews of the data determined that these events were earthquakes . Several reports between 1998...record of the North Korean test, when compared with recordings of a 2002 earthquake recorded at a seismic station in Wonju, Republic of Korea, shows

  20. External nasal dilators: definition, background, and current uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinardi RR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Reis Dinardi, Cláudia Ribeiro de Andrade, Cássio da Cunha Ibiapina Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract: Our goal was to revise the literature about external nasal dilators (ENDs as to their definition, history, and current uses. We reviewed journals in the PubMed and MEDLINE databases. The current uses hereby presented and discussed are physical exercise, nasal congestion and sleep, snoring, pregnancy, cancer, and healthy individuals. Numerous studies have shown that ENDs increase the cross-sectional area of the nasal valve, reducing nasal resistance and transnasal inspiratory pressure and stabilizing the lateral nasal vestibule, avoiding its collapse during final inspiration. These effects also facilitate breathing and are beneficial to patients with nasal obstruction. Furthermore, END use is simple, noninvasive, painless, affordable, and bears minimum risk to the user. Most studies have limited sample size and are mainly focused on physical exercise. In conclusion, ENDs seem useful, so further studies involving potential effects on the performance of physical tests and improvements in sleep quality are necessary, especially in children and teenagers. Keywords: external nasal dilator, nasal valve, nasal congestion, nasal resistance

  1. Social Pedagogy in North America: historical background and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory. 

  2. Backreaction on background fields: A coherent state approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilderton, Anton; Seipt, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    There are many situations in which a strong electromagnetic field may be approximated as a fixed background. Going beyond this approximation, i.e. accounting for the backreaction of quantum processes on the field, is however challenging. Here we develop an approach to this problem which is a straightforward extension of background field methods. The approach follows from the observation that scattering in an on-shell background is equivalent to scattering between coherent states; we show that by deforming these states one can model backreaction. Focussing on intense laser-matter interactions, we provide examples which model beam depletion and, furthermore, introduce an extremization principle with which to determine the level of depletion in a given scattering process.

  3. Estimation of background radiation at Rivers State University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background radiation from the use of photocopies, computers and other electronic devices around River State University of Science and Technology was measured using a specialize digital, radiation meter type, radalert - 50, which is optimized to detect radiations like alpha, beta, gamma and x-rays. Measurements were ...

  4. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements

  5. UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIOSIS: CURRENT STATE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Volodina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, infectious diseases of urogenital tract are the reason of the whole range of pathological states. Despite the successes of scientific society in the development of contemporary methods for diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmissive infections their prevalence rate is still high. The review covers the most frequent bacterial sexually transmissive infection chlamydiosis, its prevalence rate and treatment methods

  6. Association of Radon Background and Total Background Ionizing Radiation with Alzheimer's Disease Deaths in U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation might promote the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of AD death rates versus radon background radiation and total background radiation in U.S. states. Total background, radon background, cosmic and terrestrial background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States and Report No. 160 - Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. 2013 AD death rates by U.S. state are from the Alzheimer's Association. Radon background ionizing radiation was significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.467, p = 0.001). Total background ionizing radiation was also significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.452, p = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression weighted by state population demonstrated that AD death rate was significantly correlated with radon background (β= 0.169, p ionizing radiation is a risk factor for AD. Intranasal inhalation of radon gas could subject the rhinencephalon and hippocampus to damaging radiation that initiates AD. The damage would accumulate over time, causing age to be a powerful risk factor.

  7. Dynamic responses of a riser under combined excitation of internal waves and background currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Min

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic responses of a riser under the combined excitation of internal waves and background currents are studied. A modified Taylor-Goldstein equation is used to calculate the internal waves vertical structures when background currents exist. By imposing rigid-lid boundary condition, the equation is solved by Thompson-Haskell method. Based on the principle of virtual work, a nonlinear differential equation for riser motions is established combined with the modified Morison formula. Using Newmark-β method, the motion equation is solved in time domain. It is observed that the internal waves without currents exhibit dominated effect on dynamic response of a riser in the first two modes. With the effects of the background currents, the motion displacements of the riser will increase significantly in both cases that wave goes along and against the currents. This phenomenon is most obviously observed at the motions in the first mode

  8. Dynamic responses of a riser under combined excitation of internal waves and background currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic responses of a riser under the combined excitation of internal waves and background currents are studied. A modified Taylor-Goldstein equation is used to calculate the internal waves vertical structures when background currents exist. By imposing rigid-lid boundary condition, the equation is solved by Thompson-Haskell method. Based on the principle of virtual work, a nonlinear differential equation for riser motions is established combined with the modified Morison formula. Using Newmark-β method, the motion equation is solved in time domain. It is observed that the internal waves without currents exhibit dominated effect on dynamic response of a riser in the first two modes. With the effects of the background currents, the motion displacements of the riser will increase significantly in both cases that wave goes along and against the currents. This phenomenon is most obviously observed at the motions in the first mode.

  9. Dynamic responses of a riser under combined excitation of internal waves and background currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Min; Yu, Chenglong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the dynamic responses of a riser under the combined excitation of internal waves and background currents are studied. A modified Taylor-Goldstein equation is used to calculate the internal waves vertical structures when background currents exist. By imposing rigid-lid boundary condition, the equation is solved by Thompson-Haskell method. Based on the principle of virtual work, a nonlinear differential equation for riser motions is established combined with the modified Morison formula. Using Newmark-β method, the motion equation is solved in time domain. It is observed that the internal waves without currents exhibit dominated effect on dynamic response of a riser in the first two modes. With the effects of the background currents, the motion displacements of the riser will increase significantly in both cases that wave goes along and against the currents. This phenomenon is most obviously observed at the motions in the first mode

  10. State Emergency Department Opioid Guidelines: Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, Robert I; Gronowski, Tanner; Kalnow, Andrew F; Little, Andrew G; Lloyd, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and categorize current state-sponsored opioid guidelines for the practice of emergency medicine (EM). We conducted a comprehensive search of EM-specific opioid prescribing guidelines and/or policies in each state to determine current state involvement in EM opioid prescribing, as well as to evaluate some of the specifics of each guideline or policy. The search was conducted using an online query and a follow-up email request to each state chapter of ACEP. We found that 17 states had emergency department-specific guidelines. We further organized the guidelines into four categories: limiting prescriptions for opioids with 67 total recommendations; preventing/diverting abuse with 56 total recommendations; addiction-related guidelines with 29 total recommendations; and a community resources section with 24 total recommendations. Our results showed that current state guidelines focus on providers limiting opioid pain prescriptions and vetting patients for possible abuse/diversion. This study highlights the 17 states that have addressed opioid prescribing guidelines and categorizes their efforts to date. It is hoped that this study will provide the basis for similar efforts in other states.

  11. Current State of Craniofacial Prosthetic Rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P.; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. Materials and Methods: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The

  12. A Survey of Elementary and Secondary Music Educators' Professional Background, Teaching Responsibilities and Job Satisfaction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Koner, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this exploratory study was to examine the current trends of K-12 music educators in the United States regarding their (a) professional background, (b) classroom teaching responsibilities, and (c) job satisfaction. Participants included seven thousand four hundred and sixty-three (N = 7,463) currently employed music teachers who were…

  13. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    management of state affairs” leading to “a catastrophic economic situation.” He also cited as justification a pattern of national poverty, despite the...peacefully conducted, and the military largely adhered to promises not to intervene in electoral preparations or management . A new, 16,000-member...Front Uni pour la Démocratie et le Changement (United Front for Democracy and Change, FUDEC) Fall captured less than one percent of the vote in the

  14. Superconductivity in the background of disordered flux state of spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Shiping; Guo Rui; Han Fei

    1992-01-01

    The phase diagram of the copper oxide materials with the antiferromagnetic and the superconducting properties as a function of doping δ is obtained in the framework of the t-J model by using the Schwinger boson-slave fermion theory. The results show that the spiral order of spins competes and coexists with superconductivity for small doping δ. For large doping δ, superconductivity appears, which may be caused by the occurrence of a disordered flux state of spins. The phase diagram suggests a strong relationship between antiferromagnetism and superconductivity. (orig.)

  15. Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Background and Current Status of the E/BD Terminology and Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forness, Steven R.; Kavale, Kenneth A.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the development and current status of alternatives to the federal definition of emotional disturbance or behavior disorders. It notes that several states are now revising their own terminologies or definitions in response to the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act that dropped the term…

  16. Latent variable method for automatic adaptation to background states in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, Nikolay; Volkova, Ksenia; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. Approach. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model’s parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization algorithm. The proposed method is aimed at assessing characteristics of background states without any corresponding data labeling. In the context of asynchronous motor imagery paradigm, we applied this method to the real data from twelve able-bodied subjects with open/closed eyes serving as background states. Main results. We found that the latent variable method improved classification of target states compared to the baseline method (in seven of twelve subjects). In addition, we found that our method was also capable of background states recognition (in six of twelve subjects). Significance. Without any supervised information on background states, the latent variable method provides a way to improve classification in BCI by taking background states into account at the training stage and then by making decisions on target states weighted by posterior probabilities of background states at the prediction stage.

  17. The Current State of Teleophthalmology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Siddarth; Tsui, Edmund; Mehta, Nitish; Zahid, Sarwar; Schuman, Joel S

    2017-12-01

    Telemedicine services facilitate the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of the remote patient. Telemedicine has rapidly flourished in the United States and has improved access to care, outcomes, and patient satisfaction. However, the use of telemedicine in ophthalmology is currently in its infancy and has yet to gain wide acceptance. Current models of telemedicine in ophthalmology are largely performed via "store and forward" methods, but remote monitoring and interactive modalities exist. Although studies have examined the effects of telemedicine, few reports have characterized its current status. We perform a descriptive analysis of the current state of teleophthalmology in the United States. We describe the use of teleophthalmology in the hospital and outpatient settings. We also review the applications to retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma, as well as anticipated barriers and hurdles for the future adoption of teleophthalmology. With ongoing advances in teleophthalmology, these models may provide earlier detection and more reliable monitoring of vision-threatening diseases. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Male contraception - the current state of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmynt; Kasperska, Karolina; Lewandowska, Marta

    2016-08-01

    Contraception is important from a health, psychological and socioeconomic point of view. Due to the fact that male-based contraceptive methods are mostly represented by condoms and vasectomy, researchers are working on the new solutions, which could let the men be more involved in a conscious family planning. In this review we will present the current state of knowledge on this subject. There is a lot going on in the field of hormonal contraception. Studies including testosterone, progestins, synthetic androgens and other derivatives are on a different stages of clinical trials and mostly demonstrate high efficacy rates. Recent discovers of Izumo and Juno proteins, essential for the fertilization process, give hope for an easily reversible, non-hormonal method. Researchers are also trying to interfere with the process of spermatogenesis using BRDT inhibitor - JQ1, or neutralize the sperm by injecting styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) into the lumen of the vas deferens. The other studies explore processes involved in proper sperm motility. A vaccine which induces an immune response to the reproductive system is also an interesting method. The latest research use ultrasound waves and mechanical device which blocks the patency of vas deferens. The aim of the study current state of knowledge male contraception. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  19. RETAIL BANKING BUSINESS: CURRENT STATE ANDSPECIFIC FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Рефкадовна Фаизова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and importance of the retail banking business in the banking sector continueto grow. The current state of the retail banking business is considered and specific features of this area in the face of growing demand for banking products and services by the public and interest from lending institutions are identified by the article.Purpose: Research of current state of retail banking business and detection specific features of this area.Methodology: In the process of analysis and researchof the question the methods of economical and statistical analysis, methods of comparison and generalizationwereused.Results: The conclusion is that interest in the retail banking business continues to grow.There were revealed the role and the importance of standardized service processes and standardized products and services delivering as one of the main line of development in the segment of retail business.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-2

  20. Current state of craniofacial prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Nina; Visser, Anita; van Oort, Robert P; Kusdhany, Lindawati; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Krom, Bastiaan P; van der Mei, Henry C; Vissink, Arjan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to review the current state of the techniques and materials used to rehabilitate maxillofacial defects. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles pertinent to maxillofacial prostheses published from January 1990 to July 2011. The main clinical stages were the subject of analysis. A multidisciplinary approach is preferred when rehabilitating maxillofacial defects. Surgical reconstruction can be used for smaller defects, but larger defects require a prosthesis to achieve an esthetic rehabilitation. Implant retained prostheses are preferred over adhesive prostheses. Silicone elastomer is currently the best material available for maxillofacial prostheses; however, longevity and discoloration, which are greatly influenced by ultraviolet radiation, microorganisms, and environmental factors, remain significant problems. In the near future, the widespread availability and cost effectiveness of digital systems may improve the workflow and outcomes of facial prostheses. Patients report high satisfaction with their prostheses despite some areas that still need improvement. Maxillofacial prostheses are a reliable treatment option to restore maxillofacial defects and improve quality of life. Significant progress has been made in the application of implants for retention and digital technology for designing surgical guides, suprastructures, and craniofacial prostheses. Further improvements are necessary to enhance longevity of prostheses.

  1. The Current State of Music Therapy Theory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    An essay on themes from Ken Aigen (2014): "The Study of Music Therapy. Current Issues and Concepts"......An essay on themes from Ken Aigen (2014): "The Study of Music Therapy. Current Issues and Concepts"...

  2. Current state of sewage treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lingyun; Zhang, Guangming; Tian, Huifang

    2014-12-01

    The study reported and analyzed the current state of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in urban China from the aspects of scale, treatment processes, sludge handling, geographical distribution, and discharge standards. By 2012, there were 3340 WWTPs in operation in China with a capacity of 1.42 × 10(8) m(3)/d. The number of medium-scale WWTPs (1-10 × 10(4) m(3)/d) counted for 75% of total WWTPs. On average, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of small-scale, medium-scale, large-scale and super-large-scale WWTPs were 81, 85.5, 87.5 and 86.5%, respectively. Generally speaking, the nutrients removal instead of COD removal was of concern. As to the different processes, oxidation ditch, anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A(2)/O) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) were the mainstream technologies in China. These technologies had minor difference in terms of overall COD removal efficiency. The sludge treatment in WWTPs was basically "thickening-coagulation-mechanical dehydration" and the major disposal method was sanitary landfill in China. The distributions of WWTPs and their utilization showed significant regional characteristics. The sewage treatment capacity of China concentrated on the coastal areas and middle reaches of Yangtze River, which were the economically developed zones. Besides, most WWTPs enforced the Class 1 or Class 2 discharge standards, but few realized wastewater reuse. Finally, existing problems were discussed, including low removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus, emerging contaminants, low reuse of reclaimed water, poor sludge treatment and disposal, low execution standard of effluent, and emissions of greenhouse gas from WWTPs. Suggestions regarding potential technical and administrative measures were given. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Static Object Detection Based on a Dual Background Model and a Finite-State Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heras Evangelio Rubén

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Detecting static objects in video sequences has a high relevance in many surveillance applications, such as the detection of abandoned objects in public areas. In this paper, we present a system for the detection of static objects in crowded scenes. Based on the detection of two background models learning at different rates, pixels are classified with the help of a finite-state machine. The background is modelled by two mixtures of Gaussians with identical parameters except for the learning rate. The state machine provides the meaning for the interpretation of the results obtained from background subtraction; it can be implemented as a look-up table with negligible computational cost and it can be easily extended. Due to the definition of the states in the state machine, the system can be used either full automatically or interactively, making it extremely suitable for real-life surveillance applications. The system was successfully validated with several public datasets.

  4. Particle currents in a space-time dependent and CP-violating Higgs background: a field theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, D.; Riotto, A.

    1995-06-01

    Motivated by cosmological applications like electroweak baryogenesis, we develop a field theoretic approach to the computation of particle currents on a space-time dependent and CP-violating Higgs background. We consider the Standard Model model with two Higgs doublets and CP violation in the scalar sector, and compute both fermionic and Higgs currents by means of an expansion in the background fields. We discuss the gauge dependence of the results and the renormalization of the current operators, showing that in the limit of local equilibrium, no extra renormalization conditions are needed in order to specify the system completely. (orig.)

  5. Engineering photorespiration: current state and future possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterhansel, C; Krause, K; Braun, H-P; Espie, G S; Fernie, A R; Hanson, D T; Keech, O; Maurino, V G; Mielewczik, M; Sage, R F

    2013-07-01

    Reduction of flux through photorespiration has been viewed as a major way to improve crop carbon fixation and yield since the energy-consuming reactions associated with this pathway were discovered. This view has been supported by the biomasses increases observed in model species that expressed artificial bypass reactions to photorespiration. Here, we present an overview about the major current attempts to reduce photorespiratory losses in crop species and provide suggestions for future research priorities. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. State background checks for gun purchase and firearm deaths: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha; Panjamapirom, Anantachai

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between the types of background-information check required by states prior to firearm purchases, and firearm homicide and suicide deaths. Negative binomial models are used to analyze state-level data for homicides and suicides in the U.S. from 1996 to 2005. Data on types of background information are retrieved from the Surveys of State Procedures Related to Firearm Sales, and the violent death data are from the WISQARS. Several other state level factors were controlled for. More background checks are associated with fewer homicide (IRR:0.93, 95% CI:0.91-0.96) and suicide (IRR:0.98, 95% CI:0.96-1.00) deaths. Firearm homicide deaths are lower when states have checks for restraining orders (IRR:0.87, 95% CI:0.79-0.95) and fugitive status (IRR:0.79, 95% CI:0.72-0.88). Firearm suicide deaths are lower when states have background checks for mental illness (IRR:0.96, 95% CI:0.92-0.99), fugitive status (IRR:0.95, 95% CI:0.90-0.99) and misdemeanors (IRR:0.95, 95% CI:0.92-1.00). It does not appear that reductions in firearm deaths are offset by increases in non-firearm violent deaths. More extensive background checks prior to gun purchase are mostly associated with reductions in firearm homicide and suicide deaths. Several study limitations are acknowledged, and further research is called for to ascertain causality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-stream Stability Properties of the Return-Current Layer for Intense Ion Beam Propagation Through Background Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail

    2009-01-01

    When an ion beam with sharp edge propagates through a background plasma, its current is neutralized by the plasma return current everywhere except at the beam edge over a characteristic transverse distance Δx perpendicular ∼ (delta) pe , where (delta) pe = c/ω pe is the collisionless skin depth, and ω pe is the electron plasma frequency. Because the background plasma electrons neutralizing the ion beam current inside the beam are streaming relative to the background plasma electrons outside the beam, the background plasma can support a two-stream surface-mode excitation. Such surface modes have been studied previously assuming complete charge and current neutralization, and have been shown to be strongly unstable. In this paper we study the detailed stability properties of this two-stream surface mode for an electron flow velocity profile self-consistently driven by the ion beam. In particular, it is shown that the self-magnetic field generated inside the unneutralized current layer, which has not been taken into account previously, completely eliminates the instability

  8. Solar photovoltaics: current state and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milichko, V. A.; Shalin, A. S.; Mukhin, I. S.; Kovrov, A. E.; Krasilin, A. A.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Belov, P. A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    Basic aspects of current solar photovoltaics (PVs) are reviewed, starting from the recently developed already-on-the-market first-generation solar cells and ending with promising but not yet commercialized third-generation cells and materials possibly leading to new cell designs. The emphasis is on the physical principles of operation of various solar cells, which are divided into several groups according to our classification scheme. To make the picture complete, some technological and economic aspects of the field are discussed. A separate chapter considers antireflection coatings and light-trapping textures — structures which, while not having appeared yet in the PV review literature, are an integral part of the solar cells.

  9. [The current state of obesity in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Rodríguez-González, Arturo; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Excess weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth, and the negative effect on the population who suffers it. Overweight and obesity increases significantly the risk of chronic non-communicable diseases, and premature mortality, as well as the social cost of health. Today, Mexico has the second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is ten times higher than Korea's or Japan's (4 %). Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults were overweight, and 22 million, obese. This implies a major challenge for the health sector. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and cost-effective actions for the prevention and control of obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight demands to formulate and coordinate efficient multi-sectoral strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  10. Current Chinese Leadership: Background, Associations, and Issues for Selected Key Military Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    United States-China Relations." China Exchange News (Washington, D.C.), June 1985, pp. 6-8. Blechman, Barry M. and Robert P. Berman (eds.), Guide to...8. Tai Hsuan, "Newly Appointed Central Propaganda Chief Zhu Houze Was Once Expelled From the Party," Kuang Chiao China Hong Kong), 16 September

  11. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  12. Effect of substrate intake and physiological state on background 13CO2 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Shaw, J.H.F.; Nadel, E.R.; Wolfe, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    The natural enrichment of 13 C in energy substrates varies, and this variation must be taken into account when stable isotopic tracers are used in metabolic studies. This is conventionally accomplished by measuring background samples taken before the tracer infusion begins and subtracting these values from postinfusion values. Whereas this approach is satisfactory if no perturbation occurs between the collection of the background samples and the collection of postinfusion sample, the data presented in this paper show that any change in the metabolic state can significantly alter the background enrichment of expired CO 2 . This study not only confirmed that the introduction of natural energy sources may alter the background enrichment of CO 2 , but we also found that changes in substrate oxidation induced by different physiological states, such as exercise, can cause significant changes in expired CO 2 enrichments. Conclusions from studies in which oxidation of substrates were measured by means of a 13 C tracer but potential changes in background enrichments were not accounted for must, therefore, be reassessed

  13. ECLAIRs detection plane: current state of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, K.; Pons, R.; Amoros, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Barret, D.; Billot, M.; Bordon, S.; Cordier, B.; Gevin, O.; Godet, O.; Gonzalez, F.; Houret, B.; Mercier, K.; Mandrou, P.; Marty, W.; Nasser, G.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Rouaix, G.; Waegebaert, V.

    2014-07-01

    ECLAIRs, a 2-D coded-mask imaging camera on-board the Sino-French SVOM space mission, will detect and locate Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in near real time in the 4-150 keV energy band. The design of ECLAIRs has been mainly driven by the objective of achieving a low-energy threshold of 4 keV, unprecedented for this type of instrument. The detection plane is an assembly of 6400 Schottky CdTe semiconductor detectors of size 4x4x1 mm3 organized on elementary hybrid matrices of 4x8 detectors. The detectors will be polarized from -300V to -500V and operated at -20°C to reduce both the leakage current and the polarization effect induced by the Schottky contact. The remarkable low-energy threshold homogeneity required for the detection plane has been achieved thanks to: i) an extensive characterization and selection of the detectors, ii) the development of a specific low-noise 32-channel ASIC, iii) the realization of an innovative hybrid module composed of a thick film ceramic (holding 32 CdTe detectors with their high voltage grid), associated to an HTCC ceramic (housing the ASIC chip within an hermetic enclosure). In this paper, we start describing a complete hybrid matrix, and then the manufacturing of a first set of 50 matrices (representing 1600 detectors, i.e. a quarter of ECLAIRs detector's array). We show how this manufacturing allowed to validate the different technologies used for this hybridization, as well as the industrialization processes. During this phase, we systematically measured the leakage current on Detector Ceramics after an outgassing, and the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) for each of the 32 channels on ASIC Ceramics, in order to optimize the coupling of the two ceramics. Finally, we performed on each hybrid module, spectral measurements at -20°C in our vacuum chamber, using several calibrated radioactive sources (241Am and 55Fe), to check the performance homogeneity of the 50 modules. The results demonstrated that the 32-detector hybrid matrices

  14. Current state of molecular imaging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, J.; Wunder, A.

    2005-01-01

    The recent years have seen significant advances in both molecular biology, allowing the identification of genes and pathways related to disease, and imaging technologies that allow for improved spatial and temporal resolution, enhanced sensitivity, better depth penetration, improved image processing, and beneficial combinations of different imaging modalities. These advances have led to a paradigm shift in the scope of diagnostic imaging. The traditional role of radiological diagnostic imaging is to define gross anatomy and structure in order to detect pathological abnormalities. Available contrast agents are mostly non-specific and can be used to image physiological processes such as changes in blood volume, flow, and perfusion but not to demonstrate pathological alterations at molecular levels. However, alterations at the anatomical-morphological level are relatively late manifestations of underlying molecular changes. Using molecular probes or markers that bind specifically to molecular targets allows for the non-invasive visualization and quantitation of biological processes such as gene expression, apoptosis, or angiogenesis at the molecular level within intact living organisms. This rapidly evolving, multidisciplinary approach, referred to as molecular imaging, promises to enable early diagnosis, can provide improved classification of stage and severity of disease, an objective assessment of treatment efficacy, and a reliable prognosis. Furthermore, molecular imaging is an important tool for the evaluation of physiological and pathophysiological processes, and for the development of new therapies. This article comprises a review of current technologies of molecular imaging, describes the development of contrast agents and various imaging modalities, new applications in specific disease models, and potential future developments. (orig.)

  15. Current State of Public Cemeteries in River State, nigeria | Douglas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cemeteries or 'sleeping places' are where bodies or cremated remains are buried. Dead bodies are essentially 'wastes' and their improper disposal in the form of burial may come with health implications. This is particularly apt in Nigeria and indeed Rivers State where unsupervised burials are carried out in homes ...

  16. The Effect of Pungent and Tingling Compounds from Piper nigrum L. on Background K+ Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo R. Beltrán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L. elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K2P K+ channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels. We addressed the question of whether it was plausible that KCNK channels could constitute a physiologically relevant target for the sensory active compounds present in black peppercorns. Because previous studies have demonstrated that mouse trigeminal neurons respond to several pungent compounds, to which humans are also sensitive, we used a primary culture of mouse trigeminal neurons to investigate whether the effect of piperine on these cell types could also be mediated by KCNK channels. We observed that even in the presence of classical TRP-antagonists, piperine was still able to activate a fraction of trigeminal neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine is capable of inducing neuronal depolarization by a mechanism that does not require extracellular Na+ or Ca2+. This depolarization was mediated by the inhibition of a background K+ conductance, most likely corresponding to the KCNK channels of the TASK subfamily. We then performed a screening with 12 other pungent and/or tingling chemosensates isolated from black peppercorns. These compounds were evaluated on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the human orthologues of KCNK3, KNCK9 and KCNK18, which we previously showed to be inhibited by piperine. Remarkably, almost all of the isolated chemosensates inhibited the basal activity of hKCNK3, with 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13/12Z-trienoylpyrrolidine acting as one of the

  17. The Effect of Pungent and Tingling Compounds from Piper nigrum L. on Background K+ Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Leopoldo R.; Dawid, Corinna; Beltrán, Madeline; Levermann, Janina; Titt, Sascha; Thomas, Sini; Pürschel, Viktoria; Satalik, Miriam; Gisselmann, Günter; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns

    2017-01-01

    Black peppercorns (Piper nigrum L.) elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K2P) K+ channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels. We addressed the question of whether it was plausible that KCNK channels could constitute a physiologically relevant target for the sensory active compounds present in black peppercorns. Because previous studies have demonstrated that mouse trigeminal neurons respond to several pungent compounds, to which humans are also sensitive, we used a primary culture of mouse trigeminal neurons to investigate whether the effect of piperine on these cell types could also be mediated by KCNK channels. We observed that even in the presence of classical TRP-antagonists, piperine was still able to activate a fraction of trigeminal neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine is capable of inducing neuronal depolarization by a mechanism that does not require extracellular Na+ or Ca2+. This depolarization was mediated by the inhibition of a background K+ conductance, most likely corresponding to the KCNK channels of the TASK subfamily. We then performed a screening with 12 other pungent and/or tingling chemosensates isolated from black peppercorns. These compounds were evaluated on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the human orthologues of KCNK3, KNCK9 and KCNK18, which we previously showed to be inhibited by piperine. Remarkably, almost all of the isolated chemosensates inhibited the basal activity of hKCNK3, with 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13/12Z-trienoyl)pyrrolidine acting as one of the most potent

  18. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  19. Background, current status, and prognosis of the ongoing slush hydrogen technology development program for the NASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Hardy, T. L.; Whalen, M. V.; Richter, G. P.; Tomsik, T. M.

    1990-01-01

    Among the Hydrogen Projects at the NASA Lewis Research Center (NASA LeRC), is the task of implementing and managing the Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) Technology Program for the United States' National AeroSpace Plane Joint Program Office (NASP JPO). The objectives of this NASA LeRC program are to provide verified numerical models of fluid production, storage, transfer, and feed systems and to provide verified design criteria for other engineered aspects of SLH2 systems germane to a NASP. The pursuit of these objectives is multidimensional, covers a range of problem areas, works these to different levels of depth, and takes advantage of the resources available in private industry, academia, and the U.S. Government. A summary of the NASA LeRC overall SLH2 program plan, is presented along with its implementation, the present level of effort in each of the program areas, some of the results already in hand, and the prognosis for the effort in the immediate future.

  20. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eDipoppa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM is tightly capacity limited, it requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in spike-time correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required working memory operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and working memory in a recurrently-coupled spiking network with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in a working memory model implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  1. Urban enhancement of PM10 bioaerosol tracers relative to background locations in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Metwali, Nervana; Baker, Zach; Jayarathne, Thilina; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-05-01

    Bioaerosols are well-known immune-active particles that exacerbate respiratory diseases. Human exposures to bioaerosols and their resultant health impacts depend on their ambient concentrations, seasonal and spatial variation, and copollutants, which are not yet widely characterized. In this study, chemical and biological tracers of bioaerosols were quantified in respirable particulate matter (PM10) collected at three urban and three background sites in the Midwestern United States across four seasons in 2012. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria (and a few Gram-positive bacteria), water-soluble proteins, and tracers for fungal spores (fungal glucans, arabitol, and mannitol) were ubiquitous and showed significant seasonal variation and dependence on temperature. Fungal spores were elevated in spring and peaked in summer, following the seasonal growing cycle, while endotoxins peaked in autumn during the row crop harvesting season. Paired comparisons of bioaerosols in urban and background sites revealed significant urban enhancements in PM10, fungal glucans, endotoxins, and water-soluble proteins relative to background locations, such that urban populations have a greater outdoor exposure to bioaerosols. These bioaerosols contribute, in part, to the urban excesses in PM10. Higher bioaerosol mass fractions in urban areas relative to background sites indicate that urban areas serve as a source of bioaerosols. Similar urban enhancements in water-soluble calcium and its correlation with bioaerosol tracers point toward windblown soil as an important source of bioaerosols in urban areas.

  2. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    Using cross-sectional data for 76 countries, we apply instrumental variable techniques based on pronoun drop, temperature and monarchies to demonstrate that historical trust levels predict several indicators of current welfare state design, including universalism and high levels of regulatory...... freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...... welfare state universalism to individual trust, although we claim that the important causal link runs from historically trust levels to current welfare state design....

  3. Procoagulant State in Current and Former Anabolic Androgenic Steroid Abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Simon; Rasmussen, Jon J; Frandsen, Mikkel N

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) abusers are considered at increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that current and former AAS abuse would induce a procoagulant shift in the haemostatic balance. METHODS:  Men 18 to 50 years of age were included...

  4. State Recognition of High Voltage Isolation Switch Based on Background Difference and Iterative Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayuan; Yu, Chengtao; Bo, Bin; Xue, Yu; Xu, Changfu; Chaminda, P. R. Dushantha; Hu, Chengbo; Peng, Kai

    2018-03-01

    The automatic recognition of the high voltage isolation switch by remote video monitoring is an effective means to ensure the safety of the personnel and the equipment. The existing methods mainly include two ways: improving monitoring accuracy and adopting target detection technology through equipment transformation. Such a method is often applied to specific scenarios, with limited application scope and high cost. To solve this problem, a high voltage isolation switch state recognition method based on background difference and iterative search is proposed in this paper. The initial position of the switch is detected in real time through the background difference method. When the switch starts to open and close, the target tracking algorithm is used to track the motion trajectory of the switch. The opening and closing state of the switch is determined according to the angle variation of the switch tracking point and the center line. The effectiveness of the method is verified by experiments on different switched video frames of switching states. Compared with the traditional methods, this method is more robust and effective.

  5. High dynamic range low-noise focal plane readout for VLWIR applications implemented with current mode background subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Chao; Shaw, Timothy; Wrigley, Chris; Peddada, Pavani; Blazejewski, Edward R.; Pain, Bedabrata

    1998-09-01

    Design and operation of a low noise CMOS focal pa;ne readout circuit with ultra-high charge handling capacity is presented. Designed for high-background, VLWIR detector readout, each readout unit cell use an accurate dynamic current memory for automatic subtraction of the dark pedestal in current domain enabling measurement of small signals 85 dB below the dark level. The redout circuit operates with low-power dissipation, high linearity, and is capable of handling pedestal currents up to 300 nA. Measurements indicate an effective charge handling capacity of over 5 X 10(superscript 9) charges/pixel with less than 10(superscript 5) electrons of input referred noise.

  6. The Current State of the United States Army: The Numbers, the Needs, and the Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    The Current State of the United States Army: The Numbers, the Needs , and the Consequences...DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Current State of the United States Army: The Numbers, the Needs , and the

  7. Correlations in background activity control persistent state stability and allow execution of working memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipoppa, Mario; Gutkin, Boris S

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) requires selective information gating, active information maintenance, and rapid active updating. Hence performing a WM task needs rapid and controlled transitions between neural persistent activity and the resting state. We propose that changes in correlations in neural activity provides a mechanism for the required WM operations. As a proof of principle, we implement sustained activity and WM in recurrently coupled spiking networks with neurons receiving excitatory random background activity where background correlations are induced by a common noise source. We first characterize how the level of background correlations controls the stability of the persistent state. With sufficiently high correlations, the sustained state becomes practically unstable, so it cannot be initiated by a transient stimulus. We exploit this in WM models implementing the delay match to sample task by modulating flexibly in time the correlation level at different phases of the task. The modulation sets the network in different working regimes: more prompt to gate in a signal or clear the memory. We examine how the correlations affect the ability of the network to perform the task when distractors are present. We show that in a winner-take-all version of the model, where two populations cross-inhibit, correlations make the distractor blocking robust. In a version of the mode where no cross inhibition is present, we show that appropriate modulation of correlation levels is sufficient to also block the distractor access while leaving the relevant memory trace in tact. The findings presented in this manuscript can form the basis for a new paradigm about how correlations are flexibly controlled by the cortical circuits to execute WM operations.

  8. Current state about the cuaternary knowledge of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, D; Goso, H.

    1974-01-01

    This work is about current state of cuaternary knowledge Uruguayan. It is considered that the cuaternary presented a change from the hot and dry weather of the Pliocene to more humid and colder weather in Uruguay.

  9. Background monitoring and its role in global estimation and forecast of the state of the biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izrael, Y A

    1982-12-01

    (1) Scientific grounds and the concept of monitoring as the system for observations, assessment and prediction of man-induced changes in the state of natural environment, the program and aims of the background monitoring were developed by the author in 1972-1980. These questions were discussed in detail at the International Symposium on Global Integrated Monitoring (Riga, U.S.S.R., December, 1978). It should be stressed that along with significant anthropogenic loading on large cities and industrial areas, natural ecosystems covering most of the Earth's territory are also exposed to quite extended, though insignificant anthropogenic effects. This paper proposes to consider the ways of the background information use for the biosphere state assessment and prediction. (2) Classification of objects for monitoring from the point of view of the consequences of the man-made impact, pollution in the first hand, is as follows: - population (public health); - ecosystem elements employed by man whose production is used by population (soil, water bodies, forest, etc.); - biotic elements of ecosystems (without the immediate consumed production); - abiotic constituents of natural ecosystems, considerable components of the biosphere, climatic system. (3) Historically, monitoring in all countries involves the first two spheres. The background monitoring also extends on the next two spheres. It should differentially take into account physical, chemical and biological factors of impacts. Indentification of biological effects is most complex and vital. Human impact at the background level proceeds indirectly through a general (global or regional) deterioration of the state of the biosphere. (4) Gradually the background monitoring is being practiced on a larger and larger scale. It is shown that the long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants in various regions leads to a gradual general increase of all the natural media pollution and to perceptible biological effects (soil and

  10. Current status on narrow N anti N states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.

    1979-09-01

    An attempt is made to summarize the experimental status of narrow B anti B states as of mid-1979. In particular, concentration is placed on the current experimental situations and prospects regarding three serious contenders for the so-called baryonium states. Theoretical concepts of baryoniums, narrow N anti N states known as S(1935), anti pp(2020), and anti pp(2204), and some forthcoming results, and problems of the above three resonances are discussed. 31 references

  11. State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

    1981-11-01

    Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment – Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Krška

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC represents permanent and ever rising issue worldwide. Five-year survival does not exceed 3 to 6%, i.e. the worst result among solid tumours. The article evaluates the current state of PDAC diagnostics and treatment specifying also development and trends. Percentage of non-resectable tumours due to locally advanced or metastatic condition varies 60–80%, mostly over 80%. Survival with non-resectable PDAC is 4 to 8 months (median 3.5. In contrast R0 resection shows the survival 18–27 months. Laboratory and imaging screening methods are not indicated on large scale. Risk factors are smoking, alcohol abuse, chronic pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus. Genetic background in most PDAC has not been detected yet. Some genes connected with high risk of PDAC (e.g. BRCA2, PALB2 have been identified as significant and highly penetrative, but link between PDAC and these genes can be seen only in 10–20%. This article surveys perspective oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, microRNA. Albeit CT is still favoured over other imaging methods, involvement of NMR rises. Surgery prefers the “vessel first” approach, which proves to be justified especially in R0 resection. According to EBM immunotherapy same as radiotherapy are not significant in PDAC treatment. Chemotherapy shows limited importance in conversion treatment of locally advanced or borderline tumours or in case of metastatic spread. Unified procedures cannot be defined due to inhomogenous arrays. Surgical resection is the only chance for curative treatment of PDAC and depends mainly on timely indication for surgery and quality of multidisciplinary team in a high-volume centre.

  13. The European Drought Observatory (EDO): Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Jürgen; Sepulcre, Guadalupe; Magni, Diego; Valentini, Luana; Singleton, Andrew; Micale, Fabio; Barbosa, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    Europe has repeatedly been affected by droughts, resulting in considerable ecological and economic damage and climate change studies indicate a trend towards increasing climate variability most likely resulting in more frequent drought occurrences also in Europe. Against this background, the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) is developing methods and tools for assessing, monitoring and forecasting droughts in Europe and develops a European Drought Observatory (EDO) to complement and integrate national activities with a European view. At the core of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) is a portal, including a map server, a metadata catalogue, a media-monitor and analysis tools. The map server presents Europe-wide up-to-date information on the occurrence and severity of droughts, which is complemented by more detailed information provided by regional, national and local observatories through OGC compliant web mapping and web coverage services. In addition, time series of historical maps as well as graphs of the temporal evolution of drought indices for individual grid cells and administrative regions in Europe can be retrieved and analysed. Current work is focusing on validating the available products, developing combined indicators, improving the functionalities, extending the linkage to additional national and regional drought information systems and testing options for medium-range probabilistic drought forecasting across Europe. Longer-term goals include the development of long-range drought forecasting products, the analysis of drought hazard and risk, the monitoring of drought impact and the integration of EDO in a global drought information system. The talk will provide an overview on the development and state of EDO, the different products, and the ways to include a wide range of stakeholders (i.e. European, national river basin, and local authorities) in the development of the system as well as an outlook on the future developments.

  14. Current state of orthodontic patients under Bisphosphonate therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates are a common medication for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, but are also applied for tumor diseases. They affect bone metabolism, and therefore also orthodontic treatments, but how it does has yet not been definitively clarified. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate the reported effects and the current state of scientific research regarding orthodontic treatment and bisphosphonate medication exclusively in humans. Material and methods A systematic research of the literature for selected keywords in the Medline database (Pubmed) as well as a manual search was conducted. The following search terms were used: ‘Bisphosphonate’ in combination with: orthodontic, orthodontic treatment, tooth movement. Findings To date, only nine reported patients (case reports/series) and one original article (retrospective cohort study) regarding orthodontic treatment under bisphosphonate medication in humans have been published. Decelerated tooth movement with increased side effects (especially in high-risk patients) and longer treatment duration was reported in some articles. Patients with initial spacing or extraction cases had a higher risk of incomplete space closure and poor root parallelism. Conclusions Orthodontic tooth movement under bisphosphonate medication is possible, especially in low-risk patients (low dose and short period of intake). But the treatment is still not predictable, especially in high-risk patients. Therefore, the altered bone metabolism and higher extent of side effects should be considered in treatment planning, especially in extraction cases or high-risk patients. Regardless, longer treatment duration, decelerated tooth movement, and more side effects, e.g., incomplete space closure and poor root parallelism, should be expected, especially in extraction cases or space closure. PMID:23556517

  15. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured

  16. Tri-State Current Source Inverter With Improved Dynamic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wong, Chow Pang

    2008-01-01

    Traditional dc-ac current source inverter (CSI) has a right-half-plane (RHP) zero in its control-to-output transfer function. This RHP zero causes the inverter output to fall before rising when a step increase in command reference is required (commonly known as non-minimum-phase effect). To achieve...... sequence, the inductive boosting and discharging intervals can be decoupled, allowing the RHP zero to be eliminated with only minor circuit modifications (high level control schemes like predictive and multiloop voltage/current control remain unchanged). The designed inverter can be controlled using...... a better dynamic response, this paper proposes the design of a tri-state CSI using only an additional semiconductor switch for introducing unique freewheeling states to the traditional six active and three null states of a CSI. With the freewheeling states inserted appropriately within the inverter state...

  17. A Perspective on the Current State of Death Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Hannelore

    2004-01-01

    The author offers some views on the current state of death education with focus on the sparing attention given the death education of health professionals and of grief counselors. There is need for improved integration of the knowledge accumulated in the study of death, dying, and bereavement into the basic curricula of the parent disciplines and…

  18. Ground State Energy of Current Carriers in Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnikov, P. V.; Silin, A. P.

    2008-01-01

    The ground state energy of current carriers in graphene considered as a zero-gap semiconductor was calculated in the two-band approximation. The condition of the electronic (hole) system stability in graphene was obtained. The possibility of the zero-gap semiconductor-semimetal transition was discussed.

  19. Advanced practice registered nurses and physician assistants in sleep centers and clinics: a survey of current roles and educational background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Loretta; Cartwright, Ann; Collop, Nancy; Freedman, Neil; McLeod, Don; Weaver, Terri E; Rogers, Ann E

    2014-05-15

    To survey Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) and Physician Assistant (PA) utilization, roles and educational background within the field of sleep medicine. Electronic surveys distributed to American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) member centers and APRNs and PAs working within sleep centers and clinics. Approximately 40% of responding AASM sleep centers reported utilizing APRNs or PAs in predominantly clinical roles. Of the APRNs and PAs surveyed, 95% reported responsibilities in sleep disordered breathing and more than 50% in insomnia and movement disorders. Most APRNs and PAs were prepared at the graduate level (89%), with sleep-specific education primarily through "on the job" training (86%). All APRNs surveyed were Nurse Practitioners (NPs), with approximately double the number of NPs compared to PAs. APRNs and PAs were reported in sleep centers at proportions similar to national estimates of NPs and PAs in physicians' offices. They report predominantly clinical roles, involving common sleep disorders. Given current predictions that the outpatient healthcare structure will change and the number of APRNs and PAs will increase, understanding the role and utilization of these professionals is necessary to plan for the future care of patients with sleep disorders. Surveyed APRNs and PAs reported a significant deficiency in formal and standardized sleep-specific education. Efforts to provide formal and standardized educational opportunities for APRNs and PAs that focus on their clinical roles within sleep centers could help fill a current educational gap.

  20. Initial state effects on the cosmic microwave background and trans-Planckian physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Kevin; Lowe, David A.

    2003-01-01

    There exists a one complex parameter family of de Sitter invariant vacua, known as α vacua. In the context of slow roll inflation, we show that all but the Bunch-Davies vacuum generates unacceptable production of high energy particles at the end of inflation. As a simple model for the effects of trans-Planckian physics, we go on to consider non-de Sitter invariant vacua obtained by patching modes in the Bunch-Davies vacuum above some momentum scale M c , with modes in an α vacuum below M c . Choosing M c near the Planck scale M Pl , we find acceptable levels of hard particle production, and corrections to the cosmic microwave perturbations at the level of HM Pl /M c 2 , where H is the Hubble parameter during inflation. More general initial states of this type with H c Pl can give corrections to the spectrum of cosmic microwave background perturbations at order 1. The parameter characterizing the α vacuum during inflation is a new cosmological observable

  1. Current State and Issues of Logistics Cost Accounting and Management in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah, Sahidah; Pyeman, Jaafar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Logistics cost is an important factor affecting the competitiveness on both macro (national) and micro level (firms). Logistics cost indicates the performance of logistics industry, efficiency level and its competitiveness. Research Problem: Despite of its significance, current state of logistics cost accounting and management in Malaysia has not properly addressed and the issues surround logistics cost measurement remains incoherent. Aim of research: The purpose o...

  2. Steady-state current drive by lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyanskaya, N.V.; Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.; Smirnov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Steady-state current drive in a plasma by lower-hybrid waves with a square-wave spectrum is analyzed in the linear approximation. A linearized two-dimensional kinetic equation in velocity space for the electron distribution function is reduced to a one-dimensional expansion in Legendre polynomials. A numerical solution is found for the complete equation, and an analytic solution is found for the asymptotic equation. The results can be used to determine the effect of the spectral width of the excited waves on the efficiency of the current drive. The analytic solution agrees well with the numerical solution

  3. Impact of long-pass interferential filters on dark current and background light rejection in Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzillo, M.; Sciuto, A.; Libertino, S.; Lombardo, S.; Fallica, G.

    2018-02-01

    There is an increasing interest in using Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs) in emerging applications where the detectors have to operate in ambient environment with high sensitivity and fast timing response in combination with narrow bandwidth light emitting sources like LEDs or VCSELs. The need to use large area detectors for optimizing the light collection efficiency, due to the low optical fluxes to be usually detected, imposes the optimization of the SiPM performance in specific wavelength ranges (usually visible or near infrared), to fully exploit the single photon sensitivity of these detectors and not to reduce at the same time their dynamic range. The use of proper optical long-pass filters on the detector's package can represent a suitable way to reach both these targets, through the reduction of environmental light absorption. Here we present the preliminary results obtained from the characterization of n+-p SiPMs with commercial long-pass filters with increasing cut-on wavelength in the range 500 nm-900 nm glued on the top side of the detector's package. The performance of the detectors has been evaluated in terms of dark current variation induced by the use of the filters and background light rejection under the illumination of white fluorescent lamps. The relevant reduction observed in the dark current (up to 90% at 13 V overvoltage) and the consistent reduction of stray light absorption (up to 90% at 3 V overvoltage with a 900 nm cut-on wavelength long-pass filter) are the main characterization results obtained and shown in this paper.

  4. [The current state and development prospectives of military nephrology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagibovich, O A; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2014-05-01

    This article is dedicated to the current state and prospectives of military nephrology. Using as examples the nephrology services of the armed forces of Serbia, France, Great Britain and USA it is shown that this branch of military healthcare plays an important role abroad. The brief review of military nephrology formation and development history demonstrates the growing significance of military nephrology in the general system of medical care at the battlefield.

  5. Estimation of thyroid gland state of voles natural populations from increased radioactive background territories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskosha, O.; Ermakova, O.; Kaneva, A. [Institute of Biology of Komi Scientific Center, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Science (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Investigation of effects caused in biological objects by chronic low-intensity radiation in their natural habitats is one of the most important problems of modern radioecology. The aim of our work - complex estimation of state of thyroid gland of voles inhabiting increased radioactive background territories. We investigated tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus Pall.) that were sampled at different stages of population cycle from the experimental and the control sites in the Uhta region of the Komi Republic, Russia. Experimental site contamination resulted from commercial extraction od radium between the 1930's and 1950's. Irradiation exposure dose at the site was 50-2000 mR/h (at the control site 10-15 mR/h). Complex estimation of thyroid was made by histological, morpho-metrical, radioimmunological and cytogenetic methods. Results showed high sensitivity of thyroid gland of tundra voles from chronically irradiated natural populations. We found reliable changes in morphological features of thyroid, in the level of thyroidal hormones and increased frequency of cells with micro-nucleuses in animals sampled from the experimental site as compared with the control ones. It was also showed, that chronic exposure of ionizing irradiation at the same range of absorbed doses can cause different effects in animals depending on sex, age and the stage of population cycle. This confirms the need of including these biological factors to analysis of low doses effects in the natural populations during radioecological studies. Investigations were supported by RFBR grants No. 13-04-01750? and No. 13-04-90351-RBUa. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  6. Gravitational wave background from neutron star phase transition for a new class of equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, J C N de [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Sao Jose dos Campos/SP (Brazil); Marranghello, G F [Universidade Federal do Pampa, Bage/RS (Brazil)], E-mail: jcarlos@das.inpe.br

    2008-07-15

    We study the generation of a stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a population of neutron stars (NSs) which go over a hadron-quark phase transition in its inner shells. We obtain, for example, that the NS phase transition, in cold dark matter scenarios, could generate a stochastic GW background with a maximum amplitude of hBG {approx} 10{sup -24}, in the frequency band {approx_equal} 20-2000 Hz for stars forming at redshifts of up to z {approx_equal} 20. We study the possibility of detection of this isotropic GW background by correlating signals of a pair of 'advanced' LIGO observatories.

  7. [Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of Fungal Keratitis--Current Status of Patients' Background, Clinical Findings, Treatment and Prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Ohashi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Fukuda, Masahiko; Sotozono, Chie; Hatano, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Hoshi, Saichi; Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Yaguchi, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Yokokura, Shunji; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Monden, Yu; Nejima, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the current status of fungal keratitis in Japan. The patients with fungal keratitis were examined at 27 facilities in Japan from November 1st 2011 to October 31st 2013, concerning isolates, patient background, clinical findings, treatment and prognosis. Out of 139 cases, 133 were diagnosed as fungal keratitis, of which fungi were isolated from 72 samples of 71 cases (yeast-like fungi 32 strains and filamentous fungi 40 strains). The corrected visual acuity at the first visit of 88 cases (66.2%) was less than 20/200 and 42 cases (31.6%) were involved with deep stromal lesions, indicating high proportion of severe cases in this study. Three months later, 56 cases (42.1%) were still under treatment, and corrected visual acuity of 57 cases (42.9%) was less than 20/200. In cases with yeast-like fungi, there were significantly more cases with past history of corneal diseases, ocular surgery including keratoplasty, and eye drops' use such as steroids than those with filamentous fungi. On the other hand, there were significantly more cases of filamentous fungi, with trauma on the onset and with intervention of previously attending doctors than those with yeast-like fungi. Logistic regression analyses revealed that contact lens wearing was a significant factor of good prognosis, and yeast-like fungi as one of poor outcome compared with no fungal isolation. Although the choice of antifungal drugs has been increasing, fungal keratitis is still severe, refractory and vision-threatening disease.

  8. The Current State of Pediatric Sports Medicine: A Workforce Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Glenn; Koutures, Chris; Provance, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric sports medicine is an evolving pediatric subspecialty. No workforce data currently exists describing the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The goal of this survey is to contribute information to the practicing pediatric sports medicine specialist, employers and other stakeholders regarding the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The Workforce Survey was conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy (WMEP) and included a 44-item standard questionnaire online addressing training, clinical practice and demographic characteristics as well as the 24-item AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness (COSMF) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all survey responses. Bivariate relationships were tested for statistical significance using Chi square. 145 surveys were returned, which represented a 52.7% response rate for eligible COSMF members and board certified non-council responders. The most common site of employment among respondents was university-based clinics. The respondents board certified in sports medicine were significantly more likely to perform fracture management, casting and splinting, neuropsychological testing and injections compared to those not board certified in sports medicine. A large proportion of respondents held an academic/medical school appointment. Increases were noted in both patient volume and the complexity of the injuries the specialists were treating. This pediatric sports medicine workforce study provides previously unappreciated insight into practice arrangements, weekly duties, procedures, number of patients seen, referral patterns, and potential future trends of the pediatric sports medicine specialist.

  9. [Current state and prospects of military personnel health monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvantsev, M V; Kuznetsov, S M; Ivanov, V V; Zakurdaev, V V

    2014-01-01

    The current article is dedicated to some features of the Russian Federation Armed Forces military personnel health monitoring such as legal and informational provision, methodological basis of functioning, historical aspect of formation and development of the social and hygienic monitoring in the Russian Federation Armed Forces. The term "military personnel health monitoring" is defined as an analytical system of constant and long-term observation, analysis, assessment, studying of factors determined the military personnel health, these factors correlations, health risk factors management in order to minimize them. The current state of the military personnel health monitoring allows coming to the conclusion that the military health system does have forces and resources for state policy of establishing the population health monitoring system implementation. The following directions of the militarily personnel health monitoring improvement are proposed: the Russian Federation Armed Forces medical service record and report system reorganization bringing it closer to the civilian one, implementation of the integrated approach to the medical service informatisation, namely, military personnel health status and medical service resources monitoring. The leading means in this direction are development and introduction of a military serviceman individual health status monitoring system on the basis of a serviceman electronic medical record card. Also it is proposed the current Russian Federation Armed Forces social and hygienic monitoring improvement at the expense of informational interaction between the two subsystems on the basis of unified military medical service space.

  10. Coherent current states in mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareyan, M.; Omelyanchouk, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    A theory is offered for the ballistic 4-terminal Josephson junction. The studied system consist of a mesoscopic two-dimensional normal rectangular layer which is attached on each side to the bulk superconducting banks (terminals). A relation is obtained between the currents through the different terminals, that is valid for arbitrary temperatures and junction sizes. The nonlocal coupling of the supercurrent leads to a new effect, specific for the mesoscopic weak link between two superconducting rings; an applied magnetic flux through one of the rings produces a magnetic flux in the other ring even in the absence of an external flux through the other one. The phase dependent distributions of the local density of Andreev states, of the supercurrents and of the induced order parameter are obtained. The 'interference pattern' for the anomalous average inside the two-dimensional region cam be regulated by the applied magnetic fluxes or the transport currents. For some values of the phase differences between the terminals, the current vortex state and two-dimensional phase slip center appear

  11. Single-electron states near a current-carrying core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masale, M.

    2004-01-01

    The energy spectrum of an electron confined near a current-carrying core is obtained as a function of the azimuthal applied magnetic field within the effective-mass approximation. The double degeneracy of the non-zero electron's axial wave number (k z ) states is lifted by the current-induced magnetic field while that of the non-zero azimuthal quantum number (m) states is preserved. A further analysis is the evaluations of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions involving the lowest-order pair of the electron's energy subbands within the dipole approximation. The radiation field is taken as that of elliptically polarized light incident along the core axis. In this polarization and within the dipole approximation, the allowed transitions are only those governed by the following specific selection rules. The azimuthal quantum numbers of the initial and final states must differ by unity while the electron's axial wave number is conserved. The azimuthal magnetic field is also found to lift the multiple degeneracies of the k z ≠0 interaction integrals as well as those of the oscillator strengths for optical transitions

  12. The US Opioid Crisis: Current Federal and State Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soelberg, Cobin D; Brown, Raeford E; Du Vivier, Derick; Meyer, John E; Ramachandran, Banu K

    2017-11-01

    The United States is in the midst of a devastating opioid misuse epidemic leading to over 33,000 deaths per year from both prescription and illegal opioids. Roughly half of these deaths are attributable to prescription opioids. Federal and state governments have only recently begun to grasp the magnitude of this public health crisis. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released their Guidelines for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain. While not comprehensive in scope, these guidelines attempt to control and regulate opioid prescribing. Other federal agencies involved with the federal regulatory effort include the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and the Department of Justice. Each federal agency has a unique role in helping to stem the burgeoning opioid misuse epidemic. The DEA, working with the Department of Justice, has enforcement power to prosecute pill mills and physicians for illegal prescribing. The DEA could also implement use of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), currently administered at the state level, and use of electronic prescribing for schedule II and III medications. The FDA has authority to approve new and safer formulations of immediate- and long-acting opioid medications. More importantly, the FDA can also ask pharmaceutical companies to cease manufacturing a drug. Additionally, state agencies play a critical role in reducing overdose deaths, protecting the public safety, and promoting the medically appropriate treatment of pain. One of the states' primary roles is the regulation of practice of medicine and the insurance industry within their borders. Utilizing this authority, states can both educate physicians about the dangers of opioids and make physician licensure dependent on registering and using PDMPs when prescribing controlled substances. Almost every state has implemented a PDMP to some degree; however, in addition to mandating their use, increased interstate

  13. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  14. Radical Islam in Xinjiang – Evolution and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Suchanek

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the evolution and the current state of radical Islam in China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. Chinese government considers Islamic radicalism as a serious threat, in particular in the Xinjiang region, which borders on some states in Central Asia as well as Pakistan and Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to describe and evaluate roots and historical development of significant groups, in particular the East Turkestan Islamic Movement – ETIM. In its next part, the article deals with the contemporary situation as well as the cooperation between Uyghur radicals and other radical Islamic movements, in particular al-Qaeda and Taliban, and their activities. The article concludes that contemporary Uyghur Islamic radicalism cannot be considered as a major security threat, since the activities of these groups have largely shifted to Pakistan and rather have the nature of a propaganda war.

  15. Pharmacovigilance in Russia: current state of affairs, challenges, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildeeva, Geliya; Belostotsky, Andrey

    2017-12-01

    This review outlines current issues of the pharmacovigilance (PV) system in the Russian Federation, namely the present state of regulatory aspects, regulatory requirements in both Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union, and review of causes of under-reporting of adverse drug reactions. Specific attention will be focused on how the system is designed to monitor drug safety functions, reporting and accountability of pharmaceutical products, their manufacturers and medical staff, the role played by regional centers for drug-safety monitoring, and insufficient understanding of the part taken by patients in the system of PV. The prospects of the Russian PV system and its harmonization with global practice will also be discussed.

  16. The evolution and current state of emergency care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Osei-Ampofo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency Medicine as a specialty has only recently been introduced to Ghana. This article reviews the overall health and medical care systems as well as the evolution and the current state of emergency care in Ghana and the progress made in establishing Emergency Medicine (EM as a specialty along the Anglo-American model of emergency care. The article also describes the improvements implemented in emergency patient care, and emergency medicine management systems. Although there are challenges to overcome, much optimism remains about the future of this new specialty in Ghana and its ability to transform the face of emergency care.

  17. [Infection for papillomavirus in the man. Current state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez García, I; Gómez Mampaso, E; Conde Someso, S; Maganto Pavón, E; Navío Niño, S; Allona Almagro, A

    2005-04-01

    The Virus of the Human Papiloma (HPV), classically he/she has been related with infections of sexual transmission and processes wicked oncologists of the feminine genital apparatus and with less frequency of the masculine one. The new technical diagnostics, based on molecular biology (by means of polymerase chain reaction), they help to a better epidemic approach, an improvement in the I diagnose viral, and a correct therapeutic focus. The object of this work is to revise the current state of the HPV from the points of view etiopathogenics, epidemic, clinical, diagnosis, therapeutic and preservative.

  18. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  19. One Language for the United States? (Un Idioma para Los Estados Unidos?) CSG Backgrounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mark L.

    The United States has become increasingly multilingual in recent decades, and while English is the most commonly spoken language, almost 11 percent of Americans prefer to speak another language at home. Bilingualism is promoted by governmental units at the federal, state, and local levels through a variety of programs, particularly in education…

  20. Imaging of lumbar degenerative disk disease: history and current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emch, Todd M.; Modic, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common indications for performing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the lumbar spine is the symptom complex thought to originate as a result of degenerative disk disease. MR imaging, which has emerged as perhaps the modality of choice for imaging degenerative disk disease, can readily demonstrate disk pathology, degenerative endplate changes, facet and ligamentous hypertrophic changes, and the sequelae of instability. Its role in terms of predicting natural history of low back pain, identifying causality, or offering prognostic information is unclear. As available modalities for imaging the spine have progressed from radiography, myelography, and computed tomography to MR imaging, there have also been advances in spine surgery for degenerative disk disease. These advances are described in a temporal context for historical purposes with a focus on MR imaging's history and current state. (orig.)

  1. Development and current state of dosimetry in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, E.F.; Cuesta Fuente, G.; Chavez Ardanza, A.

    1999-01-01

    In Cuba, the application of the radiation technologies has been growing in the last years, and at present there are several dosimetry systems with different ranges of absorbed dose. Diverse researches were carried out on high dose dosimetry with the following dosimetry systems: Fricke, ceric-cerous sulfate, ethanol-chlorobenzene, cupric sulfate and Perspex (Red 4034 AE and Clear HX). In this paper the development achieved during the last 15 years in the high dose dosimetry for radiation processing in Cuba is presented, as well as, the current state of different dosimetry systems employed for standardization and for process control. The paper also reports the results of dosimetry intercomparison studies that were performed with the Ezeiza Atomic Center of Argentine and the International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) of IAEA. (author)

  2. The current state of industry development in Ukraine: advance perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyba Maryna Valeriyivna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the industry of Ukraine are considered at the article. The author determined that the stabilization of the situation and further development of the industry need first of all cessation of hostilities. It is necessary to implement effective measures to combat corruption, the development of consistent, constructive and concerted action on the formation of institutions guaranteeing stability, predictability and transparency of the market rules and procedures that minimize the impact of shadow factors, and implementation of professional privatization and limitation of monopoly at the markets, forming a transparent, competitive business environment, the introduction of new energy saving technologies. These measures will help attract investment, increase production and improve enterprise profitability.

  3. Current state of genome-scale modeling in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julian; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2015-01-01

    capacity. One of the major bottlenecks in the development of new strains into viable industrial hosts is the alteration of the metabolism towards optimal production. Genome-scale models promise a reduction in the time needed for metabolic engineering by predicting the most potent targets in silico before...... testing them in vivo. The increasing availability of high quality models and molecular biological tools for manipulating filamentous fungi renders the model-guided engineering of these fungal factories possible with comprehensive metabolic networks. A typical fungal model contains on average 1138 unique...... metabolic reactions and 1050 ORFs, making them a vast knowledge-base of fungal metabolism. In the present review we focus on the current state as well as potential future applications of genome-scale models in filamentous fungi....

  4. Scattering and bound states for the Hulthen potential in a cosmic string background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department, P. O. Box: 3619995161-316, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Andrade, Fabiano M. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Luis, MA (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    In this work we study the Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials in the spacetime generated by a cosmic string. Using an approximation for the centrifugal term, a solution for the radial differential equation is obtained. We consider the scattering states under the Hulthen potential and obtain the phase shifts. From the poles of the scattering S-matrix the states energies are determined as well. (orig.)

  5. Scattering and bound states for the Hulthén potential in a cosmic string background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Mansoureh; Andrade, Fabiano M.; Silva, Edilberto O.; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    In this work we study the Dirac equation with vector and scalar potentials in the spacetime generated by a cosmic string. Using an approximation for the centrifugal term, a solution for the radial differential equation is obtained. We consider the scattering states under the Hulthén potential and obtain the phase shifts. From the poles of the scattering S-matrix the states energies are determined as well.

  6. Enceladus: three-act play and current state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, J.; Goldreich, P.

    2017-12-01

    Eccentricity (e) growth as Enceladus migrates deeper into mean motion resonance with Dione results in increased tidal heating. As the bottom of the ice shell melts, the rate of tidal heating jumps and runaway melting ensues. At the end of run-away melting, the shell's thickness has fallen below the value at which the frequency of free libration equals the orbital mean motion and e has damped to well below its current value. Subsequently, both the shell thickness and e partake in a limit cycle. As e damps toward its minimum value, the shell's thickness asymptotically approaches its resonant value from below. After minimum e, the shell thickens quickly and e grows even faster. This cycle is likely to have been repeated multiple times in the past. Currently, e is much smaller than its equilibrium value corresponding to the shell thickness. Physical libration resonance resolves this mystery, it ensures that the low-e and medium-thickness state is present for most of the time between consecutive limit cycles. It is a robust scenario that avoids fine tuning or extreme parameter choice, and naturally produces episodic stages of high heating, consistent with softening of topographical features on Enceladus.

  7. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Public Administration: Modernizing The Current Model Of State Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administration did not manage to meet competition, did not provide the required social effect and as a natural result suffered a defeat in the global confrontation between the two social systems. Current models and theoretical concepts of public administration, especially the "new public administration", which became scientific basis for administrative reforms implemented in many countries, are the particular subject of scientific analysis. The author draws attention to major comprehensive characteristics of modern state public administration: making it impossible to absolutize principles of traditional hierarchy system of forced administration; globalization - gradual destruction of boundaries between national and international levels of administration, the growing role of supranational subjects of administration relations; informatization - increasing importance of information and communication technologies and of political networks: development of civil society, especially political parties and non-governmental organizations, growing public involvement in discussion and adoption of the most important administrative decisions; making the state policy more pluralistic and which will result in the formation of nonlinear - humanistic social consciousness as the intellectual basis of modern social governance. The author's position is that Russia is yet to solve the issue of choosing a public administration model that would be effective for further administrative

  9. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: MODERNIZING THE CURRENT MODEL OF STATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administration did not manage to meet competition, did not provide the required social effect and as a natural result suffered a defeat in the global confrontation between the two social systems. Current models and theoretical concepts of public administration, especially the "new public administration", which became scientific basis for administrative reforms implemented in many countries, are the particular subject of scientific analysis. The author draws attention to major comprehensive characteristics of modern state public administration: making it impossible to absolutize principles of traditional hierarchy system of forced administration; globalization - gradual destruction of boundaries between national and international levels of administration, the growing role of supranational subjects of administration relations; informatization - increasing importance of information and communication technologies and of political networks: development of civil society, especially political parties and non-governmental organizations, growing public involvement in discussion and adoption of the most important administrative decisions; making the state policy more pluralistic and which will result in the formation of nonlinear - humanistic social consciousness as the intellectual basis of modern social governance. The author's position is that Russia is yet to solve the issue of choosing a public administration model that would be effective for further administrative

  10. Surface ozone background in the United States: Canadian and Mexican pollution influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiqun; Jacob, Daniel J.; Le Sager, Philippe; Streets, David G.; Park, Rokjin J.; Gilliland, Alice B.; van Donkelaar, A.

    We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) with 1° × 1° horizontal resolution to quantify the effects of anthropogenic emissions from Canada, Mexico, and outside North America on daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations in US surface air. Simulations for summer 2001 indicate mean North American and US background concentrations of 26 ± 8 ppb and 30 ± 8 ppb, as obtained by eliminating anthropogenic emissions in North America vs. in the US only. The US background never exceeds 60 ppb in the model. The Canadian and Mexican pollution enhancement averages 3 ± 4 ppb in the US in summer but can be occasionally much higher in downwind regions of the northeast and southwest, peaking at 33 ppb in upstate New York (on a day with 75 ppb total ozone) and 18 ppb in southern California (on a day with 68 ppb total ozone). The model is successful in reproducing the observed variability of ozone in these regions, including the occurrence and magnitude of high-ozone episodes influenced by transboundary pollution. We find that exceedances of the 75 ppb US air quality standard in eastern Michigan, western New York, New Jersey, and southern California are often associated with Canadian and Mexican pollution enhancements in excess of 10 ppb. Sensitivity simulations with 2020 emission projections suggest that Canadian pollution influence in the Northeast US will become comparable in magnitude to that from domestic power plants.

  11. Effect of scanner acoustic background noise on strict resting-state fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rondinoni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI (fMRI resting-state experiments are aimed at identifying brain networks that support basal brain function. Although most investigators consider a ‘resting-state' fMRI experiment with no specific external stimulation, subjects are unavoidably under heavy acoustic noise produced by the equipment. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of auditory input on the resting-state networks (RSNs. Twenty-two healthy subjects were scanned using two similar echo-planar imaging sequences in the same 3T MRI scanner: a default pulse sequence and a reduced “silent” pulse sequence. Experimental sessions consisted of two consecutive 7-min runs with noise conditions (default or silent counterbalanced across subjects. A self-organizing group independent component analysis was applied to fMRI data in order to recognize the RSNs. The insula, left middle frontal gyrus and right precentral and left inferior parietal lobules showed significant differences in the voxel-wise comparison between RSNs depending on noise condition. In the presence of low-level noise, these areas Granger-cause oscillations in RSNs with cognitive implications (dorsal attention and entorhinal, while during high noise acquisition, these connectivities are reduced or inverted. Applying low noise MR acquisitions in research may allow the detection of subtle differences of the RSNs, with implications in experimental planning for resting-state studies, data analysis, and ergonomic factors.

  12. Reducing the Federal Footprint on Education and Empowering State and Local Leaders. Backgrounder No. 2565

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing federal intervention and the resulting burden of complying with federal programs, rules, and regulations has caused a significant growth in state bureaucracy, much of which has a parasitic relationship with federal education programs, straining the time and resources of local schools. Instead of responding first to students, parents,…

  13. Background and Characteristics of Undocumented Hispanic Migrants to the United States: A Review of Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Schnabel, Kathleen M.

    1983-01-01

    The population of undocumented Hispanic immigrants in the United States includes (1) a significant number of females; (2) a majority of labor force age (15-39); (3) Mexican migrants who are younger and comprise more males than other Latin American migrant groups; and (4) Central and South American migrants from higher social strata. (Author/MJL)

  14. State modernisation and changing learning environments - focusing on empluyees with an academic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke

    2004-01-01

    that may sound positive or an intuitive level, but which also constitute a source of uncertainty as to what is actually taking place. The paper aim to analyse the learning environments in two case studies made in state work places and discuss some of the thematic queations that appear to be of interest...

  15. The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Josef; Ratner, Marcia; Shaw, Martin; Bailey, Wendy; Schomaker, Shelli

    2008-03-20

    The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity reflects damage to hepatocytes and is considered to be a highly sensitive and fairly specific preclinical and clinical biomarker of hepatotoxicity. However, an increase in serum ALT activity level has also been associated with other organ toxicities, thus, indicating that the enzyme has specificity beyond liver in the absence of correlative histomorphologic alteration in liver. Thus, unidentified non-hepatic sources of serum ALT activity may inadvertently influence the decision of whether to continue development of a novel pharmaceutical compound. To assess the risk of false positives due to extraneous sources of serum ALT activity, additional biomarkers are sought with improved specificity for liver function compared to serum ALT activity alone. Current published biomarker candidates are reviewed herein and compared with ALT performance in preclinical and on occasion, clinical studies. An examination of the current state of hepatotoxic biomarkers indicates that serum F protein, arginase I, and glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GSTalpha) levels, all measured by ELISA, may show utility, however, antibody availability and high cost per run may present limitations to widespread applicability in preclinical safety studies. In contrast, the enzymatic markers sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, paraxonase, malate dehydrogenase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase are all readily measured by photometric methods and use reagents that work across preclinical species and humans and are commercially available. The published literature suggests that these markers, once examined collectively in a large qualification study, could provide additional information relative to serum ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. Since these biomarkers are found in the serum/plasma of treated humans and rats, they have potential to be utilized as bridging markers to monitor acute drug-induced liver injury in

  16. The current state of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Josef; Ratner, Marcia; Shaw, Martin; Bailey, Wendy; Schomaker, Shelli

    2008-01-01

    The level of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity reflects damage to hepatocytes and is considered to be a highly sensitive and fairly specific preclinical and clinical biomarker of hepatotoxicity. However, an increase in serum ALT activity level has also been associated with other organ toxicities, thus, indicating that the enzyme has specificity beyond liver in the absence of correlative histomorphologic alteration in liver. Thus, unidentified non-hepatic sources of serum ALT activity may inadvertently influence the decision of whether to continue development of a novel pharmaceutical compound. To assess the risk of false positives due to extraneous sources of serum ALT activity, additional biomarkers are sought with improved specificity for liver function compared to serum ALT activity alone. Current published biomarker candidates are reviewed herein and compared with ALT performance in preclinical and on occasion, clinical studies. An examination of the current state of hepatotoxic biomarkers indicates that serum F protein, arginase I, and glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GSTα) levels, all measured by ELISA, may show utility, however, antibody availability and high cost per run may present limitations to widespread applicability in preclinical safety studies. In contrast, the enzymatic markers sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, paraxonase, malate dehydrogenase, and purine nucleoside phosphorylase are all readily measured by photometric methods and use reagents that work across preclinical species and humans and are commercially available. The published literature suggests that these markers, once examined collectively in a large qualification study, could provide additional information relative to serum ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values. Since these biomarkers are found in the serum/plasma of treated humans and rats, they have potential to be utilized as bridging markers to monitor acute drug-induced liver injury in early

  17. Transcatheter Pulmonary Valve Replacement: Current State of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkashkari, Wail; Alsubei, Amani; Hijazi, Ziyad M

    2018-03-15

    The past couple of decades have brought tremendous advances to the field of pediatric and adult congenital heart disease (CHD). Percutaneous valve interventions are now a cornerstone of not just the congenital cardiologist treating patients with congenital heart disease, but also-and numerically more importantly-for adult interventional cardiologists treating patients with acquired heart valve disease. Transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (tPVR) is one of the most exciting recent developments in the treatment of CHD and has evolved to become an attractive alternative to surgery in patients with right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dysfunction. This review aims to summarize (1) the current state of the art for tPVR, (2) the expanding indications, and (3) the technological obstacles to optimizing tPVR. Since its introduction in 2000, more than ten thousands tPVR procedures have been performed worldwide. Although the indications for tPVR have been adapted earlier from those accepted for surgical intervention, they remain incompletely defined. The new imaging modalities give better assessment of cardiac anatomy and function and determine candidacy for the procedure. The procedure has been shown to be feasible and safe when performed in patients who received pulmonary conduit and or bioprosthetic valves between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. Fewer selected patients post trans-annular patch repair for tetralogy of Fallot may also be candidates for this technology. Size restrictions of the currently available valves limit deployment in the majority of patients post trans-annular patch repair. Newer valves and techniques are being developed that may help such patients. Refinements and further developments of this procedure hold promise for the extension of this technology to other patient populations.

  18. The Current State of Critical Limb Ischemia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Alik; Eberhardt, Robert T

    2016-11-01

    Chronic critical limb ischemia, marked by intractable lower extremity ischemic rest pain and tissue loss, is a highly morbid condition that leads to the loss of ambulation and decreased quality of life. It is associated with a high risk of limb loss and mortality and presents a significant economic burden to society. To review the current state of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of critical limb ischemia. An extensive literature search of the subject matter was conducted on material published in English between 1980 and 2016; both landmark and recently published articles were evaluated. Articles were reviewed if they included the terms critical limb ischemia, ischemic rest pain, gangrene, or extremity ulcers. Critical limb ischemia represents the end stage of peripheral arterial disease. Because peripheral arterial disease is most commonly caused by atherosclerosis, critical limb ischemia is heavily associated with smoking and diabetes. Revascularization is the cornerstone of therapy to prevent limb amputation, and both open vascular surgery and endovascular therapy play a key role in the treatment of patients with critical limb ischemia. However, few scientific data are available to identify the optimal revascularization strategy, which has led to a significant amount of variability and equipoise in the treatment of this condition. Medical therapy plays a significant role in optimizing coexistent cardiovascular risk factors and a limited role in improving limb outcomes in nonrevascularizable disease. Understanding critical limb ischemia and its treatment strategies is important for providing the best care for affected patients. Currently, ongoing randomized clinical trials in North America and the United Kingdom aim to provide data to support the best management of these patients.

  19. CRIMEAN TATAR FACTOR IN CRIMEA: THE CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Merenkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the current situation of the Crimean Tatars in Crimea after joining Russia. It is considered a number of decisions taken by Russia, which changed the life of this national minority. For example, according an official status to the Crimean-Tatar language or improving living conditions in Crimean Tatars-populated areas. The article highlights the creation of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Crimea. The author describes the renewal of the mass media in Crimea and the creation of the TV and Radio company Millet instead of the Ukrainian TV channel ATR. The author stresses the difference in the approaches of the Ukrainian and Russian authorities to the question of the deportation of the Crimean Tatars in 1944. The article touches upon the UN General Assembly resolution A / RES / 71/205, 19 December 2016. It is devoted to “Situation of human rights in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol (Ukraine”. The author offers to get acquainted with the opinion of the Crimean Tatars, who live in Crimea at present, about their current situation after the reunification of Crimea and Sevastopol with Russia. It is analyzed the Ukrainian authorities’ policy on the Crimean Tatars. The author notes the negative effect of the Ukrainian authorities on radical feelings in Crimea. The process of forming these sentiments is considered in the article. The author notes the increased military activities by the illegal armed groups of the Crimean Tatars in the Ukrainian part of the Russian-Ukrainian state boundary. The article emphasizes the evaluation of the Crimean Tatars’ influence on security and stability on the peninsula, as well as the prospects of it. The author gives recommendations on the establishment of inter-ethnic relations, and notes that there is a potential for further development of inter-ethnic dialogue. The author concludes that the Crimean Tatars can act as a stabilizing and destabilizing

  20. Physics of the interaction between runaway electrons and the background plasma of the current quench in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, Cedric

    2017-10-01

    Runaway electrons are created during disruptions of tokamak plasmas. They can be accelerated in the form of a multi-MA beam at energies up to several 10's of MeV. Prevention or suppression of runaway electrons during disruptions will be essential to ensure a reliable operation of future tokamaks such as ITER. Recent experiments showed that the suppression of an already accelerated beam with massive gas injection was unsuccessful at JET, conversely to smaller tokamaks. This was attributed to a dense, cold background plasma (up to several 1020 m-3 accompanying the runaway beam. The present contribution reports on the latest experimental results obtained at JET showing that some mitigation efficiency can be restored by changing the features of the background plasma. The density, temperature, position of the plasma and the energy of runaways were characterized using a combined analysis of interferometry, soft X-rays, bolometry, magnetics and hard X-rays. It showed that lower density background plasmas were obtained using smaller amounts of gas to trigger the disruption, leading to an improved penetration of the mitigation gas. Based on the observations, a physical model of the creation of the background plasma and its subsequent evolution is proposed. The plasma characteristics during later stages of the disruption are indeed dependent on the way it was initially created. The sustainment of the plasma during the runaway beam phase is then addressed by making a power balance between ohmic heating, power transfer from runaway electrons, radiation and atomic processes. Finally, a model of the interaction of the plasma with the mitigation gas is proposed to explain why massive gas injection of runaway beams works only in specific situations. This aims at pointing out which parameters bear the most importance if this mitigation scheme is to be used on larger devices like ITER. Acknowledgement: This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium

  1. Current state of hereditary angioedema management: A patient survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Paula; Christiansen, Sandra C.; Li, Henry; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Frank, Michael; Castaldo, Anthony; Long, Janet F.; Zuraw, Bruce L.; Riedl, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a chronic disease with a high burden of disease that is poorly understood and often misdiagnosed. Availability of treatments, including C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) replacement, ecallantide, and icatibant, marks a significant advance for HAE patients. We aimed to better understand the current state of HAE care, from a patient perspective, after the introduction of several novel therapies. One session of the United States Hereditary Angioedema Association 2013 patient summit was devoted to data collection for this study. Patients attending the summit were self-selected, and HAE diagnosis was self-reported. Survey questions assessed patient characteristics, burden of disease, and treatment. Participant responses were captured using an audience response system. We surveyed 149 (80%) type I and II HAE (HAE-C1INH) and 37 (20%) HAE with normal C1INH (HAE-nlC1INH) patients. HAE-C1INH (72%) and HAE-nlCINH patients (76%) equally reported that HAE had a significant impact on quality of life (QOL). A third of HAE-C1INH patients were diagnosed within one year of their first HAE attack, but another third reported a delay of more than 10 years. Most HAE-C1INH (88%) and HAE-nlC1INH (76%) patients had on-demand treatment available. HAE-C1INH patients frequently had an individual treatment plan (76%) compared with 50% of HAE-nlC1INH patients. Most HAE-C1INH patients went to the emergency department (ED) or were hospitalized less than once every six months (80%). Our findings show that HAE management is improving with good access to on-demand and prophylactic treatment options. However, HAE patients still have a significant burden of disease and continued research and educational efforts are needed. PMID:25976438

  2. Push Factor in Mexican Migration to the United States: The Background to Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    of mig’ants to the United States; and (4) Valsequillo , a densely populated area in Puebla. Roberts describes each region with the following variables...Bajio and Valsequillo have the highest degree of capitalist penetration, both in the agricultural and commercial/ industrial sectors. And, it is...The Bajio and Valsequillo also have high off-farm income, and have a larger percentage of households with workers off-farm. Migration to the United

  3. The current state of water resources of Transcarpathia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2015-07-01

    sanitary rules and regulations by the most of indicators of general health and specific indices. 19.0% of total water supply systems fail to meet the sanitary norms and regulations, in particular: 14.2% for the lack of sanitary protection zones; 1.9% because of unavailability of the necessary integrated treatment facilities, and 7.6% by the reason of absence of disinfecting plants. Possible ways of avoiding the depletion of water bodies are preventive water protection measures aimed at preventing or limiting pollution, water contamination and depletion; besides, it is necessary to educate people explaning them the current state and possible consequences of thoughtless water consumption.

  4. Computed tomography: acquisition process, technology and current state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Javier Espitia Mendoza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Computed tomography is a noninvasive scan technique widely applied in areas such as medicine, industry, and geology. This technique allows the three-dimensional reconstruction of the internal structure of an object which is lighted with an X-rays source. The reconstruction is formed with two-dimensional cross-sectional images of the object. Each cross-sectional is obtained from measurements of physical phenomena, such as attenuation, dispersion, and diffraction of X-rays, as result of their interaction with the object. In general, measurements acquisition is performed with methods based on any of these phenomena and according to various architectures classified in generations. Furthermore, in response to the need to simulate acquisition systems for CT, software dedicated to this task has been developed. The objective of this research is to determine the current state of CT techniques, for this, a review of methods, different architectures used for the acquisition and some of its applications is presented. Additionally, results of simulations are presented. The main contributions of this work are the detailed description of acquisition methods and the presentation of the possible trends of the technique.

  5. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever and the current state of vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Eun; Hong, Kee-Jong; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Yeon Hwa; Jeong, Chung-Hyeon; Cho, Kwang-Il

    2014-12-01

    Current Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by July 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Nigeria. The number of patients with Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. The Ebola virus in Guinea showed 98% homology with Zaire Ebola Virus. Study of the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and assess of the various candidates of vaccine have been tried for a long time, especially in United States and some European countries. Even though the attenuated live vaccine and DNA vaccine containing Ebola viral genes were tested and showed efficacy in chimpanzees, those candidates still need clinical tests requiring much longer time than the preclinical development to be approved for the practical treatment. It can be expected to eradicate Ebola virus by a safe and efficient vaccine development similar to the case of smallpox virus which was extinguished from the world by the variola vaccine.

  6. Microbial lipolytic fusion enzymes: current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiukaite, Renata; Gricajeva, Alisa

    2017-11-27

    Genetic fusion of coding ORFs or connection of proteins in a post translational process are rather novel techniques to build products called fusion proteins that possess combined characteristics of their parental biomolecules. This attractive strategy used to create new enzymes not only diversifies their functionality by improving thermostability, thermo- and catalytic activity, substrate specificity, regio- or enantio-selectivity but also facilitates their purification and increases their yield. Many examples of microbial synthetic fusion biocatalysts are associated with fused enzymes that are involved in biomass degradation. However, one of the leading production segments is occupied by microbial lipolytic enzymes (lipases and esterases). As powerful biocatalysts these enzymes found their application in detergent, food, oil and fat, pulp and paper, leather, textile, cosmetics, biodiesel production industries. Moreover, lipolytic enzymes market is predicted to maintain leadership up to the year of 2024 and exceed millions of dollars. Recently, creation of lipolytic fusion biocatalysts for industrial applications gained more attention since it is not only a way of achievement of enzymes with improved properties but also a way to reduce industrial energy costs and ensure other economic benefits. This paper provides a comprehensive review on current state of microbial lipolytic fusion enzymes and their future potential.

  7. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  8. State of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children: current research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Desiree; Arentoft, Alyssa; Scheiner, Diane; Westerveld, Michael; Baron, Ida Sue

    2008-09-01

    Scientific attention to cultural considerations in child neuropsychological assessment has not developed parallel to the focus these issues have received in adult and elderly neuropsychological assessment. There are limited data on the presence, magnitude, etiology, and implications of culture-related differences in cognitive test performance among children. This preliminary report reviews the available empirical literature on the current state of multicultural neuropsychological assessment in children. The review identified articles by searching PubMed and PsycINFO databases, and the tables of contents of Developmental Neuropsychology and Child Neuropsychology from 2003-2008. Of the 1,834 abstracts reviewed, ten papers met inclusion criteria for the review. Five studies were completed in America; four of these compared performance between ethnic groups while the fifth examined neighborhood level poverty indicators exclusively within African-American children. Of the five international studies, all established local normative data and/or were exploratory investigations of neuropsychological functions in specific cultural groups, including Taiwanese infants, South African youth, and bilingual British children. Taken together, the results yield important clinical and research data that begin to inform many of the complex and fascinating mechanisms by which ethnic identity and culture impact cognitive development and the neuropsychological assessment of children. A critique of the existing literature and directions for future research are provided.

  9. High pulse number thermal shock tests on tungsten with steady state particle background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, M.; Kreter, A.; Linke, J.; Loewenhoff, Th; Pintsuk, G.; Sergienko, G.; Steudel, I.; Unterberg, B.; Wessel, E.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal fatigue of metallic materials, which will be exposed to severe environmental conditions e.g. plasma facing materials in future fusion reactors, is an important issue in order to predict the life time of complete wall components. Therefore experiments in the linear plasma device PSI-2 were performed to investigate the synergistic effects of high pulse number thermal shock events (L = 0.38 GW m‑2, Δt = 0.5 ms) and stationary D/He (6%) plasma particle background on the thermal fatigue behavior of tungsten. Similar to experiments with pure thermal loads, the induced microstructural and surface modifications such as recrystallization and roughening as well as crack formation become more pronounced with increasing number of thermal shock events. However, the amount of damage significantly increases for synergistic loads showing severe surface roughening, plastic deformation and erosion resulting from the degradation of the mechanical properties caused by bombardment and diffusion of D/He to the surface and the bulk of the material. Additionally, D/He induced blistering and bubble formation were observed for all tested samples, which could change the thermal and mechanical properties of near surface regions.

  10. Electronic money in russia: current state and problems of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Bondarenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to urgent problems of non-cash methods of calculation development by using electronic money – as one of the modern economically developed state strategic tasks. On modern economic science strong influence appears informatization process. The control expansion tendency, influence and distribution of commerce due to informatization of society led to emergence of the new phenomenon – information economy. Information economy brought new economic events which owing to their novelty are insufficiently studied to life. It is possible to carry electronic money to such phenomena of modern network economy Relevance and, in our opinion, timeliness of this scientific work, consisting in novelty of this non-cash payment method, its prospects and innovation within non-cash methods of calculations. Authors set as the purpose – studying of problems and the prospects of development of electronic money in the Russian Federation. In article theoretical bases of electronic money functioning are described. Determinations and classifications dismissed non-cash a method, and also the principles of electronic money functioning are considered, the questions of their historical development are raised.Authors analyzed statistical data on development of electronic services and channels of their using. Features, benefits and shortcomings of the current state of the market of electronic money are studied. The emphasis on that fact that in modern conditions considerable number of economic actors perform the activities, both in the real environment of economy, and within the virtual environment that promotes expansion of methods of their customer interaction by means of technical devices of personal computers, mobile phones is placed. In article common problems and tendencies of payments with using an electronic money are designated, the research on assessment of the current state and the prospects of electronic money

  11. Background and state of the art of near infrared spectroscopy in the forest sector base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñiz, G.I.B. de; Magalhães, W.L.E.; Carneiro, M.E.; Viana, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme [pt

  12. NOAA Historical Tidal Current Data for the Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the timing and strength of tidal currents is extremely important for safe navigation in coastal waters. Tidal currents are almost always the strongest...

  13. Mental health care in Germany: current state and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salize, Hans Joachim; Rössler, Wulf; Becker, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Germany turned towards community-based mental health care in the mid seventies, during a general climate of social and political reform. The continuing deinstitutionalisation process and the implementation of community mental health services was considerably affected by the reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, which required dramatic changes in the structure and quality of the mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). Overall, German mental health care is organised as a subsidiary system, where planning and regulating mental health care is the responsibility of the 16 federal states. So German mental health care provision is spread among many sectors and characterised by considerable regional differences. A key characteristic is the particularly wide gap between inpatient and outpatient services, which are funded separately and staffed by different teams. In 2003 the total number of psychiatric beds was a mere two thirds of the overall bed capacity in 1991, the first year as a re-unified Germany, when psychiatric beds in East and West Germany totalled 80,275. From 1970 onwards the number of psychiatric beds was cut by roughly half. So the momentum of the reform has been strong enough to assimilate the completely different mental health care system of the former German Democratic Republic and, in the course of a decade, to re-structure mental health services for an additional 17-18 million new inhabitants. In an ongoing struggle to adapt to changing administrative set-ups, legal frameworks, and financial constraints, psychiatry in Germany in currently facing specific problems and is seriously challenged to defend to considerable achievements of the past. A major obstacle to achieving this aim lies in the fragmented system of mental health care provision and mental health care funding.

  14. Current state of orthodontic patients under bisphosphonate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Jacobs, Collin; Walter, Christian; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-04-04

    Bisphosphonates are a common medication for the prevention and therapy of osteoporosis, but are also applied for tumor diseases. They affect bone metabolism, and therefore also orthodontic treatments, but how it does has yet not been definitively clarified. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate and demonstrate the reported effects and the current state of scientific research regarding orthodontic treatment and bisphosphonate medication exclusively in humans. A systematic research of the literature for selected keywords in the Medline database (Pubmed) as well as a manual search was conducted. The following search terms were used: 'Bisphosphonate' in combination with: orthodontic, orthodontic treatment, tooth movement. To date, only nine reported patients (case reports/series) and one original article (retrospective cohort study) regarding orthodontic treatment under bisphosphonate medication in humans have been published. Decelerated tooth movement with increased side effects (especially in high-risk patients) and longer treatment duration was reported in some articles. Patients with initial spacing or extraction cases had a higher risk of incomplete space closure and poor root parallelism. Orthodontic tooth movement under bisphosphonate medication is possible, especially in low-risk patients (low dose and short period of intake). But the treatment is still not predictable, especially in high-risk patients. Therefore, the altered bone metabolism and higher extent of side effects should be considered in treatment planning, especially in extraction cases or high-risk patients. Regardless, longer treatment duration, decelerated tooth movement, and more side effects, e.g., incomplete space closure and poor root parallelism, should be expected, especially in extraction cases or space closure.

  15. Pediatric digital radiography education for radiologic technologists: current state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Gregory; Culbertson, John; Carbonneau, Kira; John, Susan D.; Goske, Marilyn J.; Smith, Susan N.; Charkot, Ellen; Herrmann, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Digital radiography (DR) is one of several new products that have changed our work processes from hard copy to digital formats. The transition from analog screen-film radiography to DR requires thorough user education because of differences in image production, processing, storage and evaluation between the forms of radiography. Without adequate education, radiologic technologists could unknowingly expose children to higher radiation doses than necessary for adequate radiograph quality. To evaluate knowledge about image quality and dose management in pediatric DR among radiologic technologists in the U.S. This communication describes a survey of 493 radiologic technologists who are members of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT) and who evaluated the current state of radiological technologist education in image quality and dose management in pediatric DR. The survey included 23 survey questions regarding image acquisition issues, quality assurance, radiation exposure and education in DR of infants and children. Radiologic technologists express many needs in areas of training and education in pediatric DR. Suggested improvements include better tools for immediate feedback about image quality and exposure, more information about appropriate technique settings for pediatric patients, more user-friendly vendor manuals and educational materials, more reliable measures of radiation exposure to patients, and more regular and frequent follow-up by equipment vendors. There is a clear and widespread need for comprehensive and practical education in digital image technology for radiologic technologists, especially those engaged in pediatric radiography. The creation of better educational materials and training programs, and the continuation of educational opportunities will require a broad commitment from equipment manufacturers and vendors, educational institutions, pediatric radiology specialty organizations, and individual imaging specialists. (orig.)

  16. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  17. The Origins and Current State of Plastic Surgery Residency in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Donald Roy; Johnson, Shane

    2015-11-01

    The history of plastic surgery residency training in the United States dates back to the establishment of plastic surgery as a specialty. The pivotal role played by the American Board of Plastic Surgery is outlined. The history of the early regulatory bodies leading to the formation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committees and the establishment of the American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons gives context to our current training models.

  18. Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zakharyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

  19. BACKGROUND AND STATE OF THEE ART OF NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY IN THE FOREST SECTOR BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Inês Bolzon de Muñiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987567The knowledge of wood properties is the fundamental importance for the indication of the potential and use of this material. In the search for new alternatives for a fast, simple and reliable characterization, there are the non-destructive evaluations of wood. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS has been used as a non-destructive method that allows qualitative and quantitative information of the constituents of biomass through the interaction of electromagnetic waves with near-infrared next to the sample. This work aims to provide a review of the technique of near infrared spectroscopy and its application in forestry. The technique is used in virtually all areas due to the level of development that this technology has reached in recent years. NIR spectroscopy has proved a quick and efficient replacement of several tests that determine the quality of the wood. This is a literature review and state of the art on the theme.

  20. Laboratory diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: Current state of the art and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Benedikt; Fingerle, Volker; Norris, Douglas E; Hunfeld, Klaus-Peter

    2018-04-02

    This review is directed at physicians and laboratory personnel in private practice and clinics who treat and diagnose Lyme borreliosis (LB) in patients as part of their daily work. A major objective of this paper is to bring together background information on Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) and basic clinical knowledge of LB, which is one of the most frequently reported vector-borne diseases in the Northern Hemisphere. The goal is to provide practical guidance for clinicians and for laboratory physicians, and scientists for a better understanding of current achievements and ongoing obstacles in the laboratory diagnosis of LB, an infectious disease that still remains one of the diagnostic chameleons of modern clinical medicine. Moreover, in bringing together current scientific information from guidelines, reviews, and original papers, this review provides recommendations for selecting the appropriate tests in relation to the patient's stage of disease to achieve effective, stage-related application of current direct and indirect laboratory methods for the detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. Additionally, the review aims to discuss the current state of the art concerning the diagnostic potential and limitations of the assays and test methods currently in use to optimize LB patient management and provide insight into the possible future prospects of this rapidly changing area of laboratory medicine.

  1. Electromagnetic analysis of a superconducting transformer for high current characterization of cable in conduit conductors in background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangyang; Tan, Yunfei; Fang, Zhen; Jiang, Donghui; Chen, Zhiyou; Chen, Wenge; Kuang, Guangli

    2017-10-01

    A large cable-in-conduit-conductor (CICC) test facility has been designed and fabricated at the High Magnetic Field Laboratory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CHMFL) in order to meet the test requirement of the conductors which are applied to the future fusion reactor. The critical component of the test facility is an 80 kA superconducting transformer which consists of a multi-turn primary coil and a minor-turn secondary coil. As the current source of the conductor samples, the electromagnetic performance of the superconducting transformer determines the stability and safety of the test facility. In this paper, the key factors and parameters, which have much impact on the performance of the transformer, are analyzed in detail. The conceptual design and optimizing principles of the transformer are discussed. An Electromagnetic-Circuit coupled model built in ANSYS Multiphysics is successfully used to investigate the electromagnetic characterization of the transformer under the dynamic operation condition.

  2. Relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distribution modulated by localized background magnetic field perturbation driven by hot ring current ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Chen, Lunjin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan; Xia, Zhiyang; Pu, Zuyin

    2017-05-01

    Dayside modulated relativistic electron's butterfly pitch angle distributions (PADs) from ˜200 keV to 2.6 MeV were observed by Van Allen Probe B at L = 5.3 on 15 November 2013. They were associated with localized magnetic dip driven by hot ring current ion (60-100 keV proton and 60-200 keV helium and oxygen) injections. We reproduce the electron's butterfly PADs at satellite's location using test particle simulation. The simulation results illustrate that a negative radial flux gradient contributes primarily to the formation of the modulated electron's butterfly PADs through inward transport due to the inductive electric field, while deceleration due to the inductive electric field and pitch angle change also makes in part contribution. We suggest that localized magnetic field perturbation, which is a frequent phenomenon in the magnetosphere during magnetic disturbances, is of great importance for creating electron's butterfly PADs in the Earth's radiation belts.

  3. The Effect of Pungent and Tingling Compounds fromPiper nigrumL. on Background K+Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Leopoldo R; Dawid, Corinna; Beltrán, Madeline; Levermann, Janina; Titt, Sascha; Thomas, Sini; Pürschel, Viktoria; Satalik, Miriam; Gisselmann, Günter; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns

    2017-01-01

    Black peppercorns ( Piper nigrum L.) elicit a pungent and tingling oral impression. Their pungency is partially explained by the agonist activity of some of their active principles, especially piperine, on TRP channels. However, we recently showed that piperine, as well as other pungent compounds, also possess a marked effect on two-pore domain (KCNK, K 2P ) K + channels. Members of this family play a key role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of excitable cells. Interestingly, tingling compounds have been shown to induce neuronal excitation by inhibiting KCNK channels. We addressed the question of whether it was plausible that KCNK channels could constitute a physiologically relevant target for the sensory active compounds present in black peppercorns. Because previous studies have demonstrated that mouse trigeminal neurons respond to several pungent compounds, to which humans are also sensitive, we used a primary culture of mouse trigeminal neurons to investigate whether the effect of piperine on these cell types could also be mediated by KCNK channels. We observed that even in the presence of classical TRP-antagonists, piperine was still able to activate a fraction of trigeminal neurons. Furthermore, our results showed that piperine is capable of inducing neuronal depolarization by a mechanism that does not require extracellular Na + or Ca 2+ . This depolarization was mediated by the inhibition of a background K + conductance, most likely corresponding to the KCNK channels of the TASK subfamily. We then performed a screening with 12 other pungent and/or tingling chemosensates isolated from black peppercorns. These compounds were evaluated on Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the human orthologues of KCNK3, KNCK9 and KCNK18, which we previously showed to be inhibited by piperine. Remarkably, almost all of the isolated chemosensates inhibited the basal activity of hKCNK3, with 1-(octadeca-2 E ,4 E ,13/12 Z -trienoyl)pyrrolidine acting as one of the

  4. Operating tokamaks with steady-state toroidal current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-04-01

    Continuous operation of a tokamak requires, among other things, a means of continuously providing the toroidal current. Various methods have been proposed to provide this current including methods which utilize radio-frequency waves in any of several frequency regimes. Here we elaborate on the prospects of incorporating these current-drive techniques in tokamak reactors, concentrating on the theoretical minimization of the power requirements

  5. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Jovanna; Sciare, Jean; Mallet, Marc; Roberts, Greg C.; Marchand, Nicolas; Sartelet, Karine; Sellegri, Karine; Dulac, François; Healy, Robert M.; Wenger, John C.

    2017-06-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon), K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon), V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC), organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass). Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5) accounted for 70-90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich) and biomass burning (K-rich) particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC) and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM), which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA). This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which then

  6. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  7. Evaluation of the Current State of Integrated Water Quality Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhonditsis, G. B.; Wellen, C. C.; Ecological Modelling Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Environmental policy and management implementation require robust methods for assessing the contribution of various point and non-point pollution sources to water quality problems as well as methods for estimating the expected and achieved compliance with the water quality goals. Water quality models have been widely used for creating the scientific basis for management decisions by providing a predictive link between restoration actions and ecosystem response. Modelling water quality and nutrient transport is challenging due a number of constraints associated with the input data and existing knowledge gaps related to the mathematical description of landscape and in-stream biogeochemical processes. While enormous effort has been invested to make watershed models process-based and spatially-distributed, there has not been a comprehensive meta-analysis of model credibility in watershed modelling literature. In this study, we evaluate the current state of integrated water quality modeling across the range of temporal and spatial scales typically utilized. We address several common modeling questions by providing a quantitative assessment of model performance and by assessing how model performance depends on model development. The data compiled represent a heterogeneous group of modeling studies, especially with respect to complexity, spatial and temporal scales and model development objectives. Beginning from 1992, the year when Beven and Binley published their seminal paper on uncertainty analysis in hydrological modelling, and ending in 2009, we selected over 150 papers fitting a number of criteria. These criteria involved publications that: (i) employed distributed or semi-distributed modelling approaches; (ii) provided predictions on flow and nutrient concentration state variables; and (iii) reported fit to measured data. Model performance was quantified with the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency, the relative error, and the coefficient of determination. Further, our

  8. [Current state of blood transfusion in Yugoslavia and its perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S

    1975-01-01

    The current situation of the transfusion service in this country has been characterised by small-scale operational level, the lack of regional system and basic components of a single service. There is a great variety in the medical and expert point of view starting from the lack of elementary hygienic and technical conditions, down to developed institutions of the European level. This activity has been characterised for the last ten years or so by an effort to win blood-givers at all cost, to enhance production of intravenous solutions which in some factories have obtained factory production volume, to determine basic blood groups and a very modest diagnostics for haemolitic diseases of newly born children. A large number of doctors--transfusiologists have obtained specialists' titles, but without any prospects to change the present status of their work: blood conservation, efforts to win blood-givers and determine blood groups. The differentiation between transfusiologists and clinic-engaged personnel has been increasing, thus making the transfusiologists to be far from the problems of modern haematology and clinical therapy. Observing the situation and status of transfusiology in the developed countries of Western Europe, it is possible to state that the transfusiology is developing in the direction of cooperation and team-work with doctors engaged in clinics. Therefore, cooperation with doctors engaged in clinics should be cultivated and organise team work. The intermediary role of doctors-transfusiologist in the cycle of health improvement should be avoided by all means. 90% of packed blood in this country is consumed in the form of full blood or dry plasma and only 10% in the form of desired derivatives, instead of the contrary case, since the precisely set therapy using new haemostatic medicaments is an economical imperative. The electronic data processing of blood-givers enables doctors-transfusiologists to deal with these problems since this is much cheaper

  9. Current state of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Amin Elzorkany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD continue to increase in number worldwide, especially in developing countries. Although continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD has comparable survival advantages as hemodialysis (HD, it is greatly underutilized in many regions worldwide. The prevalence of use of CAPD in Egypt is 0.29/million population in 2017. The aim of this study is to describe the current state and practice of CAPD in Egypt and included 22 adult patients who were treated by CAPD. All the study patients were switched to CAPD after treatment with HD failed due to vascular access problems. Patients were mainly female (68.2 % with the mean age of 49.77 ± 11.41 years. The average duration on CAPD was 1.76 ± 1.30 years. Hypertension was the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD constituting 36.4%, followed by diabetes (27.3 %, and toxic nephropathy (4.5%. Of importance is that about 31.8% of patients had ESRD of unknown etiology. The mean weekly Kt/V urea of patients on PD was 1.92 ± 0.18. The mean hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, and albumin levels were 10.27 ± 1.98 g/dL, 8.36 ± 1.19 mg/dL, 5.70 ± 1.35 mg/dL, 541.18 ± 230.12 pg/mL, and 2.98 ± 0.73 g/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference between diabetic and nondiabetic CAPD patients regarding demographic and laboratory data. Our data indicate that there is continuing underutilization of CAPD in Egypt which may be related to nonavailability of CAPD fluid, patient factors (education and motivation, gradual decline of the efficiency of health-care professionals, and lack of a national program to start PD as the first modality for renal replacement therapy. It is advised to start an organized program to make CAPD widespread and encourage local production of PD fluids to reduce the cost of CAPD.

  10. Current state and future prospects for psychosomatic medicine in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masato; Nakai, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we describe the history and current state of psychosomatic medicine (PSM) in Japan and propose measures that could be considered based on our view of the future prospects of PSM in Japan. The Japanese Society of PSM (JSPM) was established in 1959, and the first Department of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine in Japan was established at Kyushu University In 1963. PSM in Japan has shown a prominent, unique development, with 3,300 members (as of March 2016), comprised of 71.6% of medical doctors including psychosomatic internal medicine (PIM) specialists, general internists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists, dentists, dermatologists, and others. Most of the non-physician members include psychology and nursing staff specialists. The Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Internal Medicine (JSPIM), founded in 1996, is another major society with more than 1,200 physicians that is mainly composed of internists. The first joint congress of the five major PSM societies from each field was held in 2009. They included the Japanese Society of Psychosomatic Medicine, Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, Psychosomatic Pediatric Medicine, Psychosomatic Dental Medicine, and Psychosomatic Internal Medicine. Several subdivided societies in related medical fields have also been established for cardiovascular, digestive, dermatological, and oriental medicine and for eating disorders, pain, fibromyalgia, stress science, behavioral medicine, and psycho-oncology. JSPM and JSPIM participate in international activities including publishing BioPsychoSocial Medicine (BPSM) and the establishment of a sister society relationship with the Germany College of PSM. PSM in Japan has adopted a variety of professional psychotherapies, including transactional analysis, autogenic therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Mutual interrelationship has been promoted by the Japanese Union of Associations for Psycho-medical Therapy (UPM). Although PSM in Japan is

  11. Current problems of the Bulgarian energy industry against the background of global short-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.

    1999-01-01

    The energy demand during the next century due first of all to the expected growth of population necessitates more efficient technologies and huge investments. The production of nuclear energy requires higher safety as well as reduction of costs. A new form of partnership between the developed and developing countries is needed for transferring capital and technologies at special framework terms in order to avoid errors in the process of transition. The Energy Forum'99 highlights the current problems of Bulgarian energy branch and the projects for its future including better utilization of the existing energy resources, for development of new or renewable energy sources, not well utilized at present, and to harmonize the sector with better environmental protection. The most important problems discussed are: 1. Structure and restructuring strategy of the energy sector. Prices and tariffs. Privatization aspects. Construction of new replacement generating capacities; 2. Thermal power plants; 3. Nuclear power plants; 4. District heating and natural gas supply; 5. Efficient energy utilization; 6. Renewable energy sources; 7. Environmental protection and 8. Education

  12. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine

    2017-01-01

    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  13. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  14. Review of the current state of UAV regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöcker, Elvira Claudia; Bennett, Rohan; Nex, Francesco; Gerke, Markus; Zevenbergen, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    UAVs-unmanned aerial vehicles-facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the

  15. Biotechnological uses of Azotobacter vinelandii : Current state, limits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 33 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Chiropractic and public health: current state and future vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Baird, Rand; Dougherty, Paul E; Globe, Gary; Green, Bart N; Haneline, Michael; Hawk, Cheryl; Injeyan, H Stephen; Killinger, Lisa; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah; Lisi, Anthony J; Mior, Silvano A; Smith, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of primary chiropractic issues as they relate to public health. This collaborative summary documents the chiropractic profession's current involvement in public health, reflects on past barriers that may have prevented full participation within the public health movement, and summarizes the relationship of current chiropractic and public health topics. Topics discussed include how the chiropractic profession participates in preventive health services, health promotion, immunization, geriatrics, health care in a military environment, and interdisciplinary care.

  17. Fault current limiter with solid-state circuit breakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, H.; Neamț, L.; Buzdugan, M. I.; Varodi, T.; Pop, E.

    2016-08-01

    Switching of power circuit breakers is an important technical issue, especially at short circuit, since the fault current cause thermal and dynamic stresses, and the power quality worsens. Recently, the development of distributed renewable electricity induces the short circuit protection problematic because the distributed production of electric energy cause the transport networks to lose their radial character and disturbs the protective relays coordination. The modern technologies for power switching uses static fault current limiters, which offers a viable solution to remove the problems caused by large fault currents in the system. An appropriate design of the current limiting device reduces the thermal and dynamic stress and limits the fault current to a low value. The static switches are based on high power semiconductor devices that offer advantages compared to mechanical switches. Using a fault current limiter that minimizes the effect of distributed generation of electricity in a radial network on the co-ordination of protective relays is a solution to this problem in terms of switching speed and lifespan of power switches.

  18. Current State of the U.S. Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanchuk, John [Cardno ENTRIX, New Castle, DE (United States)

    2010-11-30

    The objective of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the U.S. ethanol industry and to outline the major forces that will affect the development of the industry over the next decade.

  19. Chairman’s government background, excess employment and government subsidies: Evidence from Chinese local state-owned enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongyuan Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Local state-owned enterprises (SOEs in China continue to face government interference in their operations. They are influenced both by the government’s “grabbing hand” and by its “helping hand.” Our study examines how SOE chairmen with connections to government influence their firm’s employment policies and the economic consequences of overstaffing. Using a sample of China’s listed local state-owned enterprises, we find that the scale of overstaffing in these SOEs is negatively related to the firms’ political connections to government. However, this relationship turns positive when the firm’s chairman has a government background. Appointing chairmen who have government backgrounds is a mechanism through which the government can intervene in local SOEs and influence firms’ staffing decisions. We also find that in compensation for the expenses of overstaffing, local SOEs receive more government subsidies and bank loans. However, the chairmen themselves do not get increased pay or promotion opportunities for supporting overstaffing. Further analysis indicates that whereas the “grabbing hand” of government does harm to a firm’s economic performance, the “helping hand” provides only weak positive effects, and such government intervention actually reduces the efficiency of social resource allocation.

  20. Engineering Ethics Education : Its Necessity, Objectives, Methods, Current State, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudano, Jun

    The importance of engineering ethics education has become widely recognized in the industrialized countries including Japan. This paper examines the background against which engineering ethics education is required, and reviews its objectives, methods, and challenges, as well as its current state. In pointing out important issues associated with the apparent acceptance and quantitative development of ethics education, especially after the establishment of the Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education in 1999, the author stresses that the most serious problem is the lack of common understanding on the objectives of engineering ethics education. As a strategy to improve the situation, the so-called “Ethics-across-the-Curriculum” approach is introduced. The author also claims that business/organization ethics which is consistent with engineering ethics should be promoted in Japan.

  1. Current state of the art of HNF based composite propellants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciucci, A.; Frota, O.; Welland, W.H.M.; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der; Leeming, B.; Bellerby, J.M.; Brotzu, A.

    2004-01-01

    The main activities currently performed for the development of HNF-based propellants are presented. The objectives and approach adopted are described. The results obtained on the HNF decomposition mechanism and on the re- and co-crystallisation of HNF with potential propellant ingredients are

  2. State of the Art of Current Practices for Transit Transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    The major objectives of the study are to: (1) describe and summarize the transfer policies currently in use on U.S. transit properties; (2) identify reasons why properties use or do not use particular transfer policies; (3) determine the consequences...

  3. Parents as Partners in Schooling: The Current State of Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley-Laine, Kathleen

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of policies and practices related to the parent-school relationship in nine countries including Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Considers reasons for involving parents in schools, discusses two types of parental participation in education, and offers…

  4. English Learners with Learning Disabilities: What Is the Current State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ashley; Rodríguez, Diane

    2017-01-01

    As the demographics across the United States continues to change, specifically with increases in school age English Learners who speak a home language other than English, it is imperative that schools meet the diverse needs of these children. This article summarizes studies about English Learners with learning disabilities. It reports on the…

  5. Aggression in wild house mice : Current state of affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluyter, F; vanOortmerssen, GA; deRuiter, AJH; Koolhaas, JM

    This paper reviews our present state of knowledge of genetic variation in (offensive) aggression in wild house mice. The basic tools in this research were lines bidirectionally selected for attack latency (fast attacking SAL and slow attacking LAL males), descended from a feral population. Using

  6. Alternatives to current fumigation practices in western states raspberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red raspberry production systems in the western United States are heavily reliant on preplant soil fumigation to ensure the successful establishment and productivity of a planting. However, due to issues related to the regulation, availability, and economics of soil fumigation alternatives are need ...

  7. Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    known as Tanganyika—and the islands of Zanzibar , Pemba, and several smaller islands. The islands, which remain semi-autonomous with their own...president in 1985, and became an elder statesman, mediating peace processes in neighboring Burundi. He was succeeded by the president of Zanzibar , Ali...April 2005, CCM offices on Zanzibar were bombed. This event followed the discovery of the body of a missing CCM official, and the Zanzibar Election

  8. Rwanda: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Mr. Rugambage invited the suspect to his wedding , according to Rwandan officials. Since January 2010, numerous grenade attacks in Kigali, the...Roman Catholic : 56.5%, Protestant: 26%, Adventist: 11.1%, Muslim: 4.6% GDP-Purchasing power parity: $11.08 billion (2010) GDP per capita: $1,100

  9. The Current State of Physics in Cuba: A Personal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Marcelo

    After 40 years of absence I returned twice to Cuba, in January and December of 2000, to participate as a guest lecturer in two international scientific meetings. The first dealt with physics education, and the second with current issues related to quantum mechanics. In addition to a few participants from Europe, the US and Latin America, the two meetings were well attended by Cuban physicists.

  10. Public Administration: Modernizing The Current Model Of State Management

    OpenAIRE

    Evgenii V. Ohotskii

    2014-01-01

    Applying the method of retrospective analysis the article deals with the process of forming the scientific fundamentals and the search by the international community of effective and adequate to the current stage of social development public administration system. The author attempts to analyze, in a number of cases in terms of models, features of public administration systems at different stages of historical development, drawing attention to reasons why the Soviet model of public administra...

  11. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  12. The current state of FPGA technology in the nuclear domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranta, J.

    2012-07-01

    Field programmable gate arrays are a form of programmable electronic device used in various applications including automation systems. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the use of FPGA-based systems also for safety automation of nuclear power plants. The interest is driven by the need for reliable new alternatives to replace, on one hand, the aging technology currently in use and, on the other hand, microprocessor and software-based systems, which are seen as overly complex from the safety evaluation point of view. This report presents an overview of FPGA technology, including hardware aspects, the application development process, risks and advantages of the technology, and introduces some of the current systems. FPGAs contain an interesting combination of features from software-based and fully hardware-based systems. Application development has a great deal in common with software development, but the final product is a hardware component without the operating system and other platform functions on which software would execute. Currently the number of FPGA-based applications used for safety functions of nuclear power plants is rather limited, but it is growing. So far there is little experience or common solid understanding between different parties on how FPGAs should be evaluated and handled in the licensing process. (orig.)

  13. Current State of the Art Historic Building Information Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.

    2017-08-01

    In an extensive review of existing literature a number of observations were made in relation to the current approaches for recording and modelling existing buildings and environments: Data collection and pre-processing techniques are becoming increasingly automated to allow for near real-time data capture and fast processing of this data for later modelling applications. Current BIM software is almost completely focused on new buildings and has very limited tools and pre-defined libraries for modelling existing and historic buildings. The development of reusable parametric library objects for existing and historic buildings supports modelling with high levels of detail while decreasing the modelling time. Mapping these parametric objects to survey data, however, is still a time-consuming task that requires further research. Promising developments have been made towards automatic object recognition and feature extraction from point clouds for as-built BIM. However, results are currently limited to simple and planar features. Further work is required for automatic accurate and reliable reconstruction of complex geometries from point cloud data. Procedural modelling can provide an automated solution for generating 3D geometries but lacks the detail and accuracy required for most as-built applications in AEC and heritage fields.

  14. Current environmental situation in the new Federal States. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haury, H.J.; Koller, U.; Assmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    'Information on Environment' organised the first part of a seminar for jounalists on the present environmental situation in the now federal states in Berlin on the 3rd and 4th of December. More than 50 participants from radios, TV, daily and special press attended this ninth event of 'Information on Environment' in Berlin. Leading scientists from research institutes of the former GDR, the Federal Environmental Agency and the GSF-research centre for environment and heath gave papers on the predominant environmental problems in the new federal states. This first part deals with water pollution, waste water treatment, drinking water supply, environmental problems of lignite mining, radiation pollution in the Erzgebirge; forest damage research and special armament wastes and waste problems in general. (orig.) [de

  15. Humble beginnings: Current trends, state perspectives, and hallmarks of humility

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Lyubomirsky, S

    2013-01-01

    After decades of neglect, research in humility is finally turning a corner. Within the past few years, investigators have articulated two promising strategies to overcome methodological concerns - namely, using personality judgments and designing humility "stress tests" to elicit humility-relevant behavior. We also highlight an alternative perspective of humility that has not yet gained much attention: the investigation of humility as a state, which helps to understand what humility actually ...

  16. Design of optimized RC-CR filters for current-pulse operation of fission counters and high sensitivity fission counters for high gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lorenzo, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    A calculational procedure was developed to design RC-CR filters for processing current pulses from fission counters in a gamma background ranging from 10 5 to 6 x 10 6 R/hr. The effects of noise from the gamma background and the input preamplifier and of the time constant of the fission counter and input cable were studied. Analytical results were in close agreement with experimental data. A pole-zero network was examined as a means of compensating for the time constant of the fission counter and input cable, but its improvement was insignificant. The procedure was expanded to design a high sensitivity, gamma--tolerant fission counter (approximately 10 counts sec -1 nv -1 at 10 5 R/hr), and the result was a conceptual design with a performance almost equal to a recently developed high temperature fission counter

  17. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  18. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Gil, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  19. The Current State of Medical Malpractice in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Benjamin A; Coogan, Christopher L

    2015-07-01

    Medical malpractice can present an unwelcome professional, emotional, and economic burden to the practicing urologist. To date, there is a paucity of data specific to urologic malpractice in the literature. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify and evaluate recent studies related to urologic malpractice. We also analyzed 6249 closed urologic claims from the largest available specialty-specific data set gathered by Physician Insurers Association of America from 1985 to 2012. The resulting comprehensive review seeks to raise awareness of current trends in the malpractice environment specific to urologic surgery while also helping urologists identify opportunities for risk management and improved patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Current state and prospects of high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun', L.B.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical research into high energy physics is subordinated to the only goal, ie., discovering the fundamental physical laws of Nature. Currently, the quantum field theory has been formulated of electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions, ie., three of the four basic interactions. Efforts are exerted to develop a unified theory of all interactions including the quantum gravitation theory. The following problems are reviewed: fundamental principles, fundamental particles, electromagnetic interactions, weak interactions, strong interactions, scalars, technicolor and new TeV range physics, grand unification, superunification, astrophysics and cosmology, new stable particles, and new types of far-reaching interactions. (Ha)

  1. The current state of bearing surfaces in total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpura, A; Kendoff, D; Board, T N

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed the literature on the currently available choices of bearing surface in total hip replacement (THR). We present a detailed description of the properties of articulating surfaces review the understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of existing bearing couples. Recent technological developments in the field of polyethylene and ceramics have altered the risk of fracture and the rate of wear, although the use of metal-on-metal bearings has largely fallen out of favour, owing to concerns about reactions to metal debris. As expected, all bearing surface combinations have advantages and disadvantages. A patient-based approach is recommended, balancing the risks of different options against an individual's functional demands.

  2. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schraml

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques.

  3. [Video game and internet addiction. The current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, F; Mößle, T; Arnaud, N; Rumpf, H-J

    2013-05-01

    The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In DSM-5, nine criteria are proposed for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder. The focus is currently on video games as most studies have been done in this field. Prevalence estimations are difficult to interpret due to the lack of standard diagnostic measures and result in a range of the frequency of Internet addiction between 1 % and 4.2 % in the general German population. Rates are higher in younger individuals. For computer game addiction prevalence rates between 0.9 % and 1.7  % can be found in adolescents. Despite substantial comorbidity among those affected current research points to addictive media use as a stand-alone disorder.

  4. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  5. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraml, Christina; Kaufmann, Sascha; Rempp, Hansjoerg; Syha, Roland; Ketelsen, Dominik; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques. PMID:26854169

  6. Current state of the art of vision based SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naveed; Fofi, David; Ainouz, Samia

    2009-02-01

    The ability of a robot to localise itself and simultaneously build a map of its environment (Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping or SLAM) is a fundamental characteristic required for autonomous operation of the robot. Vision Sensors are very attractive for application in SLAM because of their rich sensory output and cost effectiveness. Different issues are involved in the problem of vision based SLAM and many different approaches exist in order to solve these issues. This paper gives a classification of state-of-the-art vision based SLAM techniques in terms of (i) imaging systems used for performing SLAM which include single cameras, stereo pairs, multiple camera rigs and catadioptric sensors, (ii) features extracted from the environment in order to perform SLAM which include point features and line/edge features, (iii) initialisation of landmarks which can either be delayed or undelayed, (iv) SLAM techniques used which include Extended Kalman Filtering, Particle Filtering, biologically inspired techniques like RatSLAM, and other techniques like Local Bundle Adjustment, and (v) use of wheel odometry information. The paper also presents the implementation and analysis of stereo pair based EKF SLAM for synthetic data. Results prove the technique to work successfully in the presence of considerable amounts of sensor noise. We believe that state of the art presented in the paper can serve as a basis for future research in the area of vision based SLAM. It will permit further research in the area to be carried out in an efficient and application specific way.

  7. Worksite health promotion research: challenges, current state and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Bauer

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.

    Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.

    Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.

    Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.

  8. Medicines Regulation in Africa: Current State and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndomondo-Sigonda, Margareth; Miot, Jacqueline; Naidoo, Shan; Dodoo, Alexander; Kaale, Eliangiringa

    2017-01-01

    Sound regulatory systems are critical for protecting public health against use of medical products which do not meet international standards of quality, safety and efficacy. This review provides a summary of the current status of National Medicines Regulatory Authorities (NMRAs) in Africa, and various initiatives that have been established to improve their performance. All countries in Africa (except Sahrawi Republic), have NMRAs but their organizational set-up and functionality is variable. Some are located within Ministries of Health and others are semi-autonomous. There is progressive improvement in regulatory capacity, particularly in quality control and post-marketing surveillance, pharmacovigilance and clinical trials oversight. The African Vaccines Regulatory Forum, African Medicines Regulatory Harmonization Initiative, Network of Official Medicines Control Laboratories and WHO Prequalification Scheme have helped countries strengthen their regulatory capacities. The potential establishment of the African Medicines Agency (AMA) in 2018 is an opportunity to improve NMRAs' capacity in Africa.

  9. Current state of the art and future of myectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoub, Magdi H; Afifi, Ahmed; Saad, Hesham; Aguib, Heba; ElGuindy, Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Surgical relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) requires more than septal myectomy. The procedure is currently the gold standard for all symptomatic HCM patients except those with comorbidities. The operation requires an individualized approach to restore the sophisticated functions of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) without injury to the surrounding vital structures. The procedure should be tailored to deal with all the varied components of the obstruction including fibrous trigones, accessory tissues, and papillary muscle fusion. Preoperative multimodality imaging and numerical modeling combined with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are essential to define existing anomalies as well as assess the adequacy of the repair. The mitral valve can be conserved in virtually all patients. The operation can be conducted with very low mortality and morbidity with predictable good outcomes both in the short and long term. Nevertheless, surgical relief of LVOTO is still grossly underused.

  10. [The current state of the brain-computer interface problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurkhay, V A; Aleksandrova, E V; Potapov, A A; Goryainov, S A

    2015-01-01

    It was only 40 years ago that the first PC appeared. Over this period, rather short in historical terms, we have witnessed the revolutionary changes in lives of individuals and the entire society. Computer technologies are tightly connected with any field, either directly or indirectly. We can currently claim that computers are manifold superior to a human mind in terms of a number of parameters; however, machines lack the key feature: they are incapable of independent thinking (like a human). However, the key to successful development of humankind is collaboration between the brain and the computer rather than competition. Such collaboration when a computer broadens, supplements, or replaces some brain functions is known as the brain-computer interface. Our review focuses on real-life implementation of this collaboration.

  11. The concept of electronegativity. The current state of the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasov, Artem R; Galkin, Vladimir I; Zueva, Ekaterina M; Cherkasov, Rafael A

    1998-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the current ideas about atomic and group electronegativities and the trends in the development of the concept of electronegativity are analysed. Attention is concentrated on the latest approaches to the definition of electronegativity - the concept of 'orbital' electronegativities and the density functional theory. A procedure is proposed for the determination of 'inductive' electronegativities, which permits a correct theoretical calculation of the electronegativity of a substituent from the electronegativities of individual atoms and the steric structure. It is shown that the approach developed has a series of important advantages - for example, it makes it possible to calculate the group electronegativities of isomeric substituents avoiding the principle of the equalisation of electronegativities. A survey of literature data and generalisation of the method proposed by the authors have made it possible to formulate the concept of electronegativity as an unchanging fundamental immanent characteristic of a chemical element. The bibliography includes 222 references.

  12. Current state and trend of radiation regulation system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori

    2004-01-01

    Japanese regulation system for safety against radiation essentially started from 'Atomic Energy Basic Law' enacted in 1955 and 'Law Concerning Prevention of Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotopes, etc' enacted in 1957, has been regarded as a central rule for radiation protection and safety. Related laws and regulations have been enacted together with their revision. Radiation Council, established in the Science and Technology Agency in 1962 and now belonging to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, has deliberated basically on International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) statements for legal revision and has set up working groups for current problems. Activities of the groups have concerned ICRP Publication 60 (1990) and later related publications for incorporating the principle into laws as to concepts of dose limits, effective dose, and then of exemption and exclusion. International status of the Japanese regulation, problems and tasks in the regulation are also commented. (N.I.)

  13. The current and ideal state of anatomic pathology patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen Spencer

    2014-01-01

    An anatomic pathology diagnostic error may be secondary to a number of active and latent technical and/or cognitive components, which may occur anywhere along the total testing process in clinical and/or laboratory domains. For the pathologist interpretive steps of diagnosis, we examine Kahneman's framework of slow and fast thinking to explain different causes of error in precision (agreement) and in accuracy (truth). The pathologist cognitive diagnostic process involves image pattern recognition and a slow thinking error may be caused by the application of different rationally-constructed mental maps of image criteria/patterns by different pathologists. This type of error is partly related to a system failure in standardizing the application of these maps. A fast thinking error involves the flawed leap from image pattern to incorrect diagnosis. In the ideal state, anatomic pathology systems would target these cognitive error causes as well as the technical latent factors that lead to error.

  14. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  15. Precarious Employment in the Vologda Oblast: Current State and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Mikhailovich Panov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of precarious employment in Russian regions. Today, the socio-economic sciences lack a single concept of precarious employment applicable to Russian conditions. Despite the considerable amount of scientific and practical works of domestic and foreign authors on the issue of precarious employment, the criteria of its statistical evaluation as applied to Russian conditions have not been determined. At the same time, the development of precarious employment threatens the country’s socio-economic welfare, because it creates the risk of unwanted effects such as poor employment, hidden and open unemployment, lower labor productivity, degradation of human capital, etc. The paper provides a brief review of research on the problem stated, and defines precarious employment. The author makes an attempt to determine and substantiate the list of indicators available in official statistics for assessing precarious employment in the region. The study allocates three blocks of indicators: indicators of institutional regulation, conditions of employment and functioning of the labor market. Based on these indicators, the author analyzes the status and trends of precarious work in the Vologda Oblast in the period from 2001 to 2015. In some cases, the author presents a comparative analysis of the data for the Russian Federation and Northwestern Federal District. The analysis has helped identify positive and negative changes in the field of precarious employment in the Vologda Oblast. In particular, the author identifies the following problems: an increase in the share of those employed in the informal sector, a relative increase in the number of the working poor, an almost three-fold growth of overdue debts on wages in comparable prices per worker. On the basis of this analysis, the author identifies the directions of the state policy that can help reduce precarious employment: development of information

  16. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Solenoidal Magnetic Field I: Weak Magnetic Field Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D., Startsev, E. A., Sefkow, A. B., Davidson, R. C.

    2008-10-10

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite- length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to infuence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ωce > ωpeβb, where ωce = eβ/mec is the electron gyrofrequency, ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, and βb = Vb/c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement.

  17. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Solenoidal Magnetic Field I: Weak Magnetic Field Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Davidson, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite-length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to influence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ω ce ∼> ω pe β b , where ω ce = eB/m e c is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β b = V b /c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement

  18. Non-heart-beating donation: current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Diaz, J; Alvarez, J; del Barrio, M R; Balibrea, J L

    2004-09-01

    The use of non-heart-beating donors (NHBD) helps us to deal with the problem of the organ shortage. In addition to difficulties with legal and ethical acceptability, there are concerns regarding medical safety, which prevent the widespread use of these donors. To make optimum use of this potential organ supply, the ischemic injury that occurs after a period of warm ischemia needs to be reversed. To minimize the warm ischemia time, once the subject is declared dead, most centers commence in situ cold perfusion via a femoral access or a rapid aortic cannulation. This usually occurs within minutes of arriving at the emergency department, before the next of kin have been notified of the patient's death. The European experience of kidney transplantation from NHBD shows promising results. The long-term outcomes are similar to HBD kidneys notwithstanding a higher rate of delayed graft function, which seems not to affect the long-term survival of these kidneys. In summary, NHBD may have an important impact on the large discrepancy that exists between the organ supply and the demand. Current data suggest that the results may be further improved by better patient selection and retrieval team organization.

  19. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Current Therapeutic State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Lebastchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC is a rare, aggressive malignancy that generally conveys a poor prognosis. Currently, surgical resection is considered the lone curative treatment modality. In addition, the low prevalence of ACC has limited effective clinical trial design to develop evidence-based approaches to ACC therapy. The proper role of radio- and chemotherapy treatment for ACC is still being defined. Similarly, the molecular pathogenesis of ACC remains to be fully characterized. Despite these challenges, progress has been made in several areas. After years of refinement, an internationally accepted staging system has been defined. International collaborations have facilitated increasingly robust clinical trials, especially regarding agent choice and patient selection for chemotherapeutics. Genetic array data and molecular profiling have identified new potential targets for rational drug design as well as potential tumor markers and predictors of therapeutic response. However, these advances have not yet been translated into a large outcomes benefit for ACC patients. In this paper, we summarize established therapy for ACC and highlight recent findings in the field that are impacting clinical practice.

  20. PHYLLOID TUMORS OF MAMMARY GLANDS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Zikiryakhodzhaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phylloid (leaf-shaped breast tumors are a rare disease and constitute 0.3–0.5% of all breast tumors. Due to the rare frequency of occurrence, as well as the small number of randomized studies that have been conducted on this pathology, there is currently no standardized approach to the diagnosis and treatment of phylloid tumors. The reports about these rare cases appearing in the literature are, as a rule, descriptive, which only emphasizes the difficulty of differential diagnosis, the development of the correct tactics for treating such patients. In connection with the rarity, it is very difficult to diagnose correctly this pathology, which requires a highly qualified doctor as a diagnostician in the initial contact with such a patient, and a pathologist doctor who establishes the final morphological diagnosis. Often, leaf-shaped tumors are mistaken for mammary fibroadenomas. Such difficulties in correct diagnosis in the preoperative period can lead to errors in the planning of treatment. Also, the recommendations for the treatment of patients with this diagnosis are not fully understood, since up to now there are no accepted treatment standards in both Russian and foreign recommendations. Due to the fact that this pathology of mammary glands is rare, the principles of treatment are based on small retrospective studies and clinical observations. In this review, we will discuss the results of major retrospective studies, including data on epidemiology, etiology, diagnostic approach, strategies and results of treatment of this complex group of breast pathologies.

  1. The human proteome project: current state and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrain, Pierre; Aebersold, Ruedi; Archakov, Alexander; Bairoch, Amos; Bala, Kumar; Beretta, Laura; Bergeron, John; Borchers, Christoph H; Corthals, Garry L; Costello, Catherine E; Deutsch, Eric W; Domon, Bruno; Hancock, William; He, Fuchu; Hochstrasser, Denis; Marko-Varga, György; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Sechi, Salvatore; Snyder, Michael; Srivastava, Sudhir; Uhlén, Mathias; Wu, Cathy H; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Paik, Young-Ki; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2011-07-01

    After the successful completion of the Human Genome Project, the Human Proteome Organization has recently officially launched a global Human Proteome Project (HPP), which is designed to map the entire human protein set. Given the lack of protein-level evidence for about 30% of the estimated 20,300 protein-coding genes, a systematic global effort will be necessary to achieve this goal with respect to protein abundance, distribution, subcellular localization, interaction with other biomolecules, and functions at specific time points. As a general experimental strategy, HPP research groups will use the three working pillars for HPP: mass spectrometry, antibody capture, and bioinformatics tools and knowledge bases. The HPP participants will take advantage of the output and cross-analyses from the ongoing Human Proteome Organization initiatives and a chromosome-centric protein mapping strategy, termed C-HPP, with which many national teams are currently engaged. In addition, numerous biologically driven and disease-oriented projects will be stimulated and facilitated by the HPP. Timely planning with proper governance of HPP will deliver a protein parts list, reagents, and tools for protein studies and analyses, and a stronger basis for personalized medicine. The Human Proteome Organization urges each national research funding agency and the scientific community at large to identify their preferred pathways to participate in aspects of this highly promising project in a HPP consortium of funders and investigators.

  2. Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stöcker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available UAVs—unmanned aerial vehicles—facilitate data acquisition at temporal and spatial scales that still remain unachievable for traditional remote sensing platforms. However, current legal frameworks that regulate UAVs present significant barriers to research and development. To highlight the importance, impact, and diversity of UAV regulations, this paper provides an exploratory investigation of UAV regulations on the global scale. For this, the methodological approach consists of a research synthesis of UAV regulations, including a thorough literature review and a comparative analysis of national regulatory frameworks. Similarities and contrasting elements in the various national UAV regulations are explored including their statuses from the perspectives of past, present, and future trends. Since the early 2000s, countries have gradually established national legal frameworks. Although all UAV regulations have one common goal—minimizing the risks to other airspace users and to both people and property on the ground—the results reveal distinct variations in all the compared variables. Furthermore, besides the clear presence of legal frameworks, market forces such as industry design standards and reliable information about UAVs as public goods are expected to shape future developments.

  3. Current state and recent developments of child psychiatry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Xixi

    2015-01-01

    China has a population of 1.3 billion, of which 238 million are children under age 15. The rapid economic development and social reforms that have taken place in recent years all had a great influence on child and adolescent mental health. Though a nationwide prevalence study for child and adolescent mental disorders in China is lacking, several regional studies have shown the prevalence of mental disorders in children to be close to the worldwide prevalence of 20%. This article reviews the current status of Chinese child psychiatry, the prevalence of specific disorders in China and the influence of culture on the diagnosis and treatment of child and adolescent mental disorders. Several important social issues are also explored in detail, including the one child policy and left-behind children of migrating workers. Changes in family structures along with the growing competitions in life have weakened the traditional social support system. As a result childhood behavioral problems, mood disorders in young college students, substance abuse and youth suicide are all increasing in China. Many who suffer from mental disorders are not adequately cared for because the scarcity of qualified service providers and pathways to care. This article also lists some challenges and possible solutions, including the multidisciplinary and culture sensitive service model for child mental health. Relevant laws, policies and regulations are also introduced.

  4. The French Accelerometer Network (RAP): Current state in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.; Pequegnat, C.; Souriau, A.; Dominique, P.; Regnier, M.

    2007-01-01

    France is a country of moderate seismicity but, due to dense urbanized and industrial areas, the seismic risk is significant. Furthermore, recent developments in numerical and semi-empirical methods requires a good knowledge of several parameters. The mission of the French accelerometer network programme (RAP-Reseau Accelerometrique Permanent) is to expand and modernize significantly the acquisition and application of French accelerometer data (both strong and weak motion) in order to improve earthquake related research and public safety from earthquakes. This network is the result of co-operative efforts including academic institutions (INSU-CNRS, Universities of Grenoble, Nice, Strasbourg, Toulouse, IPG Paris) and several state agencies (BRGM, CEA, IRSN, LCPC). Since 1995, around 120 stations have been installed in some seismic areas of France. This network also includes specific research actions (site effects, building monitoring, deep borehole). Other French accelerometer stations devoted to strong motion recording are also associated to the network. All data are archived and freely distributed in a database center, data being available in SAC, ASCII and SEED format. (authors)

  5. Current state of seagrass ecosystem services: Research and policy integration

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Frau, A.

    2017-10-12

    Seagrasses contribute to the maintenance of human wellbeing. However certain aspects of their role as ecosystem service (ES) providers remain understudied. Here, we synthesise the state of seagrass ES (SGES) research and policy implications. Additionally, we recommend ways in which SGES research can be integrated in to policy design, by drawing lessons from the case of Blue Carbon (BC). SGES research suffers from three main biases: a geographical bias, SGES has been restricted to chartered seagrass areas; a type of service research bias, provisioning and regulating services have received extensive attention while cultural services remain understudied; a type of discipline bias, the ecological aspects of SGES have been well documented while economic and social aspects remain in comparison understudied. These are particularly important, as an understanding of the social and economic considerations of the provision of ES is fundamental to facilitate its integration into policy frameworks. Lessons drawn from the operationalization process of BC show the reoccurrence of certain aspects that have enabled the integration of BC into policy. These aspects are grouped under 4 different categories. From the analysis of these elements we draw lessons that could facilitate the operationalization of other ecosystem services and their incorporation into management policy frameworks.

  6. Current state of web accessibility of Malaysian ministries websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmi, Aidi; Mohamad, Rosli

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Malaysian public institutions have progressed considerably on website and portal usage, web accessibility has been reported as one of the issues deserves special attention. Consistent with the government moves to promote an effective use of web and portal, it is essential for the government institutions to ensure compliance with established standards and guidelines on web accessibility. This paper evaluates accessibility of 25 Malaysian ministries websites using automated tools i.e. WAVE and Achecker. Both tools are designed to objectively evaluate web accessibility in conformance with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) and United States Rehabilitation Act 1973 (Section 508). The findings reported somewhat low compliance to web accessibility standard amongst the ministries. Further enhancement is needed in the aspect of input elements such as label and checkbox to be associated with text as well as image-related elements. This findings could be used as a mechanism for webmasters to locate and rectify errors pertaining to the web accessibility and to ensure equal access of the web information and services to all citizen.

  7. Current state of utilization of nuclear sources for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatnansky, J.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heat from nuclear power sources is considered as the basic trend of development in district heating within the framework of the long-term prospective plan of the development of the fuel and power complex in the CSSR. Of the total consumption of heat in the year 2005 (648,000 TJ), nuclear power units are to deliver 54,000 TJ. At present, heat is being generated by the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant and supplied to Trnava, and a heat duct is being built from this plant to Leopoldov and Hlohovce, and prospectively to Bratislava. The Dukovany nuclear power plant is expected to supply heat to Brno, the Mochovce nuclear power plant to Levice and Nitra, and the Temelin nuclear power plant to Ceske Budejovice. Other nuclear power plants will in the future also supply heat (Kecerovce, Blahutovice and Opatovice). The technical and economic evaluation is tabulated of heat deliveries from all said nuclear power plants. It is stated that after the year 2000, AST 500 nuclear heating plants should be deployed for supplying heat to areas out of reach of nuclear power plants and reconstructed fossil-fuel power plants. (Z.M.). 2 tabs

  8. The Current State of Additive Manufacturing in Wind Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Margaret [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Palmer, Sierra [Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI), , Worcester, MA (United States); Lee, Dominic [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, Dale Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Wind power is an inexhaustible form of energy that is being captured throughout the U.S. to power the engine of our economy. A robust, domestic wind industry promises to increase U.S. industry growth and competitiveness, strengthen U.S. energy security independence, and promote domestic manufacturing nationwide. As of 2016, ~82GW of wind capacity had been installed, and wind power now provides more than 5.5% of the nation’s electricity and supports more than 100,000 domestic jobs, including 500 manufacturing facilities in 43 States. To reach the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) 2015 Wind Vision study scenario of wind power serving 35% of the nation's end-use demand by 2050, significant advances are necessary in all areas of wind technologies and market. An area that can greatly impact the cost and rate of innovation in wind technologies is the use of advanced manufacturing, with one of the most promising areas being additive manufacturing (AM). Considering the tremendous promise offered by advanced manufacturing, it is the purpose of this report to identify the use of AM in the production and operation of wind energy systems. The report has been produced as a collaborative effort for the DOE Wind Energy Technology Office (WETO), between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).

  9. Poliomyelitis in the United States: A Historical Perspective and Current Vaccination Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farizo, Karen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines poliomyelitis in the United States by reviewing clinical manifestations and outcomes, history, recent epidemiologic characteristics, characteristics of currently available vaccines, controversies surrounding vaccination policy, current poliovirus vaccination recommendations, and prospects for worldwide eradication. Poliomyelitis remains…

  10. COMPARISON OF NATURAL BACKGROUND DOSE RATES FOR RESIDENTS OF THE AMARGOSA VALLEY, NV, TO THOSE IN LEADVILLE, CO, AND THE STATES OF COLORADO AND NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Moeller and L. C. Sun

    2006-01-01

    In the latter half of 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) published a Proposed Rule (40 CFR Part 197) for establishing a dose rate standard for limiting radionuclide releases from the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository during the time period from 10 4 to 10 6 years after closure. The proposed standard was based on the difference in the estimated total dose rate from natural background in the Amargosa Valley and the ''average annual background radiation'' for the State of Colorado. As defined by the USEPA, ''natural background radiation consists of external exposures from cosmic and terrestrial sources, and internal exposures from indoor exposures to naturally-occurring radon''. On the basis of its assessments, the USEPA estimated that the difference in the dose rate in the two identified areas was 3.5 mSv y -1 . The purpose of this review was to provide an independent evaluation and review of this estimate. One of the first observations was that, because site-specific dose rate measurements for the Amargosa Valley ''were not available'', the dose rates for various sources of natural background in that area, used by the USEPA in its assessment, were based on modifications of the average values for the State of Nevada. A second observation was that the conversion factor applied in estimating the dose rates due to exposures to indoor radon and its decay products was a factor of 2 higher than the currently accepted value. Further review revealed that site-specific data for many natural background sources in the Amargosa Valley were available. One particularly important observation was that about 91% of the residents of that area live in mobile homes which, due to their construction and design, have indoor radon concentrations comparable to, or less than, those outdoors. For that reason, alone, the USEPA estimate of the average dose rate for residents of the Amargosa Valley, due to indoor radon, was not valid. For purposes

  11. Current state of development of the European Drought Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, S.; de Jager, A.; Kurnik, B.; Laguardia, G.; Magni, D.; Nitcheva, O.; Rossi, S.; Weissteiner, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC) is developing the prototype of the European Drought Observatory (EDO) for drought forecasting, detection, and monitoring in Europe. EDO is conceived as a web-based information system (http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu), integrating information from various sources and disciplines relevant to monitor and detect droughts throughout Europe. The prototype is currently performing the pre-operational production of drought indices using meteorological information, modelled hydrological parameters, and remote sensing data. In particular, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) shows the general precipitation status according to the historical average in the predefined period. SPI in monthly step is calculated for the 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months averaging periods. Soil moisture estimations are produced daily by the LISFLOOD hydrological model, along with their anomalies and seven days forecasts. Two satellite remote sensing drought indicators are produced: Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (fAPAR) anomalies. NDWI 10-day composites are obtained daily from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, while fAPAR anomalies are calculated from 10-day composites delivered by the European Space Agency (ESA) and estimated from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) data. All these drought indicators are made available online for visualization and querying by means of a map viewer based on University of Minnesota MapServer and Oracle. The tool generates maps of the different indicators and provides functionalities to browse the maps, query the data, produce graphs, and output the maps in various formats.

  12. Nabarlek Traditional Owners' perspective on the current state of revegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, B.

    2001-01-01

    Aboriginal people derive their identity from an ancestral relationship to land mediated through a traditional form of land title. This relationship to country determines a group or individual's place in the complex of law, ceremony, culture, responsibility, status, marriage, income etc (often collectively termed 'culture'), that is the essential corollary of traditional land tenure. In effect, country bestows upon Traditional Owners a place in the scheme of things as do social and occupational status, racial origin, financial position etc upon the Westerner. It is a critical link in the preservation of Aboriginal society, and pressure on or erosion of this relationship imposes further strain on the significant burden to Traditional Owners of cultural maintenance. In order that disenfranchisement does not occur because of the mining process, Traditional Owners must have a guarantee that the country will be returned to a pre-mining state as far as possible. This is certainly a significant part of the initial discussion of any consent (under the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act, 1976). Among the worst outcomes for Aboriginal people involved in the mining process is the return to them of degraded lands, an indication to them that the Westerners who initially placed such great value on it no longer do so. These people are left with the mess or the scraps and perhaps for them the least traumatic course is to walk away, to pretend that the mined-out country is of no importance to them and that there is no pain. The rehabilitation of Nabarlek is in some ways a special case. There was a fairly long period from 1988 to 1994 in which nothing happened. At the final decision to close the operation much of the infrastructure was no longer useable. Initially there was ascribed certain value to plant and equipment items that did not really eventuate for Traditional Owners. Significant portions of the remnant infrastructure was handed back to Traditional Owners

  13. One meson π0 final state study in neutral current neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comtet, Alain.

    1975-01-01

    Neutral pion production by weak neutral currents was observed in the CERN-GARGAMELLE neutrino experiment. The aim of the analysis was the measurement of the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) of neutral-current to charged-current cross sections. The background due to neutron interactions was computed. A lower and an upper limit of the background was obtained. Bounds on the ratios R(ν) and R(antiν) are given using these limits: 0.11 [fr

  14. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Khan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical exposure is a major health problem globally. Poison control centers (PCCs play a leading role both in developed and developing countries in the prevention and control of poisonous chemical exposures. In this study, we aimed to assess the current state of PCCs in Pakistan and highlight capacity building needs in these centers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of the two registered PCCs was done during August – December 2011. Necessary services of the PCCs were evaluated and the data were recorded on a predesigned checklist. Results: Both PCCs are affiliated to a tertiary care hospital. Clinical services to poisoned patients were available 24 hours a day / 7 days a week. Information on common local products was available to poison center staff. Both centers were involved in undergraduate and post graduate teaching. Telephone poison information service was not available in either of centers. There was a limited capacity for qualitative and analytical toxicology. Common antidotes were available. There were limited surveillance activities to capture toxic risks existing in the community and also a deficiency was observed in chemical disaster planning. Conclusion: PCCs in Pakistan need capacity building for specialized training in toxicology, toxicovigilance, chemical disaster planning, analytical laboratory tests and telephone service for consultation in poisoning cases.   How to cite this article: Khan NU, Mir MU, Khan UR, Khan AR, Ara J, Raja K, et al. The Current State of Poison Control Centers in Pakistan and the Need for Capacity Building. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:31-5.

  15. United States high-level radioactive waste management program: Current status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.

    1992-01-01

    The inventory of spent fuel in storage at reactor sites in the United States is approximately 20,000 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM). It is increasing at a rate of 1700 to 2100 MTHM per year. According to current projections, by the time the last license for the current generation of nuclear reactors expires, there will be an estimated total of 84,000 MTHm. No commercial reprocessing capacity exists or is planned in the US. Therefore, the continued storage of spent fuel is required. The majority of spent fuel remains in the spent fuel pools of the utilities that generated it. Three utilities are presently supplementing pool capacity with on-site dry storage technologies, and four others are planning dry storage. Commercial utilities are responsible for managing their spent fuel until the Federal waste management system, now under development, accepts spent fuel for storage and disposal. Federal legislation charges the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the US Department of Energy (DOE) with responsibility for developing a system to permanently dispose of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. We are developing a waste management system consisting for three components: a mined geologic repository, with a projected start date of 2010; a monitored retrievable storage facility (MRS), scheduled to begin waste acceptance in 1998; and a transportation system to support MRS and repository operations. This paper discusses the background and framework for the program, as well as the current status and plans for management of spent nuclear fuel at commercial utilities; the OCRWM's development of a permanent geologic repository, an MRS, and a transportation system; the OCRWM's safety approach; the OCRWM's program management initiatives; and the OCRWM's external relations activities

  16. Modelling the background current with partial least squares regression and transference of the calibration models in the simultaneous determination of Tl and Pb by stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, A; Ortiz, M C

    1998-05-01

    With the aim of carrying out a calibration transfer for routine analysis, partial least squares (PLS) regression was successfully applied to simultaneously determine thallium and lead by stripping voltammetry when an interfering background current is present. The presence of a significant blank signal that overlaps the thallium peak, together with the overlapping thallium and lead signals were both suitably modelled by this multivariate regression technique. Moreover, once the PLS models are built, the piecewise direct standardization (PDS) method can be used to transfer these models over time in such a way that the number of calibration samples that will be needed in future determinations is reduced from 25 to 9, without a loss of quality in the analyses. The mean of the relative errors (in absolute values) obtained for thallium and lead is below 4.94% and 3.19%, respectively.

  17. Temperature impact on the tunnel fet off-state current components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, Paula Ghedini Der; Martino, Márcio Dalla Valle; Filho, Sebastião Gomes dos Santos; Martino, João Antonio; Rooyackers, Rita; Leonelli, Daniele; Claeys, Cor

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the temperature impact on the off-state current components is analyzed through numerical simulation and experimentally. First of all, the band-to-band tunneling is studied by varying the underlap in the channel/drain junction, leading to an analysis of the different off-state current components. For pTFET devices, the best behavior for off-state current was obtained for higher values of underlap (reduced BTBT) and at low temperatures (reduced SRH and TAT). At high temperature, an unexpected off-state current occurred due to the thermal leakage current through the drain/channel junction. Besides, these devices presented a good performance when considering the drain current as a function of the drain voltage, making them suitable for analog applications.

  18. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...analytical closed-form analysis performed by Michael P. Perry and Thomas B. Jones (ref. 4). Two- dimensional (2D) finite element steady state analyses

  19. Mentoring and New Teacher Induction in the United States: A Review and Analysis of Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, current practices were reviewed in mentoring and induction across three large states--New York, Texas, and California--and one small state, Utah. Patterns and trends are described in the United States, program results and evolving views of mentoring are discussed, gaps in the research literature are identified, and the future of…

  20. Emission of β+ Particles Via Internal Pair Production in the 0+ – 0+ Transition of 90Zr: Historical Background and Current Applications in Nuclear Medicine Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D'Arienzo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available 90Y is traditionally considered as a pure β– emitter. However, the decay of this radionuclide has a minor branch to the 0+ first excited state of 90Zr at 1.76 MeV, that is followed by a β+/β– emission. This internal pair production has been largely studied in the past because it is generated by a rare electric monopole transition (E0 between the states 0+/0+ of 90Zr. The positronic emission has been recently exploited for nuclear medicine applications, i.e. positron emission tomography (PET acquisitions of 90Y-labelled radiopharmaceuticals, widely used as therapeutic agents in internal radiation therapy. To date, this topic is gaining increasing interest in the radiation dosimetry community, as the possibility of detecting β+ emissions from 90Y by PET scanners may pave the way for an accurate patient-specific dosimetry. This could lead to an explosion in scientific production in this field. In the present paper the historical background behind the study of the internal pair production of the 0+/0+ transition of 90Zr is presented along with most up to date measured branch ratio values. An overview of most recent studies that exploit β+ particles emitted from 90Y for PET acquisitions is also provided.

  1. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.

  2. Current status of Marek's disease in the United States and worldwide based on a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John R; Gimeno, Isabel M

    2013-06-01

    A questionnaire was widely distributed in 2011 to estimate the global prevalence of Marek's disease (MD) and gain a better understanding of current control strategies and future concerns. A total of 112 questionnaires were returned representing 116 countries from sources including national branch secretaries of the World Veterinary Poultry Association, vaccine, breeder, and production companies, as well as MD researchers from various backgrounds. Each country listed on a questionnaire was recorded as an individual entry, and on average there were 2.0 entries per country (median 1; range 1-13). All flock types were listed as having increased MD incidence during the last 10 yr in close to 50% of countries by at least one respondent, with the majority of these countries located within French-speaking Africa, Eastern Europe, East Asia, and South America. Only 18 countries (16%) indicated increasing MD incidence was likely due to higher virulent strains, while the presence of other immunosuppressive diseases was a more common explanation. Increased use of CVI988/Rispens was cited as the most likely reason for decreasing MD incidence in 49 countries (42%). In the United States, MD incidence has continued to decrease during the last 10 yr, reaching a record low in 2007 (0.0008%) as measured by leukosis condemnation rates in broilers at slaughter. However, a recent increase of leukosis condemnations in North Carolina and Pennsylvania needs to be closely monitored.

  3. The study of different attention states under different background music based on Event-Related potential analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper conducts the research on the attention sates based on ERP analysis when the subjects are under the quiet, flute and zither background music. The amplitude and latency of P300 are analyzed. The results show that there are greater P300 amplitudes and smaller P300 latencies of CZ, PZ, OZ and CP3 in music background than those in quiet background. The PCA and ICA achieve to select the effective data components and the head model is reconstructed. The active degree of brain areas are analyzed by using the source location methods. The result shows that the brain’s excitement is very obvious under the Bach's flute background. The study also indicates that some background music might help to improve the attention.

  4. A Brief Review of Current Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Potential Solid State Battery Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Solid state battery technology has recently garnered considerable interest from companies including Toyota, BMW, Dyson, and others. The primary driver behind the commercialization of solid state batteries (SSBs) is to enable the use of lithium metal as the anode, as opposed to the currently used carbon anode, which would result in ~20% energy density improvement. However, no reported solid state battery to date meets all of the performance metrics of state of the art liquid electrolyte lithiu...

  5. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitation...... introduced by system delays. Moreover, a proportional resonant voltage controller is designed according to Nyquist criterion taking into account application requirements. Experimental tests performed in compliance with the UPS standards verify the theoretical analysis.......In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...

  6. Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber Reinforced Concrete: Current State-of-the-Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 17 -1 9 Performance Assessment of Discontinuous Fibers in Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art G eo te...Discontinuous Fibers in Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete : Current State-of-the-Art Charles A. Burchfield Geotechnical and...Modeling for Force Protection” ERDC/GSL TR-17-19 ii Abstract Fiber-reinforced concretes have been developed and tested for years. During this

  7. High-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focia, Ronald Jeffrey

    2017-08-22

    A high-voltage, high-current, solid-state closing switch uses a field-effect transistor (e.g., a MOSFET) to trigger a high-voltage stack of thyristors. The switch can have a high hold-off voltage, high current carrying capacity, and high time-rate-of-change of current, di/dt. The fast closing switch can be used in pulsed power applications.

  8. Current distribution across type II superconducting films: a new vortex-free critical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talantsev, E F; Pantoja, A E; Crump, W P; Tallon, J L

    2018-01-29

    The current distribution across the thickness of a current-carrying rectangular film in the Meissner state was established long ago by the London brothers. The distribution across the width is more complicated but was later shown to be highly non-uniform, diverging at the edges. Accordingly, the standard view for type II superconductors is that vortices enter at the edges and, with increasing current, are driven inwards until they self-annihilate at the centre, causing dissipation. This condition is presumed to define the critical current. However we have shown that, under self-field (no external field), the transport critical current is a London surface current where the surface current density equals the critical field divided by λ, across the entire width. The critical current distribution must therefore be uniform. Here we report studies of the current and field distribution across commercial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 conductors and confirm the accepted non-uniform distribution at low current but demonstrate a radical crossover to a uniform distribution at critical current. This crossover ends discontinuously at a singularity and calculations quantitatively confirm these results in detail. The onset of self-field dissipation is, unexpectedly, thermodynamic in character and the implied vortex-free critical state seems to require new physics.

  9. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin A. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-10-03

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States.

  10. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  11. Minimal invasive single-site surgery in colorectal procedures: Current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Michele

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimally invasive single-site (MISS surgery has recently been applied to colorectal surgery. We aimed to assess the current state of the art and the adequacy of preliminary oncological results. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Medline, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. Keywords used were "Single Port" or "Single-Incision" or "LaparoEndoscopic Single Site" or "SILS™" and "Colon" or "Colorectal" and "Surgery". Results: Twenty-nine articles on colorectal MISS surgery have been published from July 2008 to July 2010, presenting data on 149 patients. One study reported analgesic requirement. The final incision length ranged from 2.5 to 8 cm. Only two studies reported fascial incision length. There were two port site hernias in a series of 13 patients (15.38%. Two "fully laparoscopic" MISS procedures with preparation and achievement of the anastomosis completely intracorporeally are reported. Future site of ileostomy was used as the sole access for the procedures in three studies. Lymph node harvesting, resection margins and length of specimen were sufficient in oncological cases. Conclusions: MISS colorectal surgery is a challenging procedure that seems to be safe and feasible, but the existing clinical evidence is limited. In selected cases, and especially when an ileostomy is planned, colorectal surgery may be an ideal indication for MISS surgery leading to a no-scar surgery. Despite preliminary oncological results showing the feasibility of MISS surgery, we want to stress the need to standardize the technique and carefully evaluate its application in oncosurgery under ethical committee control.

  12. State of the art of cattle dehorning in the EU Member States. A quantitative survey of the current practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozzi, G.; Gottardo, F.; Brscic, M.; Contiero, B.; Irrgang, N.; Knierim, U.; Pentelescu, O.; Windig, J.J.; Mirabito, L.; Kling Eveillard, F.; Dockes, A.C.; Veissier, I.; Velarde, A.; Fuentes, C.; Dalmau, A.; Winckler, C.

    2015-01-01

    A survey was carried out to describe the extent and current practice of cattle disbudding/dehorning in the EU Member States. Disbudding was defined as removal of horns in calves of up to 2 months of age, whereas dehorning was defined as removal of horns in older animals. Specific questionnaires were

  13. Research on State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation using current integration based on temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Shen, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Zeng, G. J.; Liu, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional current integral method for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation has an unusable estimation accuracy because of the current measuring error. This paper proposed a closed-loop temperature compensation method to improve the SOC estimation accuracy of current integral method by eliminating temperature drift. Through circuit simulation result in Multisim, the stability of current measuring accuracy is improved by more than 10 times. In a designed 70 charge-discharge experimental circle, the SOC estimation error with temperature compensation had 30 times less than error in normal situation without compensation.

  14. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  15. The Study of the Role of the Background Languages in Third Language Acquisition. the State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to give an up-to-date picture of study of the role of the background languages (the first language, L1, and the second language, L2) in third language (L3) acquisition, mainly in the two areas of vocabulary and syntax. These seem to be the two linguistic levels on which there has so far been most research concerning…

  16. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G; Kumar, Sunil; Yee, Wee L; Wakie, Tewodros

    2018-02-17

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified. The objectives of this study were to 1) identify the environmental factors associated with G. molesta current distribution, 2) predict the current distribution of G. molesta in Washington State (WA) using Maxent and Climex models, 3) identify those areas within WA best suited for establishment of pest free zones, areas of low pest prevalence, and pest free production areas, and 4) identify regions most at risk for further expansion of G. molesta populations as a function of climate change. The current models predicted a small portion of central WA is suitable to support G. molesta, which is consistent with observed distributions. However, climate change models predict that more areas will become suitable for the pest. These results indicate that action should be taken to monitor and reduce current populations of G. molesta to stem its potential expansion into the major commercial tree fruit production areas in the state.

  17. Multiple states and hysteresis in a two-layer loop current type system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, J.; Sheremet, V.

    2017-12-01

    Rotating table experiments are considered of a two-layer loop current type or gap-leaping system. Such experiments are representative of oceanic regions including the Kuroshio current crossing the Luzon Strait, the Gulf of Mexico Loop Current, the Northeast Chanel of the Gulf of Maine where Scotian shelf water leaps directly from Browns bank to Georges Bank and more. Systems such as these are known to admit two dominant states: leaping across the gap or penetrating into the gap forming a loop current. Which state the system will assume and when transitions between states will occur are open problems. We show that such systems admit multiple steady states with hysteresis when the strength of the current is varied. When the state of the system is viewed in a parameter space representing inertia and vorticity constraint, the system is found to be characterized by a cusp topology of solutions. The existence of such dynamics in two-layer quasi-geostrophic systems has significant implications for oceanographic predictability.

  18. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  19. Integrated and Inclusive Higher Education in Vladimir State University: Current State and Development Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yegorov I.N.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the many years of experience in methodological support and training at the Center of Professional Education for the Disabled and at the “Inclusive Education” Research and Educational Center of the Vladimir State University. At these centers the work is aimed at establishing a system of continuous higher inclusive education for persons with hearing and visual impairments. The paper focuses on the issues concerning the organization of educational process and the adaptation of learning materials for students with hearing and visual impairments; it addresses the problem of creating a system of academic support for students with disabilities and providing psychological and educational assistance to individuals with hearing and visual impairments in the system of higher education.

  20. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.

  1. High magnetic field science and its application in the United States current status and future directions

    CERN Document Server

    National Research Council of the National Academies

    2013-01-01

    The Committee to Assess the Current Status and Future Direction of High Magnetic Field Science in the United States was convened by the National Research Council in response to a request by the National Science Foundation. This report answers three questions: (1) What is the current state of high-field magnet science, engineering, and technology in the United States, and are there any conspicuous needs to be addressed? (2) What are the current science drivers and which scientific opportunities and challenges can be anticipated over the next ten years? (3) What are the principal existing and planned high magnetic field facilities outside of the United States, what roles have U.S. high field magnet development efforts played in developing those facilities, and what potentials exist for further international collaboration in this area? A magnetic field is produced by an electrical current in a metal coil. This current exerts an expansive force on the coil, and a magnetic field is "high" if it challenges the str...

  2. What is the current state of scientific knowledge with regard to seasonal and decadal forecasting?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Doug M; Scaife, Adam A; Kirtman, Ben P

    2012-01-01

    Environmental factors, such as the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme weather events, are important drivers of migration and displacement of people. There is therefore a growing need for regional climate predictions for the coming seasons to decades. This paper reviews the current state of the art of seasonal to decadal climate prediction, focusing on the potential sources of skill, forecasting techniques, current capability and future prospects. (letter)

  3. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals Matthew C. Weed Specialist in Foreign...Policy Legislation January 15, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R43760 A New Authorization for Use of Military Force...about the President’s authority to use military force against the Islamic State. Some efforts began near the end of the 113 th Congress to consider

  4. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with periodic sample injection: Steady-state and non-steady-state operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2014-12-19

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation consists of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and is carried out in series alternating between normal phase and reversed phase operation. The performance of the MDM technique can be improved by the sample re-injection between each of the dual-mode steps. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the MDM CCC with periodic sample injection, which can be used to simulate these processes and select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two possible methods of the MDM separation with periodic sample injection are considered: 1 - steady-state separation: the duration of the flow periods of the phases is kept constant for all the cycles and the steady-state regime is achieved after a certain number of cycles. 2 - non-steady-state separation with variable duration of phase elution steps. It is shown that proper selection of the duration of phase flow times allows to reach complete separation of solutes in continuous steady-state operation mode even in a low efficiency column. This mode of operation provides both high productivity and high resolution. The non-steady-state method with variable duration of phase elution steps offers several options to split a mixture into groups of compounds and/or concentrate target compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Complex state variable- and disturbance observer-based current controllers for AC drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Mehmet; Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    , extracted by a disturbance observer and then injected into the current controller. In this study, a revised version of a disturbance observer-based controller and a well known complex variable model-based design with a single set of complex pole are compared in terms of design aspects and performance......In vector-controlled AC drives, the design of current controller is usually based on a machine model defined in synchronous frame coordinate, where the drive performance may be degraded by both the variation of the machine parameters and the cross-coupling between the d- and q-axes components...... of the stator current. In order to improve the current control performance an alternative current control strategy was proposed previously aiming to avoid the undesired cross-coupling and non-linearities between the state variables. These effects are assumed as disturbances arisen in the closed-loop path...

  6. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  7. Current State of Environmental Education in Mexico: A Study on Practices, Audiences, Settings, and Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Iga, Jose; Shaw, William

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education in Mexico takes many forms and plays a wide variety of roles. Through an online survey, we addressed the need to present a wider picture on the current state of environmental education practices in Mexico: Who is engaging in environmental education practices, how important is it for their organization, who are they…

  8. Cryptography in the Cloud Computing: the Current State and Logical Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey Nikolaevich Kyazhin; Andrey Vladimirovich Moiseev

    2013-01-01

    The current state of the cloud computing (CC) information security is analysed and logical problems of storage and data transmission security at CC are allocated. Cryptographic methods of data security in CC, in particular, lightweight cryptography and the cryptography based on bilinear pairings are described.

  9. Cryptography in the Cloud Computing: the Current State and Logical Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolaevich Kyazhin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the cloud computing (CC information security is analysed and logical problems of storage and data transmission security at CC are allocated. Cryptographic methods of data security in CC, in particular, lightweight cryptography and the cryptography based on bilinear pairings are described.

  10. A partition-free approach to transient and steady-state charge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Gianesello, Céline; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    We construct a non-equilibrium steady state and calculate the corresponding current for a mesoscopic Fermi system in the partition-free setting. To this end we study a small sample coupled to a finite number of semi-infinite leads. Initially, the whole system of quasi-free fermions is in a grand-...

  11. Atlas of current and potential future distributions of common trees of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; Betsy J. Hale; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    1999-01-01

    This atlas documents the current and possible future distribution of 80 common tree species in the Eastern United States and gives detailed information on environmental characteristics defining these distributions. Also included are outlines of life history characteristics and summary statistics for these species. Much of the data are derived from Forest Inventory and...

  12. Current State and Development of Tourism in the Republic of Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina G. Kvekveskiri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the current state of tourism business in the republic of Abkhazia, which has strong links to politics in the region. The settlement of politic issues will lead the to a perspective development of tourism industry in the short run.

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United States: Goals, Current Status, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Bruder, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    The current status and future directions of early childhood inclusion in the United States are discussed from the perspective of 4 key goals: access, accommodations and feasibility, developmental progress, and social integration. Recommendations are put forward to promote inclusion goals emphasizing administrative structures, personnel…

  14. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M.; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H.; Manning, Lydia K.; Kunkel, Suzanne R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level…

  15. A Sociological Demographic Analysis of the Current State and Evolution of the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golod, S. I.

    2008-01-01

    Starting in the 1960s, researchers in many countries have expressed concern over the state of crisis of monogamy, addressing the phenomenon as a direct function of global social transformations. The author finds it is difficult to agree with the negative assessment of the current status of the family, noting that centuries of evidence confirm the…

  16. Current State of History of Psychology Teaching and Education in Argentina: An Empirical Bibliometric Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Catriel; Ostrovsky, Ana Elisa; Di Doménico, María Cristina

    2018-01-01

    This study is an empirical analysis of the field's current state in Argentinian universities. Bibliometric parameters were used to retrieve the total listed texts (N = 797) of eight undergraduate history courses' syllabi from Argentina's most populated public university psychology programs. Then, professors in charge of the selected courses (N =…

  17. Planning for Development in the Arab Gulf States: A content Analysis of Current Development Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper analyses current development plans published by the GCC states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) in order to explore the region’s future growth trajectory: what barriers to growth are foreseen and how can they be anticipated; what...

  18. The Current State of Empirical Support for the Pharmacological Treatment of Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, John S.; Mitchell, Angela D.; Segool, Natasha

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of evidence for the psychopharmacological treatment of children diagnosed with selective mutism within the context of its link to social anxiety disorder. An increased focus on potential medication treatment for this disorder has resulted from significant monetary and resource limitations in typical practice,…

  19. Aggregate Cost of Mammography Screening in the United States: Comparison of Current Practice and Advocated Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Donoghue, Cristina; Eklund, Martin; Ozanne, Elissa M.; Esserman, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Enormous controversy exists over how often and at what age to implement mammography screening. Given that scientific evidence supports less frequent screening, the cost differences among advocated screening policies should be better understood. Objective To estimate the aggregate cost of mammography screening in the United States in 2010 and compare the costs of screening strategies as currently practiced or recommended by professional organizations. Design A simulation model was developed to estimate the cost of mammography screening in 2010 as actually practiced. Three screening strategies were then modeled: annual (40–84 year-olds), biennial (50–69 year-olds), and USPSTF guidelines (biennial 50–74 year-olds, personalized Mammography annually, biennially, or following USPSTF guidelines. Measurements Cost of screening per year, using lower bound of costs (Medicare reimbursement). Results The estimated cost of mammography screening in the US in 2010 under actual practice was $7.8 billion, with approximately 70% of women participating. The simulated cost of screening the target of 85% of women was $10.1 billion for annual screening, $2.6 billion for biennial screening, and $3.5 billion for USPSTF guidelines. The largest drivers of cost (in order) were: screening frequency, percent women screened, cost of a mammogram, percent digital mammography, and percent women recalled. Limitations Cost estimates and assumptions used in the model were intended to be conservative. Conclusions The cost of mammography varies by almost $8 billion per year based on screening strategy, even using the lower bound of costs. The USPSTF recommended biennial screening based on similar efficacy to annual frequency and would allow substantial resources to be saved. Personalized risk assessment could be used to identify higher-risk women who might benefit from more frequent, younger initiation, and longer duration of screening and prevention. Given that a population

  20. When can time-dependent currents be reproduced by the Landauer steady-state approximation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel; Chen, Liping; Gu, Bing; Franco, Ignacio

    2017-05-07

    We establish well-defined limits in which the time-dependent electronic currents across a molecular junction subject to a fluctuating environment can be quantitatively captured via the Landauer steady-state approximation. For this, we calculate the exact time-dependent non-equilibrium Green's function (TD-NEGF) current along a model two-site molecular junction, in which the site energies are subject to correlated noise, and contrast it with that obtained from the Landauer approach. The ability of the steady-state approximation to capture the TD-NEGF behavior at each instant of time is quantified via the same-time correlation function of the currents obtained from the two methods, while their global agreement is quantified by examining differences in the average currents. The Landauer steady-state approach is found to be a useful approximation when (i) the fluctuations do not disrupt the degree of delocalization of the molecular eigenstates responsible for transport and (ii) the characteristic time for charge exchange between the molecule and leads is fast with respect to the molecular correlation time. For resonant transport, when these conditions are satisfied, the Landauer approach is found to accurately describe the current, both on average and at each instant of time. For non-resonant transport, we find that while the steady-state approach fails to capture the time-dependent transport at each instant of time, it still provides a good approximation to the average currents. These criteria can be employed to adopt effective modeling strategies for transport through molecular junctions in interaction with a fluctuating environment, as is necessary to describe experiments.

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF RUSSIAN-CHINESE COOPERATION IN THE SPHERE OF ENERGY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas resources are the main energy resources consumed in the world, so the oil and gas industry has the economic and political aspects, profoundly inuencing the development of modern international economic and political relations.This article analyzes the current state of Russian-Chinese cooperation in the sphere of energy resources on the basis of statistical data on the volume of bilateral trade and energy compared with the data of other countries exporting energy resources. Also assessed the prospects for Russian-Chinese cooperation in the sphere of energy resources on the background of signicant world events and the Sino-Russian relations over the last few years (for example, the impact on the Russian-Chinese cooperation events such as rising US energy independence and solutions IMF to include the yuan in the basket SDR.

  2. The Current Status of the State Financial Audit in Ukraine and Prospects of its Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolbneva Deniza V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the current status and determining the main results of conducting the State financial audit by the State audit service in Ukraine, as well as developing proposals as to ways of its improvement in view of the experience of the world’s leading countries and the requirements of international standards in this sphere of relations. The main indicators and results, which characterize the status of conducting by bodies of the State Audit Service of the State financial audit on key directions, were considered. The obtained data indicate that the State financial audit is taking place in the direction corresponding to international practice. Today, however, because of a number of problems and declarative provisions related to the organization and conduct of the State financial audit, it cannot fully implement all its functional capabilities and tasks. Directions of improvement and transformation of the State financial audit have been proposed. The prospect for further research is development of a holistic mechanism for the functioning of the State financial audit, which will unite all its directions at different levels and its participants.

  3. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  4. Implications of rf current drive theory for next step steady-state tokamak design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    Two missions have been identified for a next-step tokamak experiment in the United States. The more ambitious Mission II device would be a superconducting tokamak, capable of doing long-pulse ignition demonstrations, and hopefully capable of also being able to achieve steady-state burn. A few interesting lines of approach have been identified, using a combination of logical design criteria and parametric system scans [SC85]. These include: (1) TIBER: A point-design suggested by Lawrence Livermore, that proposes a machine with the capability of demonstrating ignition, high beta (10%) and high Q (=10), using high frequency, fast-wave current drive. The TIBER topology uses moderate aspect ratio and high triangularity to achieve high beta. (2) JET Scale-up. (3) Magic5: It is argued here that an aspect ratio of 5 is a magic number for a good steady-state current drive experiment. A moderately-sized machine that achieves ignition and is capable of high Q, using either fast wave or slow wave current drive is described. (4) ET-II: The concept of a highly elongated tokamak (ET) was first proposed as a low-cost approach to Mission I, because of the possibility of achieving ohmic ignition with low-stress copper magnets. We propose that its best application is really for commercial tokamaks, using fast-wave current drive, and suggest a Mission II experiment that would be prototypical of such a reactor

  5. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  6. The Current Mental State of School Students in Online Learning Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalevskaya E.V.,

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of a study of actual mental state of high school students who are active subjects of career self-determination in terms of interactive learning. There are four groups of methods of interactive training: psychological training, art therapy, cognitive, and game training. The main task, which is solved by a researcher in a formative experiment with the use of each of these methods, is to establish significant differences in health, activity and mood as the indicators of current mental state of students in the classroom. As a result, we found that the most significant improvements in the current mental state takes place when using art and game therapy, so these techniques should be used in groups of students with low motivation to work, as well as in the adverse psychological climate. Less significant was the improvement of the current mental state after psychological training due to the fact that this method allow to update and seek solutions to the most important intrapersonal issues and require the implementation of a deeper reflection

  7. Degradation of Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors Under Steady-State Bias Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors under steady-state bias conditions was investigated at temperatures from 105 oC to 170 oC and voltages up to two times the rated voltage. Variations of leakage currents with time under highly accelerated life testing (HALT) and annealing, thermally stimulated depolarization currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. During HALT the currents increase gradually up to three orders of magnitude in some cases, and then stabilize with time. This degradation is reversible and annealing can restore the initial levels of leakage currents. The results are attributed to migration of positively charged oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide films that diminish the Schottky barrier at the MnO2/Ta2O5 interface and increase electron injection. A simple model allows for estimation of concentration and mobility of oxygen vacancies based on the level of current degradation.

  8. Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L.; Alejos, O.; Martínez, E.

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls (DDW) in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, for different values of both perpendicular field and longitudinal current excitation associated to the Spin-Hall effect, has been studied, taking into account different values of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This study has been carried out with the help of the q-Φ one-dimensional model and micromagnetic simulations. We have found that Walker breakdown may be avoided by applying a certain threshold current, even though the inverse effect is also possible. We have also found that, for particular values of field and current, the magnetization within the DDW experiences an abrupt change of orientation, which provokes a change on the contribution of current to the terminal DDW velocity. This effect disappears for sufficiently strong DMI, as it is expected from the model. - Highlights: • Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current have been reported. • Field-like torques and Slonczewskii-like torques due to spin-orbit interactions have been considered. • The response is associated with the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • An asymmetric behavior arising from the existence of degenerate states is shown. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  9. Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Tejerina, L., E-mail: luis.st@ee.uva.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, O. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Martínez, E. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37011 Salamanca (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls (DDW) in ultrathin ferromagnetic strips with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, for different values of both perpendicular field and longitudinal current excitation associated to the Spin-Hall effect, has been studied, taking into account different values of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). This study has been carried out with the help of the q-Φ one-dimensional model and micromagnetic simulations. We have found that Walker breakdown may be avoided by applying a certain threshold current, even though the inverse effect is also possible. We have also found that, for particular values of field and current, the magnetization within the DDW experiences an abrupt change of orientation, which provokes a change on the contribution of current to the terminal DDW velocity. This effect disappears for sufficiently strong DMI, as it is expected from the model. - Highlights: • Steady-state configurations of Dzyaloshinskii domain walls driven by field and current have been reported. • Field-like torques and Slonczewskii-like torques due to spin-orbit interactions have been considered. • The response is associated with the rotation of the domain wall inner magnetization. • An asymmetric behavior arising from the existence of degenerate states is shown. • The asymmetry results in different travelled distances and/or terminal speeds.

  10. Abrupt millennial variability and interdecadal-interstadial oscillations in a global coupled model: sensitivity to the background climate state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France); England, Matthew H. [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Verdiere, Alain Colin de; Huck, Thierry [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France)

    2012-07-15

    The origin and bifurcation structure of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions under steady external solar forcing and in the absence of atmospheric synoptic variability is studied by means of a global coupled model of intermediate complexity. We show that the origin of Dansgaard-Oeschger type oscillations in the model is caused by the weaker northward oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic basin. This is in agreement with previous studies realized with much simpler models, based on highly idealized geometries and simplified physics. The existence of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions during glacial times can therefore be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of the negative temperature-advection feedback. This is confirmed through a series of numerical experiments designed to explore the sensitivity of the bifurcation structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels under glacial boundary conditions. Contrasting with the cold, stadial, phases of millennial oscillations, we also show the emergence of strong interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic sector during warm interstadials. The instability driving these interdecadal-interstadial oscillations is shown to be identical to that found in ocean-only models forced by fixed surface buoyancy fluxes, that is, a large-scale baroclinic instability developing in the vicinity of the western boundary current in the North Atlantic. Comparisons with modern observations further suggest a physical mechanism similar to that driving the 30-40 years time scale associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. (orig.)

  11. Application of a rule-based model to estimate mercury exchange for three background biomes in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J.S.; Weisberg, P.J.; Pillai, R.; Ericksen, J.A.; Kuiken, T.; Lindberg, S.E.; Zhang, H.; Rytuba, J.J.; Gustin, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystems that have low mercury (Hg) concentrations (i.e., not enriched or impactedbygeologic or anthropogenic processes) cover most of the terrestrial surface area of the earth yet their role as a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg is uncertain. Here we use empirical data to develop a rule-based model implemented within a geographic information system framework to estimate the spatial and temporal patterns of Hg flux for semiarid deserts, grasslands, and deciduous forests representing 45% of the continental United States. This exercise provides an indication of whether these ecosystems are a net source or sink for atmospheric Hg as well as a basis for recommendation of data to collect in future field sampling campaigns. Results indicated that soil alone was a small net source of atmospheric Hg and that emitted Hg could be accounted for based on Hg input by wet deposition. When foliar assimilation and wet deposition are added to the area estimate of soil Hg flux these biomes are a sink for atmospheric Hg. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  12. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  13. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction and Transcendental Meditation: Current State of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Holt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the current state of meditation research, specifically focusing on mindfulness-based stress reduction and transcendental meditation. Despite significant methodological problems with the studies reported to date on the subject, there is consistent evidence that meditation can produce changes in the nervous system and physiology of the meditator, and can help with various psychological markers of well-being. Regarding improvement in specific clinical diseases, research is generally mixed and preliminary. Strong recommendations cannot be made based on current evidence, and further studies are needed. In general, there is a stronger body of evidence supporting mindfulness-based stress reduction than for transcendental meditation.

  14. Current State-of-the-Art MRI for Comprehensive Evaluation of Potential Living Liver Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhaveri, Kartik S; Guo, Lijun; Guimarães, Luís

    2017-07-01

    This review focuses on the role of state-of-the-art MRI-based techniques for comprehensive evaluation of living donors providing single-visit assessment of the liver vasculature via MR angiography, of the biliary tract via conventional T2-weighted MR cholangiography and T1-weighted gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR cholangiography, and of hepatic steatosis via T2*-corrected multiecho chemical shift-based water-fat separation MRI and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho MR spectroscopy. By using current state-of-the-art techniques, MRI can provide a one-stop-shop method for evaluation of the potential living liver donors.

  15. CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FISHERIES SECTOR OF UKRAINE IN THE CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. Hrytsyniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Fisheries has a strategic importance for supplying the population with food, while the sectors of the national economy with raw materials, for strengthening the country’s position in the international arena, for preserving spatial and national integrity of Ukraine, plays an important role in the restoration of natural resources and in the increase in employment. In recent years, fisheries sector of Ukraine is in a severe, protracted economic crisis. Considering its socio-economic and strategic importance for the state, there is a task for developing an effective policy for fisheries development in Ukraine that defines the relevance of the research and practical importance of its results. Thus, a compilation and analysis of the existing information on the current state and development of fisheries sector in the crisis period will allow a deeper understanding of problems in the fisheries sector in Ukraine and finding quick solutions. The main goal of the state policy in the field of fisheries in Ukraine has to be meeting the needs of the population in fish and fish products by creating conditions for effective operations and development of aquaculture and fishing enterprises. Findings. The article reviews the current state of the development of fisheries sector in Ukraine, consumption, catch, processing of fish and seafood, dynamics of fish product exports and imports, legislative and regulatory framework of fisheries sector, state of the implementation of WTO and EU requirements, as well as finding ways for the fisheries sector out from the crisis. Originality. This work is a compilation of the information on the current state of fisheries sector development in Ukraine. The information is provided in the form of a coherent presentation of information on the current state of fisheries sector in Ukraine, both in the domestic and foreign markets. Practical Value. The fact that the fisheries sector of Ukraine is still in a depressive state

  16. CURRENT STATE OF WATER BIORESOURCES OF THE VOLGA AND CASPIAN SEA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Vasileva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issues of current degraded state of aquatic biological resources of the Volga-Caspian Sea basin and provides specific data on commercial stocks of fish. The main reasons for decrease in natural stocks of ichthyofauna are regulation and pollution of the spawning rivers, adverse hydrological conditions, injudicious hunting, poaching pressure. To improve the state of natural stocks of fish it is necessary to increase their reproduction and implement measures to restore and rational exploitation of aquatic bioresources of the Volga- Caspian Sea basin.

  17. Background Checks for all Gun Buyers and Gun Violence Restraining Orders: State Efforts to Keep Guns from High-Risk Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, Jon S; Alcorn, Ted; Horwitz, Joshua

    2017-03-01

    There were more than 36,000 firearm-related deaths in the U.S. in 2015. Under federal law, a background check is required only for gun purchases from licensed dealers. Research suggests that some persons prohibited from owning a gun turn to private sellers, including those identified online, to attempt to obtain a firearm. State-level approaches to make it more difficult for high-risk persons to purchase or possess firearms include universal background check (UBC) and gun violence restraining order (GVRO) laws. UBC laws, on the books in 18 states as of the end of 2016, can reduce both homicide and suicide rates. After Colorado adopted a UBC law in 2013, the number of background checks conducted by private sellers for sales occurring at places other than gun shows steadily increased. GVRO laws give law enforcement and families the authority to petition a court to temporarily remove firearms from an individual who presents a danger to himself or others during times of crisis, regardless of whether that person has been diagnosed with a mental illness. California enacted a GVRO law in 2014. Data are emerging to suggest the effectiveness of GVRO-type laws at averting suicides and providing an entryway to services.

  18. THE CURRENT STATE OF LEGAL INSTITUTIONS PROTECTING THE RIGHTS OF JUVENILES IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Yulia Hafizovna DAVYDOVA

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the current state of the legislation on protection of the rights of under-aged. Much attention is paid to the formation of the juvenile justice system in the Russian Federation. We present problems related to law infringements by teenagers in various fields and their solutions, highlight the work and the development of juvenile courts in Russia, sum up the results of the implementation of juvenile technologies and their significance, gives the definition of the term «co...

  19. The Current State and TRL Assessment of Unattended and Left-Behind Object Detection Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Gagnon, Dr. Marc Lalonde , Computer Research Institute of Montreal (CRIM) The feedback from project partners: RCMP, TC, CATSA, DRDC, UK HomeOffice, FBI...The urrent tate and TRL ssessment of nattended and eft-ehind bject etection echnology Prepared by: M. Lalonde ,M...TR) July 2014 The Current State and TRL Assessment of Unattended and Left-Behind Object Detection Technology M. Lalonde , M. Derenne, L. Gagnon, D

  20. Localized excitations in nonlinear complex systems current state of the art and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Frantzeskakis, Dimitri; Karachalios, Nikos; Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Palmero-Acebedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    The study of nonlinear localized excitations is a long-standing challenge for research in basic and applied science, as well as engineering, due to their importance in understanding and predicting phenomena arising in nonlinear and complex systems, but also due to their potential for the development and design of novel applications. This volume is a compilation of chapters representing the current state-of-the-art on the field of localized excitations and their role in the dynamics of complex physical systems.

  1. Current state and near-term prospects for development of the transport logistics market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Karpenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article has studied the current state of the transport services market in Ukraine, characterized features of the favorable geopolitical position of the country, identified segments of the market of transport and logistics services in Ukraine, made an analysis of the dynamics of freight transportation by land transport, determined its capacity in money terms and calculated the component share of this type of activity in the country’s GDP.

  2. The Current State and Future Development of MOT Education for Semiconductor Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Yoichi; Hashizume, Tsuneo; Uno, Tadashi

    In this paper, the results of a preliminary survey on MOT conducted by a questionnaire are described so as to better deploy MOT education for SoC development engineers working for client companies of a consortium company established by eleven major Japanese semiconductor manufacturers. An overview of assessments of MOT is given, and the current state of MOT education supported by the consortium is documented, and a specific deployment plan is suggested.

  3. Glucoamylases production of Aspergillus niger in solid state fermentation using a continuous counter-current reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Varzakas, T. H.; Roussos, Sevastianos; Arvanitoyannis, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the continuous production of fungal biomass and glucoamylase by solid state fermentation (SSF) in a counter-current reactor adapted for this purpose. Pre-germinated conidia of Aspergillus niger were used as an inoculum, and sugarcane bagasse, embedded with a nutritive solution, was the solid support. The solids residence time distribution (RTD) was carried out by feeding one impule of blue-coloured humidified bagasse and its RTD was fixed at 20 h. This study demonstrated th...

  4. Spatially-Resolved Beam Current and Charge-State Distributions for the NEXT Ion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, James E.; Diamant, Kevin D.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Plume characterization tests with the 36-cm NEXT ion engine are being performed at The Aerospace Corporation using engineering-model and prototype-model thrusters. We have examined the beam current density and xenon charge-state distribution as functions of position on the accel grid. To measure the current density ratio j++/j+, a collimated Eprobe was rotated through the plume with the probe oriented normal to the accel electrode surface at a distance of 82 cm. The beam current density jb versus radial position was measured with a miniature planar probe at 3 cm from the accel. Combining the j++/j+ and jb data yielded the ratio of total Xe+2 current to total Xe+1 current (J++/J+) at forty operating points in the standard throttle table. The production of Xe+2 and Xe+3 was measured as a function of propellant utilization to support performance and lifetime predictions for an extended throttle table. The angular dependence of jb was measured at intermediate and far-field distances to assist with plume modeling and to evaluate the thrust loss due to beam divergence. Thrust correction factors were derived from the total doubles-to-singles current ratio and from the far-field divergence data

  5. Current and potential sustainable corn stover feedstock for biofuel production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Bliss, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Increased demand for corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a feedstock for cellulosic ethanol raises concerns about agricultural sustainability. Excessive corn stover harvesting could have long-term impacts on soil quality. We estimated current and future stover production and evaluated the potential harvestable stover amount (HSA) that could be used for biofuel feedstock in the United States by defining the minimum stover requirement (MSR) associated with the current soil organic carbon (SOC) content, tillage practices, and crop rotation systems. Here we show that the magnitude of the current HSA is limited (31 Tg y−1, dry matter) due to the high MSR for maintaining the current SOC content levels of soils that have a high carbon content. An alternative definition of MSR for soils with a moderate level of SOC content could significantly elevate the annual HSA to 68.7 Tg, or even to 132.2 Tg if the amount of currently applied manure is counted to partially offset the MSR. In the future, a greater potential for stover feedstock could come from an increase in stover yield, areal harvest index, and/or the total planted area. These results suggest that further field experiments on MSR should be designed to identify differences in MSR magnitude between maintaining SOC content and preventing soil erosion, and to understand the role of current SOC content level in determining MSR from soils with a wide range of carbon contents and climatic conditions.

  6. Assessment of "TIMELINE" for river floods in Japan based on geographical and societal backgrounds: Case studies in Japan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, S.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    "TIMELINE" is a tool that supports people in disaster cases. After "TIMELINE" was used effectively in the United States at Hurricane Sandy, it was introduced in Japan to apply for river flood cases. In terms of Japan, "TIMELINE" is a developing method. Therefore, the objective of our research is to contribute for the effective application of "TIMELINE" in Japan. To achieve our objective, we tried two steps. First, to understand the reason of "TIMELINE" making, we found the primal concept of "TIMELINE" by case study in the United States. In this part, by using bibliographic survey, we researched the history of disaster prevention acts in the United States and tried to find the root of "TIMELINE". Second, we extracted the difference of attitudes toward river floods between Japan and the United States with studying actual river flood cases. To catch issues with several aspects, we focused on geographical and societal backgrounds in both countries. About time scale of our research, we picked up from early 20th century to now. In this era, both Japan and the United States started to operate the modern approaches to river floods. As a result, we found that it might be important to recognize the difference of geographical and societal aspects between Japan and the United States for effective application of "TIMELINE". Our research would also contribute for effective application of "TIMELINE" on flash floods.

  7. Mixed states in bipolar disorder - changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, Felix; Stöver, Laura Apollonia; Sterzer, Philipp; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options. For pharmacological treatment of mixed states in total, there is still insufficient data from RCTs. However, there is some evidence for efficacy in mixed states from RCTs for atypical antipsychotics, especially olanzapine, aripiprazole and asenapine as well as mood stabilizers as valproate and carbamazepine. Mixed states are of a high clinical relevance and the DSM-5 criteria substantially reduced the diagnostic threshold. Besides advantages of a better characterization of patients with former DSM-IV-defined mixed episodes, disadvantages arise for example differential diagnoses with a substantial overlap in symptoms such as borderline personality disorders. Atypical antipsychotics, valproate and carbamazepine demonstrated efficacy in a limited sample of RCTs. The number of RCTs in the treatment of mixed states is highly limited. Furthermore, nearly all studies were funded by pharmaceutical companies which may lead to an underestimation of classical mood stabilizers such as lithium.

  8. SSAT State-of-the-Art Conference: Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Kim, Teresa; Kim, Joseph; McCarter, Martin D; Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Sicklick, Jason K

    2018-01-01

    The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery. Martin D. McCarter, MD of the University of Colorado discussed the current management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Kaitlyn J. Kelly, MD of the University of California, San Diego discussed the management of gastric carcinoid tumors. Jeffrey A. Norton of Stanford University discussed recent advances in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma including a focus on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Joseph Kim, MD of Stony Brook University discussed a systematic approach to minimally invasive gastrectomy for cancer. Joyce Wong, MD of Pennsylvania State University discussed the role for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC for gastric adenocarcinoma. This review provides gastrointestinal surgeons with a concise update on the current surgical management of gastric tumors.

  9. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma

  10. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma

  11. Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Kajtoch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles. These publications were then examined with respect to the distribution and taxonomy of infected hosts and diversity of Wolbachia found in beetles. Sequences of Wolbachia genes (16S rDNA, ftsZ were used for the phylogenetic analyses. Results The collected publications revealed that Wolbachia has been confirmed in 204 beetle species and that the estimated average prevalence of this bacteria across beetle species is 38.3% and varies greatly across families and genera (0–88% infected members and is much lower (c. 13% in geographic studies. The majority of the examined and infected beetles were from Europe and East Asia. The most intensively studied have been two groups of herbivorous beetles: Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Coleoptera harbor Wolbachia belonging to three supergroups: F found in only three species, and A and B found in similar numbers of beetles (including some doubly infected; however the latter two were most prevalent in different families. A total of 59% of species with precise data were found to be totally infected. Single infections were found in 69% of species and others were doubly- or multiply-infected. Wolbachia caused numerous effects on its beetle hosts, including selective sweep with host mtDNA (found in 3% of species, cytoplasmic incompatibility (detected in c. 6% of beetles and other effects related to reproduction or development (like male-killing, possible parthenogenesis or haplodiploidy

  12. Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotásková, Nela

    2018-01-01

    Background Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. Methods An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles. These publications were then examined with respect to the distribution and taxonomy of infected hosts and diversity of Wolbachia found in beetles. Sequences of Wolbachia genes (16S rDNA, ftsZ) were used for the phylogenetic analyses. Results The collected publications revealed that Wolbachia has been confirmed in 204 beetle species and that the estimated average prevalence of this bacteria across beetle species is 38.3% and varies greatly across families and genera (0–88% infected members) and is much lower (c. 13%) in geographic studies. The majority of the examined and infected beetles were from Europe and East Asia. The most intensively studied have been two groups of herbivorous beetles: Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Coleoptera harbor Wolbachia belonging to three supergroups: F found in only three species, and A and B found in similar numbers of beetles (including some doubly infected); however the latter two were most prevalent in different families. A total of 59% of species with precise data were found to be totally infected. Single infections were found in 69% of species and others were doubly- or multiply-infected. Wolbachia caused numerous effects on its beetle hosts, including selective sweep with host mtDNA (found in 3% of species), cytoplasmic incompatibility (detected in c. 6% of beetles) and other effects related to reproduction or development (like male-killing, possible parthenogenesis or haplodiploidy induction, and

  13. The current state and trends of the development of universities in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.B. Morhulets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the basis of social, political, economic, spiritual, and cultural development. Therefore, the study of the current state and trends of the development of Ukrainian universities is a significant factor of social and economic progress of the country.The paper reflects the general state of universities in Ukraine, in particular, the trends in dynamics: the number of students in terms of entry/graduation, sources of financing, education fields; the number of universities in the context of accreditation, types and forms of ownership; the number of outbound Ukrainian and inbound foreign students; quantitative and qualitative characteristics of teaching staff; spending on higher education and the cost of funding per student compared with other countries. The purpose of the study is the assessment of economic activity of higher educational establishments in Ukraine, the identification of problems and tendencies of their development in the context of national transformational processes in education and formation of the society of knowledge. The methodical base used in the study is analysis and synthesis, methods of comparison and generalization, extrapolation, index and graphical methods. The practical value of the study is based on the results of a thorough analysis of university activities. Such results reveal the current state and trends of the development of universities under conditions of higher education transformation in Ukraine and its integration into the European educational area. The results of research improve understanding of the state and problems of the universities and provide the foundations for further research in the field of the national education system development and for improving of the quality of young professionals’ training. The trends of the university development indicate that the reorganization of higher education which is being currently taken place, already results in the emergence of new competencies of

  14. Current drive studies for the ARIES steady-state tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, T.K.; Ehst, D.A.; Mandrekas, J.

    1994-01-01

    Steady-state plasma operating scenarios are designed for three versions of the ARIES reactor, using non-inductive current drive techniques that have an established database. R.f. waves, including fast and lower hybrid waves, are the reference drivers for the D-T burning ARIES-I and ARIES-II/IV, while neutral beam injection is employed for ARIES-III which burns D- 3 He. Plasma equilibria with a high bootstrap-current component have been used, in order to minimize the recirculating power fraction and cost of electricity. To maintain plasma stability, the driven current profile has been aligned with that of equilibrium by proper choices of the plasma profiles and power launch parameters. Except for ARIES-III, the current-drive power requirements and the relevant technology developments are found to be quite reasonable. The wave-power spectrum and launch requirements are also considered achievable with a modest development effort. Issues such as an improved database for fast-wave current drive, lower-hybrid power coupling to the plasma edge, profile control in the plasma core, and access to the design point of operation remain to be addressed. ((orig.))

  15. Past residence outside of the United States is associated with diet quality in adults currently residing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Poudrier, Jill; Waters, Nigel; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate healthy dietary factors in relation to prior residence outside the United States (US) among university-affiliated individuals currently residing in the US. Current diet information was collected via a 4-day food record and residential history data were collected by in-person interview for 114 individuals. Residence outside of the US at any point during the interviewee's life was associated with higher diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2005: 50.0 vs. 46.8) and lower added sugar intake (25.8 vs. 34.9 g/d). Concordance of residence as a child (≤12 years of age) and within the prior 5 years was more strongly associated with higher HEI-2005 score (52.7) than if childhood was outside of the US and recent within the US (47.1), compared with individuals who have only resided within the US (46.9). Results were similar when also accounting for self-reported current residence as permanent residence. Current diet quality, food groups, and nutrient intakes differed depending on where in the world region individuals resided as a child. Restricting the analyzes to a subgroup of individuals of younger age and similar education attenuated associations. Lower added sugar intake and higher overall diet quality were most consistently associated with residence outside of the US, and recent residence outside of the US may be more strongly associated than childhood residence. Some of these differences may be explained by demographic or socioeconomic factors. Future studies could evaluate explanatory factors for these observations, including detailed socioeconomic factors, exposure to diverse foods, and accessibility of processed foods. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. State-of-the-art report on the current status of methodologies for seismic PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    unlikely to exist at any other plant, even another similar plant. Sometimes the issue is site-related, and sometimes it is design-related. Also, even in areas where earthquakes are very uncommon phenomena, these types of accident sequences often appear as important contributors to the residual risk, typically because in such areas the attention given to designing nuclear stations against earthquakes is much less than in earthquake-prone areas. Given this background, it is obvious that no full-scope PSA can be considered complete without an examination of earthquakes. This report is a review of the methodology for conducting a seismic-PSA at a nuclear power station. The objective of this review is as follows: To provide an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the various sub-methodologies that comprise the overall seismic- PSA methodology for addressing the safety of nuclear power stations, plus an overview of the whole methodological picture. In preparing this review, the author has had in mind several categories of readers and users: policy-level decision-makers (such as managers of nuclear power stations and regulators of nuclear safety), seismic- PSA practitioners, and PSA practitioners more broadly. The review will concentrate on evaluating the extent to which today's seismic-PSA methodology produces reliable and useful results and insights, at its current state-of-the-art level, for assessing nuclear-power station safety. Also, this review paper will deal exclusively with seismic-PSA for addressing nuclear-power-station safety. Because the author is based in the U.S., it is natural that this review will contain more emphasis on U.S. experience than on experience in other countries. However, significant experience elsewhere is a major part of the basis for this evaluation. In summary, this report is an up-to-date review of the state-of-the-art of the methodologies for conducting a seismic- PSA at a nuclear power station, including the six sub-methodologies that

  17. Analysis of the background noise of field effect transistors in MOS complementary technology and application in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuville, E.

    1989-10-01

    A low noise amplifier for use in high energy physics is developed. The origin and the mechanisms of the noise in MOSFET transistors is carried out with the aim of minimizing such effects in amplifiers. The research is applied in the construction of a current-sensitive integrated amplifier. The time scale continuous filtering principle is used and allows the detection of particles arriving in the counter in a random distribution. The rules which must be taken into account in the construction of an analog integrated circuit are shown [fr

  18. Is current consumption excessive? A general framework and some indications for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R; Goulder, Lawrence H

    2007-10-01

    Many prior studies have explored the implications of human population growth and environmentally problematic technologies for biodiversity loss and other forms of environmental degradation. Relatively few, however, have examined the impacts of the level and composition of consumption. We offer a framework that shows how the level and composition of a society's total consumption relate to the uses of various forms of capital and to the sustainability of natural resources and human well-being. We relate the framework to two main approaches-top-down macro studies and bottom-up computer models-for measuring whether overall consumption in the United States satisfies a sustainability requirement. Existing top-down studies have shortcomings that bias their results toward optimism, and current computer simulation models, although strong on revealing biophysical outcomes, are limited in their ability to evaluate impacts on human well-being. Although some ambiguities arise in determining whether overall consumption in the United States is excessive, our conclusions regarding the composition of U.S. consumption are unambiguous. Distorted consumption patterns and associated production methods lead to excessively rapid natural resource depletion; greater conservation would yield gains to current and future generations that more than compensate for the sacrifices involved. Public policies that deal with the composition problem not only would help conserve natural resources and improve current welfare but also would reduce the costs of meeting the goal of sustainability.

  19. Status and current spent fuel storage practices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.

    1999-01-01

    Brief discussions are presented on the history and state of spent fuel generation by utilities that comprise the United States commercial nuclear power industry, the current situation regarding the Federal government's nuclear waste policy, and evolving spent fuel storage practices. These evolving spent fuel storage practices are the result of private sector initiatives, but appear to be influenced by various external factors. The paper is not intended to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the storage initiatives being conducted by the private sector. The focus, instead, is on the Federal government's role and activities related to spent fuel management. Although the Federal government has adopted a policy calling for deep geological disposal of spent fuel, the US Congress has recently begun to consider expanding that policy to include a centralized interim storage facility. In the absence of such an expanded policy, the Department of Energy has performed some preliminary activities that would expedite development of a centralized interim storage facility, if Congress were to enact such a policy. The Department's current activities with regard to developing a centralized interim storage facility, which are consistent with the current policy, are described in the paper. The paper also describes two important technical development activities that have been conducted by the Department of Energy to support improved efficiency in spent fuel management. The Department's activities regarding development of a burnup credit methodology, and a dry transfer system are summarized. (author)

  20. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel‐like compounds by biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Summary The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel‐like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally ‘green’ fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost‐intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by‐products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t‐butanol have been developed, which enhance by‐product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole‐cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as ‘microdiesel’, by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. PMID:21255288

  1. Current state and perspectives of producing biodiesel-like compounds by biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthoff, Stefan; Bröker, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2009-09-01

    The global demand for crude oil is expected to continue to rise in future while simultaneously oil production is currently reaching its peak. Subsequently, rising oil prices and their negative impacts on economy, together with an increased environmental awareness of our society, directed the focus also on the biotechnological production of fuels. Although a wide variety of such fuels has been suggested, only the production of ethanol and biodiesel has reached a certain economic feasibility and volume, yet. This review focuses on the current state and perspectives of biotechnological production of biodiesel-like compounds. At present by far most of the produced biodiesel is obtained by chemical transesterification reactions, which cannot meet the demands of a totally 'green' fuel production. Therefore, also several biotechnological biodiesel production processes are currently being developed. Biotechnological production can be achieved by purified enzymes in the soluble state, which requires cost-intensive protein preparation. Alternatively, enzymes could be immobilized on an appropriate matrix, enabling a reuse of the enzyme, although the formation of by-products may provide difficulties to maintain the enzyme activity. Processes in presence of organic solvents like t-butanol have been developed, which enhance by-product solubility and therefore prevent loss of enzyme activity. As another approach the application of whole-cell catalysis for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters, which is also referred to as 'microdiesel', by recombinant microorganisms has recently been suggested. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Current reversals and metastable states in the infinite Bose-Hubbard chain with local particle loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer-Emmanouilidis, M.; Sirker, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present an algorithm which combines the quantum trajectory approach to open quantum systems with a density-matrix renormalization-group scheme for infinite one-dimensional lattice systems. We apply this method to investigate the long-time dynamics in the Bose-Hubbard model with local particle loss starting from a Mott-insulating initial state with one boson per site. While the short-time dynamics can be described even quantitatively by an equation of motion (EOM) approach at the mean-field level, many-body interactions lead to unexpected effects at intermediate and long times: local particle currents far away from the dissipative site start to reverse direction ultimately leading to a metastable state with a total particle current pointing away from the lossy site. An alternative EOM approach based on an effective fermion model shows that the reversal of currents can be understood qualitatively by the creation of holon-doublon pairs at the edge of the region of reduced particle density. The doublons are then able to escape while the holes move towards the dissipative site, a process reminiscent—in a loose sense—of Hawking radiation.

  3. Muon: electron final states in neutrino interactions. [. nu. /sub. mu. / + p. -->. mu. + e + anything, cross section, ratio to charged-current events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bross, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    In an experiment carried out at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, eight candidates for the reaction ..nu../sub ..mu../ + N ..-->.. ..mu.. + e + anything were observed with a total background of 1.5 +- 0.6 events. The detector consisted of twenty-eight optical spark chambers interspersed with liquid and plastic scintillation counters. Events classified as muon--electron final states are required to have a long noninteracting straight track in conjunction with an electromagnetic shower characteristic of that produced by an electron. Background processes are discussed and the total muon--electron background calculated. The ratio of the number of muon--electron candidates to all charged current events, corrected for the percentage of the neutrino beam above threshold is R' = (sigma(..nu../sub ..mu../ + N ..-->.. ..mu.. + e + anything))/(sigma(..nu../sub ..mu../ + N ..-->.. ..mu.. + anything)) greater than or approximately 10/sup -2/. 47 references.

  4. Fed-state gastric media and drug analysis techniques: Current status and points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, Fotios; Kuiper, Jesse; Fotaki, Nikoletta

    2016-10-01

    Gastric fed state conditions can have a significant effect on drug dissolution and absorption. In vitro dissolution tests with simple aqueous media cannot usually predict drugs' in vivo response, as several factors such as the meal content, the gastric emptying and possible interactions between food and drug formulations can affect drug's pharmacokinetics. Good understanding of the effect of the in vivo fed gastric conditions on the drug is essential for the development of biorelevant dissolution media simulating the gastric environment after the administration of the standard high fat meal proposed by the FDA and the EMA in bioavailability/bioequivalence (BA/BE) studies. The analysis of drugs in fed state media can be quite challenging as most analytical protocols currently employed are time consuming and labour intensive. In this review, an overview of the in vivo gastric conditions and the biorelevant media used for their in vitro simulation are described. Furthermore an analysis of the physicochemical properties of the drugs and the formulations related to food effect is given. In terms of drug analysis, the protocols currently used for the fed state media sample treatment and analysis and the analytical challenges and needs emerging for more efficient and time saving techniques for a broad spectrum of compounds are being discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Energy Production Potential from Ocean Currents along the United States Coastline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Kevin

    2013-09-15

    Increasing energy consumption and depleting reserves of fossil fuels have resulted in growing interest in alternative renewable energy from the ocean. Ocean currents are an alternative source of clean energy due to their inherent reliability, persistence and sustainability. General ocean circulations exist in the form of large rotating ocean gyres, and feature extremely rapid current flow in the western boundaries due to the Coriolis Effect. The Gulf Stream system is formed by the western boundary current of the North Atlantic Ocean that flows along the east coastline of the United States, and therefore is of particular interest as a potential energy resource for the United States. This project created a national database of ocean current energy resources to help advance awareness and market penetration in ocean current energy resource assessment. The database, consisting of joint velocity magnitude and direction probability histograms, was created from data created by seven years of numerical model simulations. The accuracy of the database was evaluated by ORNL?s independent validation effort documented in a separate report. Estimates of the total theoretical power resource contained in the ocean currents were calculated utilizing two separate approaches. Firstly, the theoretical energy balance in the Gulf Stream system was examined using the two-dimensional ocean circulation equations based on the assumptions of the Stommel model for subtropical gyres with the quasi-geostrophic balance between pressure gradient, Coriolis force, wind stress and friction driving the circulation. Parameters including water depth, natural dissipation rate and wind stress are calibrated in the model so that the model can reproduce reasonable flow properties including volume flux and energy flux. To represent flow dissipation due to turbines additional turbine drag coefficient is formulated and included in the model. Secondly, to determine the reasonableness of the total power

  6. Mid to late Holocene Leeuwin Current variability offshore southern Australia linked to ENSO state changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2015-04-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial

  7. The Current State of Surgical Ergonomics Education in U.S. Surgical Training: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Sherise; Tran, Bao N; Capone, Avery C; Ruan, Qing Z; Fukudome, Eugene Y; Ricci, Joseph A; Testa, Marcia A; Dennerlein, Jack T; Lee, Bernard T; Singhal, Dhruv

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this study was to characterize the current state of surgical ergonomics education in the United States. The burden of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in surgeons is high and no overarching strategy for redress exists. Twelve distinct specialties describe an unmet need for surgical ergonomics education (SEE). This study aimed to define the current state of SEE in U.S. surgical training programs. We performed a descriptive analysis of a 20-item questionnaire of ACGME-certified program directors from 14 surgical and interventional medical specialties. Formal SEE was defined as any organized education module that reviewed the occupation-specific burden of common work-related MSDs and described a framework for prevention via occupation-specific applied ergonomics. Program directors were queried regarding SEE provision, characteristics, and perceived trainee attitude toward the education. Questionnaires were received from 130 of 441 (29.5%) program directors. Two (1.5%) provided formal SEE and 33 (25.4%) provided informal SEE, which consisted of unstructured intraoperative directives and isolated lectures. Two programs previously provided SEE but discontinued the effort due to lack of an evidence-based framework and instructors. Trainees appeared to think that learning surgical ergonomics skills was a worthwhile time investment in 100% and 76.7% of current formal and informal SEE, respectively. SEE is rarely provided in any capacity (25.4%), let alone in a consistent or evaluable fashion (1.5%). Impediments to sustainable SEE include lack of an evidence-based framework for education and instructors. An evidence-based, reproducible, and accreditation council-compliant SEE module would be a valuable resource for the surgical and interventional medical communities.

  8. Shallow Lunar Seismic Activity and the Current Stress State of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Weber, Renee C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    A vast, global network of more than 3200 lobate thrust fault scarps has been revealed in high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The fault scarps are very young, less than 50 Ma, based on their small scale and crisp appearance, crosscutting relations with small-diameter impact craters, and rates of infilling of associated small, shallow graben and may be actively forming today. The population of young thrust fault scarps provides a window into the recent stress state of the Moon and offers insight into the origin of global lunar stresses. The distribution of orientations of the fault scarps is non-random, inconsistent with isotropic stresses from late-stage global contraction as the sole source of stress. Modeling shows that tidal stresses contribute significantly to the current stress state of the lunar crust. Tidal stresses (orbital recession and diurnal tides) superimposed on stresses from global contraction result in non-isotropic compressional stress and may produce thrust faults consistent with lobate scarp orientations. At any particular point on the lunar surface, peak compressive stress will be reached at a certain time in the diurnal cycle. Coseismic slip events on currently active thrust faults are expected to be triggered when peak stresses are reached. Analysis of the timing of the 28 the shallow moonquakes recorded by the Apollo seismic network shows that 19 indeed occur when the Moon is closer to apogee, while only 9 shallow events occur when the Moon is closer to perigee. Here we report efforts to refine the model for the current stress state of the Moon by investigating the contribution of polar wander. Progress on relocating the epicentral locations of the shallow moonquakes using an algorithm designed for sparse networks is also reported.

  9. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Litscher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all describe the method of injecting different kinds of drugs into a defined body acupuncture point, are used. This article presents the history of liquid acupuncture, as well as the current scientific state of the art, from the point of view of two European researchers. Some articles are discussed and a few practical examples are presented.

  10. Study of a Novel CT Used to Measure the Switch State Current of RSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Web

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the pulse switch state current of RSD (Reversely Switching Dynistor device is crucial to transmit the energy efficiently with high stability and reliability. The novel CT (current transformer centered on self-integrating Rogowski coil is proposed. The operation principle, methods for properly choosing electric parameters both of RSD-based pulse switch experimental loop and the self-integrating Rogowski coil are presented. The error characteristics of the CT instrumentation are analyzed. The prototype CT centered on the self-integrating Rogowski coil according to the proposed theory and methods are introduced. Experimental results acquired by the proposed CT system are given. Experimental results can verify the validity of the novel CT measurement system.

  11. Meson exchange current effects in the electroexcitation of magnetic states in closed shell nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallena, A.M.; Dehesa, J.S. (Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Krewald, S. (Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Kernphysik)

    1984-10-18

    A microscopic approach to evaluate the contributions of one-pion exchange currents to the inelastic (e, e') scattering form factor of closed shell nuclei is developed. Both segull and pionic parts of the two-body term are treated on the same footing and their final expressions are simple, clear and physically transparent. Application to the magnetic stretched states 4/sup -/(18.98 MeV) of /sup 16/O and 14/sup -/(6.74 MeV) of /sup 208/Pb is done. Agreement with the available experimental data is discussed. It is found that the effect of the meson exchange currents is a smooth but non-negligible enhancement (> or approx. 15% at the first scattering maximum) at small momentum transfers and an increase by a factor bigger than 1.5 in the region of the second maximum.

  12. Rapid Detection Strategies for the Global Threat of Zika Virus: Current State, New Hypotheses and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Shukla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario regarding the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV has resulted in numerous diagnostic studies, specifically in South America and in locations where there is frequent entry of travelers returning from ZIKV-affected areas, including pregnant women with or without clinical symptoms of ZIKV infection. The World Health Organization, WHO, announced that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the United States of America in the near future. This situation has created an alarming public health emergency of international concern requiring the detection of this life-threatening viral candidate due to increased cases of newborn microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection. Hence, this review reports possible methods and strategies for the fast and reliable detection of ZIKV with particular emphasis on current updates, knowledge and new hypotheses that might be helpful for medical professionals in poor and developing countries that urgently need to address this problem. In particular, we emphasize liposome-based biosensors. Although these biosensors are currently among the less popular tools for human disease detection, they have become useful tools for the screening and detection of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses because of their versatile advantageous features compared to other sensing devices. This review summarizes the currently available methods employed for the rapid detection of ZIKV and suggests an innovative approach involving the application of a liposome-based hypothesis for the development of new strategies for ZIKV detection and their use as effective biomedicinal tools.

  13. Life cycle impacts and costs of photovoltaic systems: Current state of the art and future outlooks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raugei, Marco; Frankl, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The photovoltaic energy sector is rapidly expanding and technological specification for PV has improved dramatically in the last two decades. This paper sketches the current state of the art and drafts three alternative scenarios for the future, in terms of costs, market penetration and environmental performance. According to these scenarios, if economic incentives are supported long enough into the next ten to twenty years, PV looks set for a rosy future, and is likely to play a significant role in the future energy mix, while at the same time contributing to reduce the environmental impact of electricity supply. (author)

  14. Fractal-Based Methods and Inverse Problems for Differential Equations: Current State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herb E. Kunze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We illustrate, in this short survey, the current state of the art of fractal-based techniques and their application to the solution of inverse problems for ordinary and partial differential equations. We review several methods based on the Collage Theorem and its extensions. We also discuss two innovative applications: the first one is related to a vibrating string model while the second one considers a collage-based approach for solving inverse problems for partial differential equations on a perforated domain.

  15. Passive measurement of flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Chimenti, D.E.; Huebener, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Flux-tube nucleation rates have been measured in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconducting In films between 1.5 and 2.0 K by a completely passive technique. Indication of periodic nucleation is observed only in narrow regions of sample voltage drop, whose position is a sensitive function of temperature. Frequency bandwidth measurements of the nucleation rate yield a spectral purity of one part in 10 4 within the narrow regions where an experimental signal can be detected. (orig.) [de

  16. Current state of the art in science and technology, as seen by atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The decision of the Fed. Adm. Court (BVerwG) deals with the obligation of the licensing authority, to apply the current state of the art in science and technology in its appraisal of appropriate measures for prevention of damage possibly arising out of the operation of a nuclear reactor, and for assessment and evaluation of the risks involved. It also deals with aspects of legal protection of third parties by provisions relating to the licensing procedure under atomic energy law, and with the question whether Art. 6 of the European Human Rights Convention can be applied to institute additional proceedings in the second instance with a public hearing. (RST) [de

  17. Current State of Agile Methodologies Worldwide and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tománek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research paper is to compare the current state of agile methodologies in the world and in the Czech Republic. The comparison is executed as the comparative analysis of two publicly available researches conducted in 2013 and published in 2014. The comparison is further enriched by the results of the unpublished survey in the global logistics company which was conducted also in 2013. The potential trend for agile methodologies in the Czech Republic is also discussed with regard to the worldwide trend.

  18. The current state of the art of quantitative phosphoproteomics and its applications to diabetes research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi Yuet X’avia; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Wei-Jun

    2016-03-17

    Protein phosphorylation is a fundamental regulatory mechanism in many cellular processes and aberrant perturbation of phosphorylation has been revealed in various human diseases. Kinases and their cognate inhibitors have been hotspot for drug development. Therefore, the emerging tools, which enable a system-wide quantitative profiling of phosphoproteome, would offer a powerful impetus in unveiling novel signaling pathways, drug targets and/or biomarkers for the disease of interest. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in phosphoproteomics, the current state-of-the-art of the technologies, and the challenges and future perspectives of this research area. Finally, we will underscore some exemplary applications of phosphoproteomics in diabetes research.

  19. Globalization of Gerontology Education: Current Practices and Perceptions for Graduate Gerontology Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MWANGI, SAMUEL M.; YAMASHITA, TAKASHI; EWEN, HEIDI H.; MANNING, LYDIA K.; KUNKEL, SUZANNE R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education. PMID:22490075

  20. Current and future developments in managed care in the United States and implications for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspling Deborah L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper reviews and evaluates current and future approaches to cost containment in the United States. Managed care was once seen as an effective approach to supporting health care quality while containing costs in the USA. In recent years payors started to look in other directions, since prospects for limiting expenses faded. Nowadays consumer driven health plans seem to be on the rise. The reasons for the decline of managed care, the growing popularity of the consumer driven health plans and the implications for Europe are discussed.

  1. Globalization of gerontology education: current practices and perceptions for graduate gerontology education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Samuel M; Yamashita, Takashi; Ewen, Heidi H; Manning, Lydia K; Kunkel, Suzanne R

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document current practices and understandings about globalization of gerontology education in the United States. Better understanding of aging requires international perspectives in global communities. However, little is known about how globalization of gerontology education is practiced in U.S. graduate-level degree programs. The authors conducted qualitative interviews with representatives of the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education, the major national organization supporting higher education in gerontology, graduate program directors, and students. Although all respondents expressed their interest in globalizing gerontology education, actual practices are diverse. The authors discuss suggested conceptualization and strategies for globalizing gerontology education.

  2. International conference. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference on the mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster: current state and future prospects was introduced.The questions connected with: 1. Mental health disorders biological basis after ionizing radiation influence; 2. Psychiatric aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 3. Social stress following contradictory information: ways for its overcoming; 4. Rehabilitation and prophylactic measures for mental and nervous disorders. Psycho social rehabilitation of survivors; 5. Psychosomatic effects and somato-neurological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster; 6. Psychosomatic health of children and adolescents survivors of the Chernobyl disaster; 7. Brain damage as result of prenatal irradiation

  3. Microstates in resting-state EEG: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Arjun; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Michel, Christoph M; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-02-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful method of studying the electrophysiology of the brain with high temporal resolution. Several analytical approaches to extract information from the EEG signal have been proposed. One method, termed microstate analysis, considers the multichannel EEG recording as a series of quasi-stable "microstates" that are each characterized by a unique topography of electric potentials over the entire channel array. Because this technique simultaneously considers signals recorded from all areas of the cortex, it is capable of assessing the function of large-scale brain networks whose disruption is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we first introduce the method of EEG microstate analysis. We then review studies that have discovered significant changes in the resting-state microstate series in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders and behavioral states. We discuss the potential utility of this method in detecting neurophysiological impairments in disease and monitoring neurophysiological changes in response to an intervention. Finally, we discuss how the resting-state microstate series may reflect rapid switching among neural networks while the brain is at rest, which could represent activity of resting-state networks described by other neuroimaging modalities. We conclude by commenting on the current and future status of microstate analysis, and suggest that EEG microstates represent a promising neurophysiological tool for understanding and assessing brain network dynamics on a millisecond timescale in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Examination of the Current Approaches to State-Level Nuclear Security Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan; Yim, Mansung; Kim, So Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    An effective global nuclear materials security system will cover all materials, employ international standards and best practices, and reduce risks by reducing weapons-usable nuclear material stocks and the number of locations where they are found. Such a system must also encourage states to accept peer reviews by outside experts in order to demonstrate that effective security is in place. It is thus critically important to create an integrative framework of state-level evaluation of nuclear security as a basis for measuring the level and progress of international effort to secure and control all nuclear materials. There have been studies to represent state-level nuclear security with a quantitative metric. A prime example is the Nuclear Materials Security Index (NMSI) by the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). Another comprehensive study is the State Level Risk Metric by Texas A and M University (TAMU). This paper examines the current methods with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and identifies the directions for future research to improve upon the existing approaches.

  5. Investment-centred transitioning from agrarian-tourism economy to manufacturing in cross river state, south-eastern/south-south, Nigeria: A theoretical perspective and background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingwe Richard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embattled by ministries, departments and agencies of Nigeria’s federal government, that worked together with neighbouring (Akwa Ibom State government to remove Cross River State from the country’s oil-producing states entitled to receipt of larger statutory allocations compared to their counterparts, Cross River State Government’s policy of promoting regional development through attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI since 2009 is receiving praises. This article presents contexts, core-periphery theoretical perspectives, and comments elucidating intricacies of FDI-centred sub-national regional development strategizing in the context of phenomenal globalization of neoliberal capitalism. It is argued that the core-periphery theory’s current status promises ‘depressed’ sub-national regions the development strategies they require for transiting from backwardness to growth. This assertion derives from the theory’s encouragement of Nigeria’s ‘depressed’ sub-national regions to aspire towards applying innovative policies/instruments capable of reversing undesirable circumstances that sometimes surpass standards previously/currently attained by counterparts placed higher on the development ladder.

  6. The Influence of Geography and Geology on Seismic Background Noise Levels Across the United States as Revealed by the Transportable Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, R. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Holland, A. A.; Wilson, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The EarthScope USArray Transportable Array (TA) has now covered the US with 3-component broadband seismometers at approximately 70 km station spacing and deployment durations of approximately 2 years. This unprecedented coverage, combined with high-quality and near homogenous installation techniques, offers a novel dataset in which to characterize spatially varying levels of background seismic noise across the United States. We present background noise maps in period bands of interest to earthquake and imaging seismology across the US (lower 48 states and Alaska). Early results from the contiguous 48 states demonstrate that ambient noise levels within the body wave period band (1-5 s) vary by > 20 dB (rel. 1 (m/s2)2/Hz) with the highest noise levels occurring at stations located within sedimentary basins and lowest within the mountain ranges of the Western US. Additionally, stations around the Great Lakes observe heightened noise levels in this band beyond the aforementioned basin amplification. We attribute this observation to local swell activity in the Great Lakes generating short-period microseism signals. This suggests that lake-generated microseisms may be a significant source of noise for Alaskan deployments situated in close proximity to lakes to facilitate float plane access. We further investigate how basin amplification and short-period lake microseism signals may noticeably impact detection and signal-to-noise of teleseismic body wave signals during certain time periods. At longer-periods (> 20 s), we generally observe larger noise levels on the horizontal components of stations situated in basins or on soft sediment, likely caused by locally induced tilt of the sensor. We will present similar analysis from the initial Alaska TA dataset to quantitatively assess how utilization of posthole sensors affects signal-to-noise for the long-period horizontal wavefield.

  7. Evaluating the current state of the art of Huntington disease research: a scientometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, L A; Ghisi, N C

    2018-01-11

    Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dominant mutation on the 4th chromosome. We aim to present a scientometric analysis of the extant scientific undertakings devoted to better understanding HD. Therefore, a quantitative study was performed to examine the current state-of-the-art approaches that foster researchers' understandings of the current knowledge, research trends, and research gaps regarding this disorder. We performed literature searches of articles that were published up to September 2016 in the "ISI Web of Science™" (http://apps.webofknowledge.com/). The keyword used was "Huntington disease". Of the initial 14,036 articles that were obtained, 7732 were eligible for inclusion in the study according to their relevance. Data were classified according to language, country of publication, year, and area of concentration. The country leader regarding the number of studies published on HD is the United States, accounting for nearly 30% of all publications, followed by England and Germany, who have published 10 and 7% of all publications, respectively. Regarding the language in which the articles were written, 98% of publications were in English. The first publication to be found on HD was published in 1974. A surge of publications on HD can be seen from 1996 onward. In relation to the various knowledge areas that emerged, most publications were in the fields of neuroscience and neurology, likely because HD is a neurodegenerative disorder. Publications written in areas such as psychiatry, genetics, and molecular biology also predominated.

  8. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  9. Current State of Technology of Fuel Cell Power Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mendez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs are vehicles that are primarily used to accomplish oceanographic research data collection and auxiliary offshore tasks. At the present time, they are usually powered by lithium-ion secondary batteries, which have insufficient specific energies. In order for this technology to achieve a mature state, increased endurance is required. Fuel cell power systems have been identified as an effective means to achieve this endurance but no implementation in a commercial device has yet been realized. This paper summarizes the current state of development of the technology in this field of research. First, the most adequate type of fuel cell for this application is discussed. The prototypes and design concepts of AUVs powered by fuel cells which have been developed in the last few years are described. Possible commercial and experimental fuel cell stack options are analyzed, examining solutions adopted in the analogous aerial vehicle applications, as well as the underwater ones, to see if integration in an AUV is feasible. Current solutions in oxygen and hydrogen storage systems are overviewed and energy density is objectively compared between battery power systems and fuel cell power systems for AUVs. A couple of system configuration solutions are described including the necessary lithium-ion battery hybrid system. Finally, some closing remarks on the future of this technology are given.

  10. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  11. A new current line division concept for the determination of the current distribution in electrochemical cells. Part I. Theoretical background of the “corner weakness” effect in electroforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. STEVANOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to the determination of the current distribution in electrochemical cells, the current line division concept, is introduced. The new concept, based on the basic equations of electrics and electrochemical kinetics, was employed for a theoretical explanation of the phenomenon known in electroforming as “corner weakness”. It was shown that this phenomenon depends on the kind of control of the deposition process, being the largest in the case of pure ohmic control and disappearing in the case of pure activation control.

  12. Veterinarian-Client Communication Skills: Current State, Relevance, and Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Michael P; Tischler, Victoria A; Cobb, Malcolm A; Robbé, Iain J; Dean, Rachel S

    2015-01-01

    Communication is increasingly recognized as a core skill for veterinary practitioners, and in recent years, attention to communication competency and skills training has increased. To gain an up-to-date assessment of the current state of veterinary communication skills and training, we conducted a survey among veterinary practitioners in the United Kingdom and United States in 2012/2013. The questionnaire was used to assess the current state, relevance, and adequacy of veterinary communication skills among veterinary practitioners, to assess interest in further training, and to understand perceived challenges in communicating with clients. There was an overall response rate of 29.6% (1,774 of 6,000 recipients), with a higher response rate for UK-based practitioners (39.7%) than practitioners in the US (19.5%). Ninety-eight percent of respondents agreed that communication skills were as important as or more important than clinical knowledge. Forty-one percent of respondents had received formal veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school, and 47% had received training post-graduation. Thirty-five percent said their veterinary communication skills training during veterinary school prepared them well or very well for communicating with clients about the health of their pets, compared to 61% of those receiving post-graduate training. Forty percent said they would be interested in further veterinary communication skills training, with the preferred methods being simulated consultations and online training. While there has been increased emphasis on communication skills training during and after veterinary school, there is a need for more relevant and accessible training.

  13. Determining the Impact of Steady-State PV Fault Current Injections on Distribution Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seuss, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report investigates the fault current contribution from a single large PV system and the impact it has on existing distribution overcurrent protection devices. Assumptions are made about the modeling of the PV system under fault to perform exhaustive steady - state fault analyses throughout distribution feeder models. Each PV interconnection location is tested to determine how the size of the PV system affects the fault current measured by each protection device. This data is then searched for logical conditions that indicate whether a protection device has operated in a manner that will cause more customer outages due to the addition of the PV system. This is referred to as a protection issue , and there are four unique types of issues that have been identified in the study. The PV system size at which any issues occur are recorded to determine the feeder's PV hosting capacity limitations due to interference with protection settings. The analysis is carried out on six feeder models. The report concludes with a discussion of the prevalence and cause of each protection issue caused by PV system fault current.

  14. A survey of current state of training of plastic surgery residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Asra; Khan, Faraz A; Herman, Floyd; Narasimhan, Nathan; Khan, Shaher; Kubiak, Carrie; Gursel, Eti; Edelman, David A

    2017-06-27

    Plastic surgery training is undergoing major changes however there is paucity of data detailing the current state of training as perceived by plastic surgical trainees. Our aim was to determine the quality of training as perceived by the current trainee pool and their future plans. A 25-item anonymous survey with three discrete sections (demographics, quality of training, and post-graduate career plans) was developed and distributed to plastic surgery residents during the academic year 2013. With the confidence interval of 95% and margin of error of 10%, our target response rate was 87 responders. We received a total of 114 respondents with all levels of Post Graduate Year in training represented. Upon comparison of residents with debt of 250,000, those with higher debt were significantly less interested in fellowship training (p value 0.05) and were more likely to pursue private practice (p value plastic surgery least offered as a separate rotation were microsurgery (45%) followed by aesthetic surgery (33%). 53.7% of the residents felt that they were least trained in aesthetic surgery followed by burn surgery 45.4%. Of note 56.4% intended to seek additional training after residency. Moreover residents with an average of 6.4 months of experience in an individual subspecialty were more likely to feel comfortable with that specialty. This survey highlights the areas and subspecialties that deserve attention as perceived by the current trainee pool.

  15. Dental undergraduate students' participation in research in China: current state and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, W

    2015-08-01

    It is not until the recent 10 years, when an increasing number of dental undergraduate students in China have gradually participated in scientific research. However, few studies have analysed the current status of this new wave. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate dental undergraduate students' participation in research and to explore possible options for refining or reforming the existing teaching and research system in dentistry. The authors constructed a questionnaire that was completed by a sample of students from a high-ranking dental school in China. The data were processed with SPSS software. Of all the 250 questionnaires distributed, 191 were returned, 186 of which were complete and suitable for analysis. Over a half of the respondents had participated in research programmes. There were diversified motives for undergraduate participation in scientific research. These findings have led us to speculate on the current state of undergraduate participation in scientific research and the underlying problems. This preliminary investigation yielded intriguing findings: (i) the distribution of scientific resources influences scientific production. (ii) lack of interest in science has a negative impact on the reserve of the future scientific workforce. (iii) diverse motives for participation in undergraduate research reveal lack of understanding of the essence of science. It is proposed that the current education and research system in dental higher education should be systemically reformed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Implementation Of Solid State Switches In A Parallel Configuration To Gain Output Current Capacity In A High Current Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Mario Paul [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    For my project I have selected to research and design a high current pulse system, which will be externally triggered from a 5V pulse. The research will be conducted in the region of paralleling the solid state switches for a higher current output, as well as to see if there will be any other advantages in doing so. The end use of the paralleled solid state switches will be used on a Capacitive Discharge Unit (CDU). For the first part of my project, I have set my focus on the design of the circuit, selection of components, and simulation of the circuit.

  17. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF INCOME AND EXPENDITURE STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Sliusar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a study of the current state of the income and expenditure structure of the population in Ukraine, in particular, the level of income and expenditure in the context of national integration into the world economy. The purpose of the study in the article is to analyse the current state of the income and expenditure structure of the population in Ukraine in the context of national integration into the world economy. The object of the research is the financial provision of the population of Ukraine; the subject is the dynamics of the structure of incomes and expenditures of the population of Ukraine. Methodology. During the writing of the article, the following research methods are used: the search for available methodological and scientific literature, comparison, clarification of causal relationships, systematization, analysis of documentation and results of researchers’ work on the problem of the conducted research and expert evaluation. Results. During the research, it is observed that social security and wages rank one of the most important places in the income structure. So they are stressed. Social security includes pensions and various types of benefits (temporary disability, pregnancy and childbirth, child care up to 3 years of age, caring for a sick child, burial, assistance for disabled people whose income is less than the established limit of low income, etc.. Social security also provides for the provision of assistance in kind (care for the disabled, elderly people in specialized institutions – at boarding houses and at home. In Soviet times, all social payments were made exclusively by the state. It is established that sources of financing social protection services and social security, in accordance with the Budget Code of Ukraine, are state and local budgets. Expenditures of social orientation include expenditures on health care, spiritual and physical development, education, social protection and social security

  18. CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATIC BLOCK SYSTEM DEVICES, METHODS OF ITS SERVICE AND MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Beznarytnyy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of formalized description of automatic block system of numerical code based on the analysis of characteristic failures of automatic block system and procedure of its maintenance. Methodology. For this research a theoretical and analytical methods have been used. Findings. Typical failures of the automatic block systems were analyzed, as well as basic reasons of failure occur were found out. It was determined that majority of failures occurs due to defects of the maintenance system. Advantages and disadvantages of the current service technology of automatic block system were analyzed. Works that can be automatized by means of technical diagnostics were found out. Formal description of the numerical code of automatic block system as a graph in the state space of the system was carried out. Originality. The state graph of the numerical code of automatic block system that takes into account gradual transition from the serviceable condition to the loss of efficiency was offered. That allows selecting diagnostic information according to attributes and increasing the effectiveness of recovery operations in the case of a malfunction. Practical value. The obtained results of analysis and proposed the state graph can be used as the basis for the development of new means of diagnosing devices for automatic block system, which in turn will improve the efficiency and service of automatic block system devices in general.

  19. Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors

  20. CURRENT STATE OF COMMUNAL SEWAGE TREATMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Andraka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Protection of water environment from pollution is one of the major tasks in the contemporary world. Nowadays, in the Republic of Kazakhstan ecological situation concerning sewage treatment remains deficient. Raw sewage is often discharged directly onto filtration beds or landfills. Many existing wastewater treatment facilities in cities are in unsatisfactory technical conditions. In many villages and small settlement units the problem of treatment and disposal of sewage sludge from treatment facilities also requires urgent solutions. In this article, the current state of communal sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan is shown. The technical and technological characteristics of sewage disposal systems, including the cities of Almaty and Astana, are presented. This article is especially aimed at identification of environmental problems related with sewage treatment in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

  1. Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic X Y spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.

    2016-05-01

    Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic X Y model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic X X model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.

  2. Myocardial first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance: history, theory, and current state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Leon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In less than two decades, first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has undergone a wide range of changes with the development and availability of improved hardware, software, and contrast agents, in concert with a better understanding of the mechanisms of contrast enhancement. The following review provides a perspective of the historical development of first-pass CMR, the developments in pulse sequence design and contrast agents, the relevant animal models used in early preclinical studies, the mechanism of artifacts, the differences between 1.5T and 3T scanning, and the relevant clinical applications and protocols. This comprehensive overview includes a summary of the past clinical performance of first-pass perfusion CMR and current clinical applications using state-of-the-art methodologies.

  3. Resident Involvement in Professional Otolaryngology Organizations: Current Trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Jang, Minyoung; Gilad, Amir; Levi, Jessica R

    2017-08-01

    Involvement by residents in professional medical organizations can enrich their training, but little data exist regarding the number and types of involvement opportunities available to otolaryngology residents. We sought to fill this gap in knowledge by quantifying the extent to which major otolaryngology-related organizations in the United States provide involvement opportunities to otolaryngology residents. Our analysis included 23 organizations and subspecialty societies. Results showed that many opportunities exist for residents to attend conferences and present research; however, fewer involvement and funding opportunities existed in any other leadership, health policy, or service-learning experiences. These findings were consistent across general and subspecialty societies. Given the many purported benefits of resident involvement in otolaryngology outside of the standard training environment, future efforts may be warranted to increase the number and type of involvement opportunities currently available in professional societies.

  4. Current State of Knowledge About Cancer in Lesbians, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Liz; Brown, Carlton G

    2018-02-01

    To review the current state of knowledge about cancer in lesbians, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people by focusing on four major issues across the cancer continuum including: 1) lack of data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity; 2) need for a culturally competent workforce; 3) the need for a culturally competent health care system; and 4) creating LGBT tailored patient/client information and education. Published literature. Oncology nurses and health care providers can work to improve the care of LGBT patients with cancer by following suggestions in this article. Oncology nurses and other health care providers have many distinct occasions to improve overall cancer care for LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  6. Advanced robotics for medical rehabilitation current state of the art and recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots. Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific ...

  7. Expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnullina, Anna; Abdrazakov, Rais

    2017-10-01

    The authors’ expert assessment of the current state of the energy management system in the company is proposed in the article. The experts are invited to assess the status of the energy management system in the following categories: energy policy, organizational structure, training, motivation, control, communication, investment, and energy consumption culture. For the purposes of interpretation of the results of the expert evaluation obtained, a gradation based on a possible range of values is proposed. The expert evaluation allows representing the status of the energy management system in general and at each of its individual levels, which makes it possible to identify the problem areas more accurately. To confirm the applied nature of the proposed methodology, the authors assessed the opinions of 8 experts, employed by the road construction company of the Tyumen Region and related in one way or another to the process of energy consumption in the company due to the nature of their activities.

  8. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  9. Sonic Interactions in Virtual Reality: State of the Art, Current Challenges, and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefania; Geronazzo, Michele; Erkut, Cumhur; Nilsson, Niels C; Nordahl, Rolf

    2018-03-01

    A high-fidelity but efficient sound simulation is an essential element of any VR experience. Many of the techniques used in virtual acoustics are graphical rendering techniques suitably modified to account for sound generation and propagation. In recent years, several advances in hardware and software technologies have been facilitating the development of immersive interactive sound-rendering experiences. In this article, we present a review of the state of the art of such simulations, with a focus on the different elements that, combined, provide a complete interactive sonic experience. This includes physics-based simulation of sound effects and their propagation in space together with binaural rendering to simulate the position of sound sources. We present how these different elements of the sound design pipeline have been addressed in the literature, trying to find the trade-off between accuracy and plausibility. Recent applications and current challenges are also presented.

  10. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metacognition fundaments, applications, and trends a profile of the current state-of-the-art

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the Metacognition arena. It highlights works that show relevant analysis, reviews, theoretical, and methodological proposals, as well as studies, approaches, applications, and tools that shape current state, define trends and inspire future research. As a result of the revision process fourteen manuscripts were accepted and organized into five parts as follows: ·     Conceptual: contains conceptual works oriented to: (1) review models of strategy instruction and tailor a hybrid strategy; (2) unveil second-order judgments and define a method to assess metacognitive judgments; (3) introduces a conceptual model to describe the metacognitive activity as an autopoietic system. ·     Framework: offers three works concerned with: (4) stimulate metacognitive skills and self-regulatory functions; (5) evaluate metacognitive skills and self-regulated learning at problem solving; (6) deal with executive management metacognition and strategic knowledge metacognition. ·     Studies: r...

  12. The Current State and Trends of Development of Stores in Kyiv Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beglarashvili Oksana P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state and trends of development of stores in Kyiv region for 2010-2016 are analyzed. The research reflects regional aspects of the basic indicators of development of the stores — there analyzed the dynamics of retail turnover, consumer price indices, retail turnover of retail trade enterprises, commodity stocks in the enterprises’ retail network, basic indicators of stores of enterprises-legal entities, namely the number of stores; sales area; provision of the population with sales area; sales area per store, etc. Carrying out the research of development trends of the retail trade network in Kiev region, the indicators characterizing the network of stores of enterprises-legal entities trading in food and non-food goods of are analyzed. There proposed measures to level the disproportions in the development of the retail trade network in urban and rural area of Kyiv region.

  13. Assessment of Current State of Mooring Design in the Danish Wave Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    The mooring system is a vital part of any floating wave energy converter, both in terms of ensuring station keeping but also as it constitutes a significant share of the total cost. Motivatedby the considerable amount of failures due to insufficient mooring and the cost of mooring today, the pres......The mooring system is a vital part of any floating wave energy converter, both in terms of ensuring station keeping but also as it constitutes a significant share of the total cost. Motivatedby the considerable amount of failures due to insufficient mooring and the cost of mooring today......, the present study outlines the design procedure recommended by design standards and provides considerations on choice of tools for analysis. This is compared to the procedure used by four wave energy converter developers, to illustrate the state of their current mooring design. The study shows a clear...

  14. African swine fever virus: current state and future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaryan, Hovakim; Revilla, Yolanda

    2016-03-15

    African swine fever (ASF) is among the most significant of swine diseases for which no effective vaccines and antivirals are available. The disease, which is endemic in Africa, was introduced to Trans-Caucasian countries and the Russian Federation in 2007, where it remains prevalent today among domestic pigs and wild boars. Although some measures were implemented, ASF continues to pose a global risk for all countries, and thereby highlighting the importance of vaccine and antiviral research. In this review, an overview of research efforts toward the development of effective vaccines during the past decades is presented. As an alternative to vaccine development, the current state in antiviral research against ASFV is also presented. Finally, future perspectives in vaccine and antiviral research giving emphasis on some strategies that may allow researchers to develop effective countermeasures against ASF are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influences of Mental Illness, Current Psychological State, and Concussion History on Baseline Concussion Assessment Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L; Dean, John-Henry L; Hoffman, Nicole L; Broglio, Steven P; McCrea, Michael; McAllister, Thomas W; Schmidt, Julianne D; Hoy, April Reed; Hazzard, Joseph B; Kelly, Louise A; Ortega, Justus D; Port, Nicholas; Putukian, Margot; Langford, T Dianne; Tierney, Ryan; Campbell, Darren E; McGinty, Gerald; O'Donnell, Patrick; Svoboda, Steven J; DiFiori, John P; Giza, Christopher C; Benjamin, Holly J; Buckley, Thomas; Kaminski, Thomas W; Clugston, James R; Feigenbaum, Luis A; Eckner, James T; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Mihalik, Jason P; Miles, Jessica Dysart; Anderson, Scott; Master, Christina L; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony P; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Chrisman, Sara P D; Brooks, Allison; Duma, Stefan; Bullers, Christopher Todd; Miles, Christopher M; Dykhuizen, Brian H

    2018-04-01

    A student-athlete's mental state, including history of trait anxiety and depression, or current psychological state may affect baseline concussion assessment performance. (1) To determine if mental illness (anxiety, depression, anxiety with depression) influences baseline scores, (2) to determine if psychological state correlates with baseline performance, and (3) to determine if history of concussion affects Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) subscores of state anxiety, depression, and somatization. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A sample of 8652 collegiate student-athletes (54.5% males, 45.5% females) participated in the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. Baseline assessments included a demographic form, a symptom evaluation, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, a psychological state assessment (BSI-18), and Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test. Baseline scores were compared between individuals with a history of anxiety (n = 59), depression (n = 283), and anxiety with depression (n = 68) and individuals without a history of those conditions (n = 8242). Spearman's rho correlations were conducted to assess the relationship between baseline and psychological state subscores (anxiety, depression, somatization) (α = .05). Psychological state subscores were compared between individuals with a self-reported history of concussions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4+) using Kruskal-Wallis tests (α = .05). Student-athletes with anxiety, depression, and anxiety with depression demonstrated higher scores in number of symptoms reported (anxiety, 4.3 ± 4.2; depression, 5.2 ± 4.8; anxiety with depression, 5.4 ± 3.9; no anxiety/depression, 2.5 ± 3.4), symptom severity (anxiety, 8.1 ± 9.8; depression, 10.4 ± 12.4; anxiety with depression, 12.4 ± 10.7; no anxiety/depression, 4.1 ± 6.9), and psychological distress in state anxiety (anxiety, 3.7 ± 4.7; depression, 2.5 ± 3.6; anxiety with

  16. STUDY OF CURRENT STATE OF INFORMATIONAL CULTURE FORMATION OF FUTURE NAVIGATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezbah O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of information contained in psychological and educational sources, encyclopaedic and monographic publications and the results of their research of the phenomenon of formation of information culture of future navigators, specified under the direction of research definitions of "test", "index", "meter", "level of formation", " means of diagnosing the levels of ", "method of diagnosing the levels of" criteria, indicators, parameters and methods of diagnosing the state of formation of personality-motivational, cognitive and procedural and operational components of the information culture of future navigators, color and Author determined high, medium and low levels of its formation, the technique, subject-specific tests and sets objectives for diagnosing the levels of cognitive and procedural and operational components of the information culture of future navigators. Pedagogical planned and carried out the experiment, the results of which revealed the current state of formation of information culture level of future navigators. Statistical analysis of the data pedagogical experiment showed that the experimental group the number of students, information culture which formed at a low level is 46.67 per cent, respectively, in the control - 42.24 percent, the average level of formation of information culture found in 35.83 per cent of students in the experimental group, the control group the figure is 39.66 percent, a high level of formation of information culture inherent in 17.50 per cent of future navigators in the experimental group and 18.1 percent in the control group. Summary of pedagogical experiment showed that the current system of training is not effective in the formation of information culture of future navigators as an integral part of their professional culture that focuses further research to identify and substantiate pedagogical conditions didactic principles, tools and technologies, implementation and the use of which will

  17. Evaluating the current state of the art of Huntington disease research: a scientometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barboza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dominant mutation on the 4th chromosome. We aim to present a scientometric analysis of the extant scientific undertakings devoted to better understanding HD. Therefore, a quantitative study was performed to examine the current state-of-the-art approaches that foster researchers’ understandings of the current knowledge, research trends, and research gaps regarding this disorder. We performed literature searches of articles that were published up to September 2016 in the “ISI Web of Science™” (http://apps.webofknowledge.com/. The keyword used was “Huntington disease”. Of the initial 14,036 articles that were obtained, 7732 were eligible for inclusion in the study according to their relevance. Data were classified according to language, country of publication, year, and area of concentration. The country leader regarding the number of studies published on HD is the United States, accounting for nearly 30% of all publications, followed by England and Germany, who have published 10 and 7% of all publications, respectively. Regarding the language in which the articles were written, 98% of publications were in English. The first publication to be found on HD was published in 1974. A surge of publications on HD can be seen from 1996 onward. In relation to the various knowledge areas that emerged, most publications were in the fields of neuroscience and neurology, likely because HD is a neurodegenerative disorder. Publications written in areas such as psychiatry, genetics, and molecular biology also predominated.

  18. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the “ladder-pipe system” for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination. PMID:27442794

  19. CURRENT STATE OF POPULATION OF GAME MAMMALS HABITING SHELKOVSKOY DISTRICT OF CHECHNYA AND WAYS FOR OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Batkhiyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The goal of the research is that: to identify the taxonomic composition of game species and make full list of species to assess the current state of populations and resources to carry out eco-faunistic analysis of the distribution of game mammals habiting Shelkovskiy district of Chechnya. Methods. We used mapping techniques, various methods of census forms and scientific processing of the collected material, systematic and bioecological analysis. Results. As a result, we have identified 5 ecological complexes and characterized them by distribution on the identified and described natural habitats. We have made an inventory of species, identified conditions of rare species and determined their status. Biometric data has been obtained for a number of species; their biological and ecological features have been described. We also identified the species composition of game mammals and their spatial distribution of habitats. The differentiation of species in ecological groups has been carried out. Data has been obtained on the number of nine major types for the period of 2012-2013, and their characteristics. We have made an estimation of ecological and economic potential of resources of game mammals of the study area. Conclusions. Based on the analysis of the results we can make a judgment about the level of biodiversity of species of game mammals of the studied area, the current state of their number and possible use for commercial, sports and recreational purposes. We propose specific measures such as the use of existing biological resources i.e. species of mammals, as well as the creation of new protected areas as a form of preserving and increasing the number of mammals in the area. The research results can be useful for monitoring and creating specially protected natural reservations, protection of endangered species. The findings have implications for the organization of hunting economy to increase the number of game animals. 

  20. BIOBANKS ARE AN ESSENTIAL TOOL FOR TRANSPLANTATION. HISTORY, CURRENT STATE, PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Reznik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ shortage remains to be a crucial issue in transplantation. However, it’s not the only challenge that modern transplantation is facing. There are critical issues to be solved, such as, choosing optimal patient-specific immunosuppressive regimen, preventing or coping effectively with graft rejection and improving graft and patient survival rates. There are still a number of ongoing studies on ischemia-reperfusion injury mechanisms. It is also unknown what the true limitations of organ viability are and what mechanisms actually regulate it. The upcoming era of personalized medicine dictates the necessity for individualized approach to these issues. The creation of transplant biobanks followed by different studies on their base may be the key option to resolve problems of modern transplantation. Biobanks are an essential basis of personalized medicine, which allows largescale population studies, discovery of new biomarkers and therapy targets as well as new drugs development. The importance of this relatively new fi eld has increased over last decades making its way from small collections of samples to large national and international biorepositories. There are biobanks of different types and purposes. In this article a systematic review is given covering historical reference, term definition, and classifi cation variants. Furthermore, the current state of the industry is highlighted along with current issues and perspectives with respect to transplantation.

  1. Review: Semen sexing - current state of the art with emphasis on bovine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, R; Moreno, J F

    2018-03-19

    It is approaching three decades since the first public evidence of sex-sorting of semen. The technology has progressed considerably since then with a number of institutions and researchers collaborating to eventually bring this to application. The technical challenges have been quite substantial and in the early years the application was limited to only heifer inseminations. Comparable fertility of sex-sorted semen with conventional semen has been an aspirational benchmark for the industry for many years. Significant investment in research in the primary biology of sex-sorted sperm and associated sorting equipment ensured steady progress over the years and current methods particularly the new SexedULTRA-4M™ seems to have now mostly bridged this fertility gap. The dairy and beef industry have adopted this technology quite rapidly. Other animal industries are progressively testing it for application in their specific niches and environments. The current state of the art in the fundamentals of sex-sorting, the biology of the process as well as new developments in machinery are described in this review.

  2. WE-D-BRB-03: Current State of Volumetric Image Guidance for Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, C.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this session is to review the physics of proton therapy, treatment planning techniques, and the use of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. The course material covers the physics of proton interaction with matter and physical characteristics of clinical proton beams. It will provide information on proton delivery systems and beam delivery techniques for double scattering (DS), uniform scanning (US), and pencil beam scanning (PBS). The session covers the treatment planning strategies used in DS, US, and PBS for various anatomical sites, methods to address uncertainties in proton therapy and uncertainty mitigation to generate robust treatment plans. It introduces the audience to the current status of image guided proton therapy and clinical applications of CBCT for proton therapy. It outlines the importance of volumetric imaging in proton therapy. Learning Objectives: Gain knowledge in proton therapy physics, and treatment planning for proton therapy including intensity modulated proton therapy. The current state of volumetric image guidance equipment in proton therapy. Clinical applications of CBCT and its advantage over orthogonal imaging for proton therapy. B. Teo, B.K Teo had received travel funds from IBA in 2015.

  3. HIPAA, HIPAA, Hooray? Current Challenges and Initiatives in Health Informatics in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the current challenges, trends and initiatives around the various regulations as related to Health Informatics in the United States is presented.A summary of the functions in a workflow-based approach organized into the process and compliance for HIPAA, secure email and fax communications interfaces, e-prescriptions and patient safety and the health information technology savings claims versus costs follows: * HIPAA compliance is complex; data interoperability and integration remains difficult. * Email and faxing is possible with current over-the-shelf technologies within the purview of the HIPAA Security and Privacy rule. * Integration of e-prescribing and NPI data is an area where health informatics can make a real difference. * Medical errors remain high. * There are no real savings yet from the usage of health information technologies; the costs for implementation remain high, and the business model has not evolved to meet the needs. * Health Information Technology (Health IT projects continue to have a significant failure rate; Open Source technologies are a viable alternative both for cost reduction and scalability.A discussion on the macro view of health informatics is also presented within the context of healthcare models and a comparison of the U.S. system against other countries.

  4. Current status and future program for nuclear power education in the State University of Skopje

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causevski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear Education in the State University 'Ss. Cyril and Methodius' in Skopje, Macedonia is takes place in few Departments and Faculties. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Reactors for electricity generation are the fields studied in the Department of Electric Power Systems and Power Plants in the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Skopje. The paper gives the overview of the current status of nuclear education on the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, as well as the future perspectives and programs for improving. In the current module of Power Engineering, the Nuclear Power is studied in two subjects: Basics of Nuclear Energy, and the second one is Nuclear Power Reactors and Nuclear Power Plants. The new concept of studying will include the new module of 'Power Engineering and Energy Management' with 4 subjects, and some of them are modified, transformed or innovated from the old ones, and the others are totally new courses. In the paper also will include some steps that should be done in order to achieve the targets for new improved nuclear education in the field of nuclear power. (author)

  5. Anti-HIV therapy with AZT prodrugs: AZT phosphonate derivatives, current state and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandazhinskaya, Anastasiya; Matyugina, Elena; Shirokova, Elena

    2010-06-01

    AIDS, a disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus, was called 'plague of the twentieth century'. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), the first compound approved for the treatment of HIV, is still a mandatory component of treatment schemes. However, its toxicity stimulated a search for new agents. This review presents the history and current state of the design of AZT prodrugs based on its phosphonate derivatives. Although every effort was made to include as many AZT structures bearing phosphonate residues and demonstrate the variety they offer, we also concentrated on the studies performed in our laboratory. Special attention was also paid to AZT 5'-H-phosphonate (phosphazide, Nikavir) approved in the Russian Federation as a drug for the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The prodrug strategy applied to AZT phosphonate derivatives enriched chemistry, biology and medicine not only with new knowledge, methods and structures, but also with a new anti-HIV drug Nikavir. Currently, study of another phosphonate, AZT 5'-aminocarbonylphosphonate, is underway. Slow release of AZT following oral administration and penetration into cells, decreased toxicity and the lack of cumulative properties make the compounds of this group promising as extended-release forms of AZT.

  6. [Oligometastasis in pancreatic cancer : Current state of knowledge and spectrum of local therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, F; Damanakis, A I; Bruns, C

    2018-03-20

    Several case series reported results of surgical resection in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a metastasized stage. A summarized overview of the current state of knowledge and a summary of the results of currently available studies. A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE and PubMed with respect to metastasized pancreatic cancer and surgical resection. The evidence level for surgical resection in the metastasized stage is weak and so far no prospective trials are available. The largest single-arm trial included 85 patients with hepatic metastasis. In cases of hepatic oligometastasis an overall survival of 11-14 months was observed. In the presence of pulmonary metastasis, overall survival seems to be prolonged compared to intra-abdominal metastasis, although the evidence level is relatively weak. According to the available results, a general recommendation for surgical resection in a metastasized stage cannot be given; however, the results show a possible benefit for some well-selected patient subgroups. Prospective trials must validate these data and investigate the use of combined surgical and systemic treatments in the case of resectable metastatic pancreatic cancer.

  7. The current state of midwifery and development of midwifery research in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, Ans G; Wijnen, Hennie A A; Oblasser, Claudia; Perrenoud, Patricia; Gross, Mechthild M

    2013-05-01

    to describe the current state of midwifery and explore the development of midwifery research during the last two decades in four non-English speaking European countries in order to understand what factors influenced the course of establishing research as a professional activity. qualitative collective case study. Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the Netherlands. with the ICM Workshop in Germany in 1989 as a central starting point for midwifery research in all four countries, different courses, in timing as well as content, characterised its development in the individual countries. Major factors contributing to this development during the last decades involved the history and character of midwifery, initiatives of individual midwifery researchers, alliances with other professions and the transition of midwifery programmes into higher education. Whereas midwifery research is currently established as a professional role in all countries, future challenges involve the creation of its own profile and identity, while building up its own academic workforce and strengthening the role of midwifery in multidisciplinary alliances. although a common vision was shared between the four countries in 1989, midwifery research developed as a context-specific phenomenon related to the character of midwifery and education in each country. These factors have to be taken into account in the further development of midwifery as an academic discipline at a national as well as at an international level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breast-Feeding Analgesia in Infants: An Update on the Current State of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Britney; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Latimer, Margot; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    To provide an updated synthesis of the current state of the evidence for the effectiveness of breast-feeding and expressed breast milk feeding in reducing procedural pain in preterm and full-term born infants. A systematic search of key electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE) was completed. Of the 1032 abstracts screened, 21 were found eligible for inclusion. Fifteen studies reported on the use of breast-feeding or expressed breast milk in full-term infants and 6 reported on preterm infants. Direct breast-feeding was more effective than maternal holding, maternal skin-to-skin contact, topical anesthetics, and music therapy, and was as or more effective than sweet tasting solutions in full-term infants. Expressed breast milk was not consistently found to reduce pain response in full-term or preterm infants. Studies generally had moderate to high risk of bias. There is sufficient evidence to recommend direct breast-feeding for procedural pain management in full-term infants. Based on current evidence, expressed breast milk alone should not be considered an adequate intervention.

  9. The current state of accounting and analytical system of economic management in emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Gritsishen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed the current state of organizational and methodological regulations from the perspective of regulation and specific to domestic enterprises. It was established that the accounting system is governed by a set of regulations at different levels and different areas of law. In connection with what was presented to an approach that involves systematizing legal regulation in terms of impact on the object, the subject and the elements method of accounting. It studied the system of analytical indicators calculated on the investigated companies. The research was conducted by examining the analytical reports analysts, internal auditors and the audit report in partial use of analytical procedures. The study was conducted in the following areas: evaluation of the effectiveness of fixed assets, estimation of efficiency of current assets, assessment of the efficiency of the production process, factor analysis and consideration of the effects of emergencies, methods of economic analysis of consequences of emergency measures and the effectiveness of their prevention and elimination.

  10. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jerry D.; Clements, Jessica B.; Coffey, Charles W.; Fahey, Frederic H.; Gress, Dustin A.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Nickoloff, Edward L.; Mawlawi, Osama R.; MacDougall, Robert D.; Pizzuitello, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to: Estimate the demand for board‐certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5–10 years,Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, andIdentify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists. As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face‐to‐face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission. PACS number: 01.40.G‐ PMID:26699325

  11. Current and future imaging modalities for multiple myeloma and its precursor states

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAN, ESTHER; WEISS, BRENDAN M.; MENA, ESTHER; KORDE, NEHA; CHOYKE, PETER L.; LANDGREN, OLA

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the skeletal survey has been the standard modality for the detection of osteolytic bone disease in multiple myeloma. In addition to its poor sensitivity for the detection of osteolytic lesions, this modality is not able to identify extramedullary lesions and focal bone marrow involvement, nor measure response to therapy. The application of novel imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and molecular imaging such as fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) and fluorine-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography CT (18F-NaF PET/CT) has the potential to overcome these limitations as well as provide prognostic information in precursor states and multiple myeloma. Also promising is the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) to measure vascular permeability, an important feature of myelomagenesis. This review summarizes the current status and possible future role of novel imaging modalities in multiple myeloma and its precursor states. PMID:21649546

  12. A Review of Current Issues in State-of-Art of Wind Farm Overvoltage Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranko Goić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on several important outstanding issues in the state-of-art of overvoltage protection selection for modern wind farms. The lack of experience with this still-new technology, together with the inherent complexity of wind farm electrical systems, entails several unresolved issues pertinent to the topic of overvoltage protection, particularly in relation to lightning-initiated surges. Firstly, several aspects of the wind turbine lightning incidence, along with the issues related to the selection of lightning current parameters (pertinent to the wind farm overvoltage protection, are addressed in this paper. Secondly, several issues in the state-of-art models of the wind farm electrical systems—for the lightning surge analysis—are addressed and discussed. Here, a well-known ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP software package is often employed, with all of its benefits and some limitations. Thirdly, the metal-oxide surge arrester energy capability and the issues related to the selection of the surge arrester rated energy—in relation to the direct lightning strikes to wind turbines—is addressed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the overvoltage protection selection for wind farm projects, particularly regarding the installation of the metal-oxide surge arresters, are provided as well.

  13. Current state of interprofessional education in Canadian medical schools: Findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Peng; Malik, Nauman; Scott, Grace; Fung, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is being increasingly recognised and prioritised in undergraduate medical education. While efforts are underway to integrate IPE into health professional curricula across Canada, the state of IPE in Canadian medical schools remains unclear. This study aims to assess the current practice of IPE in Canadian undergraduate medical curricula. An online survey was distributed to IPE directors (or designees) of all Canadian medical schools. The survey gathered details of the IPE experiences offered, curriculum structure, and perceived barriers to the programmes. The survey was completed by 12 of 17 Canadian medical schools and revealed that IPE is generally well represented in Canadian undergraduate medical education curricula. Reported barriers to IPE efforts included scheduling and funding limitations. By comparison, student interest was one of the least commonly cited issues. It would appear that students and faculty are interested in advancing the state of IPE in undergraduate medical education. The results of this study are crucial as IPE continues to evolve as a component of undergraduate medical curricula across the globe.

  14. Forensic palynology: current status of a rarely used technique in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Vaughn M; Jones, Gretchen D

    2006-11-22

    The United States of America would seem to be an excellent location for using pollen data in forensic applications. The vegetation within the region is highly diverse ranging from areas of Arctic tundra to some of the most inhospitable deserts anywhere in the Western Hemisphere. The highly varied ecology, great plant diversity, thousands of vegetational microhabitats, and extensive published pollen records for the region provide an ideal setting for these types of analyses. This diversity, often characterized in most locations by unique combinations of pollen types, makes the use of forensic pollen a reliable technique that can often be used to associate individuals with a unique crime scene or geographical region. Nevertheless, forensic pollen studies in the United States of America are currently one of the most highly under utilized techniques available to assist in solving criminal and civil cases. During the past century there has been a very limited attempt to use pollen evidence in either criminal or civil cases, for a variety of reasons, including a lack of available information about the technique, a very limited number of specialists trained to do forensic pollen work, and an almost total absence of academic centers able to train needed specialists or forensic facilities able, or willing, to fund research in this area. Hopefully, this paucity of use will change if certain steps are taken to encourage the routine collection and use of pollen evidence in both criminal and civil cases.

  15. AAPM/SNMMI Joint Task Force: report on the current state of nuclear medicine physics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Beth A; Allison, Jerry D; Clements, Jessica B; Coffey, Charles W; Fahey, Frederic H; Gress, Dustin A; Kinahan, Paul E; Nickoloff, Edward L; Mawlawi, Osama R; MacDougall, Robert D; Pizzutiello, Robert J

    2015-09-08

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) and the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) recognized the need for a review of the current state of nuclear  medicine physics training and the need to explore pathways for improving nuclear medicine physics training opportunities. For these reasons, the two organizations formed a joint AAPM/SNMMI Ad Hoc Task Force on Nuclear Medicine Physics  Training. The mission of this task force was to assemble a representative group of stakeholders to:• Estimate the demand for board-certified nuclear medicine physicists in the next 5-10 years,• Identify the critical issues related to supplying an adequate number of physicists who have received the appropriate level of training in nuclear medicine physics, and• Identify approaches that may be considered to facilitate the training of nuclear medicine physicists.As a result, a task force was appointed and chaired by an active member of both organizations that included representation from the AAPM, SNMMI, the American Board of Radiology (ABR), the American Board of Science in Nuclear Medicine (ABSNM), and the Commission for the Accreditation of Medical Physics Educational Programs (CAMPEP). The Task Force first met at the AAPM Annual Meeting in Charlotte in July 2012 and has met regularly face-to-face, online, and by conference calls. This manuscript reports the findings of the Task Force, as well as recommendations to achieve the stated mission.

  16. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  17. A Systematic Review of Wearable Systems for Cancer Detection: Current State and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Partha Pratim; Dash, Dinesh; De, Debashis

    2017-10-02

    Rapid growth of sensor and computing platforms have introduced the wearable systems. In recent years, wearable systems have led to new applications across all medical fields. The aim of this review is to present current state-of-the-art approach in the field of wearable system based cancer detection and identify key challenges that resist it from clinical adoption. A total of 472 records were screened and 11 were finally included in this study. Two types of records were studied in this context that includes 45% research articles and 55% manufactured products. The review was performed per PRISMA guidelines where considerations was given to records that were published or reported between 2009 and 2017. The identified records included 4 cancer detecting wearable systems such as breast cancer (36.3%), skin cancer (36.3%), prostate cancer (18.1%), and multi-type cancer (9%). Most works involved sensor based smart systems comprising of microcontroller, Bluetooth module, and smart phone. Few demonstrated Ultra-Wide Band (i.e. UWB) antenna based wearable systems. Skin cancer detecting wearable systems were most comprehensible ones. The current works are gradually progressing with seamless integration of sensory units along with smart networking. However, they lack in cloud computing and long-range communication paradigms. Artificial intelligence and machine learning are key ports that need to be attached with current wearable systems. Further, clinical inertia, lack of awareness, and high cost are altogether pulling back the actual growth of such system. It is well comprehended that upon sincere orientation of all identified challenges, wearable systems would emerge as vital alternative to futuristic cancer detection.

  18. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James E; Pearce, Kevin A; Sydney, Carey; Ireson, Carol; Love, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    To examine the current levels of information technology (IT) use in a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) in order to inform future development of its infrastructure. Every primary care practitioner who is a member of the Kentucky Ambulatory Network (KAN),as well as the office managers of each practice. Practitioners included family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants. A cross-sectional study using two survey instruments: one for office managers and one for practitioners. The office manager survey included questions related to the current state of IT within the practice, plans for enhancement and general IT issues from the perspective of managing a practice. The practitioner survey was designed to measure current IT use and attitudes of primary care practitioners. Response rates for the surveys were 46% (n = 68) for the office managers and 51% (n = 116) for practitioners. All but one practice had internet access; however, 43% had only dial-up service. Only 21% of practitioners use an electronic medical record (EMR), with dollar cost being the barrier reported most frequently (58%). More than half of the office managers were either 'somewhat interested' (45%) or 'very interested' (17%) in a low-cost, standardised EMR that was, at the time, to be sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians. For practitioners, 71% were either 'somewhat' or 'very' interested in such a system. Responses to other IT issues are reported. While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  19. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  20. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  1. Human Performance Modeling in Military Simulation: Current State of the Art and the Way Ahead (2002 TTCP HUM Group Meeting)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... This report examines the requirements for human performance modeling within the military, assesses the state of the practice in current operational models, documents ongoing human performance research and development (R and D...

  2. Genetic resources of perennial forage grasses in Serbia: Current state, broadening and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolović Dejan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to historical background of vegetation development, geographical position, climate and relief, Serbia represents one of the 158 world biodiversity centres, based upon the number of plant species and territory size (biodiversity index 0.72. Large areas in Serbia are under natural grasslands and pastures, composed of forage grass species, and important as source of natural plant genetic diversity and germplasm for breeding. These eco-systems represent basic prerequisites for sustainable forage production, but very low potential of them is utilized and genetic resources are not protected. Family Poaceae is present in Serbia flora with 70 genera and among them from the aspect of forage production and quality, the most important are perennial Festuca, Lolium, Dactylis, Phleum, Bromus, Arrhenatherum, Poa and Agrostis species. Most of these grasses have been bred in Serbia and lot of cultivars were released. These cultivars contain autochthonous Serbian material and represent great and important resource of genetic variability. Therefore, collecting of new samples which are acclimatised to local eco-geographical conditions and including them in plant ex situ gene bank is of exceptional importance for further utilization in different plant breeding programmes as well as genetic resources protection. These autochthonous populations have natural variability and very often have satisfactory yielding performance in comparison with introduced cultivars, which referred them for direct phenotypic selection for cultivars release. Broadening of forage grasses genotypes collection is permanent objective of Serbian scientists. Collected accessions are being characterized and evaluated for important phenological, morphological and agronomical traits. In this paper genetic resources of forage grass species, their diversity and potentials, state of the grasses gene banks, as well as possibility for breeding of new cultivars has been analysed.

  3. [School escorts in inclusive education- the current situation in the state of Baden-Wurttemberg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Katharina; Thurn, Leonore; Besier, Tanja; Künster, Anne K; Fegert, Jörg M; Ziegenhain, Ute

    2014-11-01

    In the context of inclusive education, so-called «Schulbegleiter» (school escorts) have been installed to assist children with special needs. However, adequate conceptions of their role are lacking, and no provisions exist describing the exact tasks and duties of these school escorts. This article presents data on a statewide empirical study and provides information on the professional background, qualifications, and assignments of such escorts as well as the nature of the assisted children in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. The data were collected in nearly 50 % of all schools providing general education in Baden-Württemberg, and a total of 526 school escorts completed a questionnaire on their work. Children with special needs who received such assistance were aged 6 to 19 years (M = 10.4) and had a mental disorder in nearly three-fourths of all cases, with autism spectrum disorders being most common (59.4 %). The most frequent assignments of the escorts were providing practical assistance during classes and mobilizing the child as well as providing direct support in emotionally challenging situations. Such escorts can make a significant contribution to the inclusive education of disabled children. They do, however, need an adequate qualification and practical competences to meet the diverse challenges of children with special needs. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are supposed to stay involved in the process, not only by planning interventions, but also during the course of inclusive education itself. Thus, the emotional situation and adjustment of included children with mental disorders over time must be monitored adequately.

  4. Resolving discrete pulsar spin-down states with current and future instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, B.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.

    2018-04-01

    An understanding of pulsar timing noise offers the potential to improve the timing precision of a large number of pulsars as well as facilitating our understanding of pulsar magnetospheres. For some sources, timing noise is attributable to a pulsar switching between two different spin-down rates (\\dot{ν }). Such transitions may be common but difficult to resolve using current techniques. In this work, we use simulations of \\dot{ν }-variable pulsars to investigate the likelihood of resolving individual \\dot{ν } transitions. We inject step changes in the value of \\dot{ν } with a wide range of amplitudes and switching time-scales. We then attempt to redetect these transitions using standard pulsar timing techniques. The pulse arrival-time precision and the observing cadence are varied. Limits on \\dot{ν } detectability based on the effects such transitions have on the timing residuals are derived. With the typical cadences and timing precision of current timing programmes, we find that we are insensitive to a large region of Δ \\dot{ν } parameter space that encompasses small, short time-scale switches. We find, where the rotation and emission states are correlated, that using changes to the pulse shape to estimate \\dot{ν } transition epochs can improve detectability in certain scenarios. The effects of cadence on Δ \\dot{ν } detectability are discussed, and we make comparisons with a known population of intermittent and mode-switching pulsars. We conclude that for short time-scale, small switches, cadence should not be compromised when new generations of ultra-sensitive radio telescopes are online.

  5. The current and ideal state of mental health training: pediatric program director perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cori; Hampton, Elisa; Ward, Mary J; Shao, Huibo; Bostwick, Susan

    2014-01-01

    To assess pediatric residency program director (PD) perceptions of the current state of mental health (MH) training, their receptivity to curricular changes, and perceptions of their residents' knowledge and skills in MH care. We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing a Web-based survey of pediatric residency PDs to assess program characteristics, learning modalities PDs currently had or would implement, and their knowledge of the new American Academy of Pediatrics' MH competencies. PDs then ranked their residents' knowledge and skills for 29 MH competencies. Analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate analyses to assess for associations between variables, particularly MH model of care and perceived competence. Ninety-nine PDs (51%) responded. A total of 87% of PDs reported that MH care was taught as part of another rotation, yet PDs were receptive to curricular changes. Only 45% of PDs were aware of the 2009 American Academy of Pediatrics competencies, and PDs infrequently rated their residents' MH skills and knowledge to be above average. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was an exception: 64% reported above-average ADHD knowledge in diagnoses and 57% in treatment. There was an association between enhanced MH services in continuity clinics and perceived resident systems-based practice (P training is not emphasized, leading to deficiencies in their residents' knowledge and skills in MH care. The receptivity of PDs suggests the need for targeted dissemination of national guidelines or curriculum. Integrated models of care may be one way to improve resident competencies, but this deserves further study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Fuel for ADS: State-of-the-art, requirements, current and future programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabrielli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fuels are the cornerstone of research/development programs of accelerator-driven systems for transmuting minor actinides (MA). Compared with the fuels for critical reactors, fuels for ADS are generally U-free to improve the transmutation performance and contain high volumetric concentrations (about 50%) of MA and Pu compounds. Their specific fabrication, reprocessing, design and safety issues are being currently investigated. This paper provides an overview of the current state-of-the-art of the assessment of these innovative fuels. Emphasis has been placed on the main outcomes of the work performed within the Sixth FP EU EUROTRANS Programme, which provided a decisive step forward in improving knowledge on fabrication, properties, and behaviour under irradiation of these challenging fuels. In EUROTRANS, for the ADS application, the focus was on Ceramic-Ceramic (Pu,MA)O 2 + MgO and Ceramic-Metallic (Pu,MA)O 2 + 92 Mo composite fuels, which were recommended for the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). The fuels consist of particles of (Pu,MA)O 2 phases dispersed in a magnesia or molybdenum matrix. Solid nitride (Pu,MA,Zr)O 2 fuels have also been considered as a back-up solution. This paper presents the main experimental results from out-of-pile and in-pile experiments of the Ceramic-Ceramic and Ceramic-Metallic composite fuels as well as related safety assessments. Further, the on-going research and development activities on fuels loaded with large amount of MA will be presented. (author)

  7. The current state of radiation education in schools and results of the opinion survey on radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a new guideline about radioactivity was added to the government guidelines for teaching junior high school science. Since then people involved with school education have been trying to spread correct information about radioactivity. On the other hand, people's confusion in the aftermath of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident has clearly shown that people do not know much about radioactivity. Considering the situation, the author conducted an investigation about the current state of radiation education and carried out an opinion survey about radioactivity among adults. The investigation about education showed the following: (1) the nature of radiation, such as its permeability, and its uses were described in the government-approved textbooks; (2) basic knowledge, such as what are radiation effects, were described comprehensively in the supplementary reading recommendations made by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology; and (3) locale education committees created teaching materials such as guidance to present topics. The opinion survey had questions to judge: (1) current public understanding of radioactivity; (2) the degree of general information that people collected for themselves; (3) the degree of specific knowledge about radioactivity that people had; and (4) people's attitudes toward various problems with radioactivity in the environment. The results suggested that for radiation education the following items are important: (1) to learn that radioactivity exists in people's daily lives and is used safely in various field; (2) to get basic knowledge and better quantitative understanding of such things as radioactivity units, radiation dose and radiation effects; and (3) to acquire practical experience to use the information effectively. (author)

  8. Current state, habitat and potential invasiveness of Montia linearis (Douglas ex Hook. Greene in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Dembicz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Montia linearis is a vascular plant originating from western North America. The expansion of this species has been observed for several decades. For the first time M. linearis was found in Europe in 1989. Further six populations were documented by 2004 within the continent: three in Poland, two in Denmark and one in Hungary. Apart from discovering a new population of M. linearis, we confirmed two out of the three previously known localities of the species in Poland. All the currently known populations of M. linearis occupied predominantly meadow habitats, especially intensively managed sites. Some individuals were also found in disturbed sites with bare soil. The studied species inhabited soils of various types with broad range of fertility as well as humidity. Montia linearis populations reached densities up to 87 individuals per 0.04 m2. The number of seeds produced by an individual was between 10 and 55 in 90% of the studied specimens, however much more fertile specimens were also observed. As the previously presented hypothesis of M. linearis dispersal with rail transport seemed not to be well supported, the connection between the M. linearis presence and cattle husbandry is considered. It is possible that the species can be transferred with living animals or manure. The species was able to survive for at least 26 years within once inhabited site. Further spread of M. linearis within Europe is highly probable. The aim of the study is to: (i describe the current state of populations of M. linearis in Poland, (ii provide information on habitat preferences and biology of the species, (iii assess the invasiveness potential of M. linearis in Poland.

  9. Evaluation of the Current States of Older Employees: The Case in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Ertan Yesari Hastürk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed on the older employees who work in small and medium sized enterprises in Ankara in Turkey. This study involved a survey consisting of 16 questions that applied to the employees. 61 females and 103 males within a total 164 employees who were aged over 55 participated in the survey. Current situations which were about the demographic structures, working conditions, problems of workplace and health problems of the employees, were determined by the survey. 63% of the employees consist of workers who were previously entitled to pension. Moreover 64% of the employees were aged 55-59, 27% were 60-64 and 9% were over aged 65. There are no female employees aged over 65. All of the retired employees stated that their salaries were insufficient to meet the needs. 13% of the participants were white-collar worker, 50% of them have worked in the jobs needing physical power. 20% of the participants said that they benefited from their previous experiences. 69% of the employees complained about a chronic disease. There were no employees who work although it is prohibited due to the health problems. 14% of the employees stated that they will continue to work even if they have adequate financial means and none of them were female. It is observed that generally older employees encounter many problems. It is observed that it would be wrong that older employees were isolated from their work environments by improving their opportunities. Absolutely it should be exploited from the personal experiences of these employees.

  10. Paramagnetic effect in a current-carrying cylindrical superconductor and its application in the study of the intermediate state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, V.A.; Kan, Y.S.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a weak longitudinal magnetic field on the characteristics of the paramagnetic effect (PME) in a current-carrying cylinder has been experimentally investigated for those fields for which the magnitude of the PME oscillations as the current is varied. A model for the PME whose magnitude oscillates as the current varied is proposed on the basis of the London model for the intermediate state of a current-carrying cylinder. The dependence of the period of the London structure on the current strength is computed from the experimental data within the framework of this model

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  12. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP IN THE INNOVATIVE SPHERE: CURRENT STATE AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ya. Veselovskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the current state is analyzed is state-private partnership, the problems constraining its further development, among which imperfection of legislative and standard and legal base, a fi scal orientation of the tax law, lack of mechanisms of long-term fi nancing, low level of trust of business to the government, the high level of corruption, etc. are revealed. It is off ered to introduce amendments in partnership mechanisms the including creations of the favorable economic and standard and legal environment, formation at businessmen of motivation to development of innovative activity, development of new organizational mechanisms of system of public-private partnership, strengthening of state support of commercialization of results of scientifi c activity, etc. The purpose of article is increase of effi ciency of public-private partnership in the innovative sphere.Article tasks: to investigate the main reasons constraining development of public-private partnership in the innovative sphere to off er measures for their elimination really to promote increase of the mechanism of public-private partnership.Methodology. Process, system, integration and functional approaches are the basis for methodical development.Results. The main forms of public-private partnership used in the Russian practice are analysed. The rating of regions of the Russian Federation on public-private partnership development is given. The main reasons infl uencing further development of public-private partnership in modern economic conditions are analysed. The measures of legislative and institutional orders urged to increase efficiency of this mechanism in the conditions of transition to innovative economy are off ered.Conclusions / importance. Expansion of use of the mechanism of public-private partnership will allow Russia to answer modern technological calls surely. However it can be reached only due to ensuring due level of economic freedom, creation of

  13. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  14. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomme, Guy; Dita, Miguel; Jacobsen, Kim Sarah; Pérez Vicente, Luis; Molina, Agustin; Ocimati, Walter; Poussier, Stephane; Prior, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak ( Mycosphaerella fijiensis ) and Fusarium wilt ( Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ). However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1) Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis ); (2) Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3) Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi ), bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot ( Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca ). Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed). This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  15. The current state of Lean implementation in health care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksinska, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of implementation of Lean production in health care. The study focuses on the definition of Lean in health care and implementation process, barriers, challenges, enablers, and outcomes of implementing Lean production methods in health care. A comprehensive search of the literature concerning the implementation of Lean production in health care was used to generate a synthesis of the literature around the chosen research questions. Lean production in health care is mostly used as a process improvement approach and focuses on 3 main areas: (1) defining value from the patient point of view, (2) mapping value streams, and (3) eliminating waste in an attempt to create continuous flow. Value stream mapping is the most frequently applied Lean tool in health care. The usual implementation steps include conducting Lean training, initiating pilot projects, and implementing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. One of the barriers is lack of educators and consultants who have their roots in the health care sector and can provide support by sharing experience and giving examples from real-life applications of Lean in health care. The enablers of Lean in health care seem not to be different from the enablers of any other change initiative. The outcomes can be divided into 2 broad areas: the performance of the health care system and the development of employees and work environment.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN OMSK REGION COMPANIES: CURRENT STATE AND DEVELOPMENT CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Vladimirovna Katunina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread concept of project management, companies in major regions of Russia are still at the initial level of project management maturity. The paper is aimed to determine the current state and dynamics of organizational project management in the companies of the Omsk region, identify problem areas, and seek directions for further development. The author interviewed managers and project management practitioners in 148 companies from a variety of industries in the Omsk region. The study compares the survey results received during two years (2015–2016. The findings indicate that within the majority of companies, the organizational project management is not fully adopted. The author has empirically tested that high-performers are more likely to appreciate the value of project management than low-performers. However, the only small proportion of companies demonstrates a high level of project management maturity. Moreover, no strong relationship has been found between matured project management processes in a company and its performance. The author revealed and ranged the main problems in the organizational project management development. These problems are concerned with a poor support of organizational enablers. The organizational project management development should be considered in the context of strategic governance and management. The findings contribute to the understanding of key processes, which constitute project capabilities in a company. The research results can be used for building a conceptual model and studying organizational project management dynamics in a region during a longer period.

  17. THE CURRENT STATE OF STUDY OF PLANTS OF HEDYSARUM L. FLORAE OF THE CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Imachuyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the ecological-botanical research and the current state of knowledge of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.The aim of the study was the review of the information contained in open sources about the basic ecological and Botanical characteristics, geographic specie of habitat and phytocoenotic specie of species of the genus Hedysarum growing in the Caucasus.Materials and methods. The study was conducted using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle, library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca, RGB, VINITI, SOCIONET, ReseachGate, PubMed, Web of Sciences, SCOPUS, RNMJ.RU, UlrichsWEB, EBSCO, Scientific library of the Botanical Institute of RAS as well as the results of our research.Results: the review study of species of the genus Hedysarum L. of the legume family (Fabaceae grown in the Caucasus.Conclusion: the results of the analysis of regional floras, morphological characteristics, the main ecological and botanical characteristics of these 16 species, the geographic specie of habitat, phytocenotic specie are presented.

  18. Current state and future perspectives of the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condino-Neto, A; Sorensen, R U; Gómez Raccio, A C; King, A; Espinosa-Rosales, F J; Franco, J L

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are genetic diseases that affect the immune system and for the last 20 years, the Latin American Society for Immunodeficiencies (LASID) has been promoting initiatives in awareness, research, diagnosis, and treatment for the affected patients in Latin America. These initiatives have resulted in the development of programmes such as the LASID Registry (with 4900 patients registered as of January 2014), fellowships in basic and clinical research, PID summer schools, biannual meetings, and scientific reports, amongst others. These achievements highlight the critical role that LASID plays as a scientific organisation in promoting science, research and education in this field in Latin America. However, challenges remain in some of these areas and the Society must envision additional strategies to tackle them for the benefit of the patients. In June 2013, a group of experts in the field met to discuss the contributions of LASID to the initiatives of PID in Latin America, and this article summarises the current state and future perspectives of this society and its role in the advance of PIDs in Latin America. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. [Current state of measures to deal with natural disasters at public universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirouchi, Tomoko; Tanka, Mamoru; Shimada, Ikuko; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2012-03-01

    The responsibility of a university after a large-scale, natural disaster is to secure the safety of students' and local residents' lives. The present study investigated the current state of measures at public universities to deal with natural disasters in coordination with the local community. A survey was administered at 77 public universities in Japan from March 25 to May 10, 2011. The survey included questions on the existence of local disaster evacuation sites, a disaster manual, disaster equipment storage, emergency drinking water, and food storage. A total of 51% of universities had designated local evacuation sites. Based on responses for the remaining questions, universities with and without the designated disaster response solutions accounted for 42% and 57%, respectively, for disaster manuals; 55% and 33%, respectively, for disaster equipment; 32% and 13%, respectively, for disaster drinking water storage; and 26% and 7%, respectively, for emergency food storage. A majority of public universities have not created disaster manuals, regardless of whether they have a local evacuation site. The survey results also indicated that most universities have no storage of disaster equipment or emergency supplies.

  20. Oral immunotherapy for allergic diseases using transgenic rice seeds: current state and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Mayumi; Nishimura, Tomoe; Kaminuma, Osamu; Mori, Akio; Hiroi, Takachika

    2013-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) has been shown to provide clinical benefit for patients with allergic diseases. At present, subcutaneous and sublingual ITs are mainly authorized for clinical treatment. Oral administration of allergens seems to be the easiest way to achieve IT, though it has yet to be translated to the clinical setting, mainly due to the requirement of a large amount of allergens. Plants, especially rice seeds, have recently been recognized as superior allergen carriers for oral administration, because of their high productivity, stability and safety. Therefore, in order to establish clinically applicable oral IT, we have been developing transgenic rice seeds (Tg rice), in which major epitopes of cedar pollen allergens or house-dust mites (HDM) are expressed. The efficacy of this orally administered Tg rice was confirmed in murine models of allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. In the safety study of the Tg rice, no adverse effects on cynomolgus macaques were observed. In this review, we summarized the current state and future prospects of allergen-specific IT, focusing particularly on oral IT with allergen-expressing Tg rice. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Current State of Off-Site Manufacturing in Australian and Chinese Residential Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik M. A. Khalfan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many techniques have been implemented to make construction industry more productive. The key focus is on reduction of total duration, reduction in construction cost, improvements in the quality, achieving more sustainable development, and safer construction sites. One of the techniques, which is emerging in the last two decades, is the use of off-site manufacturing (OSM within the construction industry. Several research projects and industry initiatives have reported the benefits and challenges of implementation of OSM. The focus of this paper is Australian and Chinese residential construction industry and the uptake of the OSM concepts. The paper presents a brief review of the current state of OSM in the last five to seven years with the context of the above-mentioned two countries. The paper concludes that the construction industry, both in Australia and China, needs to start walking the talk with regard to OSM adoption. The paper also highlights some of the research gaps in the OSM area, especially within the housing and residential sector.

  2. Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Human Breast Milk: Current State and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Benedikt; Braun, Dominik; Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Turner, Paul C; Degen, Gisela H; Marko, Doris

    2016-07-18

    Human breast milk is considered as the best and ideal form of nutrition for infants. However, food contaminants such as mycotoxins, which may be transferred from maternal blood to milk, are poorly described. Mycotoxins are a major group of natural toxins frequently detected in foods. Here, we review the current state-of-the-art in the monitoring of mycotoxins in human breast milk, i.e., knowledge on occurrence, metabolism, and analytical assays utilized for their quantification. We highlight that most of the data captured to date have not been verified with the precision now capable utilizing LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS approaches. One concern is that some studies may overestimate individual measures, and most cannot capture the patterns and levels of mycotoxin mixtures. We propose accurate assessment as a priority, especially for aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol as well as their major metabolites. However, also so-called emerging toxins such as citrinin, the enniatins, beauvericin, aurofusarin, or Alternaria toxins should be considered to evaluate their potential relevance. Key requirements for analytical quality assurance are identified and discussed to guide future developments in this area. Moreover, research needs including investigations of lactational transfer rates, the role of human metabolism for bioactivation or detoxification, and an evaluation of potential combinatory effects of different mycotoxins are pointed out. It is hoped that LC-MS based multianalyte methods will enable more accurate, rapid and affordable human biomonitoring approaches that support informed decisions for maternal and infant health.

  3. Mindfulness interventions in the workplace: A critique of the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stephanie D; Tuckey, Michelle R

    2017-04-01

    There is growing research interest regarding the significance of mindfulness in the workplace. Within this body of knowledge, research investigating the effects of mindfulness interventions on employee health and well-being has strong practical implications for organizations. A sound understanding of the current state of the workplace mindfulness intervention literature will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain, and how to improve the conduct and communication of intervention-oriented research. Accordingly, in this article, we systematically review 40 published articles of mindfulness interventions in the workplace to identify ways in which these interventions could be improved, and how to overcome methodological concerns that threaten study validity. Studies selected for review were published peer-reviewed, primary empirical research studies written in English, with a focus on a workplace mindfulness intervention. We discuss a range of issues evident within this body of literature, including conceptualizations of mindfulness; the adaptation of protocols to work settings; internal validity in relation to random allocation and control conditions; the use of manipulation checks; attrition, adherence, acceptability, and maintenance of interventions; utilizing objective cognitive measures; examining organizational and well-being outcomes; and establishing boundary conditions. Overall, this review provides a resource to inform scholars to advance this line of inquiry and practitioners who are considering implementing a mindfulness intervention for employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  5. Analytical expression of non-steady-state concentrations and current pertaining to compounds present in the enzyme membrane of biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugarajan, Anitha; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Rajendran, Lakshmanan

    2011-05-05

    A mathematical model of trienzyme biosensor at an internal diffusion limitation for a non-steady-state condition has been developed. The model is based on diffusion equations containing a linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the enzymatic reaction. Analytical expressions of concentrations and current of compounds in trienzyme membrane are derived. An excellent agreement with simulation data is noted. When time tends to infinity, the analytical expression of non-steady-state concentration and current approaches the steady-state value, thereby confirming the validity of the mathematical analysis. Furthermore, in this work we employ the complex inversion formula to solve the boundary value problem.

  6. Current state and prospects of carbon management in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Shvidenko, Anatoly

    2010-05-01

    The current state and trajectories of future development of natural landscapes in high latitudes of Northern Eurasia are defined inter alia by (1) current unsatisfactory social and economic situation in boreal Northern Eurasia; (2) the dramatic magnitude of on-going and expected climatic change (warming up to 10-12oC under global warming at 4oC); (3) increasing anthropogenic pressure, particularly in regions of intensive oil and gas exploration and extraction; (4) large areas of sparsely populated and practically unmanaged land; (5) vulnerability of northern ecosystems which historically developed under cold climates and buffering capacity of which is not well known; (6) risk of catastrophic natural disturbances (fire, insect outbreaks) whose frequency and severity have accelerated during recent decades; and (7) high probability of irreversible changes of vegetation cover. These specifics are overlapped with insufficient governance of natural renewable resources (e.g., forests) and destructed practice of industrial development of new territories (oil and gas extraction and exploration, metallurgy etc.). Based on a full carbon account for terrestrial vegetation ecosystems of Northern Eurasia, we analyze the relative impacts of major drivers on magnitude and uncertainty of the Net Ecosystem Carbon Balance (NECB) under current and expected climate and environment. Dynamic trends and interannual variability of NECB are mostly dependent on weather conditions during growth seasons of individual years, regimes of natural disturbances, and anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems. In a short term, disturbances and human impacts cause a theoretically 'manageable' part of the full carbon account, which on average is estimated to be of about 20% of annual net primary production. In a long term, thawing of permafrost and change of hydrological regimes of vast territories may result in a catastrophic decline of the forested area and wide distribution of 'green desertification'. The

  7. An Overview of Seabed Mining Including the Current State of Development, Environmental Impacts, and Knowledge Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn A. Miller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand for minerals and metals, including for use in the technology sector, has led to a resurgence of interest in exploration of mineral resources located on the seabed. Such resources, whether seafloor massive (polymetallic sulfides around hydrothermal vents, cobalt-rich crusts (CRCs on the flanks of seamounts or fields of manganese (polymetallic nodules on the abyssal plains, cannot be considered in isolation of the distinctive, in some cases unique, assemblages of marine species associated with the same habitats and structures. In addition to mineral deposits, there is interest in extracting methane from gas hydrates on continental slopes and rises. Many of the regions identified for future seabed mining are already recognized as vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs. Since its inception in 1982, the International Seabed Authority (ISA, charged with regulating human activities on the deep-sea floor beyond the continental shelf, has issued 27 contracts for mineral exploration, encompassing a combined area of more than 1.4 million km2, and continues to develop rules for commercial mining. At the same time, some seabed mining operations are already taking place within continental shelf areas of nation states, generally at relatively shallow depths, and with others at advanced stages of planning. The first commercial enterprise, expected to target mineral-rich sulfides in deeper waters, at depths between 1,500 and 2,000 m on the continental shelf of Papua New Guinea, is scheduled to begin early in 2019. In this review, we explore three broad aspects relating to the exploration and exploitation of seabed mineral resources: (1 the current state of development of such activities in areas both within and beyond national jurisdictions, (2 possible environmental impacts both close to and more distant from mining activities and (3 the uncertainties and gaps in scientific knowledge and understanding which render baseline and impact assessments

  8. Physician payment 2008 for interventionalists: current state of health care policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Giordano, James

    2007-09-01

    Physicians in the United States have been affected by significant changes in the pattern(s) of medical practice evolving over the last several decades. These changes include new measures to 1) curb increasing costs, 2) increase access to patient care, 3) improve quality of healthcare, and 4) pay for prescription drugs. Escalating healthcare costs have focused concerns about the financial solvency of Medicare and this in turn has fostered a renewed interest in the economic basis of interventional pain management practices. The provision and systemization of healthcare in North America and several European countries are difficult enterprises to manage irrespective of whether these provisions and systems are privatized (as in the United States) or nationalized or seminationalized (as in Great Britain, Canada, Australia and France). Consequently, while many management options have been put forth, none seem to be optimally geared toward affording healthcare as a maximized individual and social good, and none have been completely enacted. The current physician fee schedule (released on July 12, 2007) includes a 9.9% cut in payment rate. Since the Medicare program was created in 1965, several methods have been used to determine physicians' rate(s) for each covered service. The sustained growth rate (SGR) system, established in 1998, has evoked negative consequences on physician payment(s). Based on the current Medicare expenditure index, practice expenses are projected to increase by 34.5% from 2002 to 2016, whereas, if actual practice inflation is considered, this increase will be 90%. This is in contrast to projected physician payment cuts that are depicted to be 51%. No doubt, this scenario will be devastating to many practices and the US medical community at large. Resolutions to this problem have been offered by MedPAC, the Government Accountability Office, physician organizations, economists, and various other interested groups. In the past, temporary measures have

  9. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  10. Current status of solid waste management in small island developing states: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohee, Romeela; Mauthoor, Sumayya; Bundhoo, Zumar M A; Somaroo, Geeta; Soobhany, Nuhaa; Gunasee, Sanjana

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews the current status of waste management in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and the challenges that are faced in solid waste management. The waste generation rates of SIDS were compared within the three geographic regions namely Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS and Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China (AIMS) SIDS and with countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Only Pacific SIDS had a waste generation rate less than 1kg/capita/day. The waste generation rates for the three SIDS regions averaged 1.29kg/capita/day while that for OECD countries was at a mean value of 1.35kg/capita/day. The waste compositions in the different SIDS regions were almost similar owing to comparable consumption patterns while these differed to a large extent with wastes generated in OECD countries. In SIDS, the major fraction of MSW comprised of organics (44%) followed by recyclables namely paper, plastics, glass and metals (total: 43%). In contrast, MSW in OECD countries consisted mainly of recyclables (43%) followed by organics (37%). This article also reviewed the other functional elements of the waste management systems in SIDS. Several shortcomings were noted in the process of waste collection, transfer and transport namely the fact of having outdated collection vehicles and narrow roads which are inaccessible. Among the waste management practices in SIDS, waste disposal via landfilling, illegal dumping and backyard burning were favoured most of the time at the expense of sustainable waste treatment technologies such as composting, anaerobic digestion and recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation Alters Resting-State Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Lauren; Meyer-Frießem, Christine H; Zahn, Peter K; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) is a noninvasive method that can modulate spinal reflexes, sensory afferent conduction, and even pain perception. Although neurophysiological evidence suggests that tsDCS alters somatosensory and nociceptive afferent conduction to the cortex, its supraspinal effects have not yet been investigated by using functional imaging to investigate tsDCS-induced alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC). Therefore, we hypothesize that tsDCS-induced changes in neurophysiological measures might also be reflected in spontaneous brain activity. We investigated tsDCS-induced changes in somatosensory cortical connectivity by using seed-to-voxel-based analyses from the bilateral primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the thalamus in a double-blind, crossover study design. Resting state FC was measured by using blood oxygenation level-dependent, functional magnetic resonance imaging (3T Philips) before and after anodal, cathodal, and sham tsDCS (20 min, 2.5 mA, active electrode centered over T11 spinous process, reference electrode over left shoulder blade) in a double-blind, crossover study of 20 healthy men (24 ± 0.7 years). As compared with sham, anodal tsDCS resulted in a decreased connectivity between the S1 and the ipsilateral posterior insula for both left and right hemispheres. Anodal tsDCS also resulted in decreased thalamic connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex, and increased connectivity between S1 and the thalamus. Cathodal tsDCS showed increased FC between the right thalamus and both left and right posterior insulae, and decreased connectivity between the S1 seeds and the occipital cortex. Our results provide evidence of supraspinal effects of tsDCS and suggest that tsDCS may provide a noninvasive intervention that is able to target cortical sensory networks.

  12. MRI for solitary pulmonary nodule and mass assessment: Current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hatabu, Hiroto; Seo, Joon Beom; van Beek, Edwin J R

    2018-03-23

    Since the clinical introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the chest has been one of its most challenging applications, and many physicists and radiologists have tried since the 1980s to use MR for assessment of different lung diseases as well as mediastinal and pleural diseases. Since then, however, technical advances in sequencing, scanners, and coils, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, utilization of contrast media, and development of postprocessing tools have been reported by many basic and clinical researchers. As a result, state-of-the-art thoracic MRI is now substituted for traditional imaging techniques and/or plays a complementary role in the management of patients with various chest diseases, and especially in the detection of pulmonary nodules and in thoracic oncology. In addition, MRI has continued to be developed to help overcome the limitations of computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine examinations. It can currently provide not only morphological, but also functional, physiological, pathophysiological, and molecular information at 1.5T with a gradual shift from 1.5T to 3T MR systems. In this review, we focus on these recent advances in MRI for pulmonary nodule detection and pulmonary nodule and mass evaluation by using noncontrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced techniques as well as new molecular imaging methods such as chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging for a comparison with other modalities such as single or multidetector row CT, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and/or PET/CT. 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Current Epidemiology of Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanois, Ronald E; Mistry, Jaydev B; Gwam, Chukwuweike U; Mohamed, Nequesha S; Choksi, Ujval S; Mont, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    Revision surgery for failed total knee arthroplasty (TKA) continues to pose a substantial burden for the United States healthcare system. The predominant etiology of TKA failure has changed over time and may vary between studies. This report aims to update the current literature on this topic by using a large national database. Specifically, we analyzed: (1) etiologies for revision TKA; (2) frequencies of revision TKA procedures; (3) various demographics including payer type and region; and (4) the length of stay (LOS) and total charges based on type of revision TKA procedure. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was used to identify all revision TKA procedures performed between 2009 and 2013. Clinical, economic, and demographic data were collected and analyzed for 337,597 procedures. Patients were stratified according to etiology of failure, age, sex, race, US census region, and primary payor class. The mean LOS and total charges were also calculated. Infection was the most common etiology for revision TKA (20.4%), closely followed by mechanical loosening (20.3%). The most common revision TKA procedure performed was all component revision (31.3%). Medicare was the primary payor for the greatest proportion of revisions (57.7%). The South census region performed the most revision TKAs (33.2%). The overall mean LOS was 4.5 days, with arthrotomy for removal of prosthesis without replacement procedures accounting for the longest stays (7.8 days). The mean total charge for revision TKAs was $75,028.07. Without appropriate measures in place, the burden of revision TKAs may become overwhelming and pose a strain on providers and institutions. Continued insight into the etiology and epidemiology of revision TKAs may be the principle step towards improving outcomes and mitigating the need for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The current and ideal state of mental health training: pediatric resident perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Elisa; Richardson, Joshua E; Bostwick, Susan; Ward, Mary J; Green, Cori

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Mental health (MH) problems are prevalent in the pediatric population, and in a setting of limited resources, pediatricians need to provide MH care in the primary medical home yet are uncomfortable doing so citing a lack of training during residency as one barrier. The purpose of this study is to describe pediatric residents' experiences and perspectives on the current and ideal states of MH training and ideas for curriculum development to bridge this gap. A qualitative study using focus groups of pediatric residents from an urban academic medical center was performed. Audio recordings were transcribed and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Twenty-six residents participated in three focus groups, which is when thematic saturation was achieved. The team generated five major themes: capabilities, comfort, organizational capacity, coping, and education. Residents expressed uncertainty at every step of an MH visit. Internal barriers identified included low levels of comfort and negative emotional responses. External barriers included a lack of MH resources and mentorship in MH care, or an inadequate organizational capacity. These internal and external barriers resulted in a lack of perceived capability in handling MH issues. In response, residents reported inadequate coping strategies, such as ignoring MH concerns. To build knowledge and skills, residents prefer educational modalities including didactics, experiential learning through collaborations with MH specialists, and tools built into patient care flow. Insights: Pediatric residency programs need to evolve in order to improve resident training in MH care. The skills and knowledge requested by residents parallel the American Academy of Pediatrics statement on MH competencies. Models of collaborative care provide similar modalities of learning requested by residents. These national efforts have not been operationalized in training programs yet may be useful for curriculum development and

  15. Current state of Czech astronomy popularization and its potential for enhancing science career interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kříček, Radek

    2015-08-01

    The Czech Republic has a dense net of observatories, astronomical clubs and other activities for both adults and children. Can we use it to improve skills of our pupils and their motivation to choose their career in science? Does the situation in the Czech Republic differ from abroad? What can we improve in the future? These questions were not answered satisfactorily so far. We decided to contribute to solve this issue.We present our survey of current state based mainly on electronic sources and personal dealings. Besides of 56 observatories working with public and many interest clubs, there are other possibilities to meet astronomy. For example, Astronomical Olympiad attracts thousands of pupils across the country each year to solve both theoretical and practical tasks in astronomy. In other projects, children can visit Dark-Sky Parks, design experiments for a stratospheric balloon, observe with CCD or radio devices or build their own rockets.We outline our ongoing project to examine the link between popularization activities and pupils’ or high school students’ attitude toward science and science career. We plan to create a typology of both popularization activities and life stories of people dealing with astronomy. From the methodological point of view, the mixed method design, combining both the qualitative and quantitative approach, will be used to solve the research problems. The basic research plan will be a case study. So far the project is based on interviews with various subjects. We choose people with different life stories, all connected with astronomy or astronomy popularization in some period. We focus on important moments in their career, similarities between subjects, and various types of possible motivation to participate in astronomy-related activities or to study science at university.Future results can be used to help interested organizations such as universities, observatories or astronomical societies. They will be able to work more

  16. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  17. Genetic considerations for mollusk production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Marcela P

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first). Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops, and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  18. The reaction current distribution in battery electrode materials revealed by XPS-based state-of-charge mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Alexander J; Gillette, Eleanor; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W

    2016-07-28

    Morphologically complex electrochemical systems such as composite or nanostructured lithium ion battery electrodes exhibit spatially inhomogeneous internal current distributions, particularly when driven at high total currents, due to resistances in the electrodes and electrolyte, distributions of diffusion path lengths, and nonlinear current-voltage characteristics. Measuring and controlling these distributions is interesting from both an engineering standpoint, as nonhomogenous currents lead to lower utilization of electrode material, as well as from a fundamental standpoint, as comparisons between theory and experiment are relatively scarce. Here we describe a new approach using a deliberately simple model battery electrode to examine the current distribution in a electrode material limited by poor electronic conductivity. We utilize quantitative spatially resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to measure the spatial distribution of the state-of-charge of a V2O5 model electrode as a proxy measure for the current distribution on electrodes discharged at varying current densities. We show that the current at the electrode-electrolyte interface falls off with distance from the current collector, and that the current distribution is a strong function of total current. We compare the observed distributions with a simple analytical model which reproduces the dependence of the distribution on total current, but fails to predict the correct length scale. A more complete numerical simulation suggests that dynamic changes in the electronic conductivity of the V2O5 concurrent with lithium insertion may contribute to the differences between theory and experiment. Our observations should help inform design criteria for future electrode architectures.

  19. [POSTRESUSCITATION CICATRICIAL TRACHEAL STENOSIS. CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM - THE SUCCESSES, THE HOPES AND DISAPPOINTMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshin, V D; Vyzhigina, M A; Rusakov, M A; Parshin, V V; Titov, V A; Starostin, A V

    2016-09-01

    Currently, the trend continues to increase the number ofpatients with cicatricial tracheal stenosis (CTS). Therefore, prevention and treatment ofthis disease remains topical. The main cause ofcicatricial tracheal stenosis is damaging the trachea during mechanical ventilation. The scheme ofprevention of this disease in Russia hasn't brought the desired results. to clarify the modern etiology of cicatricial tracheal stenosis, to identify the trend in incidence rates, to determine whether there is an optimal safe alternative to tracheostomy including the use of minimally invasive techniques, to improve diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm at various stages of assistance, and also to study the results of innovative operations and new ways of maintaining gas exchange. 1128 patients with cicatricial tracheal stenosis was treated from 1963 to 2015 in Petrovsky National Research Centre of Surgery and IMSechenov First Moscow State Medical University. Over time methods of di- agnosis, methods of anesthesia and operations have been varied. In this regard all patients were divided into two groups depending on the period of time from 1963 to 2000 (297 patients) andfrom 2001 to 2015 (831 patients). In recent decades there is a steady increase in the number of treated patients. So, if in the first group during the year operational treatment about the CTS 8,0 patients were underwent, in the second - to 55.4. Cicatricial tracheal stenosis appeared after lung mechanical ventilation at 1025 (for 90.9%) patients. They have undergone both radical one-stage treatment and multi-stage and sequential intraluminal procedures. In general there is a clear trend towards more aggressive surgical tactics. So, if in thefirst group, the tracheal resection with anastomosis was performedin 59 patients only, the second-330. Thefrequency ofpostoperative complications and mortality in the second group ofpatients was 12.9 and 0.7 %, respectively. Only a reasonable combination of all treatment methods

  20. Viewing International Students as State Stimulus Potential: Current Perceptions and Future Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Deborah L.; Srivastava, Prashant; Feerasta, Aniqa

    2011-01-01

    In this difficult economic climate state policy makers are increasingly focused on higher education as an economic development tool. Many rust belt states are looking to transform themselves from a state dependent on manufacturing and agriculture to a more diverse knowledge based economy. Many nations use higher education as a catalyst for…

  1. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  2. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  3. A Method to Simultaneously Detect the Current Sensor Fault and Estimate the State of Energy for Batteries in Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wang, Jing; Li, Shiying; Cao, Binggang

    2016-08-19

    Recently, State of energy (SOE) has become one of the most fundamental parameters for battery management systems in electric vehicles. However, current information is critical in SOE estimation and current sensor is usually utilized to obtain the latest current information. However, if the current sensor fails, the SOE estimation may be confronted with large error. Therefore, this paper attempts to make the following contributions: Current sensor fault detection and SOE estimation method is realized simultaneously. Through using the proportional integral observer (PIO) based method, the current sensor fault could be accurately estimated. By taking advantage of the accurate estimated current sensor fault, the influence caused by the current sensor fault can be eliminated and compensated. As a result, the results of the SOE estimation will be influenced little by the fault. In addition, the simulation and experimental workbench is established to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the current sensor fault can be estimated accurately. Simultaneously, the SOE can also be estimated accurately and the estimation error is influenced little by the fault. The maximum SOE estimation error is less than 2%, even though the large current error caused by the current sensor fault still exists.

  4. XBRL Standard for Financial Reporting in Croatia: Current State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gostimir Dejan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Harmonization and standardization is becoming important among regulators and business community. XBRL has entered the global stage as a financial reporting standard. Its mission was to standardize the financial reporting, lower the reporting costs and make the reporting as transparent as possible.

  5. Nitric oxide in plants: an assessment of the current state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Mandon, Julien; Persijn, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims After a series of seminal works during the last decade of the 20th century nitric oxide (NO) is now firmly placed in the pantheon of plant signals. NO acts in plant-microbe interactions, responses to abiotic stress, stomatal regulation and a range of developmental processes...

  6. Current state and changes of glaciers in the Tavan Bogd Mountains (Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Syromyatina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first stage of detailed investigation of large glaciers located in the Tavan-Bogd Mountains. The main task of this work is to estimate a current state and dynamics of glaciers and to update glacier and rock-glacier inventory. Basing on results of 2013 field survey together with remote sensing data the main glaciers located on eastern slopes of the Tavan Bogd mountain massif in the Tsagan-Us and Tsagan-Gol river basins are described (these glaciers are Potanin, Alexandra, Grane, Kozlov, and Krylov ones. In order to monitor regime of glacier systems the geodetic survey of glaciers and rock-glacier edges was carried out using Trimble GNSS system and the ranging mark system. The Landsat satellite images made taken in August-September of 1989, 2006, and 2013, their spatial resolution 15-30 m, were used to map areas of debris-free glaciers and to estimate the glacier changes between 1989 and 2013. Pictures were taken from the USGS site, the ArcGIS software was used for this work. In addition, the high-resolution satellite pictures with resolution of 0.5–2.5 m made at the end of the ablation season if 2008 (CARTOSAT-1 and 2010 (Geoeye-1 and SPOT-5 were also used to analyze current conditions and changes of the above glaciers and to improve visual estimation of the Landsat imagery. In 2013, the study included 26 glaciers with the debris-free glacier area of 67 km2 in the Tsagan-Gol river basin and 37 glaciers with area of 30 km2 in the Tsagan-Us river basin. According to our estimates, areas of these glaciers did not significantly changed since 1989 however a certain regression of the glacier tongues had been fixed. The Kozlov glacier retreated with average rate of 21 m/year between 2001 and 2013. Retreat of the Potanin glacier was slower and between 1989 and 2001 the average rate was equal to 5 m/year, but between 2001 and 2013 it became more active and its average rate reached 24 m/year. One of the largest One of the largest rock

  7. Remote sensing of ocean currents. [detection of current boundary in Gulf of Mexico through changes in sea state or ocean color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Fourteen field experiments in support of the NOAA investigation of ocean color boundary determination using ERTS-1 data have been conducted since June 1972. The boundary between coastal waters and the Loop Current has been detected by ERTS-1 as a result of sea state changes as well as color differences. Computer enchancement of MSS data are revealing many features not shown in the NDPF product. Analysis of the 24 channel MSS data shows that a thermal IR channel is required on an ERTS MSS to distinguish between atmospheric and sea state effects. Cloud cover analysis suggests the need for daily coverage of this type sensor for routinely useful oceanographic applications.

  8. The Road Network of the Catalan Pyrenees: Development and Current State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Font

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the process of development andthe functional characteristics of the road network in the CatalanPyrenees. The study is divided in three main sections: 1 ananalysis of the geographical factors that have been determinantin the growth of the network; 2 a description of the process ofits regional implementation and 3 its current state, includingan evaluation of the plans now in the process of being implementedand recent improvements and an analysis of the significanceof two major undertakings - the Llobregat Axis and thetunnel of Cadi. Special emphasis is placed throughout the wticleon the concept of network integration Labasse, J. 1971,which we define as the degree of connectivity of the comarcas(provincial subdivisions of the Catalan Pyrenees and theircentres of population to a general road network.This mticle has drawn on both documentmy and bibliographicsources but is based principally on J. Font's doctoralthesis, which analyses the growth of the Catalan road network.Few geographical studies of the transpmt network of the southemslopes of the Pyrenees have been published, be it in Catalanor Spanish journals. This stands in marked contrast to the attentiondedicated to the subject by French academic publications(Pyrenees, Revue de Geograhie des Pyrenees et duSud-Ouest. This said, howevet; we should not overlook thestudies undettaken in Spain by A. Escalona ( 1888, above allthose carried out in the A rag on Pyrenees. Any other articles describingthe Catalan Pyrenees, though, must be tracked down inindividual chapters of regional monographs, both ancient(Sole Sabaris, L. 1951; Llobet, S., 1947 and modem (L6pezPalomeque, F., 1986.The data sources desctibing the Pyrenees transport networkhave improved considerably in recent years. This is due to thegrowth in number of applied studies sponsored by the variousbodies of public administration following the re-establishmentof democracy in Spain (1977 and the restoration of the

  9. A national resident survey about the current state of venous education in vascular surgery training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Kernodle, Amber; Abularrage, Christopher J; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize U.S. vascular surgery trainees' perceptions, case numbers, and attitudes toward venous disease education, as well as their intent to incorporate it into future practice. These data will provide us with a current snapshot of postgraduate venous education from a resident's perspective. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. A 13-question survey was created and distributed to all vascular surgery residents in the United States by SurveyMonkey. Formal electronic distribution remained deidentified as the surveys were e-mailed to residents from the Association of Program Directors in Vascular Surgery. Of 464 vascular surgery trainees queried, 104 (22%) responded to the survey. The majority of responders (80%) were between 25 and 34 years of age, 60% were male, and 72% were white; 91% reported that they were in an academic training program, and 57% were enrolled in an integrated vascular surgery residency program. Postgraduate years (PGYs) of training among respondents were well represented: PGY 1, 14%; PGY 2, 8%; PGY 3, 14%; PGY 4, 12%; PGY 5, 9%; PGY 6, 18%; and PGY 7, 25%. Vascular resident training experience with venous disease revealed the following: 63% performed training. Experience with endothermal ablations was slightly better, with 74% of responders reporting having performed up to 20 cases. Case volumes for endothermal ablation, vein stripping/ligation, inferior vena cava stenting, and iliac stenting increased progressively by clinical training year among integrated vascular residents (P ≤ .02) but were relatively stable for classic 5 + 2 vascular fellows (P ≥ .67). Integrated residents reported having received more didactic venous education than the 5 + 2 vascular surgery fellows (P = .01). There were no differences in overall reported venous procedure volumes between groups (P ≥ .28). The majority of trainees (82%) acknowledged that treating venous disease is part of a standard vascular

  10. Current state of knowledge on Wolbachia infection among Coleoptera: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajtoch, Łukasz; Kotásková, Nela

    2018-01-01

    Despite great progress in studies on Wolbachia infection in insects, the knowledge about its relations with beetle species, populations and individuals, and the effects of bacteria on these hosts, is still unsatisfactory. In this review we summarize the current state of knowledge about Wolbachia occurrence and interactions with Coleopteran hosts. An intensive search of the available literature resulted in the selection of 86 publications that describe the relevant details about Wolbachia presence among beetles. These publications were then examined with respect to the distribution and taxonomy of infected hosts and diversity of Wolbachia found in beetles. Sequences of Wolbachia genes ( 16S rDNA, ftsZ ) were used for the phylogenetic analyses. The collected publications revealed that Wolbachia has been confirmed in 204 beetle species and that the estimated average prevalence of this bacteria across beetle species is 38.3% and varies greatly across families and genera (0-88% infected members) and is much lower (c. 13%) in geographic studies. The majority of the examined and infected beetles were from Europe and East Asia. The most intensively studied have been two groups of herbivorous beetles: Curculionidae and Chrysomelidae. Coleoptera harbor Wolbachia belonging to three supergroups: F found in only three species, and A and B found in similar numbers of beetles (including some doubly infected); however the latter two were most prevalent in different families. A total of 59% of species with precise data were found to be totally infected. Single infections were found in 69% of species and others were doubly- or multiply-infected. Wolbachia caused numerous effects on its beetle hosts, including selective sweep with host mtDNA (found in 3% of species), cytoplasmic incompatibility (detected in c. 6% of beetles) and other effects related to reproduction or development (like male-killing, possible parthenogenesis or haplodiploidy induction, and egg development

  11. Optical excitation of valley and spin currents of chiral edge states in graphene with Rashba spin-orbital coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ma; Li, Zhibing

    2017-10-01

    Graphene on a substrate with a topological line defect possesses chiral edge states that exhibit linear dispersion and have opposite Fermi velocities for two valleys. The chiral edge states are localized at the line defect. With the presence of Rashba spin-orbital coupling, the dispersion of the chiral edge states splits into two. The optical excitation is modeled by the generalized semiconductor Bloch equation based on tight-binding theory. Charge, valley, and spin currents generated by normally incident plane waves through the photogalvanic effect as well as those generated by oblique light through the surface-plasmon drag effect are studied. Conditions for optical generation of purely localized valley or spin currents, which are solely originated from the chiral edge states, are discussed.

  12. A contact-less method to evaluate the state of charge of nickel batteries using Foucault's eddy currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancier, V.; Metrot, A.; Willmann, P.

    A nickel hydroxide electrode and a commercial battery have been studied by a new and contact-less impedance method, based on Foucault's eddy currents, with the aim of determining their state of charge. Four different current line distributions have been employed and the impedance versus time graphs obtained show a linear variation of this impedance during charge and discharge for all configurations. This new method allows the determination of the state of charge and, furthermore some "artifacts" obvious on these graphs may be useful to detect a deterioration of the studied material.

  13. Reviewing the current state of machine learning for artificial intelligence with regards to the use of contextual information

    OpenAIRE

    Kinch, Martin W.; Melis, Wim J.C.; Keates, Simeon

    2017-01-01

    This paper will consider the current state of Machine Learning for Artificial Intelligence, more specifically for applications, such as: Speech Recognition, Game Playing and Image Processing. The artificial world tends to make limited use of context in comparison to what currently happens in human life, while it would benefit from improvements in this area. Additionally, the process of transferring knowledge between application domains is another important area where artificial system can imp...

  14. Instantaneous Project Controls: Current Status, State of the Art, Benefits, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Despite advancements in construction and construction-related technology, capital project performance deviations, typically overruns, remain endemic within the capital projects industry. Currently, management is generally unaware of the current status of their projects, and thus monitoring and control of projects are not achieved effectively. In…

  15. Alternating steady state free precession for estimation of current-induced magnetic flux density: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Park, Jaeseok

    2016-05-01

    To develop a novel, current-controlled alternating steady-state free precession (SSFP)-based conductivity imaging method and corresponding MR signal models to estimate current-induced magnetic flux density (Bz ) and conductivity distribution. In the proposed method, an SSFP pulse sequence, which is in sync with alternating current pulses, produces dual oscillating steady states while yielding nonlinear relation between signal phase and Bz . A ratiometric signal model between the states was analytically derived using the Bloch equation, wherein Bz was estimated by solving a nonlinear inverse problem for conductivity estimation. A theoretical analysis on the signal-to-noise ratio of Bz was given. Numerical and experimental studies were performed using SSFP-FID and SSFP-ECHO with current pulses positioned either before or after signal encoding to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method in conductivity estimation. Given all SSFP variants herein, SSFP-FID with alternating current pulses applied before signal encoding exhibits the highest Bz signal-to-noise ratio and conductivity contrast. Additionally, compared with conventional conductivity imaging, the proposed method benefits from rapid SSFP acquisition without apparent loss of conductivity contrast. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method in estimating current-induced Bz and conductivity distribution. It can be a promising, rapid imaging strategy for quantitative conductivity imaging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  17. Graduated driver licensing policy in the Great Lakes states: current benefits and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corden, Timothy E; Tonellato, Daniel J; Frisch, Keri B; Laud, Purushottam W

    2009-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of teenage deaths in the United States. Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) policies effectively decrease teenage crash deaths. Emerging research is identifying the most effective components of GDL. This study examines GDL policies across 6 Great Lakes states, describing the beneficial impact, and investigating how evidence-based policy modifications could further reduce teenage driving deaths and injuries. GDL policies were reviewed in 6 Great Lakes states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin). Incidence rate ratios for fatal and injury crashes for 16-year-old drivers were obtained from the Nationwide Review of GDL Study. Ratios were applied to the fatal and injury crashes reported from each state between 2002 and 2006 for 16-year-old drivers. The potential impact (crashes avoided) for each state was determined based on the state using a 3-phase GDL policy (a learner and intermediate stage prior to full licensure). In addition, the impact on crash reductions for each state if they had employed 5 of the recommended GDL components was determined. All 6 states had a 3-phase GDL policy, resulting in potential avoidance of 124 fatal and more than 21,000 injury crashes. The 6 states had 1 to 3 of the qualifying GDL components. If these states had adopted 5 of the qualifying components, an additional 309 fatal and more than 27,000 injury crashes could have been avoided. Three-phase GDL policy is effective at saving the lives of teenage drivers and vehicle occupants; evidence-based modification of GDL has the potential to further reduce teenage motor vehicle crash deaths and injuries.

  18. Pediatric Obesity Pharmacotherapy: Current State of the Field, Review of the Literature, and Clinical Trial Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Aaron S.; Fox, Claudia K.; Rudser, Kyle D.; Gross, Amy C.; Ryder, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices in regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to: 1) offer a background of the curre...

  19. ac loss and dc critical current densities of Nb3Sn tapes by the solid state diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, M.; Klamut, C.; Bussiere, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of metallurgical processing on 60 Hz ac losses and dc critical currents in Nb 3 Sn tapes fabricated by the solid state diffusion technique were investigated. An addition of Al to the Cu--Sn alloy for the matrix resulted in large reduction in the ac losses of Nb 3 Sn tapes, but the highest linear critical current densities were observed in Nb 3 Sn tapes produced with a Nb-1 wt percent Zr core in a Cu-13 wt percent Sn matrix. Values of the losses and the critical currents in these tapes can meet the present requirements for the ac superconducting power cables

  20. Approaches to LLW disposal site selection and current progress of host states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.J.; Kerr, T.A.

    1990-11-01

    In accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and under the guidance of 10 CFR 61, States have begun entering into compacts to establish and operate regional disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The progress a state makes in implementing a process to identify a specific location for a disposal site is one indication of the level of a state's commitment to meeting its responsibilities under Federal law and interstate compact agreements. During the past few years, several States have been engaged in site selection processes. The purpose of this report is to summarize the site selection approaches of some of the Host States (California, Michigan, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Illinois), and their progress to date. An additional purpose of the report is to discern whether the Host States's site selection processes were heavily influenced by any common factors. One factor each state held in common was that political and public processes exerted a powerful influence on the site selection process at virtually every stage. 1 ref

  1. Including alternative resources in state renewable portfolio standards: Current design and implementation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeter, Jenny; Bird, Lori

    2013-01-01

    As of October 2012, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. Increasingly, new RPS polices have included alternative resources. Alternative resources have included energy efficiency, thermal resources, and, to a lesser extent, non-renewables. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energy policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation. - Highlights: • Increasingly, new RPS policies have included alternative resources. • Nearly all states provide a separate tier or cap on the quantity of eligible alternative resources. • Where allowed, non-renewables and energy efficiency are being heavily utilized

  2. Analytical expressions for the drain current of a nanotransistor in the off-state regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krahlisch, M.; Wulf, U.; Kučera, Jan; Richter, H.; Höntschel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2014), s. 113-116 ISSN 1862-6351 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : source to drain tunneling * Fowler-Nordheim tunneling * MOSFET * analytical drain current Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  3. Development and current state of the Water Rescue Service of ČČK

    OpenAIRE

    Krčma, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Title: Water Rescue Service Goals: The goal of this bachelor thesis is to describe the history, structure and the current activities of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross. Method: This thesis is used to analyse related literature and other suitable available sources. Results: The result of this work is a description of the development and current status of the Water Rescue Service of Czech Red Cross and its activities with Integrated Rescue System in Czech Republic. Key words: Rescue...

  4. THE CURRENT STATE OF SEED PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES AND GOURDS IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION; NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sirota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of seed market of vegetable and gourds in Russian Federation in the frame of national food safety program is given in the article. Russia as a country with well-developed  seed production  in the last century has now  ceded  its  position,  and according  to  last experts’ association estimations the 80%  of  required volume of seeds of vegetables and gourds, amounting from 8 to 12 thousand per year is imported.  Not  less than 15 thousands  of  hectares  are  needed  to  be  necessary  for demand  of  Russian seed  production  sector,  however, presently only 2 thousands of hectares is a total certified land used for seed production.  Moreover, the seed production sector of some countries that export seeds rises becoming a profitable branch of agriculture, and providing local employment. The lack of competitiveness in Russia causes that many foreign companies increase annually purchasing prices for seeds and their production services. Therefore, now the total volume of seeds imported  in  Russian Federation has nearly been  twice less for the last years than in 2012, but in currency earnings in exporting countries the insignificant changes can be seen, where deviation is only 19-25%  from  average annual value, that means 1675 thousand dollars per year. Besides, for the Russian budget in the ruble currency the total cost of imported seeds has become 2.5 times more expensive since 2012, but the increase of combined cost of  marketable  vegetables  has been  over  2.7  billion  of rubles.  The  main  idea  that  the  seed  production  is  a process requiring the participation of breeders, seed producers and seed companies is main factor to succeed in recovering seed production sector. Exception of any participant or ignoring his interests may destroy all process. For instance, there is a chronic problem of plagiarism and royalty nonpayment causes the break between the business and

  5. Current Law Limits the State Department's Authority to Manage Certain Overseas Properties Cost Effectively

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Jess

    2002-01-01

    The Department of State is the central manager for real estate at U.S. embassies and consulates and has the statutory authority to sell properties and use the sales proceeds to acquire and maintain other overseas properties...

  6. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  7. Digest of state alcohol-highway safety related legislation : current as of January 1, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This Digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with drunk driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 1999.

  8. 78 FR 59661 - Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection for the State Energy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... the final version of the information collection request. The Department of Energy (DOE) invites public... information collection requests a revision and three-year extension of its State Energy Program, OMB Control...

  9. Digest of state alcohol-highway safety related legislation : current as of January 1, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This Digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with drunk driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 1997.

  10. Solid state transformer with low-voltage ride-through and current unbalance management capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; González, Francisco; Martín-Arnedo, Jacinto; Martínez Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The solid state transformer is an emerging technology which aims at replacing the conventional lowfrequency power transformer by means of a high-frequency transformer driven by a proper AC/AC power electronics conversion system, at both transformer sides. In comparison with the conventional power transformer, the solid state transformer provides extended and enhanced operating capabilities that can be achieved with an appropriate controller design for the power electronics converters. I...

  11. Corporal punishment of children in England and the United States: current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jeremy Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Proverbs has eight sets of instructions on beating children, but that book does not contain the often cited proverbial "spare the rod and spoil the child." This form of discipline, which is thousands of years old, has only recently been abandoned and forbidden in many states in the US, and in much of Europe. It is still legal in Britain and some US states, and remains a controversial issue.

  12. United States Army’s Current Capability to Conduct Combined Arms Maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    result, the Army established the training centers. In the United States, the dirt training centers were the National Training Center ( NTC ) at Fort...and highly dangerous levels of military conflict.”72 The project explores the challenges of a CAM operation against the People’s Liberation Army ( PLA ...The PLA doctrine is becoming more global and not just for internal security. China’s Defense Review states that the PLA “ensures that it is well

  13. A New Authorization for Use of Military Force Against the Islamic State: Issues and Current Proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-21

    forces” fighting alongside Al Qaeda and the Taliban that it asserts are also targetable under the 2001 AUMF.6 The Obama Administration had stated... Taliban ,” as well as groups associated with these entities that are “co-belligerent ... in hostilities against the United States.” This authority would...has remained consistent, relying on the previous 2001 AUMF against those who perpetrated the September 11, 2001, terror attacks (and, to a lesser

  14. Automation of monitoring and exploitation management of pointwork electric motor parks based of the parameters of current technical state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Skalozub

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation technology of pointwork electric motor parks is developed based on the fuzzy-statistical expert system. Technology includes monitoring and diagnostics of engine current technical state without an exception from a drive, allows defining the order of engine repairs.

  15. Interactive effects of air pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems in the United States: current understanding and future scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Mark Fenn; Steven McNulty; Fengming Yuan; Afshin Pourmokhtarian; Charles Driscoll; Tom Meixner

    2013-01-01

    A review of the current status of air pollution and climate change (CC) in the United States from a perspective of their impacts on forest ecosystems is provided. Ambient ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition have important and widespread ecological impacts in U.S. forests. Effects of sulphurous (S) air pollutants and other trace pollutants have...

  16. Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learning engagement: The current state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Kester, Liesbeth; Corbalan, Gemma

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Kester, L., & Corbalan, G. (2011). Cognitive load theory and multimedia learning, task characteristics, and learner engagement: The current state of the art. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2010.05.003

  17. Evidence of a New Current-Induced Magnetoelectric Effect in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric current were performed in a toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi4B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local-inversion symmetry. We found that electric current parallel to [2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0] and [0001] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces a uniform magnetization along the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essentially consistent with the theoretical prediction; however, it also shows an inconsistency suggesting that the antiferromagnetic state of UNi4B could not be simply regarded as a uniform toroidal order in the ideal honeycomb layered structure.

  18. The current state of abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Pauline; Campbell, Patricia; Clinton, Alison

    This paper reviews current abortion law and practice in Northern Ireland (NI). It explores the origins of NI's abortion law and its complexity in relation to current practice. It reviews issues relating to women seeking terminations in NI and Great Britain and reviews attempts by the Family Planning Association in NI to require the Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety NI to clarify the current legal basis for termination of pregnancy and to provide guidance for health professionals engaged in this practice. The paper also discusses some of the issues surrounding abortion in NI and seeks to explain why this subject is causing controversy and debate, especially following a judicial review in February and Marie Stopes opening a termination service in Belfast.

  19. The effects of current and expected future income on stated preferences for environmental improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-01-01

    determinants for preferences. The effect of income on WTP seems to be caused by changes in preferences for environmental attributes rather than by marginal utility of income. The results suggest that to evaluate the distributional impacts of environmental improvements, researchers need a better measure......We formulate and test the hypothesis that expectations regarding changes in future income influences the WTP for environmental goods. For valuation of environmental goods in forests and other habitats in Denmark, we find that both current income and expected changes in future income are significant...... of expected future consumption options than current income....

  20. Resistive states created in superconducting NbTiN filaments by an electrical current pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harrabi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have observed as a function of the time the appearance of the voltage caused by a larger-than-critical (I > Ic step-pulse of current in narrow NbTiN strips at 4.2 K. Different current intensities produced either phase-slip centres characterized by a voltage saturating with the time, or ever expanding hot spots. These dissipative structures occur after a measurable delay time, whose dependence upon the ratio I/Ic can be analysed through a Ginzburg-Landau theory to yield a unique adjustable time constant.

  1. Penile traction therapy and Peyronie's disease: a state of art review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eric; Brock, Gerald

    2013-02-01

    In recent years, penile traction therapy (PTT) has gained considerable interest as a novel nonsurgical treatment option for men with Peyronie's disease (PD) and short penises. The current published literature suggests that selected cases of PD may benefit from a conservative approach with PTT, resulting in increased penile length and reduction of penile deformity. It appears to be safe and well tolerated but requires a great deal of patient compliance and determination. This article reviews the current literature pertaining to the use of PTT in men with PD, short penises and in the setting of pre- and postprosthesis corporal fibrosis.

  2. Current State of Climate Education in the United States: Are Graduate Students being Adequately Prepared to Address Climate Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, E.; Fox, G.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is happening; scientists have already observed changes in sea level, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, and declining polar ice. The students of today are the leaders of tomorrow, and it is our duty to make sure they are well equipped and they understand the implications of climate change as part of their research and professional careers. Graduate students, in particular, are gaining valuable and necessary research, leadership, and critical thinking skills, but we need to ensure that they are receiving the appropriate climate education in their graduate training. Previous studies have primarily focused on capturing the K-12, college level, and general publics' knowledge of the climate system, concluding with recommendations on how to improve climate literacy in the classroom. While this is extremely important to study, very few studies have captured the current perception that graduate students hold regarding the amount of climate education being offered to them. This information is important to capture, as it can inform future curriculum development. We developed and distributed a nationwide survey (495 respondents) for graduate students to capture their perception on the level of climate system education being offered and their view on the importance of having climate education. We also investigated differences in the responses based on either geographic area or discipline. We compared how important graduate students felt it was to include climate education in their own discipline versus outside disciplines. The authors will discuss key findings from this ongoing research.

  3. Dynamic current susceptibility as a probe of Majorana bound states in nanowire-based Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trif, Mircea; Dmytruk, Olesia; Bouchiat, Hélène; Aguado, Ramón; Simon, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically study a Josephson junction based on a semiconducting nanowire subject to a time-dependent flux bias. We establish a general density-matrix approach for the dynamical response of the Majorana junction and calculate the resulting flux-dependent susceptibility using both microscopic and effective low-energy descriptions for the nanowire. We find that the diagonal component of the susceptibility, associated with the dynamics of the Majorana state populations, dominates over the standard Kubo contribution for a wide range of experimentally relevant parameters. The diagonal term, explored, in this Rapid Communication, in the context of Majorana physics, allows probing accurately the presence of Majorana bound states in the junction.

  4. The Relationship between Elementary Teachers' Background in Mathematics, Teaching Self-Efficacy, and Teaching Outcome Expectancy When Implementing the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jennifer Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this correlation study was to identify a possible relationship between elementary teacher background in mathematics as measured by completed college math credit hours, district-provided professional development hours of training in Common Core math standards, and years of teaching experience, and teacher efficacy in math as measured…

  5. Women and Men in the United States: March 2002. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spraggins, Renee E.

    This report compares the status of women and men on such measures as age, marital status, educational attainment, occupation, income, and poverty status. Findings are based on data collected by the Census Bureau in the Annual Demographic Supplement to the March 2002 Current Population Survey. Overall, women slightly outnumber men in the total…

  6. AGILE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES: AN OVERVIEW OF THE CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naftanaila Ionel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the current economic conditions many organizations strive to continue the trend towards adopting agile processes, in order to take advantage of the numerous benefits that these can offer. Those benefits include quicker return on investment, better s

  7. Disturbingly Weak: The Current State of Financial Management Education in Library and Information Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Robert H.; Kaufman, Paula T.; Atkinson, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Financial management skills are necessary for responsible library management. In light of the profession's current emphasis on financial literacy, the authors posed four questions: (1) to what extent are library and information science schools providing courses in financial management for their graduates; (2) what is the quality and quantity of…

  8. The Current Experiences of Physical Education Teachers at Schools for Blind Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegele, Justin A.; Lieberman, Lauren J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It has been well established that children with visual impairments tend to be less physically active and more delayed in motor skills than their sighted peers. As a result, there has been some research focusing on inclusive physical education for these children. However, there is a clear lack of research on the current status of…

  9. School-Based Prevention of Depression and Anxiety in Australia: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehmy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…

  10. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caforio, Alida L P; Pankuweit, Sabine; Arbustini, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its di...

  11. Andreev bound states and current-phase relations in three-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Veldhorst, M.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Brinkman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    To guide the search for the Majorana fermion, we theoretically study superconductor/topological-insulator/superconductor (S/TI/S) junctions in an experimentally relevant regime. We find that the striking features present in these systems, including the doubled periodicity of the Andreev bound states

  12. Teacher Perspectives on the Current State of Computer Technology Integration into the Public School Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Ramiro

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of computers into the public school arena over forty years ago, educators have been convinced that the integration of computer technology into the public school classroom will transform education. Joining educators are state and federal governments. Public schools and others involved in the process of computer technology…

  13. Current and Future Potential Risk of Establishment of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits in many countries, including the United States. The distribution of this pest is concentrated in areas receiving higher than lower rainfall. It prefers sites where stone fruits and apple...

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF THE BUDGET SYSTEM OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Bandurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The elements of the budgetary system and the types of fiscal federalism. Particular attention is paid to the problem of the audit (control budget formulation and execution, the external and internal state financial control. 

  15. How to avoid nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: current guidelines in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henrik S

    2009-01-01

    in patients who have a GFR between 30 and 60 mL/min. Similar restrictions have not been introduced for the other six gadolinium-based contrast agents available in the European market. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration introduced a class ban and warned about the use of gadolinium...

  16. Regulation of zebrafish sleep and arousal states: current and prospective approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy N Chiu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we shift among various states of sleep and arousal to meet the many demands of our bodies and environment. A central puzzle in neurobiology is how the brain controls these behavioral states, which are essential to an animal’s well-being and survival. Mammalian models have predominated sleep and arousal research, although in the past decade, invertebrate models have made significant contributions to our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of behavioral states. More recently, the zebrafish has emerged as a promising model system for sleep and arousal research. Here we review experimental evidence that the zebrafish, a diurnal vertebrate, exhibits fundamental behavioral and neurochemical characteristics of mammalian sleep and arousal. We also propose how specific advantages of the zebrafish can be harnessed to advance the field. These include tractable genetics to identify and manipulate molecular and cellular regulators of behavioral states, optical transparency to facilitate in vivo observation of neural structure and function, and amenability to high-throughput drug screens to discover novel therapies for neurological disorders.

  17. 75 FR 7284 - NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin-Asbestos Fibers and Other Elongate Mineral Particles: State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Docket Number...: State of the Science and Roadmap for Research, Version 4 AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health...

  18. Current state of genomic policies in healthcare among EU member states: results of a survey of chief medical officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, W; Pastorino, R; Lagerberg, T; Colotto, M; d'Andrea, E; Marotta, C; Marzuillo, C; Villari, P; Federici, A; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, S

    2017-10-01

    A need for a governance of genomics in healthcare among European Union (EU) countries arose during an international meeting of experts on public health genomics (PHG). We have conducted a survey on existing national genomic policies in healthcare among Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) of the 28 EU member states, plus Norway. A questionnaire was sent to CMOs after a meeting on the policy implications of PHG held during the Italian presidency of the Council of EU in 2014. The survey was closed in November 2015. CMOs response rate was 65.5% (19/29). Twelve (63.2%) reported that their countries had a policy for genomics in healthcare in place, and 15 (78.9%) reported that public funding existed. Public research facilities for the development of such policies were documented in 13 (68.4%) countries, and 15 (83.3%) had working groups devoted to policy development. National agencies carrying out Health Technology Assessment of genomic-based technologies were present in nine countries (50%). Sixteen (88.9%) countries reported having agencies dealing with ethical issues related to genomic technologies. About 55% of countries disclosed the lack of information campaigns aimed at citizens, and 44.4% reported they had a legal framework for direct-to-consumer genetic tests. Belgium, France, Italy, Spain and UK documented the presence of a policy on genomics in healthcare. While many caveats are necessary because of the methodology, results suggest a need for a co-ordinated effort to foster development and harmonization of dedicated policies across EU to responsibly integrate genomics policies into existing health systems. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  19. How Public Education Benefits from the Federal Income Tax Deduction for State and Local Taxes and Other Special Tax Provisions. A Background Paper from the Center on Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Wayne C.

    2011-01-01

    This background paper is intended to serve as a companion to the Center on Education Policy report, "Get the Federal Government Out of Education? That Wasn't the Founding Fathers' Vision." That report discusses the historical foundations and current purposes of the federal role in education. This paper goes into more detail about an issue…

  20. The influence of current mood state, number of previous affective episodes and predominant polarity on insight in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Mograbi, Daniel C; Camelo, Evelyn Vieira Miranda; Peixoto, Ursula; Santana, Cristina Maria Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, Jesus; Morris, Robin G; Cheniaux, Elie

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies have explored the effect of current affective episodes on insight into bipolar disorder, the potential interaction between current mood state and previous affective episodes has not been consistently investigated. To explore the influence of dominant polarity, number of previous affective episodes and current affective state on insight in bipolar disorder patients in euthymia or mania. A total of 101 patients with bipolar disorder were recruited for the study, including 58 patients in euthymia (30 with no defined predominant polarity and 28 with manic predominant polarity) and 43 in mania (26 with no defined predominant polarity and 17 with manic predominant polarity). Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. Bipolar disorder patients in mania had worse insight than those in euthymia, with no effect of dominant polarity. In addition, positive psychotic symptoms showed a significant effect on insight and its inclusion as a covariate eliminated differences related to mood state. Finally, the number of previous manic or depressive episodes did not correlate with insight level. Mania is a predictor of loss of insight into bipolar disorder. However, it is possible that its contribution is linked to the more frequent presence of psychotic symptoms in this state. Dominant polarity and number/type of previous affective episodes have a limited impact on insight.

  1. Dynamic and steady state current response to light excitation of multilayered organic photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaus, E. S.; Tedde, S.; Fürst, J.; Henseler, D.; Döhler, G. H.

    2007-02-01

    Measurements of current transients are used to gain insight into the mechanism of charge transport and extraction of photodiodes based on bulk heterojunction blends of poly-3-hexyl-thiophene and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. It is shown that the implementation of an appropriate hole conducting layer leads to a reduction of the dark current in the reverse direction. It is observed that the dynamic response to light excitation is strongly influenced by the thickness of the hole conducting layer, the light intensity, and the applied bias. Charge accumulation at the interface is assumed to result in the characteristic shape of the transients. The shape of the switch-off transient can be understood qualitatively by an equivalent circuit diagram.

  2. Partitioning and transmutation. A review of the current state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaalberg, M.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1992-10-01

    The recent development in the field of partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of long-lived radioactive waste nuclides from nuclear power production is reviewed and evaluated. Current national and international R and D plans are summarized. It is concluded that P-T is technically feasible but much R and D remains to be done before it is technically mature. At present there seems to be no economic gain from P-T as compared to direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. There seems only to be an insignificant reduction in future radiation doses by P-T when compared to current disposal plans. However, future long term research may perhaps change these conclusions. Therefore the further development in this area should be followed. Some areas where a limited research by Swedish scientists could be worthwhile are indicated. (255 refs.) (au)

  3. The History of Liquid Ear Acupuncture and the Current Scientific State of the Art

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Litscher; Gerhard Litscher

    2016-01-01

    This short review article presents a current overview of existing publications and scientific results regarding liquid (ear) acupuncture. The injection of liquids into defined acupuncture points of the ear is not a method commonly used in the Western world. The term liquid acupuncture has different definitions, which makes understanding each definition and differentiating one from the other difficult. General terms like pharmacopuncture, homeosiniatry, and liquid acupuncture, which all descri...

  4. Dynamics at Solid State Surfaces and Interfaces, Volume 1 Current Developments

    CERN Document Server

    Bovensiepen, Uwe; Wolf, Martin

    2010-01-01

    This two-volume work covers ultrafast structural and electronic dynamics of elementary processes at solid surfaces and interfaces, presenting the current status of photoinduced processes. Providing valuable introductory information for newcomers to this booming field of research, it investigates concepts and experiments, femtosecond and attosecond time-resolved methods, as well as frequency domain techniques. The whole is rounded off by a look at future developments.

  5. EVALUATION OF THE CURRENT STATE OF HORTICULTURE AND THE PRIORITIES TO IMPROVING ITS EFFECTIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Khromova I. N.; Abdulazizov R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Current horticulture is a complex system of fruit crops cultivation based on the integrated using of material, labor, natural and financial resources. Horticulture is an important part of agriculture because of the high nutritional value of its products. The fruits are used fresh and as raw material for canning, wine and other industries. Modern methods of processing and freezing of products are making possible to save its nutritional value and extend the period of consumption. The main probl...

  6. Current-induced alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state for joint estimation of tissue relaxation and electrical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunyeol; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Jaeseok

    2017-07-01

    To develop a current-induced, alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state-based magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography for joint estimation of tissue relaxation and electrical properties. The proposed method reverses the readout gradient configuration of conventional, in which steady-state-free-precession (SSFP)-ECHO is produced earlier than SSFP-free-induction-decay (FID) while alternating current pulses are applied in between the two SSFPs to secure high sensitivity of SSFP-FID to injection current. Additionally, alternating reversed dual-echo-steady-state signals are modulated by employing variable flip angles over two orthogonal injections of current pulses. Ratiometric signal models are analytically constructed, from which T 1 , T 2 , and current-induced B z are jointly estimated by solving a nonlinear inverse problem for conductivity reconstruction. Numerical simulations and experimental studies are performed to investigate the feasibility of the proposed method in estimating relaxation parameters and conductivity. The proposed method, if compared with conventional magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, enables rapid data acquisition and simultaneous estimation of T 1 , T 2 , and current-induced B z , yielding a comparable level of signal-to-noise ratio in the parameter estimates while retaining a relative conductivity contrast. We successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed method in jointly estimating tissue relaxation parameters as well as conductivity distributions. It can be a promising, rapid imaging strategy for quantitative conductivity estimation. Magn Reson Med 78:107-120, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  8. The current state of implementation science in genomic medicine: opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan C; Kennedy, Amy E; Chambers, David A; Khoury, Muin J

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify trends and gaps in the field of implementation science in genomic medicine. We conducted a literature review using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Genomics Knowledge Base to examine the current literature in the field of implementation science in genomic medicine. We selected original research articles based on specific inclusion criteria and then abstracted information about study design, genomic medicine, and implementation outcomes. Data were aggregated, and trends and gaps in the literature were discussed. Our final review encompassed 283 articles published in 2014, the majority of which described uptake (35.7%, n = 101) and preferences (36.4%, n = 103) regarding genomic technologies, particularly oncology (35%, n = 99). Key study design elements, such as racial/ethnic composition of study populations, were underreported in studies. Few studies incorporated implementation science theoretical frameworks, sustainability measures, or capacity building. Although genomic discovery provides the potential for population health benefit, the current knowledge base around implementation to turn this promise into a reality is severely limited. Current gaps in the literature demonstrate a need to apply implementation science principles to genomic medicine in order to deliver on the promise of precision medicine.Genet Med advance online publication 12 January 2017.

  9. Current state of mTOR targeting in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Umar; Wazir, Ali; Khanzada, Zubair S; Jiang, Wen G; Sharma, Anup K; Mokbel, Kefah

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian, or mechanistic, target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in several models of human oncogenesis. Research in the role of mTOR in human oncogenesis remains a field of intense activity. In this mini-review, we intend to recount our current understanding of the mTOR pathway, its interactions, and its role in human carcinogenesis in general, and breast cancer in particular. We herein outline the discrete components of the two complexes of mTOR, and attempt to define their distinct roles and interactions. Furthermore, we review current developments in the therapeutic targeting of mTOR in human breast cancer. Our understanding of the organisation and interactions of the mTOR pathway continues to evolve. There has been significant incremental, albeit slow, progress in the therapeutic targeting of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. Continued progress in the field would require a better understanding of the role of the mTOR pathway in human breast cancer. By summarizing the current literature, this review will provide useful information on the topic. Copyright© 2014, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Ultra-high resolution steady-state micro-thermometry using a bipolar direct current reversal technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason Yingzhi; Wu, Wei; Pettes, Michael Thompson

    2016-09-01

    The suspended micro-thermometry measurement technique is one of the most prominent methods for probing the in-plane thermal conductance of low dimensional materials, where a suspended microdevice containing two built-in platinum resistors that serve as both heater and thermometer is used to measure the temperature and heat flow across a sample. The presence of temperature fluctuations in the sample chamber and background thermal conductance through the device, residual gases, and radiation are dominant sources of error when the sample thermal conductance is comparable to or smaller than the background thermal conductance, on the order of 300 pW/K at room temperature. In this work, we present a high resolution thermal conductance measurement scheme in which a bipolar direct current reversal technique is adopted to replace the lock-in technique. We have demonstrated temperature resolution of 1.0-2.6 mK and thermal conductance resolution of 1.7-26 pW/K over a temperature range of 30-375 K. The background thermal conductance of the suspended microdevice is determined accurately by our method and allows for straightforward isolation of this parasitic signal. This simple and high-throughput measurement technique yields an order of magnitude improvement in resolution over similarly configured lock-in amplifier techniques, allowing for more accurate investigation of fundamental phonon transport mechanisms in individual nanomaterials.

  11. Acute Poisoning Surveillance in Thailand: The Current State of Affairs and a Vision for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Saoraya, Jutamas; Inboriboon, Pholaphat Charles

    2013-01-01

    Acute poisoning is a major public health threat worldwide, including Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia with over 67 million inhabitants. The incidence and characteristics of poisoning in Thailand vary greatly depending on the reporting body. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive description of the state of poisoning in Thailand. It identifies common trends and differences in poisoning by reporting centers and regional studies. Almost half of the cases and three-fourths of...

  12. Hadronic final states in neutrino and antineutrino charged-current events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallini, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the analyses concerning the hadronic systems produced in ν/antiν nucleon interactions are reviewed. Particular attention is devoted to the questions of factorization, scaling deviations of fragmentation functions, and the behavior of 2 (T)> of individual hadrons as a function of Q 2 . Tests of QCD ideas concerning these effects are discussed. Also the present status of the production of charmed states in ν/antiν interactions in bubble chambers is summarized

  13. Licensing of certain types of economic activity: the history of development and current state

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Knutov; Aleksandr Chaplinskiy

    2014-01-01

    Licensing is one of the main administrative tools used for state regulation of the economy. It can serve as a fairly accurate "barometer" of the administrative burden, which the government provides the business with.This article analyzes the licensing of certain types of economic activities in the context of the whole system of administrative regimes of the economy. The authors conclude that the legal acts regulating the licensing can be a model for the regulation of other administrative regi...

  14. The current status of geothermal direct use development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.G.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper information is provided on the status of geothermal direct heat utilization in the United States, with emphasis on developments from 1985 to 1990. A total of 452 sites, which include approximately 130,000 individual installations, have been identified with an annual energy use of 19.7 x 10 12 kJ. Approximately 44% of this use is due to enhanced oil recovery in four midwestern states, and 30% is due to geothermal heat pumps. Since 1985, 25 new projects, which include approximately 200 individual installations, and representing a thermal capacity of 106.7 MWt and annual energy utilization of 1.1 x 10 12 kJ, have become operational or are under construction. Earth-coupled and groundwater heat pumps, representing the largest growth sector during this period, add an additional 400 MWt and 1.2 x 10 12 kJ to these figures. Geothermal heat pumps have extended geothermal direct heat use into almost every state in the nation. Slightly over 200 direct heat geothermal wells, averaging 150 m in depth, along with approximately 30,000 heat pump wells, have been drilled for these projects. Between 20 and 25 professional man-years of effort are estimated to have been allocated to geothermal direct heat projects during each of the five years

  15. Current State of Production and Finance Development of Scientific and Technological Progress in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danil M. Matveev

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor efficiency in the use of land, labor, finance and other resources available is characteristic of Russia’s agriculture at the present stage. In most subindustries, the country has not yet achieved the production volume of the early 90s. In the last decade there was a positive trend marked to update logistics and intensify innovative advance in the agriculture, the processes being actively supported by the state, but this did not result in appreciable improvements of the agriculture competitiveness in the global food market. During the study it is revealed that the industry credit debt has gone up three-fold over the past 7 years that made up 1.43trillion rubles versus 112 billion rubles of revenue in 2012. The authors propose a technique to attract private investments in the agriculture of Russia and economic-organizing mechanism to realize it. Hereto, a considerable part is played by state regulation, particularly to provide investment-back guarantees in the event that a project-implementing agricultural organization goes bankrupt. To hold up, the authors consider a number of investment projects implemented by one of the Russian Federation entities which demonstrate their effectiveness both for the investors and the state. Employing the data obtained from the study will allow to largely increase the rates of technical and technological re-equipment of the industry, improve its investment attractiveness and competitiveness based on innovations and this will provide the country's food safety and gross domestic product growth.

  16. Design of Nonlinear Robust Rotor Current Controller for DFIG Based on Terminal Sliding Mode Control and Extended State Observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As to strong nonlinearity of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG and uncertainty of its model, a novel rotor current controller with nonlinearity and robustness is proposed to enhance fault ride-though (FRT capacities of grid-connected DFIG. Firstly, the model error, external disturbances, and the uncertain factors were estimated by constructing extended state observer (ESO so as to achieve linearization model, which is compensated dynamically from nonlinear model. And then rotor current controller of DFIG is designed by using terminal sliding mode variable structure control theory (TSMC. The controller has superior dynamic performance and strong robustness. The simulation results show that the proposed control approach is effective.

  17. Physical principles and current status of emerging non-volatile solid state memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Yang, C.-H.; Wen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Today the influence of non-volatile solid-state memories on persons' lives has become more prominent because of their non-volatility, low data latency, and high robustness. As a pioneering technology that is representative of non-volatile solidstate memories, flash memory has recently seen widespread application in many areas ranging from electronic appliances, such as cell phones and digital cameras, to external storage devices such as universal serial bus (USB) memory. Moreover, owing to its large storage capacity, it is expected that in the near future, flash memory will replace hard-disk drives as a dominant technology in the mass storage market, especially because of recently emerging solid-state drives. However, the rapid growth of the global digital data has led to the need for flash memories to have larger storage capacity, thus requiring a further downscaling of the cell size. Such a miniaturization is expected to be extremely difficult because of the well-known scaling limit of flash memories. It is therefore necessary to either explore innovative technologies that can extend the areal density of flash memories beyond the scaling limits, or to vigorously develop alternative non-volatile solid-state memories including ferroelectric random-access memory, magnetoresistive random-access memory, phase-change random-access memory, and resistive random-access memory. In this paper, we review the physical principles of flash memories and their technical challenges that affect our ability to enhance the storage capacity. We then present a detailed discussion of novel technologies that can extend the storage density of flash memories beyond the commonly accepted limits. In each case, we subsequently discuss the physical principles of these new types of non-volatile solid-state memories as well as their respective merits and weakness when utilized for data storage applications. Finally, we predict the future prospects for the aforementioned solid-state memories for

  18. Current State and Future Perspectives for the Regulation of Nuclear Power Plants in the United States. A Regulation Program for the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, N. J.

    2004-01-01

    The president of the US NRC, Nils J. Diaz, has at different conferences presented speeches and articles on this view of nuclear and radioactive regulation in this new 21st century. For your interest, a synthesis of this works on this question is presented below in which he explain and analyses the current state and future perspectives for the regulation of nuclear power plants in reference to the USA. (Author)

  19. Risk-targeted versus current seismic design maps for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Ellingwood, Bruce R.; Hamburger, Ronald O.; Hooper, John D.; Kimball, Jeffrey K.; Kircher, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    The probabilistic portions of the seismic design maps in the NEHRP Provisions (FEMA, 2003/2000/1997), and in the International Building Code (ICC, 2006/2003/2000) and ASCE Standard 7-05 (ASCE, 2005a), provide ground motion values from the USGS that have a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. Under the assumption that the capacity against collapse of structures designed for these "uniformhazard" ground motions is equal to, without uncertainty, the corresponding mapped value at the location of the structure, the probability of its collapse in 50 years is also uniform. This is not the case however, when it is recognized that there is, in fact, uncertainty in the structural capacity. In that case, siteto-site variability in the shape of ground motion hazard curves results in a lack of uniformity. This paper explains the basis for proposed adjustments to the uniform-hazard portions of the seismic design maps currently in the NEHRP Provisions that result in uniform estimated collapse probability. For seismic design of nuclear facilities, analogous but specialized adjustments have recently been defined in ASCE Standard 43-05 (ASCE, 2005b). In support of the 2009 update of the NEHRP Provisions currently being conducted by the Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC), herein we provide examples of the adjusted ground motions for a selected target collapse probability (or target risk). Relative to the probabilistic MCE ground motions currently in the NEHRP Provisions, the risk-targeted ground motions for design are smaller (by as much as about 30%) in the New Madrid Seismic Zone, near Charleston, South Carolina, and in the coastal region of Oregon, with relatively little (<15%) change almost everywhere else in the conterminous U.S.

  20. Upper Pleistocene Human Dispersals out of Africa: A Review of the Current State of the Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyin, Amanuel

    2011-01-01

    Although there is a general consensus on African origin of early modern humans, there is disagreement about how and when they dispersed to Eurasia. This paper reviews genetic and Middle Stone Age/Middle Paleolithic archaeological literature from northeast Africa, Arabia, and the Levant to assess the timing and geographic backgrounds of Upper Pleistocene human colonization of Eurasia. At the center of the discussion lies the question of whether eastern Africa alone was the source of Upper Pleistocene human dispersals into Eurasia or were there other loci of human expansions outside of Africa? The reviewed literature hints at two modes of early modern human colonization of Eurasia in the Upper Pleistocene: (i) from multiple Homo sapiens source populations that had entered Arabia, South Asia, and the Levant prior to and soon after the onset of the Last Interglacial (MIS-5), (ii) from a rapid dispersal out of East Africa via the Southern Route (across the Red Sea basin), dating to ~74–60 kya. PMID:21716744