WorldWideScience

Sample records for background considerable resources

  1. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borry, Pascal; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Cornel, Martina C;

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background...... document in preparation of the development of the policy recommendations of the Public and Professional Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics. This background paper first discusses some general considerations with regard to the provision of genetic tests to minors. It discusses the concept...

  2. Open Educational Resources: Cost, Collaboration and Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine the use of Open Educational Resources in both higher education and K-12 levels in the United States. Benefits of OER are explored, as are considerations education administrators must give prior to jumping head-first into using OER. Various OER applications are discussed and examples from literature and real-life interview are used to show the benefits of OER and the reluctance that some universities and school districts have in using such new technology that g...

  3. Design Considerations for Large Mass Ultra-Low Background Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Reid, Douglas J.; Fast, James E.; Orrell, John L.

    2011-07-01

    Summary The objective of this document is to present the designers of the next generation of large-mass, ultra-low background experiments with lessons learned and design strategies from previous experimental work. Design issues divided by topic into mechanical, thermal and electrical requirements are addressed. Large mass low-background experiments have been recognized by the scientific community as appropriate tools to aid in the refinement of the standard model. The design of these experiments is very costly and a rigorous engineering review is required for their success. The extreme conditions that the components of the experiment must withstand (heavy shielding, vacuum/pressure and temperature gradients), in combination with unprecedented noise levels, necessitate engineering guidance to support quality construction and safe operating conditions. Physical properties and analytical results of typical construction materials are presented. Design considerations for achieving ultra-low-noise data acquisition systems are addressed. Five large-mass, low-background conceptual designs for the one-tonne scale germanium experiment are proposed and analyzed. The result is a series of recommendations for future experiments engineering and for the Majorana simulation task group to evaluate the different design approaches.

  4. A Consideration of Human Resource Management Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Nasiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of future events, at best, is a risky endeavor. Researchers and theorists have different views about what will happen to human resource managers. Most research has been done on topics of technology, intellectual capital, and government regulation, workforce demographic changes, shrinking organizations, international management and globalization. It is evident that all the issues mentioned play a very important role in human resource management over the coming decades, and some are clearly more effective than others, but very broad issues related to human resource management are ambiguous. This paper considers the problems and challenges related to human resource management.

  5. Genetic testing in asymptomatic minors: background considerations towards ESHG Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borry, P.; Evers-Kiebooms, G.; Cornel, M.C.; Clarke, A.; Dierickx, K.

    2009-01-01

    Although various guidelines and position papers have discussed, in the past, the ethical aspects of genetic testing in asymptomatic minors, the European Society of Human Genetics had not earlier endorsed any set of guidelines exclusively focused on this issue. This paper has served as a background d

  6. Human Resource Management: Some Vital Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, SK

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses how and why the theories of neo-classical economics are inadequate to provide a framework to human resource management and therefore must give way to dynamic gradual optimization procedure based on the principles of bounded rationality and satisficing behaviour in dealing with the problems of an adaptive complex system of business organization. It also widens the scope of human resource management to include crowd-sourcing.

  7. A Consideration of Human Resource Management Future

    OpenAIRE

    Samad Nasiri; Sahar Valikhanfard Zanjani

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of future events, at best, is a risky endeavor. Researchers and theorists have different views about what will happen to human resource managers. Most research has been done on topics of technology, intellectual capital, and government regulation, workforce demographic changes, shrinking organizations, international management and globalization. It is evident that all the issues mentioned play a very important role in human resource management over the coming decades, and some ...

  8. Air quality and Atmospheric resources: Phase 1: Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment and Sustainable Development Indicators (ESDI) initiative, under the umbrella of the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), commissioned a study for the evaluation and the development of sustainable development indicators (SDIs) in the field of air quality and atmospheric resources. The report contained key information with regard to each indicator or indicator set, and no comprehensive comparative analysis was performed. The report was designed to be used as a technical reference. Where appropriate, SDIs developed by foreign organizations were included. The emphasis of the report was: (1) ambient air quality and human health effects, (2) air emissions having transboundary or global implications for ecosystem health and human health, and (3) demand on the atmosphere for environmental services. The bulk of the research was conducted on the Internet. The report was divided into three sections. A review of the availability of SDIs based on ambient air quality measures was discussed in the first section, while the second section was devoted to the availability of SDIs based on pollutant emission levels. The last section contained a systematic review of those SDIs used or being proposed along with the supporting data available to calculate SDI values. Some observations were also made touching on topics such as the abundance of ambient air quality information, the abundance of pollutant emissions information, the linkages between emissions and ambient air quality, the absence of forecasting, the indoor air quality gap, and the connections to human health. refs., 1 fig

  9. Considerations on some problems of population, resources, and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, J

    1995-01-01

    Developing countries have a young age structure and rapid growth of urban population, while developed countries are aging and primarily urban. UN projections to the year 2000 indicate an urban population comprising 77% of Latin America, 44% of Africa, and 35% of Asia. World population is expected to reach 6.23 billion in the year 2000 and 8.5 billion in 2025. Population consumption is quickly outgrowing the pace and ability of ecological self-repair with permanent destruction of natural resources. Rational use of natural resources and healthy environmental development are threatened, particularly by the young age structure of the population. Urban population growth exerts a large burden on service facilities such as roads, housing, sanitation, and education. Developing countries will be contributing in the future to greater environmental damage. In 1985 developing countries contributed 26% of the world carbon dioxide exhaust, and by 2025 the proportion will rise to 44% due to increased demands for energy, industrial production, and transportation. The impact of one birth in a developed country on pollution is estimated to be 100 times that of a birth in a developing country. The US has the highest demand for resources. Other related factors include the administrative ability of governments, policies, development goals of a nation or region, and the quality of residents. China is confronted with the growing pressure during modernization and economic development for the high consumption and lifestyles of Western societies, when balanced allocation of resources and environmental protection are not assured. China has almost 1.2 billion people or over 20% of world population. Water shortages are already evident in China, particularly in the central north regions. 300 Chinese cities suffer from a combined shortage of 6 billion cubic meters. Shortages have been acute in Beijing during 1991-94. Water pollution exacerbates water shortages. Pollution is attributed to

  10. Some considerations on resource evaluation of The Geysers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Gaulke, S.; Ripperda, M.

    1989-08-01

    Although large amounts of data have been collected at The Geysers, some reservoir parameters, such as initial liquid saturation, matrix permeability and the fracture network characteristics, are still poorly known. These parameters greatly affect results of resource evaluation and predictions of reservoir behavior. Several two-dimensional fractured porous medium models have been developed for The Geysers; these models differ in assumptions regarding the initial liquid saturation and matrix permeabilities. These models indicate that the permeability-thickness product (kH) of the fracture network ranges from 10 to 75 Dm (30,000 to 225,000 md{center dot}ft) and matrix permeability ranges from 1 to 3 {mu}Darcies ({mu}D). All three models yielded surprisingly similar predictions regarding the future generating capacities of different areas. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Influence of Task Difficulty and Background Music on Working Memory Activity: Developmental Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniel, Shlomo; Aram, Dorit

    1998-01-01

    A study of 300 children in kindergarten, grade 2, and grade 6 found that background music improved visual discrimination task performance at the youngest and middle ages and had no effect on the oldest participants. On a square identification task, background music had no influence on easy and difficult tasks but lowered performance on…

  12. Best Practices in Employment Background Screening: Tips and Considerations for Implementing a Comprehensive Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashier, Ron

    2005-01-01

    Pre-employment background screening is becoming more commonplace as employers strive to provide a safe, secure environment for their employees and customers. However, in order for background screening policies to work properly, they must be consistent, fair and within the boundaries of the law. One way to ensure that these criteria are being met…

  13. Commissioning of nuclear power plants: Training and human resource considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is primarily intended for use by nuclear power plant (NPP) operating organizations and project organizations that are responsible for the construction and commissioning of NPP projects. However, it should also be of value to design and technical support organizations, research institutes, and regulatory bodies. It is expected that Member State organizations will use this information to improve their training programmes and other aspects of human resource management for commissioning of NPPs. This publication was developed through one of the activities under a Project in the IAEA's 2006-7 Programme entitled, Achieving Excellence in the Performance of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel. The principal objectives of this project are: - To enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices accumulated, developed and transferred by the Agency for improving personnel performance and maintaining high standards, and - To demonstrate how positive attitudes and professionalism, appropriate performance management, adherence to a systematic approach to training, quality management and the use of effective information and knowledge management technologies contribute to the success in achieving organization objectives in a challenging business environment

  14. Background considerations in the analysis of PIXE spectra by Artificial Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, R.; Morales, J. R.; Requena, I.; Miranda, J.; Barrera, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the importance of background in PIXE spectra to determine elemental concentrations in atmospheric aerosols using artificial neural systems ANS, two independently trained ANS were constructed, one which considered as input the net number of counts in the peak, and another which included the background. In the training and validation phases thirty eight spectra of aerosols collected in Santiago, Chile, were used. In both cases the elemental concentration values were similar. This fact was due to the intrinsic characteristic of ANS operating with normalized values of the net and total number of counts under the peaks, something that was verified in the analysis of 172 spectra obtained from aerosols collected in Mexico city. Therefore, networks operating under the mode which include background can reduce time and cost when dealing with large number of samples.

  15. Signal and background considerations for the MRSt on the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, C. W.; Frenje, J. A.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Bionta, R.; Khater, H. Y.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2016-11-01

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRSt) has been conceptually designed for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility. Using the MRSt, the goals are to measure the time-evolution of the spectrum with a time resolution of ˜20-ps and absolute accuracy better than 5%. To meet these goals, a detailed understanding and optimization of the signal and background characteristics are required. Through ion-optics, MCNP simulations, and detector-response calculations, it is demonstrated that the goals and a signal-to background >5-10 for the down-scattered neutron measurement are met if the background, consisting of ambient neutrons and gammas, at the MRSt is reduced 50-100 times.

  16. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  17. Antipsychotic drug treatment for patients with schizophrenia: theoretical background, clinical considerations and patients preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, René Ernst; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2009-01-01

    -effects have arisen as the new challenge. The basis of successful pharmacological treatment is a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of action, the desired effects and side-effects of antipsychotic drugs, a good relationship with the patient and a thorough monitoring of the patient before and during......  The cornerstone in treatment of psychosis is antipsychotic drugs. Treatment options have increased over the years; newer antipsychotic drugs with a proposed efficacy regarding negative and cognitive symptoms, but also a shift in side-effects from neurological side-effects to metabolic side...... treatment. The clinically relevant aspects of antipsychotic drug treatment are reviewed; mechanism of antipsychotic drug action, clinical considerations in treatment, switching antipsychotic drugs, polypharmacy, safety and patient preference.  ...

  18. Family background, schooling resources, and institutional features: What determines student performance in East Asian countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gundlach, Erich; Wößmann, Ludger

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of educational performance in the high performing East Asian economies of Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand by running within country regressions. The determinants considered include family background, school resources, and institutional characteristics of schools. Family background is found to be important, particularly in Korea. The class size appears to be positively associated with student performance, implying that putting in addition...

  19. Integration of Open Educational Resources in Undergraduate Chemistry Teaching--A Mapping Tool and Lecturers' Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman-Maggor, Yael; Rom, Amira; Tuvi-Arad, Inbal

    2016-01-01

    This study examines chemistry lecturers' considerations for using open educational resources (OER) in their teaching. Recent technological developments provide innovative approaches for teaching chemistry and visualizing chemical phenomena. End users' improved ability to upload information online enables integration of various pedagogical models…

  20. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 11. Incorporating considerations of cost-effectiveness, affordability and resource implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edejer Tessa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the 11th of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on incorporating considerations of cost-effectiveness, affordability and resource implications in guidelines and recommendations. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers When is it important to incorporate cost-effectiveness, resource implications and affordability considerations in WHO guidelines (which topics? • For cost-effectiveness: The need for cost/effectiveness information should be dictated by the specific question, of which several may be addressed in a single guideline. It is proposed that the indications for undertaking a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA could be a starting point for determining which recommendation(s in the guideline would benefit from such analysis. • For resource implications/affordability: The resource implications of each individual recommendation need to be considered when implementation issues are being discussed. How can cost-effectiveness, resource implications and affordability be explicitly taken into account in WHO guidelines? • For cost-effectiveness: ∘ If data are available, the ideal time to consider cost-effectiveness is during the evidence gathering and synthesizing stage. However, because of the inconsistent availability of

  1. Integrating resource efficiency and EU State aid. An evaluation of resource efficiency considerations in the current EU State aid framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, D.; Faber, J.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Goba, V. [SIA Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Environment ELLE, Tallinn (Estonia); Miller, K.; Williams, E. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    This study, for the European Commission, analyses the issues that need to be addressed in the revision of the EU State aid framework to ensure that they do not hinder environmental, resource efficiency and sustainable development goals. In some cases, State aid can be considered an environmentally harmful subsidy (EHS). The study analyses (1) the extent to which the Environmental Aid Guidelines (EAG) need to be changed to take into account recent European environmental policy developments; (2) existing and potential resource efficiency considerations in a) the Regional Aid Guidelines; b) the Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Guidelines and c) the Agriculture and Forestry Guidelines; assesses cases and schemes using these guidelines to identify whether resource efficiency considerations are taken into account. The study also considers the social, environmental and economic impacts of these cases and schemes. It develops recommendations for the review of the EAG and a number of horizontal guidelines. One of the conclusions of the analysis is that the way in which multiple objectives and impacts are balanced, when deciding to approve state aid, is unclear. Also, EU member states are not required to provide information on certain types of (estimated) impacts. To guarantee that multiple objectives and impacts are sufficiently balanced, it is recommended that the State aid framework prescribes that applicants identify social, economic and environmental objectives and impacts and describe how these are taken into account in the procedure of balancing multiple (conflicting) objectives. Objectives and impacts should be quantified as much as possible, for example by making use of the method of external cost calculation laid down in 'the Handbook on estimation of external costs in the transport Sector'. The results of the study are used by the European Commission as an input for evaluating and improving the EU State aid framework.

  2. The Contribution of Background Variables, Internal and External Resources to Life Satisfaction among Adolescents in Residential Treatment Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschitz-Elhawi, Racheli; Itzhaky, Haya; Michal, Hefetz

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with the contribution of background variables (gender, years of residence in a treatment center, and family status), internal resource (self-esteem), and external resources (peer, family and significant other support, sense of belonging to the community) to life satisfaction among adolescents living in residential treatment…

  3. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. PMID:24706527

  4. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component.

  5. Optimization of Training Program for Land Resource Management Major under the Background of Urban and Rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; CHEN; Qigang; ZHOU; Dan; CHEN; Xiaoyuan; ZHANG; Fuhai; WANG

    2013-01-01

    With constant deepening of development outlook of urban and rural integration,education circle starts to attach great importance to reform of personnel training program.Since scarcity of land resource and key role of land management in urban and rural integration,it is urgent to optimize the personnel training program for land resource management major.From aspects of optimum objectives,principles,program and implementation effect,this paper discusses training program for land resource management major under the background of urban and rural integration.It is expected to provide reference for cultivating land resource management personnel suitable for development of urban and rural integration.

  6. A re-consideration of the HEAO-1 A2 Measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background Surface Brightness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, K.

    2005-12-01

    The HEAO-1 A2 experiment was designed to make high precision and low systematics measurements of the Cosmic X-ray Background from 0.1 - 60 keV. No subsequent experiment has been capable of similarly clean separation of cosmic and instrumental background. Most more recent measurements of the 2-10 keV surface brightness are 20% higher than values derived from the spectral parameterization of the 3-50 keV spectrum given in the original A2 analysis of Marshall et al. (1980, ApJ 235, 4 (M80)). A recent analysis of archival A2 data by Revnivtsev et al. (astro-ph/0412304 (R05)) finds a surface brightness 15-20% higher than M80, an uncomfortably large discrepancy for data taken from a single experiment. We present a third analysis of the A2 data and identify two effects neglected in the comparison of previous A2 results: (a) the extrapolation of the M80 parameterization below 3 keV fails to describe the data; (b) R05 uses an unabsorbed, and high, value for the flux from the Crab nebula plus pulsar which results in a high value for the inferred count rate to CXB surface brightness conversion. Correcting for these effects, our best estimate of the 2-10 keV surface brightness is 1.84 × 10-11 ergs cm-2 s-1 deg-2 on a flux scale where the (absorbed) 2-10 Crab flux is 2.32 × 10-8 ergs cm-2 s-1. This value is only about 10% below the average compiled by Moretti et al. (2003, ApJ, 588, 696). We discuss how well the X-ray brightness of the Crab, to which this measurement is normalized, is known. This research made use of data from the High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC), provided by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

  7. Biological component of the NIMH clinical research branch collaborative program on the psychobiology of depression: I. Background and theoretical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, J W; Koslow, S H; Davis, J M; Katz, M M; Mendels, J; Robins, E; Stokes, P E; Bowden, C L

    1980-11-01

    There are many reports which suggest that patients with effective illness (mania and/or depression) have abnormalities in the functioning of one or more neurobiological systems. At a conference convened by the Clinical Research Branch, Division of Extramural Research Programs, National Institute of Mental Health, these findings were reviewed and some of the factors impeding movement towards a more complete and integrated view of the functioning of neurobiological systems in patients with mania or depression were identified. As a result, a multi-research centre, collaborative approach to the study of the psychobiology of affective disorders was developed. In this collaborative programme, which has now been underway for several years, the focus has been upon: (a) the assessment of the functioning of several different types of biological systems in the same patient, both before and during treatment; (b) obtaining a reasonably large number of patients and comparison subjects; and (c) the use within and across centres of standardized diagnostic categories and behavioural rating methodologies. In this paper the history, background, and rationale for this collaborative effort are reviewed. Those biological systems chosen for study are noted, and issues such as reliability and validity of diagnoses, measurement of state variables, assessment of change with treatment, and logistical and coordinating problems are discussed.

  8. Variation Characteristics of Hydrothermal Resources Effectiveness Under the Background of Climate Change in Southern Rice Production Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Qing; YANG Xiao-guang; DAI Shu-wei; LI Yong; GUO Jian-ping

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal characteristics of hydrothermal resources in southern rice production area of China have changed under the background of climate change, and this change would affect the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources during local rice growing period. According to the cropping system subdivision in southern rice production area of China during 1980s, this study used climate data from 254 meteorological stations and phonological data from 168 agricultural observation stations in the south of China, and adopted 6 international evaluation indices about the effectiveness of hydrothermal resources to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of hydrothermal resources during the growing period of single cropping rice system and double cropping rice system for 16 planting zones in the whole study area. The results showed that: in southern rice production area of China, the effectiveness of thermal resources of single cropping rice area (SCRA) was less than that of double cropping rice area (DCRA), whereas the effectiveness of thermal resources of both SARA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. The index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of SCRA was higher than that of DCRA, nevertheless the index value of effective precipitation satisfaction of both SCRA and DCRA showed a decreasing trend. There was a signiifcant linear relationship between effective thermal resource and water demand, likely water demand increased by 18 mm with every 100°C d increase of effective heat. Effective precipitation satisfaction index (EPSI) showed a negative correlation with effective heat, yet showed a positive correlation with effective precipitation. EPSI reduced by 1% when effective heat resource increased by 125°C d. This study could provide insights for policy makers, land managers or farmers to improve water and heat resource uses and rationally arrange rice production activities under global climate change condition.

  9. Natural gas resources of the Rocky Mountains and considerations for future supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, J.B. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This overview of the natural gas resources believed to exist in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States is based on resource assessment studies completed by the Potential Gas Committee (PGC), US Geological Survey and Minerals Management Service of the US Department of Interior (DOI) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI). Each of the estimating organizations use different data sources and assessment methodologies to evaluate the remaining gas resource. Thus, the results complement each other and, most importantly, provide a range of possible resource values for this area of the country. The range of estimates illustrate the amount of gas, not including proved reserves, believed to be technically recoverable from the Rocky Mountain area. The gas that is economically recoverable at any given time is a much smaller subset of the technically recoverable resource (Curtis, 1995). Gas price differentials, primarily due to excess production capacity, will also affect the actual gas supply provided to the nation from this area.

  10. Production and Resource Scheduling in Mass Customization with Dependent Setup Consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Bocewicz, G.; Do, Ngoc Anh Dung

    2014-01-01

    contribute to the success of mass customization. This paper addresses the problem of production and resource scheduling for a production system with dependent setup and internal transportation such as AGVs in a mass customization environment. A constraint-programming-based methodology is developed to satisfy......Mass customization has been implemented in services and manufactures to increase the competitiveness of companies. In a manufacturing company, the procedure for production and resource scheduling has to be changed to adapt to mass customization. A good production and resource scheduling will...... the customer demands on-time. An example is presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed methodology....

  11. Some Considerations on Developmental Strategies in the Fields of Resources and the Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bojie

    2004-01-01

    The overall situation of the world's current disciplinary development in the sciences dealing with resources and the environment features the following characteristics: the guiding thoughts of holism and systematics are leading a growing trend of all-round enhancement while inter-disciplinary integration and crossbreeding between the natural sciences and social sciences or the humanities are emerging in the research of resources and environment problems;

  12. A study of CALIS evaluation indicator system for digital resources and its practical application considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO; Long; LI; Haoling; XU; Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on our theoretical studies and practical experience related to the digital resource evaluation activities,which were undertaken jointly by CALIS and Peking University Library,this paper discusses the targeted object,content,the structure and the attributes of CALIS evaluation indicator system for digital resources.We also offer a detailed guideline for professional practice in terms of using this particular indicator system to evaluate the viability and the collection strength of a given digital library.

  13. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  14. Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - ...

  15. Resource Considerations during Parallel Scheduling of Large Control Flow Dominated Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Madsen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to determine the possible parallelism between different control-structures in large hierarchical Control- and Data-Flow Graphs (CDFGs). The technique is based on a hierarchical bottom-up heuristic, which after resolving data- and control-dependencies between control......-structures, parallelizes selected control-structures , subject to minimizing resource consumption. The purpose of the technique is to be able to predict resource consumption and estimate execution time for large CDFGs. The technique has been tested on several CDFGs with up to 1442 nodes. The results indicate...

  16. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report VII, Volume III. Cultural resource assessment socioeconomic background data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macfarlane, Heather; Janzen, Donald E.

    1980-11-26

    This report has been prepared in conjunction with an environmental baseline study for a commercial coal conversion facility being conducted by Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (ASFI) and Airco Energy Company (AECO). This report represents a cultural resource assessment for the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. This assessment presents data collected by Dames and Moore during a recent archaeological reconnaissance of the unsurveyed southeastern portion of the proposed plant site and two potential solid waste disposal areas. Also, results of two previous surveys on the northern and southwestern portion of the plant site for American Smelting and Refining Company (ASARCO) and Kentucky Utilities are included. The Dames and Moore survey of the southeastern portion of the plant site identified one archaeological site, three standing structures and one historic cemetery. In addition 47 archaeological sites and six standing structures are known from two previous surveys of the remainder of the plant site (Cowan 1975 and Turnbow et al 1980). Eleven of the previously recorded archaeological sites were recommended for further assessment to evaluate their potential for inclusion within the Holt Bottoms Archaeological District currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places. None of the archaeological sites or standing structures located within the plant site during the Dames and Moore survey were recommended for further assessment. A total of eight archaeological sites were located during the Dames and Moore survey of the two potential solid waste disposal areas. Of this total only two sites were recommended for further assessment. Also, one previously unknown historic cemetry was located in the southernmost potential waste disposal area.

  17. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities: Training and Human Resource Considerations. Additional Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the cornerstones of the success of nuclear facility decommissioning is the adequate competence of personnel involved in decommissioning activities. The purpose of this publication is to provide methodological guidance for, and specific examples of good practices in training as an integral part of human resource management for the personnel performing decommissioning activities. The use of the systematic methodology and techniques described in this publication may be tailored and applied to the development of training for all types of nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Examples of good practices in other aspects of human resources, such as knowledge preservation, management of the workforce and improvement of human performance, are also covered. The information contained in this publication, and the examples provided in the appendices and this CD-ROM, are representative of the experience of decommissioning of a wide variety of nuclear facilities.

  18. Economic Analysis in the Pacific Northwest Land Resources Project: Theoretical Considerations and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D. R. A.; Sahlberg, J. T.

    1977-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Land Resources Inventory Demonstration Project i s an a ttempt to combine a whole spectrum of heterogeneous geographic, institutional and applications elements in a synergistic approach to the evaluation of remote sensing techniques. This diversity is the prime motivating factor behind a theoretical investigation of alternative economic analysis procedures. For a multitude of reasons--simplicity, ease of understanding, financial constraints and credibility, among others--cost-effectiveness emerges as the most practical tool for conducting such evaluation determinatIons in the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary findings in two water resource application areas suggest, in conformity with most published studies, that Lands at-aided data collection methods enjoy substantial cost advantages over alternative techniques. The pntential for sensitivity analysis based on cost/accuracy tradeoffs is considered on a theoretical plane in the absence of current accuracy figures concerning the Landsat-aided approach.

  19. Chemical considerations for an updated National assessment of brackish groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Peter B.; Bohlke, John Karl; Dahm, Katharine; Parkhurst, David L.; Anning, David W.; Stanton, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Brackish groundwater (BGW) is increasingly used for water supplies where fresh water is scarce, but the distribution and availability of such resources have not been characterized at the national scale in the United States since the 1960s. Apart from its distribution and accessibility, BGW usability is a function of the chemical requirements of the intended use, chemical characteristics of the resource, and treatment options to make the resource compatible with the use. Here, we discuss relations between these three chemical factors using national-scale examples and local case studies. In a preliminary compilation of BGW data in the United States, five water types accounted for the major-ion composition of 70% of samples. PHREEQC calculations indicate that 57–77% of samples were oversaturated with respect to barite, calcite, or chalcedony. In the study, 5–14% of samples had concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, or uranium that exceeded drinking-water standards. In case studies of the potential use of BGW for drinking water, irrigation, and hydraulic fracturing, PHREEQC simulations of a hypothetical treatment process resembling reverse osmosis (RO) showed that BGW had the potential to form various assemblages of mineral deposits (scale) during treatment that could adversely affect RO membranes. Speciation calculations showed that most boron in the irrigation example occurred as boric acid, which has relatively low removal efficiency by RO. Results of this preliminary study indicate that effective national or regional assessments of BGW resources should include geochemical characterizations that are guided in part by specific use and treatment requirements.

  20. Chemical Considerations for an Updated National Assessment of Brackish Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P B; Böhlke, J K; Dahm, K G; Parkhurst, D L; Anning, D W; Stanton, J S

    2016-07-01

    Brackish groundwater (BGW) is increasingly used for water supplies where fresh water is scarce, but the distribution and availability of such resources have not been characterized at the national scale in the United States since the 1960s. Apart from its distribution and accessibility, BGW usability is a function of the chemical requirements of the intended use, chemical characteristics of the resource, and treatment options to make the resource compatible with the use. Here, we discuss relations between these three chemical factors using national-scale examples and local case studies. In a preliminary compilation of BGW data in the United States, five water types accounted for the major-ion composition of 70% of samples. PHREEQC calculations indicate that 57-77% of samples were oversaturated with respect to barite, calcite, or chalcedony. In the study, 5-14% of samples had concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, or uranium that exceeded drinking-water standards. In case studies of the potential use of BGW for drinking water, irrigation, and hydraulic fracturing, PHREEQC simulations of a hypothetical treatment process resembling reverse osmosis (RO) showed that BGW had the potential to form various assemblages of mineral deposits (scale) during treatment that could adversely affect RO membranes. Speciation calculations showed that most boron in the irrigation example occurred as boric acid, which has relatively low removal efficiency by RO. Results of this preliminary study indicate that effective national or regional assessments of BGW resources should include geochemical characterizations that are guided in part by specific use and treatment requirements. PMID:26312379

  1. Chemical Considerations for an Updated National Assessment of Brackish Groundwater Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P B; Böhlke, J K; Dahm, K G; Parkhurst, D L; Anning, D W; Stanton, J S

    2016-07-01

    Brackish groundwater (BGW) is increasingly used for water supplies where fresh water is scarce, but the distribution and availability of such resources have not been characterized at the national scale in the United States since the 1960s. Apart from its distribution and accessibility, BGW usability is a function of the chemical requirements of the intended use, chemical characteristics of the resource, and treatment options to make the resource compatible with the use. Here, we discuss relations between these three chemical factors using national-scale examples and local case studies. In a preliminary compilation of BGW data in the United States, five water types accounted for the major-ion composition of 70% of samples. PHREEQC calculations indicate that 57-77% of samples were oversaturated with respect to barite, calcite, or chalcedony. In the study, 5-14% of samples had concentrations of arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, or uranium that exceeded drinking-water standards. In case studies of the potential use of BGW for drinking water, irrigation, and hydraulic fracturing, PHREEQC simulations of a hypothetical treatment process resembling reverse osmosis (RO) showed that BGW had the potential to form various assemblages of mineral deposits (scale) during treatment that could adversely affect RO membranes. Speciation calculations showed that most boron in the irrigation example occurred as boric acid, which has relatively low removal efficiency by RO. Results of this preliminary study indicate that effective national or regional assessments of BGW resources should include geochemical characterizations that are guided in part by specific use and treatment requirements.

  2. Interactions of woody biofuel feedstock production systems with water resources: Considerations for sustainability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, Carl,C.; Amatya, Devendra; Coleman, Mark.

    2008-07-01

    Abstract. Water resources are important for the production of woody biofuel feedstocks. It is necessary to ensure that production systems do not adversely affect the quantity or quality of surface and ground water. The effects of woody biomass plantations on water resources are largely dependent on the prior land use and the management regime. Experience from both irrigated and non-irrigated systems has demonstrated that woody biofuel production systems do not impair water quality. Water quality actually improves from conversion of idle or degraded agricultural lands to woody biomass plantations. Site water balance may be altered by cultivation of woody biomass plantations relative to agricultural use, due to increases in evapostranspiration (ET) and storage. Incorporation of woody biomass production plantations within the landscape provides an opportunity to improve the quality of runoff water and soil conservation. Given the centrality of water resources to the sustainability of ecosystem services and other values derived, the experience with woody biofuels feedstock production systems is positive. Keywords. Short rotation woody crop, forest hydrology, water quality, hardwood plantation.

  3. Radiological measurements at low signal-to-noise ratios. Statistical considerations for background measurements and suppression; Messungen an der Erkennungsgrenze des Messsystems. Statistische Betrachtungen zu Hintergrundmessungen und -korrekturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, A.; Mann, J.; Labrake, M. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences; Klumpp, J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Environment, Safety, Health Directorate

    2015-07-01

    Low-level radiological measurements of environmental samples, food stuffs and drinking water, or in screening for orphan radiological sources or clandestine nuclear materials often challenge the measurement capabilities of radiological instruments. The decision threshold serves as differentiating factor between ''signal'' and ''background'' and is determined by standardized methodologies according to ISO 11929. These methodologies are extended to include novel statistical considerations where continuous measurements allow for a more accurate, and possibly lower decision threshold. Both classical as well as Bayesian statistics for correlated measurements from detector time series or from multiple combined instruments (i.e., detectors in a network, individual pixels on a detector unit) seem promising. Practical applications of statistical algorithms could improve detection capabilities for radiological instruments in environmental radiology, could lead to earlier identification of orphan sources, or could allow for dose reduction in medical imaging procedures.

  4. Resource Considerations during Parallel Scheduling of Large Control Flow Dominated Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grode, Jesper Nicolai Riis; Madsen, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to determine the possible parallelism between different control-structures in large hierarchical Control- and Data-Flow Graphs (CDFGs). The technique is based on a hierarchical bottom-up heuristic, which after resolving data- and control-dependencies between contro...... that the technique performs well; for one example it estimated a total speed-up of 44% at the expense of an estimated resource overhead of -0.1 and in general the speed-up ranges from 8% to 44%....

  5. Considerations and techniques for incorporating remotely sensed imagery into the land resource management process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooner, W. G.; Nichols, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a scheme for utilizing remote sensing technology in an operational program for regional land use planning and land resource management program applications. The scheme utilizes remote sensing imagery as one of several potential inputs to derive desired and necessary data, and considers several alternative approaches to the expansion and/or reduction and analysis of data, using automated data handling techniques. Within this scheme is a five-stage program development which includes: (1) preliminary coordination, (2) interpretation and encoding, (3) creation of data base files, (4) data analysis and generation of desired products, and (5) applications.

  6. Information Assurance for Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Risk Considerations in Public Sector Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHZAD NAEEM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning systems reveal and pose non-typical risks due to its dependencies of interlinked business operations and process reengineering. Understanding of such type of risks is significant conducting and planning assurance involvement of the reliability of these complicated computer systems. Specially, in case of distributed environment where data reside at multiple sites and risks are of unique nature. Until now, there are brief pragmatic grounds on this public sector ERP issue. To analyze this subject, a partially organized consultation study was carried out with 15 skilled information systems auditors who are specialists in evaluating ERP systems risks. This methodology permitted to get more elaborated information about stakeholder?s opinions and customer experiences. In addition, interviewees mentioned a numerous basic execution troubles (e.g. inadequately skilled human resource and insufficient process reengineering attempts that lead into enhanced hazards. It was also reported by the interviewees that currently risks vary across vendors and across applications. Eventually, in offering assurance with ERP systems participants irresistibly stresses examining the process instead of system end product.

  7. Blended Learning Resources in Constrained Bandwidth Environment: Considerations for Network and Multimedia Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Lubega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multimedia teaching and learning approach at higher education is well recognized by researchers, as it is a powerful tool to increase the perceived level of user satisfaction, leading to enhance the blended learning process. However, the learning process can be improved significantly by delivering the content using visual media (video, audio, and graphics. On the other hand, such multimedia contents require larger bandwidth for transmission over the Internet, which is limited in developing environments where demand always exceeds the resource. This paper constructs a framework comprising of network optimization and multimedia optimization, as two main components, aimed to improve the multimedia performance in the context of constrained bandwidth environment.

  8. Improving resource allocation decisions for health and HIV programmes in South Africa: Bioethical, cost-effectiveness and health diplomacy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevany, Sebastian; Benatar, Solomon R; Fleischer, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The escalating expenditure on patients with HIV/AIDS within an inadequately funded public health system is tending towards crowding out care for patients with non-HIV illnesses. Priority-setting decisions are thus required and should increasingly be based on an explicit, transparent and accountable process to facilitate sustainability. South Africa's public health system is eroding, even though the government has received extensive donor financing for specific conditions, such as HIV/AIDS. The South African government's 2007 HIV plan anticipated costs exceeding 20% of the annual health budget with a strong focus on treatment interventions, while the recently announced 2012-2016 National Strategic HIV plan could cost up to US$16 billion. Conversely, the total non-HIV health budget has remained static in recent years, effectively reducing the supply of health care for other diseases. While the South African government cannot meet all demands for health care simultaneously, health funders should attempt to allocate health resources in a fair, efficient, transparent and accountable manner, in order to ensure that publicly funded health care is delivered in a reasonable and non-discriminatory fashion. We recommend a process for resource allocation that includes ethical, economic, legal and policy considerations. This process, adapted for use by South Africa's policy-makers, could bring health, political, economic and ethical gains, whilst allaying a social crisis as mounting treatment commitments generated by HIV have the potential to overwhelm the health system. PMID:23651436

  9. Social economical and psychological considerations in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    psychological factors would waste the resources and cause harsh events. In this paper the need for considering social, economic and psychological factors in conveying potential radiation risks from high level natural background radiation to the residents of Ramsar is discussed. (Author)

  10. The Changing Family Background of the Low-Educated in the Netherlands: Socio-Economic, Cultural, and Socio-Demographic Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Graaf, Paul M. de; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses two questions: (a) to what extent have the effects of family background on leaving school without qualifications changed over time in the Netherlands, and (b) to what extent have the background family characteristics of the unqualified changed. We estimate discrete-time event-history models, using data from the Family Surveys Dutch Population 1992, 1998, and 2000. The results show that the effects of parental socio-economic resources and parental educational attainment ...

  11. Child Care Providers' Use of HIV/AIDS Information Resources: Links to Professional Background Variables and Feelings about Caring for an HIV-Infected Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mick; Toledo, Carlos; Wallinga, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Examined child caregivers' use of various HIV/AIDS information resources in relation to professional background and attitudes. Found that providers' education level, child care experience, and the age group for which they were responsible correlated with use of newspaper/magazine articles, pamphlets, and educational workshops. Use of…

  12. A mathematical analysis of nuclear intensity dynamics for Mig1-GFP under consideration of bleaching effects and background noise in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Simone; Sott, Kristin; Smedh, Maria; Millat, Thomas; Dahl, Peter; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Goksör, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an imaging technique that provides insights into signal transduction pathways through the generation of quantitative data, such as the spatiotemporal distribution of GFP-tagged proteins in signaling pathways. The data acquired are, however, usually a composition of both the GFP-tagged proteins of interest and of an autofluorescent background, which both undergo photobleaching during imaging. We here present a mathematical model based on ordinary differential equations that successfully describes the shuttling of intracellular Mig1-GFP under changing environmental conditions regarding glucose concentration. Our analysis separates the different bleaching rates of Mig1-GFP and background, and the background-to-Mig1-GFP ratio. By applying our model to experimental data, we can thus extract the Mig1-GFP signal from the overall acquired signal and investigate the influence of kinase and phosphatase on Mig1. We found a stronger regulation of Mig1 through its kinase than through its phosphatase when controlled by the glucose concentration, with a constant (de)phosphorylation rate independent of the glucose concentration. By replacing the term for decreasing excited Mig1-GFP concentration with a constant, we were able to reconstruct the dynamics of Mig1-GFP, as it would occur without bleaching and background noise. Our model effectively demonstrates how data, acquired with an optical microscope, can be processed and used for a systems biology analysis of signal transduction pathways.

  13. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 1, phase 2: Design considerations for a scheduling and resource allocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, R. A.; Odoherty, R. J.; Ramsey, H. R.; Reynolds, C. C.; Willoughby, J. K.; Working, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Data and analyses related to a variety of algorithms for solving typical large-scale scheduling and resource allocation problems are presented. The capabilities and deficiencies of various alternative problem solving strategies are discussed from the viewpoint of computer system design.

  14. Telling and Selling: A Consideration of the Pedagogical Work Done by Nationally Endorsed Corporate-Sponsored Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daniel B.; Gleddie, Doug; Schaefer, Lee

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, not-for-profit organisations have been partnering with for-profit corporations to create educational resources. This has been especially true in physical and health education, particularly within Canada. For example, Physical and Health Education Canada has recently endorsed a number of corporate-sponsored educational resources…

  15. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C.; SanFilipo, John R. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA, 20192 (United States); Azizi, Gul Pacha [Afghanistan Geological Survey, Macroryan Square, Kabul (Afghanistan); Davis, Philip A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 520 N. Park Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85719 (United States); Starratt, Scott W. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 910, 345 Middlefield Rd, Menlo Park CA, 94025 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30 km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0 vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500 m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50 C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to > 95 vol.%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5 wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time. Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90 wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39 wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860 Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI = 0), consistent with fuels utilized in fluidized

  16. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, P.C.; SanFilipo, J.R.; Azizi, G.P.; Davis, P.A.; Starratt, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30. km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0. vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500. m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50. ??C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to >95 vol%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5. wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time.Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90. wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39. wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860. Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI=0), consistent with fuels utilized in

  17. A Consideration on the Future Direction of Japanese Educational System About Fostering Human Resources for the Global Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Shusuke; Shimura, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Koji

    The lectures are taken, making use of the textbook of the same contents, for high school students in Japan, students at Yamagata University and at Korea Maritime University in Korea. I’ ll find the similarity and difference, by comparing vertical and horizontal relations among three groups. As a result, I can find the directionality of cultivating human resources of doing well in the global society. I think there is “Matrix Thinking Frame” as one of the effective countermeasures for fostering men of ability. It is possible to part from conventional passiveness type education, according to planning and practicing one’ s “Life Management Plan” by using this system. The case where one’ s capability has been extended appears in students, as above mentioned.

  18. Resource Construction of College Library under the Background of Big Data%大数据背景下高校图书馆的资源建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔煊; 杨艳君

    2013-01-01

    大数据时代,图书馆将在资源建设、读者服务、组织管理等方面面临着严峻的挑战。数字图书馆是图书馆信息化建设的重要组成部分。文章论述了大数据的内涵,分析了高校数字资源建设中存在的问题,进而对图书馆数字资源建设进行探讨。%Libraries will face severe challenges in terms of resource construction,reader service and organiza-tional management in an era of big data. Digital library is an important part of informatization of library. The paper discusses the connotation of big data,analyzes the problems facing digital resource construction of colle-ges and further explores the digital resource construction of library under background of big data.

  19. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  20. The Changing Family Background of the Low-Educated in the Netherlands : Socio-Economic, Cultural, and Socio-Demographic Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, Maurice; Graaf, Paul M. de; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses two questions: (a) to what extent have the effects of family background on leaving school without qualifications changed over time in the Netherlands, and (b) to what extent have the background family characteristics of the unqualified changed. We estimate discrete-time event-

  1. The changing family background of the low-educated in the Netherlands: Socio-economic, cultural, and socio-demographic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.; Graaf, P.M. de; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses two questions: (a) to what extent have the effects of family background on leaving school without qualifications changed over time in the Netherlands, and (b) to what extent have the background family characteristics of the unqualified changed. We estimate discrete-time event-

  2. On the analysis of occurrence background for folklore custom tourism resources in Fujian province%试论福建省民俗旅游资源赋存背景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽巍

    2009-01-01

    福建省民俗旅游资源丰富,特色突出,但是相关的研究却较为缺乏.从福建省民俗旅游资源赋存背景、区域背景、开发背景看,福建省具备民俗旅游资源的开发条件.%Fujian Province is abundant in folklore custom tourism resources and has prominent trait, hut there is shortage of study in point. This paper is in allusion to the occurrence background, area background and the development background for folklore custom tourism resources in Fujian Province. It is concluded that the requirements for the development of folklore custom tourism can be satisfied in Fujian.

  3. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  4. 关于地下水资源评价问题的若干思考%On some consideration of underground water resource evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全建英

    2014-01-01

    介绍了地下水资源的概念,结合地下水资源的评价内容,分析了地下水资源评价与地下水资源管理的关系,对地下水资源评价与地下水资源管理分离的后果进行了论述,指出地下水资源评价是地下水资源管理的条件,而地下水资源评价中又融合着地下水资源管理的成分。%The paper introduces the concept of the underground water resources, analyzes the relationship between the evaluation and under-ground resource management of the underground water resources by combining with its evaluation contents, indicates the results of the separation between underground water resource and its management, and points out the underground water resource evaluation is the condition for the under-ground water resource management, while the underground water resource management should be integrated into the underground water resource evaluation.

  5. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, remote sensing, and mineral resource maps of the Wallace 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jack Edward; Leach, David L.; Kleinkopf, M. Dean; Long, Carl L.; Rowan, Larry C.; Marvin, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    The Wallace 1? x 2 quadrangle in Montana and Idaho was studied by an interdisciplinary research team that included geologists, geochemists, and geophysicists, as well as specialists in isotopic dating and remote sensing. The basic data resulting from these studies, as well as the final metallic mineral resource assessments, are published as a folio of maps, figures, tables, and accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the studies and lists the published components of the resource appraisal. An extensive bibliography lists both specific and general references that apply to this geoscience study of the quadrangle.

  6. 用工荒背景下的企业人力资源规划探析%Planning Analysis of Enterprise Human Resource under the background of Labor Shortage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈靖莲

    2012-01-01

      人力资源规划是企业发展规划的重要支撑,在用工荒背景下如何做好人力资源规划防范用工风险,是目前人力资源管理面临的新课题。文章阐明人力资源规划的意义,分析人力资源规划难以发挥作用的主要问题,提出建立科学的人力资源规划系统,应对用工荒给企业带来的用工困难的相关对策。%  Human resource planning is important support of the enterprise development plan, under the background ofthe labor shortage, how to do well the human resources planning guard against labor risk is new topic that the human resources management faced. In the article, the meaning of human resource planning was expounded, the major problems of human resource planning which was difficult to play a role was analyzed,the establishment of a scientific human resource planning systems and related countermeasures to cope with employment difficulties for the enterprise were proposed.

  7. Consideration about Human Resource Management in New Situation%新形势下医院人力资源管理的思老

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易少华; 唐月红; 姜小明

    2011-01-01

    现阶段医院之间的竞争已经逐渐演变为人力资源的竞争,而我国受计划经济的影响,医院人力资源管理体制落后.通过分析国内外人力资源管理的相关文献,并结合我国医院人力资源管理的现状,提出了改革思路以及相关的政策建议.%At present, the competition between hospitals has gradually evolved into the competition between human resources, but human resource management system falls behind other systems by the influence of planning economy in China. Through analyzing domestic and foreign literature about human resource management, and combining with the status quo of human resources management situation in hospitals in China, both reform ideas and related policy recommendations are put forward.

  8. The Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resource maps of the Ajo and Lukeville 1 degree x 2 degrees quadrangles, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Floyd; Tosdal, R.M.; Peterson, J.A.; Cox, D.P.; Miller, R.J.; Klein, D.P.; Theobald, P.K.; Haxel, G.B.; Grubensky, M.J.; Raines, G.L.; Barton, H.N.; Singer, D.A.; Eppinger, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Encompassing about 21,000 km 2 in southwestern Arizona, the Ajo and Lukeville 1 ? by 2 ? quadrangles have been the subject of mineral resource investigations utilizing field and laboratory studies in the disciplines of geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and Landsat imagery. The results of these studies are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. Past mineral production has been limited to copper from the Ajo Mining District. In addition to copper, the quadrangles contain potentially significant resources of gold and silver; a few other commodities, including molybdenum and evaporites, may also exist in the area as appreciable resources. This circular provides background information on the mineral deposits and on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The bibliography cites references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the two quadrangles.

  9. Consideration on information work under new situation consider the situation, integrate the resources, develop the innovate, improve the information work level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear document information work under the new socioeconomic development situation in China shall focus on the nuclear fuel cycle industry, accelerate the information network informatization process, establish the information network platform so as to improve the management efficiency and benefit and reduce the resource consumption and management cost through publicity and information acquisition; we shall narrow the difference in understanding and application between the specialized technical personnel and informatization personnel during informatization management process, and speed up the structural readjustment through information resources sharing and network information system; during the transformation of the nuclear information work and nuclear resources into effective productive power, we shall conduct management and technology innovation and resource integration according to the development strategy of the enterprise so as to promote the enthusiasm for informatization as well as invention, creation and technological innovation in the enterprise and the whole country, in general, the nuclear information work shall be in the service of the nuclear manufacturing enterprises and we shall change our ideology and work style under the new situation so as to improve the overall capability and level of our scientific and technological information system by advanced science and technology. (author)

  10. On the Way into the Bologna Reform--A Consideration of the Quality and the Role of Human Resource Management in Higher Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohont, Andrej; Nadoh Bergoc, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the article the concept of higher education quality is discussed, putting an emphasis on the concept of quality as a transformation. In this context the teachers are stimulated to use contemporary teaching/learning tools and to take active role in the development and empowerment of learners. The role of human resource management (HRM) is also…

  11. The Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral resources maps of the Walker Lake 1 degree x 2 degrees Quadrangle, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John Harris; Chaffee, M.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; John, D.A.; Kistler, R.W.; Kleinhampl, F.J.; Menzie, W.D.; Plouff, Donald; Rowan, L.C.; Silberling, Norman J.

    1984-01-01

    The Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle in eastern California and western Nevada was studied by an interdisciplinary research team to appraise its mineral resources. The appraisal is based on geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory investigations, the results of which are published as a folio of maps, figures, and tables, with accompanying discussions. This circular provides background information on the investigations and integrates the information presented in the folio. The selected bibliography lists selected references to the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and mineral deposits of the Walker Lake 1? by 2? quadrangle.

  12. Bioethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyser-Whalen, Ophra; Lawson, Erma; Macdonald, Arlene; Temple, Jeff R; Phelps, John Y

    2014-11-01

    The clinical literature notes that pregnancy has become an expected benefit of solid organ transplant. Establishing "best practices" in the management of this particular transplant population requires careful consideration of the ethical dimensions, broadly speaking, of posttransplant pregnancies and these women's lived experiences. In this article, we present the current clinical and social science posttransplant pregnancy research. We specifically address the psychosocial and ethical issues surrounding preconception counseling and posttransplant health quality of life and mothering and suggest areas for future research. PMID:25151472

  13. The University-Innovation Nexus in Finland. Go8 Backgrounder 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this "backgrounder" is to better understand the contributions of universities to innovation in Finland, as a means of widening the consideration of policy options in Australia. Finland is a small but advanced industrial economy with limited resources and markets, dependent on external trade and the internationalisation of research…

  14. Automotive Technology Service and Marketing Professional Teaching Resources Construction Background Research%汽车技术服务与营销专业教学资源库建设背景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易启明

    2015-01-01

    The core of educational information is teaching of information technology, the key of information technology is teaching resources and information technology. From the automobile industry trends, information technology in education development path, educational administrative departments teaching resource library construction guidelines and automotive service and present marketing expertise in four areas, analyze the construction of Automobile Technology Service and Ma-rketing Specialty Teaching Resource Library background.%教育信息化的核心是教学信息化,教学信息化的关键在于教学资源信息化.本文从汽车产业发展趋势、教育信息化的发展路径、教育行政部门教学资源库建设方针和汽车技术服务与营销专业现状四个方面,对建设汽车技术服务与营销专业教学资源库的背景进行了分析.

  15. The Construction of Library Digital Resources under the Background of the Development of Public Digital Culture%公共数字文化发展背景下的图书馆数字资源建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建业

    2015-01-01

    论文概述了公共数字文化发展背景,探讨了图书馆在公共数字文化建设中的定位与任务,以江苏全省公共图书馆数字化建设和南京图书馆数字资源建设实践为例,围绕图书馆数字资源建设主要内容,提出了相关建议和措施。%This paper outlines the background of public digital culture development, and discusses the positioning and task of library in the construction of public digital culture. Taking the digital construction of public libraries in Jiangsu Province and the concrete practice of Nanjing Library as examples, it puts forward the relevant suggestions and measures on library digital resources construction.

  16. 考虑工艺多样性的资源服务化配置研究%Research on Allocation of Service-Oriented Manufacturing Resources with Consideration of Process Diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴黎; 李言; 杨明顺; 高新勤

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of multi-processed resource allocation problem under the service-oriented manufacturing paradigm, the mathematical model for this problem is built with the total flow time as the optimal objective, the multi-service-oriented resource as the allocation objective and taking cost and time factors into comprehensive consideration. Also, the simulation annealing algorithm with memory is designed for carrying out the solution to the problems. The results obtained from actual examples indicate that the mathematical model for the problem is correct, and that the solution algorithm is effective.%针对服务型制造模式下的多工艺资源配置问题,以总流程时间为优化目标,以多种服务化资源为配置对象,综合考虑成本和时间因素,建立了该问题的数学模型,并利用带记忆的模拟退火算法对该问题进行求解.实例结果表明,该问题的数学模型正确,求解算法有效.

  17. 全球变化背景下可持续的滨海旅游资源开发与管理%Sustainable Development and Management of Coastal Tourism Resources under the Background of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 朱大奎

    2012-01-01

    Global change is a generally accepted scientific fact which is highly possibly induced by human activities and impacts tourism development.The transportation system especially the aviation consumed by tourists and the accommodation facilities in coastal destinations releases massive greenhouse gases and contributes to global change.The ocean is very important to the human society and economy,and coastal tourism is one of the main human activities occurred in the coastal zone.Coastal tourism is also the most traditional,the fastest growing and major form of tourism which is the world's largest industrial(group) now.Coastal tourism resources are rich in China,and coastal tourism plays a decisive role in the marine economy. Sustainable tourism is to satisfy the need of tourist and local community and strengthen the protection of environment and chances of future development at the same time.Hence it is suggested analyze the problems and challenges during the development of coastal tourism resources under the background of global change,and identify the key factors for the future ecological friendly coastal tourism resource development and management under the framework of sustainable development,and for the dynamic model building and the decision making.Change the pattern and products of coastal tourism to develop low carbon coastal tourism based on the idea of "green thinking".Pay more attention to developments of creative tourism products such as ecotourism and alternative tourism.Change the way of coastal tourism resource utilization by developing low carbon coastal tourism,advocating carbon emission reduction,promoting carbon compensation and carbon economy,and encouraging new energy saving technology application.Take stakeholders' collaboration into account which includes encouraging the community involvement,balancing the stakeholders' benefits and interests when concerning coastal tourism resource development,especially the local communities

  18. Irrigation systems: some organizational considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, G.

    1976-01-01

    The paper attempts to present a framework for a number of sociological considerations involved in the analysis of water resources development practices. Special emphasis is given to the nature of some organizational implications connected in irrigated areas in tropical countries and to various const

  19. Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an important component of environmental characterization activities and serves as a basis for distinguishing the presence and significance of contamination. Background data can also be used to assess the levels of baseline risk to which humans or other receptors are typically exposed and to establish remediation goals. Evaluating background on a sitewide basis provides a consistent, technically defensible definition of background as opposed to determining area-specific background compositions for each waste management unit being considered for remediation across the Hanford Site

  20. The Tourist Role of Relief as Landscape Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA COCEAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In its relation with tourism, relief fulfils three roles: of attractive resource, of support for tourist infrastructure and activities, and of landscape background, respectively. While the first two undertaken roles are easily identified, in the third case, confusion may appear which is actually aroused by the different manner in which tourists perceive the morphological elements. For some tourists, elements such as Piatra Cetii, Colţii Trascăului or the steep slopes of the Bedeleu represent first-rank tourist objectives, while, for others, they are just the landscape background for other objectives or for tourist activities whose development is not related to their presence. This role appears more clearly in the case of a less spectacular relief, which only frames, from the landscape viewpoint, a tourist resource of prime importance. The study of the relief’s role as landscape background for tourism has high importance in the sense that in any attempt to create a hierarchy of the tourist objectives in the Trascău Mountains, the attractiveness coefficient of the background, of the landscape in which the objective is an integral part, must be taken into consideration.

  1. Ultraviolet Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.; Murthy, J.

    1993-12-01

    The UVX experiment was carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia between 1986 January 12 and 19 (STS-61C). Several ultraviolet spectrometers were used to obtain measurements of the diffuse ultraviolet background at 8 locations in the sky. We have reanalysed the UVX measurements of the surface brightness of the diffuse ultraviolet background above b = 40 using the dust-scattering model of Onaka & Kodaira (1991), which explicitly takes into account the variation of the source function with galactic longitude. The range of allowed values of interstellar grain albedoJa, and scattering asymmetry parameter g, is considerably expanded over those of a previous analysis. The new chi square probability contours come close to, but do not include, the values of a and g found for the interstellar grains by Witt et al. (1992) using the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) on the Astro mission. If we hypothesize in additon to the dust-scattered light an extragalactic component, of 300 1 100 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 A-1, attenuated by a cosecant b law, the new reduction of the UVX data gives complete consistency with the Witt et al. determination of the optical parameters of the grains in the ultraviolet. This work was supported by United States Air Force Contract F19628-93-K-0004, and by National Aeronautics and Space Administration grant NASA NAG5-619. We are grateful for the encouragement of Dr. Stephan Price, and we thank Dr. L. Danly for information. Onaka, T., & Kodaira, K. 1991, ApJ, 379, 532 Witt, A. N., Petersohn, J. K., Bohlin, R. C., O'Connell, R. W., Roberts, M. S., Smith, A. M., & Stecher, T. P. 1992, ApJ, 395, L5

  2. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  3. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  4. 扩招背景下家庭对教育平等影响的演变%Influence of family resources on educational equity against the background of college enrollment expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娟; 胡建国

    2014-01-01

    1999年高校扩招以来,高等教育不平等是否扩大引起社会的关注与学界的讨论。基于2011年中国社会状况综合调查(CSS)数据的分析发现,高校扩招对于促进高等教育平等有着积极的意义,弱化了家庭文化再生产机制与家庭权力资源转化机制对高等教育不平等的影响。但是,在高校扩招过程中,由于受到教育市场化的冲击,高校新生录取标准中出现更有利于富裕家庭子女获得高等教育入学机会的现象,这使得家庭财富资源转化机制对高等教育不平等的影响出现强化,这有违教育公平。然而不能将录取标准中出现的问题与扩大招生规模相混淆,这是两类性质不同的问题。本文研究表明,扩招背景下进一步促进高等教育平等的重点,在于规范高校新生录取标准,相关政策重心则是进一步弱化家庭财富不平等对教育机会获得的影响。%Since the enrollment expansion of Chinese colleges in 1 999,whether higher education in-equity expands has caused much social concern and discussion.Based on the data of CGSS in 201 1, this research has proved that the enrollment expansion of Chinese colleges has some positive impact on promoting the higher education equity,thus weakening the influence of higher education inequity caused by the reproduction mechanism of family culture and the transformation mechanism of family power resources.However,in the process of reforming the college enrollment,due to the marketiza-tion of education,the admission criterion is more advantageous to the children in the wealthy families. This makes the transformation mechanism of household wealth resources continue to strengthen the higher education equity,which goes against fairness in education.However,the problems of the ad-mission standards are the same as the problems related to the enrollment expansion.This paper con-cludes that promoting higher education equity against the

  5. 主要农作物转基因飘流频率和距离的数据调研与分析Ⅰ.背景、调研目的及所考虑的问题%Data Survey and Analysis of the Tansgene Flow Frequencies and Distances in Major Crops Ⅰ .The Background, Aim and General Consideration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志兴; 王旭静; 贾士荣

    2011-01-01

    Transgene flow's potential risk on environment and food is one of the hot spots that major public concerned.The data and information on tansgene flow in major corps published internationally until 2010 have been surveyed and analyzed.The distances of transgene flow at certain threshold level for different major crops are particularly defined.In this article, the background, aim and general consideration for this survey were discussed.On the scientific basis,the principle of classification management and threshold management are proposed to control the risk of transgene flow.%转基因飘流及其可能引起的环境和食品潜在风险是公众关注的热点之一.对2010年前主要农作物转基因飘流的数据和信息进行了调研与分析,特别是对一定允许阈值下的基因飘流距离进行了归纳.在分别报道各种作物的基因飘流数据前,对调研的背景、目的及所考虑的问题进行了讨论,基于科学分析,建议采用分类管理和阈值管理的原则来控制转基因飘流的风险.

  6. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  7. Experimental Hall design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General requirements for experimental halls at the Fermilab Collider are set forth, and specific designs for two halls are presented, one for the Detector Group's large ''W detector'' and the other for several smaller setups and for ep experiments. The physics which cannot be studied with the W detector is surveyed, and it is recommended that the second area incorporate a transposed geometry to allow small angle experiments. The most important recommendations are (1) that the halls have good access and the possibility of changing entire setups during short shutdowns, (2) that both equal energy (anti pp) and unequal energy (pp, ep) experiments be accommodated, (3) that construction take place during the superconducting ring installation, (4) that the halls incorporate assembly areas in which detectors can be built and serviced during machine operation and (5) that detailed design, including radiation safety calculations and muon background measurements, begin immediately. Some basic questions concerning the nature of the experimental halls needed for colliding beam experiments at Fermilab are discussed. General requirements and design considerations are dealt with first, followed by specific proposals for the layout of actual halls

  8. 浅谈网络信息背景下的银行人力资源管理%Introduction to human resource management of bank under the background of network information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荀濛; 毕霞

    2013-01-01

      当前已经逐步成为信息化、网络化,各个银行之间的竞争主要体现在其核心能力的竞争。人力资源在银行竞争中具有重要的地位和作用,在银行竞争优势中也是一种难以模仿的特定资源,是保持银行竞争优势的源泉,更是决定银行在信息化社会中竞争成败与否的关键因素。本文以网络信息时代下人力资源管理理论为基础分析我国现阶段银行人力资源管理的特点和所存在的一些问题,并针对这些问题提出对策建议,以提高人力资源管理效率,推进我国银行的发展。%  With the development of information and network,the competition between banks is mainly reflected in its core competitive power.Human resource,a source of competitive advantage of banks, has an important position and role in bank competition.As a specific resource,human resources is difficult to imitate,is a key determinant of bank competition in the information society.Based on the theory of human resource management in network information era, the author analyzes the characteristics of the present stage of our country bank human resources management and some existing problems, and puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions,in order to improve the efficiency of human resource management,to promote the development of China's banks.

  9. Under the Background of New Curriculum Reform of the Curriculum Resources Optimization Strategy Research%新课改背景下的课程资源优化策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天智; 陈军

    2015-01-01

    我国的基础教育课程改革力度正在不断加大,课程资源作为国家基础教育改革中提出的一个重要概念,倍受各界人士的瞩目,其重要性也逐渐突显出来。人们清楚的认识到,课程资源的优化是顺利达成任何课程目标的必要条件,如果课程资源得以合理地开发和有效的利用,不仅可以帮助教师在教学实践中开发课程资源,并选出可用的课程资源,也可以帮助教师在课程资源的优化原则的基础上,精选课程资源,从而达到最佳的教学效果,以便为学生的身心健康发展服务。%Pick to:China’s basic education course reform is growing,as a national basic education curriculum resources,put forward an important concept in the reform of people from all walks of life’s attention,its importance is increasingly highlighted.People clearly recognize that if to reasonable development and effective utilization of curriculum resources,not only can help teachers to develop curriculum resources in the teaching practice,and to find the course resources available,can also help teachers on the basis of the principle of the optimization of curriculum resources,curriculum resources, so as to achieve the best teaching effect,in order to serve for the students’physical and mental health development.

  10. 水资源利用市场化下的水权及其类型化探讨%Discussion on Water Rights and Their Classification with Background of Market Use of Water Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍

    2012-01-01

    水资源利用市场化的前提是建立水权制度.水权是单位或个人对一定之水的使用收益权.水资源具有多用性,对水资源利用的目的和方式不同,水权内容也就存在差异.水权类型化不仅便于明确各类水权主体的权利和义务,而且便于国家对水资源开发利用的管理,促进水资源的合理利用.%Water rights system is prerequisite of water resource market use. Water rights is the rights to use and return on particular water of units and persons. Water resource has many using, so water rights are different. Water rights' classification not only can clarity rights and obligations of different water rights' subjects, but also advantage state's management of development and use of water resources, and promote the rational use of water resources.

  11. Resource Curse Revalidation under the Background of Ecological Civilization from the Perspective of GDP%生态文明背景下基于绿色GD P角度的资源诅咒再验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫长瑞; 王建伟

    2014-01-01

    Based on ecological civilization,under the requirements of the environment,this paper revalidates "resource curse"in different provinces and cities of China.The paper found:not all provinces present the phenomenon of resource curse;there is a resource curse mechanism with certain conditions.In the case of Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia region,the paper conducted a comparative analysis and the results showed that the causes of the resource curse in the resource-rich region include:the development of the resource structure is irrational;resource consumption and environmental costs are too high;industrial structure is improper and products are at the primary level of processing,;extensive mode induces“Dutch Disease”and caused certain squeezing out effect;state support is inadequate;immature market and poor infrastruc-ture affect the absorption of foreign investment;imperfect systems of laws and regulations lead to rent-seeking behavior and opportunism.%从绿色GDP角度对我国区域层面是否“资源诅咒”进行再验证,发现并不是所有的资源大省都存在资源诅咒现象,资源诅咒的存在具有一定的条件机理。以新疆和内蒙古地区为例,作比较性分析,结果表明在资源丰裕地区引发资源诅咒的原因主要包括,资源开发结构不合理,资源消耗和环境成本过高;产业结构不合理和产品初级化严重,粗放型模式诱发“荷兰病”现象,并造成一定的挤出效应;国家扶持力度不够,市场发育程度低,基础设施条件差,影响吸收外资能力;制度、法律法规的不完善导致产生寻租行为和投机主义。

  12. “创新驱动”背景下矿山企业人力资源管理创新方法探讨%Discussion of innovative enterprise human resource management in the background of "innovation motivation"campaign

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣群; 迟崇哲; 李哲浩; 吕春玲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the management theories currently universally acknowledged by scholars,the paper discusses current status of enterprise human resource management in Chinese mines,besides,in the perspective of human re-source management,analyzes the problems currently existing in enterprise development.Systematic analysis of exterior and interior environment,management status,operation efficiency,performance assessment,organization hierarchy of Chinese mining enterprises finds that there are problems in human resource management such as judgment,selection, assignment,training and preservation of human resource.Corresponding advice is proposed with the expectation to be reference for mining enterprise human resource management.%以目前学者普遍接受的相关管理理论知识为基础,对中国矿山企业人力资源管理现状进行探讨,并从人力资源管理的角度出发,分析目前矿山企业发展过程中存在的问题。通过对中国矿山企业内外部环境、管理现状、运营效率、绩效考核、组织层次进行系统分析发现,中国矿山企业在识人、选人、用人、育人、留人等人力资源方面存在一些问题。针对这几方面的问题,提出了相应的建议,以期对矿山企业人力资源管理有所参考。

  13. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  14. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  15. 新医改背景下医院人力资源与薪酬管理探析%Analysis of Hospital Human Resources and Compensation Management Under the Background of New Medical Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侍文君

    2016-01-01

    Under the new medical reform,the hospital human resources management idea unceasingly thorough,the new medical reform in further promoting operation,such policies for the reform of hospital personnel built a broad platform,but along with the enlargement of the platform,the human resources management also faces unprecedented opportunities and chal enges. In the large system of human resource management,the most important is the management of salary,which is one of the decisive factors for the effectiveness of human resource management. Therefore,in the new period, establish and improve the salary management system is an inevitable requirement to improve the quality of hospital management.%新医改下,随着医院人力资源管理理念的不断深入,新医改在进一步的推进运行,此类政策为医院人事改革搭建了广阔的平台,但随着各大平台不断扩大,人力资源管理也面临着空前的机遇与挑战。而在人力资源管理的大体制中,最重要的就是对于薪酬的管理,其为人力资源管理成效的决定性因素之一。因此,在新时期,建立健全薪酬管理体系是改善医院管理工作质量的必然要求。

  16. Research on Development Mode of Colleges and Universities Sports Resources under the Background of Sunshine Sports%阳光体育背景下高校体育资源开发模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹飞

    2012-01-01

    Based on literature data, field investigation, this paper made the analysis and research on university sports industrialization from several aspects, such as venues resources, organization and management resources, and human resources. Thereupon, this paper proposed to change management concepts, speed up the management socialization, virtual business and other operational modes, so as to solve problems of university sports facilities construction, maintenance and the shortage of funds for its development, and then promote the further development of university stadiums.%本文通过文献资料法、现场调查法从场馆资源、组织管理资源和人力资源、市场资源几个方面对高校体育产业进行分析研究.提出转变经营观念,加快管理社会化、虚拟经营等运作模式,从而解决高校体育设施建设、维护、发展经费短缺的问题.促进高校体育场馆进一步发展.

  17. Analysis of Educational Equity Under the Background of Market:A Perspective Based on the Allocation of Resources%市场化背景下教育公平问题分析--基于资源配置的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青

    2014-01-01

    资源配置均衡是实现教育公平的基本要求。从经济学视角看,当前市场经济背景下社会价值导向发生着转变,由此引起的市场化倾向,加剧了教育资源配置的不平衡。市场化背景下,教育主体产生利益冲动,对利益的追逐会对弱势群体形成资源排斥;监管缺位容易产生教育权力失范,造成资源配置的失序和不公;在资源排斥和权利失范的共同作用下,教育资源的配置出现了分层现象,进而导致社会分层和阶层固化。%Balanced allocation of resources to achieve educational equity is a basic requirement. From an economic perspective, the changes of the social value orientation are taking place under the economic background at present. The tendency of the market exacerbated the imbalance of educational resources. Education produces benefits impulse under the economic background. The pursuit of the interests causes a resource exclusion of vulnerable groups. Lack of supervision led to the failure of education, causing the disorder and the unfair allocation of resources. Allocation of the educational resources appeared to be the stratification under the combined effect of the resource exclusion and the right lapse, leading to the social stratification and the class cured.

  18. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  19. Task sharing in Zambia: HIV service scale-up compounds the human resource crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Walsh; P. Ndubani; J. Simbaya; P. Dicker; R. Brugha

    2010-01-01

    Background Considerable attention has been given by policy makers and researchers to the human resources for health crisis in Africa. However, little attention has been paid to quantifying health facility-level trends in health worker numbers, distribution and workload, despite growing demands on he

  20. MOOCs背景下的高职精品资源共享课建设%Construction of higher vocational excellent resources-sharing courses under the background of MOOCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任锁平

    2015-01-01

    The paper first analyzes massive open online courses ( MOOCs ) .Then based on the development and evaluation criteria of higher vocational excellent resources -sharing courses , it explores the implication of MOOCs for the construction of these courses .It points out that these courses can be developed by making use of the advantages of MOOCs , learning from the development patterns of MOOCs, making overall design , accelerating construction of the courses platform , and developing course resources through university-enterprise cooperation so as to realize course sharing and openness , optimize course design , transform the traditional way of thinking , and reform the teaching model of excellent resources-sharing courses .It will promote higher vocational education and teaching reform and uplift the ability of higher vocational education to serve the society .%通过对 MOOCs 课程分析,结合高职精品资源共享课建设发展和评价标准,探寻MOOCs课程对于高职精品资源共享课建设的启示。指出高职精品资源共享课可以借鉴MOOCs发展模式,统筹设计、加快其平台建设;采用校企合作开发课程资源,以实现课程的共享与开放;优化课程设计;转变传统思维,改革精品的资源共享课教学模式,以促进高职教育教学改革,提升社会服务能力。

  1. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  2. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  3. 7 CFR 799.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 799.1 Background. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C.... Section (102)(2) also requires all Federal agencies to give appropriate consideration to the...

  4. On consideration for management of human resource of construction enterprises%做好施工企业人力资源管理工作的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕梦兰

    2011-01-01

    According to the importance of the human resource management,the paper explores the ways of how to do well in the human resource management of the construction enterprises,and indicates from the establishment of the new idea of human resource management,the keeping of the talents needed by the enterprises and the construction of the talents with enterprise features,so as to illustrates the ideas for solving the problems in the human resource management.%针对人力资源管理的重要性,就如何做好施工企业人力资源管理工作进行了探讨,分别从树立人力资源管理的新理念、留住企业需要的人才、构筑具有企业特色的人才高地三方面加以论述,为解决人力资源管理中存在的问题阐明了思路。

  5. “高用工成本”背景下聚酯企业人力资源管理模式探讨%Research of polyester business’Human Resource Management Model in the"high labor costs" background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美英

    2013-01-01

      the polyester business survey found that the "high labor costs" is a com-mon problem. This article, from the perspective of human resource management, pointed out that, the polyester business should solve the "high labor costs" problem from nine as-pects as follows: concept of employment, job opportunities, training, compensation and benefits, employee development, work environment, optimize resources to reduce costs, HR standard process management, specialized HR management system.%  通过对聚酯企业的调查发现,“高用工成本”是当前困扰我国许多聚酯企业的普遍问题。本文从人力资源管理角度指出聚酯企业应从用人理念、招聘录用、员工培训、薪酬福利、员工发展、工作环境、优化资源降低成本、HR标准流程管理、专业化HR管理系统等九个方面根本上解决“高用工成本”问题。

  6. 宁波市海洋渔业资源可持续利用的法律思考%Legal consideration of the sustainable use of marine fishery resources in Ningbo City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宁

    2014-01-01

    海洋渔业资源为人类提供了丰富的营养,是人类赖以生存的物质基础。宁波市具有优越的地理环境,海洋渔业资源丰富。但由于不科学的生产与消费方式,对海洋环境造成污染,致使海洋渔业资源受到损害,严重影响到我市海洋渔业资源的可持续利用。利用法律,通过制度来对海洋渔业资源进行保护至关重要。国际、国外以及国内都进行了有益的探索。立足于宁波市现状,本文主要采取控制捕捞强度,落实配额制度,强化监管责任以及对象山港和韭山保护区的增值放流工作等四个方面措施来促进宁波市渔业资源的可持续利用。%Marine fishery resources provides rich nutrition for the human, is the material basis for human survival. Ningbo city has superior geographical environment, marine fishery resources are rich. But because of the way of production and consumption is not scientific, to cause pollution of the marine environment, the marine fishery resource damage, seriously affected the sustainable utilization of marine fishery resources in our city. By law, the system of protection is important to the marine fishery resources. International, foreign and domestic has carried on the beneficial exploration. Based on the current situation of the Ningbo City, this paper mainly adopts the control fishing intensity, the implementation of quota system, strengthen the regulatory responsibility and object hill harbor and Jiushan reserve increment release four measures to promote the sustainable use of fishery resources in Ningbo city.

  7. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity the spectrum is free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

  8. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  9. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients.

  10. 新时期我国农村人力资源开发机制构建的思考%Considerations on the Construction of Rural Human Resources Development Mechanism in the New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏良益

    2011-01-01

    Some questions about the rural human resources development mechanism in the new period are discussed. The results indicate that the externality of human capital property is the main source of investment risk in the rural human capital development process. "Who profiting, who investing" and " fairness and efficiency are both" shall become principles to follow in the rural human resources development process in our country. The unclear boundary of the investment subject and the investment subject absence are the main problems in the rural human resource development activities. The efficiency of the investment and the motivation mechanism as well as the restraint mechanism, etc. , should be considered altogether in the new rural human resource development mechanism building.%针对新时期农村人力资源开发机制构建的有关问题进行研究,结果表明:人力资本产权外部性特征是农村人力资本投资风险的.主要来源;“谁受益,谁投资”和“公平与效率兼顾”是我国农村人力资源开发应当坚持的原则;投资主体边界不清与缺位是当前农村人力资源开发的主要问题;构建新时期农村人力资源开发有效机制应当考虑投资的效率、激励与约束等方面.

  11. Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002437.htm Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease that causes ...

  12. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  13. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -cultural construction of identity, and, as a matter of fact, that their role might be quite important. I argue that the DDAs are backgrounded but not peripheral, i.e. marginal or insignificant. And I introduce the notion of “contextualization cue” in this argument (Levinson, 2003a, Gumperz, 1992)....

  14. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  15. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  16. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  17. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline

  18. DOE handbook: Design considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The Design Considerations Handbook includes information and suggestions for the design of systems typical to nuclear facilities, information specific to various types of special facilities, and information useful to various design disciplines. The handbook is presented in two parts. Part 1, which addresses design considerations, includes two sections. The first addresses the design of systems typically used in nuclear facilities to control radiation or radioactive materials. Specifically, this part addresses the design of confinement systems and radiation protection and effluent monitoring systems. The second section of Part 1 addresses the design of special facilities (i.e., specific types of nonreactor nuclear facilities). The specific design considerations provided in this section were developed from review of DOE 6430.1A and are supplemented with specific suggestions and considerations from designers with experience designing and operating such facilities. Part 2 of the Design Considerations Handbook describes good practices and design principles that should be considered in specific design disciplines, such as mechanical systems and electrical systems. These good practices are based on specific experiences in the design of nuclear facilities by design engineers with related experience. This part of the Design Considerations Handbook contains five sections, each of which applies to a particular engineering discipline.

  19. Research on Human Resource Management Model of Textile Enterprise under the Background of Employment Difficulty%“用工难”背景下纺织企业人力资源管理模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂晓春; 杨卫丰; 吴锦峰

    2011-01-01

    通过对东部几家纺织企业的实证调查发现,"用工难"是当前困扰我国许多纺织企业的普遍问题。本文从人力资源管理角度指出纺织企业应从人事调整、招聘录用、员工培训、薪酬福利、员工发展、工作环境等六个方面从根本上解决"用工难"问题。%Through the empirical survey of several textile enterprises in the east it was found that "employment difficulty" was the common problem of China's many textile enterprises.From the angle of human resource management,we pointed out that textile enterprises should fundamentally solve the problem of "employment difficulty" by personnel adjustment,recruitment and employment,employee training,pay and benefits,staff development and working environment.

  20. Considerations about the Construction of Intangible Cultural Heritage Resources Database in the Era of Big Data%大数据时代非物质文化遗产资源数据库建设的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明兵

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the era of big data has brought impact on information processing, economic development and even people’s thinking mode, at the same time, the inheritance and protection of intangible cultural heritages that are the cultural achievements of all mankind is increasingly valued. Establishing the corresponding resource database by using the modern computer technology is an important means for the protection of intangible cultural heritage resources. In the era of big data, how to conform to the trend of the times and further think of the construction of intangible cultural heritage resource database has very important practical significance.%大数据时代的到来给信息处理、经济发展甚至人的思维方式都带来了冲击,与此同时,作为全人类共同文化成果的非物质文化遗产的继承和保护日益受到重视。利用现代计算机技术建立相应的资源数据库是对非物质文化遗产资源进行保护的重要手段。在大数据时代,如何顺应时代潮流,进一步思考非物质文化遗产资源数据库的建设具有十分重要的现实意义。

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  2. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  3. Background, phenomenology, and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the background to the kinetics of adsorption and desorption after an elementary introduction to the problem of chemisorption in two limiting cases. Other topics discussed include the thermodynamics of adsorption, reaction mechanisms outside surfaces, and a case history of catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Figures show the potential energy barrier as a function of an appropriate reaction coordinate, and bonding of carbon monoxide to platinum metal

  4. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  5. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  6. Resource Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  7. Climate change - New directions for the Northeast: background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This background paper was developed in preparation for a workshop to bring forward action options to be used for developing an action plan for the consideration of the next meeting of New England Governors/ Eastern Canadian Premiers Conference in September 2001. The background paper is the product of the cooperative effort of all eleven jurisdictions. The paper examines climate science in its global and regional aspects; climate changes impacts, identifying environmental, natural resources and infrastructure issues; monitoring of emission levels and progress in reductions; policy processes, such as leadership, cooperation, emission trading and Kyoto mechanisms; mitigation action options to reduce emissions in the Northeast context, adaptation options and their effects on the natural environment, such a coastal and forestry concerns; infrastructure development; and common Northeast issues and opportunities. A series of options in each of these areas have been identified, including gaps in options. Attention is drawn to the need to consider social and ecological objectives which will become more acute as more climate change policies and programs are implemented. 45 refs

  8. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To explain the purpose and background of this book and introduce the three basic perspectives behind the research presented as well as the structure and editing process of the book. Methodology: The editors shared and discussed individual contributions to this chapter, based on their own...... in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to organisations...

  9. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam;

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  10. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  11. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  12. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well. PMID:17005024

  13. Percutaneous Penetration - Methodological Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgaard, Rikke; Benfeldt, Eva; Nielsen, Jesper B

    2014-01-01

    Review discusses some of the existing and well-known experimental in vitro and in vivo methods for studies of percutaneous penetration together with some more recent and promising methods. After this, some considerations and recommendations about advantages and limitations of the different methods...

  14. The Backgrounds Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  15. 关于地下空间重要的国家资源 开发利用问题的思考%Underground Space—Consideration on Exploitation of the Important National Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国隆

    2001-01-01

    从构成城市建筑物的发展历史看,21世纪是人类开发利用地下空间的世纪。地下空间是国家的重要资源。全球陆地地表被各类工程建筑物等占去1/6,随着工业化、商业化、城市化进程的加快,人地矛盾加剧,土地的承载力加重,充分开发利用地下空间资源是必然趋势。城市地下空间开发利用技术的发展趋势是综合化、分层化与深层化、城市交通地下化等,提出了把地下空间开发作为国策、纳入城乡规划的法制轨道及加强地下空间的开发技术岩土工程勘察技术、开挖技术和设计施工技术等建议。%The 21st century will be the century in which human beings will exploit the underground space in the perspective of the evolution history of urban building. The underground space is one of the important national resources. One-sixth of the land surface of the entire earth is occupied by various buildings. With industrialization, commercialization and urbanization, the contradiction between the population and the land will be aggravated, and the bearing capacity of the land will be overburdened. To fully exploit the underground resource will be the inevitable trend. The trend of the urban underground space exploitation technology will move toward integration, multi-layers and deeper into the ground with the urban traffic switched underground. It is suggested that the exploitation of the underground space be included in the urban planning as the national policy. Proposals on how to enhance the underground exploitation technology—geo-technical investigation, excavation technique and design and construction techniques are also put forward.

  16. 对古籍修复人员人力资源管理方法的思考%Considerations about the Methods for the Human Resource Management for Ancient Books Repairing Personnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区捷

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the current status of ancient books repairing work, analyzes the features of the personnel needed by the ancient books repairing work, and puts forward some methods for the human resource management for ancient books repairing personnel, which include correctly understanding the importance of ancient books repairing work to attract talents, adopting vivid and vigorous working mode to retain talents, and setting up talent echelon to ensure the sustainability of ancient books repairing work.%阐述了古籍修复工作现状,分析了古籍修复工作所需人员的特征,提出了古籍修复人员人力资源管理方法,包括正确认识古籍修复岗位的重要性以吸引人才、用生动活泼的工作方式留住人才、搭建人才梯队以保证古籍修复工作的持续性。

  17. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  18. General safety considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness.

  19. General safety considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the full filling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 4 of the document contains some details about the priority to safety, financial and human resources, human factors, quality assurance, safety assessment and verification, radiation protection and emergency preparedness

  20. Chernobyl: Geographic considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the geographic considerations that could effect the long range consequences of the Chernobyl accident. First, the explosion and fire lofted the radionuclides that were released, so the areas that should have been most severely effected were the areas that were downwind of the accident. Curiously, the Soviets have not mentioned the number of casualties from these areas. A second consideration is that Chernobyl is located upstream from the Dnieper River which is the source for six major reservoirs. These reservoirs provide drinking water, industrial and irrigation water, and recreational and commercial fishing for over six million people. The Soviets say that they have taken measures to prevent the radioactive contamination of the Dnieper but they neglected to explain the methods used to accomplish this feat

  1. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: technical considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-jun TENG; Shi-cheng HE

    2005-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a relative new interventional technique, which is widely used in treatment of vertebral collapse caused by vertebral neoplasms and osteoporotic compression fractures. The general technical considerations of PVP techniques are discussed based on authors' experience obtained over 400 patients in the past years in this article, including preparation of PMMA, instrument of PVP, guidance and puncture approaches, and technique of the procedure, etc. The conclusion is that PVP is a safe procedure if the physicians handle it properly.

  2. Security consideration for virtualization

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhardt, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Virtualization is not a new technology, but has recently experienced a resurgence of interest among industry and research. New products and technologies are emerging quickly, and are being deployed with little considerations to security concerns. It is vital to understand that virtualization does not improve security by default. Hence, any aspect of virtualization needs to undergo constant security analysis and audit. Virtualization is a changeable and very dynamic field wit...

  3. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  4. Fusion facility siting considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussell, G. T.

    1985-02-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. An important consideration in this regard is site selection. Major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion are examined.

  5. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  6. Sustaining the National Geothermal Data System: Considerations for a System Wide Approach and Node Maintenance, Geothermal Resources Council 37th Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, September 29-October 2, 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Lee [Arizona Geological Survey; Chickering, Cathy [Southern Methodist University; Anderson, Arlene [U. S. Department of Energy, Geothermal Technologies Office; Richard, Stephen M. [Arizona Geological Survey

    2013-09-23

    Since the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office has funded $33.7 million for multiple data digitization and aggregation projects focused on making vast amounts of geothermal relevant data available to industry for advancing geothermal exploration. These projects are collectively part of the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS), a distributed, networked system for maintaining, sharing, and accessing data in an effort to lower the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Determining “who owns” and “who maintains” the NGDS and its data nodes (repositories in the distributed system) is yet to be determined. However, the invest- ment in building and populating the NGDS has been substantial, both in terms of dollars and time; it is critical that this investment be protected by ensuring sustainability of the data, the software and systems, and the accessibility of the data. Only then, will the benefits be fully realized. To keep this operational system sustainable will require four core elements: continued serving of data and applications; maintenance of system operations; a governance structure; and an effective business model. Each of these presents a number of challenges. Data being added to the NGDS are not strictly geothermal but data considered relevant to geothermal exploration and develop- ment, including vast amounts of oil and gas and groundwater wells, among other data. These are relevant to a broader base of users. By diversifying the client base to other users and other fields, the cost of maintaining core infrastructure can be spread across an array of stakeholders and clients. It is presumed that NGDS will continue to provide free and open access to its data resources. The next-phase NGDS operation should be structured to eventually pursue revenue streams to help off-set sustainability expenses as necessary and appropriate, potentially including income from: grants and contracts

  7. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  8. Genetical background of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  9. Environmental decision making: supply-chain considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Reich-Weiser, Corinne; Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Water use, energy use, and global warming potential (GWP) are investigated to assess the environmental impact of the manufacturing supply-chain in the interest of developing sustainable manufacturing systems. Because a major component of the supply chain is transportation, four methods of transportation are investigated: shipping, rail, trucking, and air freight. Additionally, location-specific manufacturing considerations such as water scarcity, resource availability, and energy mix are disc...

  10. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi- enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies: domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  11. Cultural Considerations in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嫔荣

    2009-01-01

    Language is the expression of human communication through which knowledge, belief, and behavior can be experi-enced, explained, and shared. It influences the way the speakers perceive the world. But as it has been long taken for granted, translation deals only with language. Cultural perspective, however, has never been brought into discussion. This paper first analyses the definitions of translation and culture, and then discusses why we should take culture into consideration and in the end, two translating strategies:domestication and foreignization are introduced.

  12. Fusion facility siting considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-07-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion.

  13. Fusion facility siting considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussell, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion.

  14. The Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument: Evaluating features, amenities and incivilities of physical activity resources in urban neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan Gail

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood environment factors may influence physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a brief instrument to systematically document and describe the type, features, amenities, quality and incivilities of a variety of PA resources. Method The one-page Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA instrument was developed to assess all publicly available PA resources in thirteen urban lower income, high ethnic minority concentration neighborhoods that surrounded public housing developments (HDs and four higher income, low ethnic minority concentration comparison neighborhoods. Neighborhoods had similar population density and connectivity. Trained field coders rated 97 PA resources (including parks, churches, schools, sports facilities, fitness centers, community centers, and trails on location, type, cost, features, amenities, quality and incivilities. Assessments typically took about 10 minutes to complete. Results HD neighborhoods had a mean of 4.9 PA resources (n = 73 with considerable variability in the type of resources available for each neighborhood. Comparison neighborhoods had a mean of 6 resources (n = 24. Most resources were accessible at no cost (82%. Resources in both types of neighborhoods typically had about 2 to 3 PA features and amenities, and the quality was usually mediocre to good in both types of neighborhoods. Incivilities at PA resources in HD neighborhoods were significantly more common than in comparison neighborhoods. Conclusion Although PA resources were similar in number, features and amenities, the overall appearance of the resources in HD neighborhoods was much worse as indicated by substantially worse incivilities ratings in HD neighborhoods. The more comprehensive assessment, including features, amenities and incivilities, provided by the PARA may be important to distinguish between PA resources in lower and higher deprivation areas.

  15. The Construction, Integration and Utilization of the Literature Resources in the Library of Independent College under the Background of Big Data%大数据背景下独立学院图书馆的文献建设与整合利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆; 黄星

    2015-01-01

    在图书馆的建设过程中,传统的馆藏方式受到了大数据时代数字化技术的直接冲击. 阐述了独立学院图书馆的特点,分析了大数据背景下独立学院图书馆建设的现状与存在不足,研究了大数据背景下独立学院图书馆文献建设与资源整合的方法.%In the process of library's construction, its traditional collection way is directly impacted by digital technology in big data era. This paper expounds the features of the library of independent college, analyzes the shortages existing in the construction and development of the library of independent college under the background of big data, and studies the methods for the literature construction and resources integration in the library of independent college under the background of big data.

  16. Infrared Background and Missiles Signature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Renuka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of the missile threats in the existing threat scenario for airborne platform is a serious point of consideration for any mission planning. Missile warning system is an electronic warfare support system which gives warning to the pilot when a missile is detected in the scenario. The airborne platform has to be installed with missile warning sensors to give a spherical coverage, so that the sensors can detect the IR intensity variation in the ground scenario. This IR intensity variation has to be further analysed to differentiate the raising missile intensity from the varying background clutter. In order to differentiate the threat from the background clutter, the system should have sufficient background data set for online comparison thereby having less false alarm rate. The efficiency and performance of any missile warning system is validated with respect to its probability of declaration against the false alarm rate. Hence, to realize an efficient functioning of missile warning system, building IR background data base and missile signature database are the primary task. This paper details the methodology to be adapted for the building of tactical missile IR signatures and background data.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.611-615, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.5762

  17. Infrared Background and Missiles Signature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Renuka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of the missile threats in the existing threat scenario for airborne platform is a serious point of consideration for any mission planning. Missile warning system is an electronic warfare support system which gives warning to the pilot when a missile is detected in the scenario. The airborne platform has to be installed with missile warning sensors to give a spherical coverage, so that the sensors can detect the IR intensity variation in the ground scenario. This IR intensity variation has to be further analysed to differentiate the raising missile intensity from the varying background clutter. In order to differentiate the threat from the background clutter, the system should have sufficient background data set for online comparison thereby having less false alarm rate. The efficiency and performance of any missile warning system is validated with respect to its probability of declaration against the false alarm rate. Hence, to realize an efficient functioning of missile warning system, building IR background data base and missile signature database are the primary task. This paper details the methodology to be adapted for the building of tactical missile IR signatures and background data.

  18. Non-proliferation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reiterates the Indian viewpoint that consideration of ''proliferation resistance'' is outside the terms of reference of Working Group 4 as agreed at the Washington Conference. The discussions in WG4 should therefore cover only safeguards aspects. The paper goes on to critisize the various assessment factors introduced in INFCE/DEP./WG-4/104 and the various alternative technologies proposed. The Indian view is reinstated that if a country requires reprocessing based on its nuclear energy programmes and priorities, there should be no hindrance. International safeguards should be applied to all nuclear materials in all countries without discrimination or differentiation between civil and military programmes. The paper concludes that non-proliferation is essentially a political matter and has no technical solution

  19. Paediatric pharmacokinetics: key considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Hannah Katharine; Marriott, John Francis

    2015-01-01

    A number of anatomical and physiological factors determine the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug. Differences in physiology in paediatric populations compared with adults can influence the concentration of drug within the plasma or tissue. Healthcare professionals need to be aware of anatomical and physiological changes that affect pharmacokinetic profiles of drugs to understand consequences of dose adjustments in infants and children. Pharmacokinetic clinical trials in children are complicated owing to the limitations on blood sample volumes and perception of pain in children resulting from blood sampling. There are alternative sampling techniques that can minimize the invasive nature of such trials. Population based models can also limit the sampling required from each individual by increasing the overall sample size to generate robust pharmacokinetic data. This review details key considerations in the design and development of paediatric pharmacokinetic clinical trials. PMID:25855821

  20. Considerations on the Difficulties and Countermeasures of the Chinese Communist Youth League's Work in State-owned Enterprises under the Background of Diversified Employment%多种用工制度下国有企业团工作面临的困难及对策思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文

    2012-01-01

    With the background of diversified employment in state-owned enterprises, the Chinese Communist Youth League (the C.C.Y.L.) is faced with both problems and challenges, such as the youth's complicated vocational states in enterprises, their diversified concepts, demands for interests, the construction and management of the C.C.Y.L., the difficulties in the conduction of the C.C.Y.L.'s work, and so on. We should take the youth as the basis and serve them faithfully, so as to make both the youth and enterprises develop harmoniously. Further more, we should further emancipate our thoughts and break traditional system fetters so as to conduct the C.C.Y.L.'s work in a innovative way. These are the thoughts and approaches to solve such difficulties and problems.%国有企业多种用工制度并存的条件下,共青团工作面临着企业青年职业状态复杂化、思想观念多元化、利益诉求多样化,以及团的组织建设与管理、团的工作与活动开展困难等诸多问题与挑战。解决现有多种用工制度下国企团工作中的困难和问题的主要思路与方法是:以青年为本,竭诚服务青年,促进青年与企业和谐发展,进一步解放思想,突破体制束缚,创造性地开展企业共青团工作。

  1. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.;

    2003-01-01

    revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diff use...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with...

  2. The Hierarchy of Profit Division and Grassroots Governance Involution:The Logic of Rural Governance under the Background of the Resource Input%分利秩序与基层治理内卷化资源输入背景下的乡村治理逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锋

    2015-01-01

    Since the launch of the reform of taxes and fees in 2002,the central government has issued a series of favorable policies for farmers and took a lot of resources to the countryside.Industry started to support agriculture.It brings new opportunity for rural development and rural governance,which gains support of the broad masses of farmers.In a way,it also helps consolidate the ruling foundation of Chinese Communist Party, and enhance the legitimacy of the state power. However,the political efficiency of the reform of the agricultural taxes and fees has quickly reduced,and the resource input to the countryside did not achieve the desired effect.On the one hand,grass-roots organizations cannot undertake top-down inputted resources effectively,and connect scattered farmers.On the other hand,the non-cooperation between officials and the farmers often ended up with predicament of governance of the “nail house”in the construction of the project. Under this background,grass-roots organizations mainly present two basic forms of governance.Some village cadres were afraid of “accident”and did things passively so much so that some even avoided the input of resources for the village construction.Other villages mainly were ruled by the rich and the grey black forces. They actively fight for resources and projects,and take a variety of means to solve the “nail households”,and gain some benefits from the project or political capital for the development of their individual economy.Both governance forms have eroded the national resources and local public resources,and the authority and legitimacy of grassroots organizations further decline.On the resources input chain,a profit division hierarchy has been formed among people involved in power rent-seeking, local social forces of the rich and the grey black forces,opportunistic and interest-oriented farmers and so on. Ordinary people should have been the biggest beneficiaries of the input resources,but the hierarchal

  3. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  4. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  5. Ethical considerations in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follath, F

    2009-12-01

    patients and healthy subjects for the general population seen in everyday practice? Increasingly, the economic aspects of long-term prevention and problems of a fair allocation of limited healthcare resources are also important issues giving rise to contrasting views among patients, doctors, insurance providers and politicians. What are the priorities and who should decide? Ethical considerations relating to the above questions in CV prevention are discussed in this article. PMID:19500153

  6. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... The following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications-herpes National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease -- ...

  7. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Although childhood obesity has long been in focus, little is known about the sensitivity of behavioural choices to measure parental resource constraints. The aim of this study is to examine the heterogeneous effects of children’s (or their parents’) choices of lifestyle subject to information...... and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...

  8. The case for background independence

    CERN Document Server

    Smolin, L

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain carefully the arguments behind the assertion that the correct quantum theory of gravity must be background independent. We begin by recounting how the debate over whether quantum gravity must be background independent is a continuation of a long-standing argument in the history of physics and philosophy over whether space and time are relational or absolute. This leads to a careful statement of what physicists mean when we speak of background independence. Given this we can characterize the precise sense in which general relativity is a background independent theory. The leading background independent approaches to quantum gravity are then discussed, including causal set models, loop quantum gravity and dynamical triangulations and their main achievements are summarized along with the problems that remain open. Some first attempts to cast string/M theory into a background independent formulation are also mentioned. The relational/absolute debate has implications also for ot...

  9. 气候变化背景下中国农业气候资源变化V.宁夏农业气候资源变化特征%Changes of China agricultural climate resources under the background of climate change.V.Change characteristics of agricultural climate resources in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁海燕; 张晓煜; 徐华军; 杨晓光

    2011-01-01

    基于1961-2009年宁夏21个气象站点的气象资料,分析了宁夏各区农业气候资源的时空变化趋势.结果表明:研究期间,宁夏各地气温逐渐升高,呈北高南低的空间分布特征,年均气温的气候倾向率为0.4℃·(10 a)-1;大部分地区年降水量呈逐渐减少趋势,年降水量的气候倾向率为4.26 mm·(10 a)-1;无霜期和作物生长季天数随着气候变暖逐渐延长;≥10℃积温在3200℃·d以上的区域向南扩展,宁夏适宜种植中晚熟水稻的区域有所扩大;2001-2009年,宁夏大部分地区适宜种植冬小麦,全区各地几乎都适宜种植春小麦;宁夏南部山区各地7月平均气温≤20℃的区域面积逐渐缩小,适宜种植马铃薯的地域也随之缩小.%Based on the 1961-2009 weather data from 21 meteorological stations in Ningxia, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variation trend of regional agricultural climate resources in Ningxia. Northwest China. In 1961-2009 . the air temperature in Ningxia increased gradually from south to north. with the mean annual temperature increased by 0.4 ℃ · ( 10 a) -1 . while the annual precipitation in most regions decreased gradually, with a decrement 4. 26 mm · ( 10 a)-1. Both the frost-free period and the duration of crop growth season prolonged. The regions with≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature being ≥3200 ℃ . d extended southwardly, and thereby, the regions adaptive for planting mid and late rice increased. In 2001 -2009 . most regions were adaptive for plating winter wheat. and the whole Ningxia was adaptive for plating spring wheat. In the southern mountain regions, the region with mean temperature in July being ≤20 ℃ decreased gradually, and accordingly, the regions adaptive for planting potato decreased.

  10. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ''life-cycle'' cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots

  11. Some considerations on robotics for environmental friendliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pin, F.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper presents a series of considerations regarding the use and potential of robotic devices for supporting humans in a variety of tasks, while maintaining, if not improving, environmental friendliness. One of the main considerations brought forward here relates to the type of human-support functions which the robots are, or will be, expected to perform, and from this, a clear differentiation appears between robots designed to replace humans in environments that were engineered in the past for best human functionality, and robots designed to take functions in the future, in environments which could be better engineered for large-scale human-robot synergy. Other considerations discussed involve the ``life-cycle`` cleanliness of robotic systems, including the materials needs for their construction, their operation, their disposal and, more importantly, their energy consumption which will impact the cycle of natural resources utilization. These considerations are discussed using a variety of possible robotic systems applications in contexts varied as manufacturing, energy recovery and production, emergency situations handling, traffic improvement, waste management, agriculture, and space exploration. In all these applications, the operation costs and complexity of the robots seem to vary in inverse proportion to the amount of engineering that is feasible to make the task environment more robot-friendly, but with no seemingly direct impact on the potential for environmental friendliness of the robots.

  12. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  13. TDEM for Martian in situ resource prospecting missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tacconi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic Methods application, addressed to the search for water on Mars. In this context, the opportunities for a TDEM system as payload in a future mission are investigated for different in situ exploration scenarios. The TDEM sounding capability is evaluated with respect to the expected Martian environment, and some considerations are made about the many unknown variables (above all the background EM noise and the subsoil composition altogether with the limited resources availability (mission constraints in mass, time and power and the way they could represent an obstacle for operations and measurements.

  14. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  15. A Contribution to Considerations of the Role of Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanić Josip

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embedded systems are a ubiquitous part of modern civilisation. Trends point to further intensification of their use. In this article we discuss long-term implications of that process, from the point of view of systems science. Objectives: On a general level, we relate embedded systems to a general class of objects and argue about their role in human life. On a somewhat more specific level, we consider in more details the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. Methods/Approach: In order to achieve the set objectives, we conducted inductive theoretical considerations and presented the results in this section. Results: The hierarchy of notions relating human civilization to environment is established, and embedded systems are positioned within it. Conclusions: Broadening and intensification of the use of embedded systems is a gradual process, heavily intertwined with societal changes. The case study of the development of the unmanned aerial vehicles reveals the potentials of the concept of embedded systems, also in the area of human resources management

  16. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sona Matloubi; Ali Mohammadzadeh; Zahra Jafari; Alireza Akbarzade Baghban

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged betw...

  17. Status and low background considerations for the CRESST dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are preparing the CRESST experiment to search for dark matter WIMPs using cryogenic detectors with superconducting phase transition thermometers. In the first stage we plan to use four 250 g sapphire detectors with thresholds of 0.5 keV and resolutions of 0.2 keV at 1 keV. This will provide sensitivity to WIMP masses below 10 GeV, and is thus complementary to other dark matter searches. (orig.)

  18. Lymphoedema of the lower extremities--background, pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2010-01-01

    system most often caused by cancer or its treatment. Many of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. Many methods have been developed for examination of the lymphatic system. Lymphoscintigraphy is presently the preferred diagnostic modality. Lack of consensus regarding......Lymphoedema of the lower extremities is a chronic debilitating disease that is often underdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount in reducing the risk of progression and complications. Lymphoedema has traditionally been defined as interstitial oedema and protein accumulation because...... protocol and qualitative interpretation criteria results in a too observer dependent outcome. Methods for objectifying the scintigraphy through quantification have been criticized. Depot clearance rates are an alternative method of quantification of lymphatic drainage capacity. This method however has...

  19. Lymphoedema of the lower extremities--background, pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads R; Simonsen, Lene; Karlsmark, Tonny;

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoedema of the lower extremities is a chronic debilitating disease that is often underdiagnosed. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount in reducing the risk of progression and complications. Lymphoedema has traditionally been defined as interstitial oedema and protein accumulation because...... influencing the outcome of the examination stresses the need for consensus regarding examination protocols and interpretation. Further studies are needed to improve diagnostic performance and understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms....... protocol and qualitative interpretation criteria results in a too observer dependent outcome. Methods for objectifying the scintigraphy through quantification have been criticized. Depot clearance rates are an alternative method of quantification of lymphatic drainage capacity. This method however has...

  20. Advanced LBB methodology and considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    LBB applications have existed in many industries and more recently have been applied in the nuclear industry under limited circumstances. Research over the past 10 years has evolved the technology so that more advanced consideration of LBB can now be given. Some of the advanced considerations for nuclear plants subjected to seismic loading evaluations are summarized in this paper.

  1. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  2. The Academic Background and Theoretical Resource of “The Chinese Dream”---Interpretation of “Now,Everyone is Talking about the Chinese Dream”%“中国梦”提出的学术背景与学理资源--“现在,大家都在讨论中国梦”的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴怀友; 王艳红

    2014-01-01

    习近平在参观《复兴之路》展览时所说的“现在,大家都在讨论中国梦”,实际道出了“中国梦”提出的学术背景和学理资源问题。“现在”可视为以2006年为起点、2007-2010年持续进行、2011-2012年11月正在进行的这段时间。“大家”主要指海内外思想理论界专家学者、政界官员智囊,同时也指文化名人、企业家和普通民众。“大家”讨论的“中国梦”内容涉及其内涵与外延、历史与现实、实现路径与未来指向等方面。这看似一个对学界现有相关研究成果进行综述的简单问题,实际则是揭示“中国梦”的学术背景、学理路径的重要问题。只有搞清楚这一问题,才能深刻理解习近平提出“中国梦”的深层原因。%“Now ,everyone is talking about the Chinese Dream” was said by Chinese President Xi Jinping w hen he visited the“Road to Revival” ,w hich actually proposed the academic background and theoretical resource of “the Chinese Dream” .“Now”is the period w hich starts from the year of 2006 ,continues from 2007 to 2010 and proceeds from 2011 to November of 2012 .“Everyone”includes scholars in theoretical cir-cles ,the brain trust ,culture celebrities ,entrepreneurs and the public .T he contents of “the Chinese Dream”include its connotation and extension ,history and reality ,implementation path and future points .It seems like a simple summary on the current related academic research result ,but it actually is an important issue that reveals the academic background and theoretical path of “the Chinese dream” .Only figuring out this issue can we have a profound understanding of the underlying causes of “the Chinese Dream” .

  3. Generalized Background-Field Method

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Y J

    1997-01-01

    The graphical method discussed previously can be used to create new gauges not reachable by the path-integral formalism. By this means a new gauge is designed for more efficient two-loop QCD calculations. It is related to but simpler than the ordinary background-field gauge, in that even the triple-gluon vertices for internal lines contain only four terms, not the usual six. This reduction simplifies the calculation inspite of the necessity to include other vertices for compensation. Like the ordinary background-field gauge, this generalized background-field gauge also preserves gauge invariance of the external particles. As a check of the result and an illustration for the reduction in labour, an explicit calculation of the two-loop QCD 45% of computation compared to the ordinary background-field gauge.

  4. Geometrodynamics on a background spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, P P; Papadopoulos, Philippos; Sopuerta, Carlos F.

    2001-01-01

    The formulation of the initial value problem for the Einstein equations is at the heart of obtaining interesting new solutions using numerical relativity and still very much under theoretical and applied scrutiny. We develop a specialised background geometry approach, for systems where there is non-trivial a priori knowledge about the spacetime under study. The background three-geometry and associated connection are used to express the ADM evolution equations in terms of physical non-linear deviations from that background. Expressing the equations in first order form leads naturally to a system closely linked to the Einstein-Christoffel system, introduced by Anderson and York, and sharing its hyperbolicity properties. The background metric approach can drastically alter the source structure of the equations, and we present an argument as to why this is likely to be numerically advantageous.

  5. Backgrounds in AFP Detector Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yicong

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detectors aim to measure protons that are scattered in the ATLAS interaction point under very small angles ($90-160 \\mu rad$). The diffractive protons detected by the AFP may be accompanied by beam halo. This report presents an estimation of the beam halo backgrounds in the AFP using low pile-up data, and position distributions of the backgrounds in the AFP.

  6. Family Background, School Enrollments and Wastage: Evidence from Arab Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Qudsi, Sulayman S.

    2003-01-01

    Applying single and recursive bivariate probit models that utilize micro data sets of five countries, this paper examines the concatenation between school enrollments and family background. The empirical analysis captures considerable variations in the pattern of school enrollments and school wastage according to rural-urban locations and family…

  7. The SAGE handbook of human resource management.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, A; Bacon, N.; Redman, T.; Snell, S.

    2009-01-01

    The SAGE Handbook of Human Resource Management brings together contributions from leading international scholars in an influential collection that combines both global and interdisciplinary perspectives. An indispensable resource for advanced students and researchers in the field, the handbook focuses on familiarising the reader with the fundamentals of applied human resource management whilst contextualizing practice within wider theoretical considerations. Internationally minded chapte...

  8. Resources Available to Department Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, David M.; Bowker, Lee H.

    Resources available to department chairs from the following sources are described: the department's discipline; the national higher education community; the local institution; and the chair's own skills, background, roles, and structural placement within the organization. The use of these resources to deal with common problems faced by chairs is…

  9. Scleroderma - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - scleroderma ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scleroderma : American College of Rheumatology -- www.rheumatology.org/practice/clinical/patients/diseases_and_conditions/scleroderma.asp National Institute ...

  10. Alzheimer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - Alzheimer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on Alzheimer disease : Alzheimer's Association -- www.alz.org Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center -- www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers ...

  11. Cancer - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - cancer ... The following organizations are good resources for information on cancer : American Cancer Society -- www.cancer.org Cancer Care -- www.cancercare.org National Cancer Institute -- www.cancer.gov

  12. Psoriasis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - psoriasis ... The following organizations are good resources for information about psoriasis : American Academy of Dermatology -- www.aad.org/skin-conditions/dermatology-a-to-z/psoriasis National Institute of ...

  13. Alcoholism - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  14. Breastfeeding - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  15. Infertility - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - infertility ... The following organizations are good resources for information on infertility : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc/gov/reproductivehealth/infertility March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  16. Epilepsy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - epilepsy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on epilepsy : Epilepsy Foundation -- www.efa.org National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke -- www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/ ...

  17. Incontinence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - incontinence ... The following organizations are good resources for information on incontinence. Fecal incontinence : The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists -- www.acog.org/~/media/for%20patients/faq139.ashx ...

  18. ALS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  19. Scoliosis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - scoliosis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on scoliosis : American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00626 National Institute of Arthritis and ...

  20. Lupus - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - lupus ... The following organizations are good resources for information on systemic lupus erythematosus : The Lupus Foundation of America -- www.lupus.org The National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal ...

  1. Migraine - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - migraine ... The following organizations are good resources for information on migraines : American Migraine Foundation -- www.americanmigrainefoundation.org National Headache Foundation -- www.headaches.org National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  2. SIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - SIDS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on SIDS : American SIDS Institute -- www.sids.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/sids National ...

  3. Blindness - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - blindness ... The following organizations are good resources for information on blindness : American Foundation for the Blind -- www.afb.org Foundation Fighting Blindness -- www.blindness.org National Eye Institute -- ...

  4. Ostomy - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ostomy ... The following organizations are good resources for information on ostomies: American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons -- www.fascrs.org/patients/treatments-screening and www.fascrs.org/ ...

  5. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, J. G.; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J. F.; Christensen, F. E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J. A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R. M.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Jakobsen, A. C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J. K.

    2015-11-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10-6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10-7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as the strategies to further reduce the background level. Finally, we will describe the R&D paths to achieve sub-keV energy thresholds, which could broaden the physics case of axion helioscopes.

  6. Background Independent String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bars, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    We develop a new background independent Moyal star formalism in bosonic open string field theory. The new star product is formulated in a half-phase-space, and because phase space is independent of any background fields, the interactions are background independent. In this basis there is a large amount of symmetry, including a supersymmetry OSp(d|2) that acts on matter and ghost degrees of freedom, and simplifies computations. The BRST operator that defines the quadratic kinetic term of string field theory may be regarded as the solution of the equation of motion A*A=0 of a purely cubic background independent string field theory. We find an infinite number of non-perturbative solutions to this equation, and are able to associate them to the BRST operator of conformal field theories on the worldsheet. Thus, the background emerges from a spontaneous-type breaking of a purely cubic highly symmetric theory. The form of the BRST field breaks the symmetry in a tractable way such that the symmetry continues to be us...

  7. Ethical and Clinical Considerations at the Intersection of Functional Neuroimaging and Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byram, Adrian C; Lee, Grace; Owen, Adrian M; Ribary, Urs; Stoessl, A Jon; Townson, Andrea; Illes, Judy

    2016-10-01

    Recent neuroimaging research on disorders of consciousness provides direct evidence of covert consciousness otherwise not detected clinically in a subset of severely brain-injured patients. These findings have motivated strategic development of binary communication paradigms, from which researchers interpret voluntary modulations in brain activity to glean information about patients' residual cognitive functions and emotions. The discovery of such responsiveness raises ethical and legal issues concerning the exercise of autonomy and capacity for decisionmaking on matters such as healthcare, involvement in research, and end of life. These advances have generated demands for access to the technology against a complex background of continued scientific advancement, questions about just allocation of healthcare resources, and unresolved legal issues. Interviews with professionals whose work is relevant to patients with disorders of consciousness reveal priorities concerning further basic research, legal and policy issues, and clinical considerations. PMID:27634713

  8. Uranium Resources and Supply - Demand to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, Robert [Le Seine St. Germain, 12, boulevard des Iles, Issy-les-Moulineaux, 92130 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Recent fluctuations in the market price for uranium have resulted in more activity in this sector over the past few years than in the preceding 20 years. Amidst this background, uranium demand is increasing. Construction of nuclear reactors is proceeding in some countries, ambitious expansion plans have been announced in others and the development of nuclear power programs to meet electricity demand and minimize greenhouse emissions in a cost effective manner is under consideration in many others. This paper reviews projections of nuclear growth and uranium demand and assesses the challenges faced by the uranium mining sector in meeting rising demand. Since the mid-1960's, an international expert committee (the 'Uranium Group') formed by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency has published biennially comprehensive updates on global uranium resources, production and demand (the 'Red Book'). The most recent in this series, based on 2007 data and published in June 2008, includes a supply/demand projection to 2030. However, much has changed since the data were collected for this projection and an assessment of these changes and their impact on uranium production is included in this presentation. It is concluded that world identified uranium resources (5.45 million tU recoverable at costs up to US$130/kg U, or US$50/lb U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) are adequate to meet projected future high case nuclear power requirements. However, recent financial market turmoil and lower uranium prices, the opaque nature of the uranium market itself, increased regulatory requirements, a scarcity of the required specialized labour and the fluctuating costs of raw materials makes the process of turning uranium resources in the ground into yellowcake in the can increasingly more challenging, particularly for new entrants. Considerable investment and expertise will be required to bring about the substantial increase in mine production

  9. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  10. The isotropic radio background revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emi...

  11. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  12. Theoretical Considerations On Local Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Eduard Ionescu; Cristian Constantin Oprea

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of local budgets, or otherwise highlights the importance of these tools - local budgets, in the financial autonomy mechanism. Local communities know better than central authorities, their possibilities of obtaining financial resources and needs on expenses for providing local partner services. All these resources and needs are identified in local budgets.

  13. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  14. Regulatory Considerations in Toxicological Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathological assessment of the nervous system is included in several US Environmental Protection Agency [US EPA or Agency] and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] testing guidelines for health effects of chemicals. A variety of considerations are importan...

  15. Detector Background at Muon Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, N.V.; Striganov, S.I.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    Physics goals of a Muon Collider (MC) can only be reached with appropriate design of the ring, interaction region (IR), high-field superconducting magnets, machine-detector interface (MDI) and detector. Results of the most recent realistic simulation studies are presented for a 1.5-TeV MC. It is shown that appropriately designed IR and MDI with sophisticated shielding in the detector have a potential to substantially suppress the background rates in the MC detector. The main characteristics of backgrounds are studied.

  16. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  17. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  18. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  19. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  20. Exotic branes and nongeometric backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Shigemori, Masaki

    2010-06-25

    When string or M theory is compactified to lower dimensions, the U-duality symmetry predicts so-called exotic branes whose higher-dimensional origin cannot be explained by the standard string or M-theory branes. We argue that exotic branes can be understood in higher dimensions as nongeometric backgrounds or U folds, and that they are important for the physics of systems which originally contain no exotic charges, since the supertube effect generically produces such exotic charges. We discuss the implications of exotic backgrounds for black hole microstate (non-)geometries. PMID:20867363

  1. Considerable Life Extension versus Immortality

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Rantanen

    2012-01-01

    The ethical desirability of considerable life extension by medical technology has become an increasingly discussed topic in bioethics during recent years. Immortality can be seen as a maximum of life extension. Because of this, many authors use the term 'immortality' for referring to a lifespan that is considerably longer than our current one. However, being literally immortal would be very different from living for hundreds, or even thousands, of years. The arguments that have been made abou...

  2. NUTRITION CONSIDERATIONS IN FOOD SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.; McWatters, Kay H.

    2000-01-01

    The importance of nutrition consideration to households in food selection is instrumental in the development of information programs to promote public health and to market healthy food. Using a national telephone survey of 2880 U.S. households, this study examines the role and influence of socio-economic characteristics and lifestyle on a household meal plannerÂ’s consideration of four dietary components in food selection. Household income, children in households, geographic location, and gen...

  3. Fire protection design considerations for waste-to-energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews design considerations required for fire prevention and suppression in resource recovery facilities using the mass burn technology. Potential hazards found in various areas are reviewed and the appropriate level of protection identified. Precautions and operating procedures required to minimize fires are also discussed

  4. No 2902. Proposal of law dealing with the durable management of forest resources in the consideration of the fight against greenhouse effect; No 2902 proposition de loi portant sur la prise en compte de la lutte contre l'effet de serre par la gestion durable des ressources forestieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This proposal of law aims at implementing viable financial incentive systems for the improvement of forests management resources in France. The easily available but still unemployed wood fuel resource represents today about 10 million tons. (J.S.)

  5. Information Technology Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is being published as a companion document to the Department of Energy (DOE) FY 1994--FY 1998 Information Resources Management Long-Range Plan. This document represents a collaborative effort between the Office of Information Resources Management and the Office of Energy Research that was undertaken to achieve, in part, the Technology Strategic Objective of IRM Vision 21. An integral part of this objective, technology forecasting provides an understanding of the information technology horizon and presents a perspective and focus on technologies of particular interest to DOE program activities. Specifically, this document provides site planners with an overview of the status and use of new information technology for their planning consideration.

  6. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly

  7. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  8. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.;

    2014-01-01

    to background levels below 10−6 counts/keV/cm2/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10−7 counts/keV/cm2/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO...

  9. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J G; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  10. CT detector evaluation with complex random backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Helen; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2012-02-01

    Modern computed tomography (CT) uses detector arrays consisting of large numbers of photodiodes with scintil- lator crystals. The number of pixels in the array can play an important role in system performance. Considerable research has been performed on signal detection in flat backgrounds under various conditions, but little has been done with complex, random backgrounds in CT; our work investigates in particular the effect of the number of detector elements on signal detection by a channelized Hotelling observer in a complex background. For this project, a simulated three-dimensional phantom is generated with its attenuation equal to that of water. The phantom contains a smaller central section with random variations to simulate random anatomical structures. Cone-beam projections of the phantom are acquired at different angles and used to calculate the covariance matrix of the raw projection data. Laguerre-Gauss channels are used to reduce the dimensionality of each 2D projection and hence the size of the covariance matrix, but the covariance is still a function of two projection angles. A strong cross-channel correlation is observed as a function of the difference between the angles. A signal with known location and size is used, and the performance of the observer is calculated from the channel outputs at multiple projection angles. A contrast-detail diagram is computed for different variables such as signal size, number of incident x-ray photons, pixel size, etc. At a fixed observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the contrast required to detect a signal increases dramatically as the signal size decreases.

  11. Robust kernel-based tracking algorithm with background contrasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongli Liu; Zhongliang Jing

    2012-01-01

    The mean-shift algorithm has achieved considerable success in object tracking due to its simplicity and efficiency. Color histogram is a common feature in the description of an object. However, the kernel-based color histogram may not have the ability to discriminate the object from clutter background. To boost the discriminating ability of the feature, based on background contrasting, this letter presents an improved Bhattacharyya similarity metric for mean-shift tracking. Experiments show that the proposed tracker is more robust in relation to background clutter.%The mean-shift algorithm has achieved considerable success in object tracking due to its simplicity and efficiency.Color histogram is a common feature in the description of an object.However,the kernel-based color histogram may not have the ability to discriminate the object from clutter background.To boost the discriminating ability of the feature,based on background contrasting,this letter presents an improved Bhattacharyya similarity metric for mean-shift tracking.Experiments show that the proposed tracker is more robust in relation to background clutter.

  12. The Interaction of Local Context and Cultural Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Holmqvist, Emma; Dhalman, Hanna;

    2015-01-01

    Immigrants' housing position is often explained by (lack of) resources or differences in cultural backgrounds. Recent studies have included the importance of local context. The aim of this paper is to examine Somalis' perceptions of their possibilities in four Nordic capitals' housing markets...... and sometimes conflict with each other, but that the negotiation between cultural background and local context was individual. The conclusion is that local context and cultural background are important factors for understanding differences between Somalis on different housing markets, thus emphasising......: Copenhagen, Helsinki, Oslo and Stockholm. The approach is an interview study based on immigrants' own explanations of what they strive for and how they assess the impact of local conditions and cultural background for their possibilities. We found that local context and cultural background intertwine...

  13. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    . Over the recent decades, DTU Environment has worked extensively both with resource recovery technologies and life cycle assessment (LCA) models (www.EASETECH.dk) dedicated to evaluating resource management and recovery systems. Advanced sustainability assessments of resource recovery and utilization...... resources, i.e. security of supply, but also the need for efficient recovery of the same resources after the use-phase of the products. While this recovery may appear simple, considerable challenges exist. Management and recovery of resources in waste materials, or in general residual streams in society...... have been carried out e.g. in relation to household and industrial waste systems, biomass residues from agriculture and forestry, energy producing technologies as well as entire energy systems. The presentation provides an introduction to key challenges in relation to sustainability assessment...

  14. Climate Impacts on Northern Canada: Regional Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowse, Terry D.; Peters, Daniel L. (Water and Climate Impacts Research Centre, Environment Canada, Dept. of Geography, Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)). e-mail: terry.prowse@ec.gc.caa; Furgal, Chris (Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada)); Bonsal, Barrie R. (National Water Research Inst., National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    2009-07-15

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 deg C in the south to as low as -20 deg C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be >700 mm y-1 in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y-1 over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  15. Uranium resource assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this investigation is to examine what is generally known about uranium resources, what is subject to conjecture, how well do the explorers themselves understand the occurrence of uranium, and who are the various participants in the exploration process. From this we hope to reach a better understanding of the quality of uranium resource estimates as well as the nature of the exploration process. The underlying questions will remain unanswered. But given an inability to estimate precisely our uranium resources, how much do we really need to know. To answer this latter question, the various Department of Energy needs for uranium resource estimates are examined. This allows consideration of whether or not given the absence of more complete long-term supply data and the associated problems of uranium deliverability for the electric utility industry, we are now threatened with nuclear power plants eventually standing idle due to an unanticipated lack of fuel for their reactors. Obviously this is of some consequence to the government and energy consuming public. The report is organized into four parts. Section I evaluates the uranium resource data base and the various methodologies of resource assessment. Part II describes the manner in which a private company goes about exploring for uranium and the nature of its internal need for resource information. Part III examines the structure of the industry for the purpose of determining the character of the industry with respect to resource development. Part IV arrives at conclusions about the emerging pattern of industrial behavior with respect to uranium supply and the implications this has for coping with national energy issues

  16. The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background

    CERN Document Server

    Beacom, John F

    2010-01-01

    The Diffuse Supernova Neutrino Background (DSNB) is the weak glow of MeV neutrinos and antineutrinos from distant core-collapse supernovae. The DSNB has not been detected yet, but the Super-Kamiokande (SK) 2003 upper limit on the electron antineutrino flux is close to predictions, now quite precise, based on astrophysical data. If SK is modified with dissolved gadolinium to reduce detector backgrounds and increase the energy range for analysis, then it should detect the DSNB at a rate of a few events per year, providing a new probe of supernova neutrino emission and the cosmic core-collapse rate. If the DSNB is not detected, then new physics will be required. Neutrino astronomy, while uniquely powerful, has proven extremely difficult -- only the Sun and the nearby Supernova 1987A have been detected to date -- so the promise of detecting new sources soon is exciting indeed.

  17. Stealths on Anisotropic Holographic Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Juárez-Aubry, María Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in exploring the existence of stealth configurations on anisotropic backgrounds playing a prominent role in the non-relativistic version of the gauge/gravity correspondence. By stealth configuration, we mean a nontrivial scalar field nonminimally coupled to gravity whose energy-momentum tensor evaluated on the anisotropic background vanishes identically. In the case of a Lifshitz spacetime with a nontrivial dynamical exponent z, we spotlight the role played by the anisotropy to establish the holographic character of the stealth configurations, i.e. the scalar field is shown to only depend on the radial holographic direction. This configuration which turns out to be massless and without integration constants is possible for a unique value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Then, using a simple conformal argument, we map this configuration into a stealth solution defined on the so-called hyperscaling violation metric which is conformally related to the Lifshitz spacetime. Thi...

  18. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  19. Stochastic background of gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    D'Araújo, J C N; Aguiar, O D

    2000-01-01

    A continuous stochastic background of gravitational waves (GWs) for burst sources is produced if the mean time interval between the occurrence of bursts is smaller than the average time duration of a single burst at the emission, i.e., the so called duty cycle must be greater than one. To evaluate the background of GWs produced by an ensemble of sources, during their formation, for example, one needs to know the average energy flux emitted during the formation of a single object and the formation rate of such objects as well. In many cases the energy flux emitted during an event of production of GWs is not known in detail, only characteristic values for the dimensionless amplitude and frequencies are known. Here we present a shortcut to calculate stochastic backgrounds of GWs produced from cosmological sources. For this approach it is not necessary to know in detail the energy flux emitted at each frequency. Knowing the characteristic values for the ``lumped'' dimensionless amplitude and frequency we show tha...

  20. Background independence in a background dependent renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Peter; Morris, Tim R.; Slade, Zöe H.

    2016-07-01

    Within the derivative expansion of conformally reduced gravity, the modified split Ward identities are shown to be compatible with the flow equations if and only if either the anomalous dimension vanishes or the cutoff profile is chosen to have a power-law form. No solutions exist if the Ward identities are incompatible. In the compatible case, a clear reason is found for why Ward identities can still forbid the existence of fixed points; however, for any cutoff profile, a background independent (and parametrization independent) flow equation is uncovered. Finally, expanding in vertices, the combined equations are shown generically to become either overconstrained or highly redundant beyond the six-point level.

  1. Three essays on resource economics. Demand systems for energy forecasting: Practical considerations for estimating a generalized logit model, To borrow or not to borrow: A variation on the MacDougal-Kemp theme, and, Valuing reduced risk for households with children or the retired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Weifeng

    This thesis presents papers on three areas of study within resource and environmental economics. "Demand Systems For Energy Forecasting" provides some practical considerations for estimating a Generalized Logit model. The main reason for using this demand system for energy and other factors is that the derived price elasticities are robust when expenditure shares are small. The primary objective of the paper is to determine the best form of the cross-price weights, and a simple inverse function of the expenditure share is selected. A second objective is to demonstrate that the estimated elasticities are sensitive to the units specified for the prices, and to show how price scales can be estimated as part of the model. "To Borrow or Not to Borrow: A Variation on the MacDougal-Kemp Theme" studies the impact of international capital movements on the conditional convergence of economies differing from each other only in initial wealth. We found that in assets, income, consumption and utility, convergence obtains, with and only with, the absence of international capital movement. When a rich country invests in a poor country, the balance of debt increases forever. Asset ownership is increased in all periods for the lender, and asset ownership of the borrower is deceased. Also, capital investment decreases the lender's utility for early periods, but increases it forever after a cross-over point. In contrast, the borrower's utility increases for early periods, but then decreases forever. "Valuing Reduced Risk for Households with Children or the Retired" presents a theoretical model of how families value risk and then exams family automobile purchases to impute the average Value of a Statistical Life (VSL) for each type of family. Data for fatal accidents are used to estimate survival rates for individuals in different types of accidents, and the probabilities of having accidents for different types of vehicle. These models are used to determine standardized risks for

  2. Incentive Compatible Extraction of Natural Resource Rent

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Luchsinger; Adrian Müller

    2003-01-01

    The exploitation of natural resources often generates considerable economic rent. Since such so-called resource rents accrue due to innate characteristics of the resource itself thus reflecting its eco-nomic value and not due to managerial abilities of the exploiting firm, at least part of it should - as a price for the use of the resource – be collected by the owner of the resource, which is often the gov-ernment. As the owner of the resource faces a classical principal-agent problem, the in...

  3. Implicit equity considerations in radiation protection standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maturity of the practice of protecting against radiation provides a vehicle for testing both the definition of implied preference and the usefulness of any quantitative results. The author reviews the 50-year background and the rationale for imposing radiation standards. He analyzes the procedure for making quantitative risk estimates and their use to determine implied risk preference for occupational, individual, and population exposure. Equity did not emerge as a consideration in the early days when the threshold concept dominated, but did become an issue when different standards were set for workers and members of the general public; i.e., for voluntary/involuntary exposure. Intergeneration inequities have only recently become a critical issue. They arise because radioactive wastes have no productive value, but the strategic weapons program has assured some degree of social continuity. 19 references, 7 tables

  4. Mineral resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.L.C.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Worrell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The extractable ores of the world's geologically scarcest mineral resources (e.g. antimony, molybdenum and zinc) may be exhausted within several decades to a century, if their extraction continues to increase. This paper explores the likelihood that these scarce mineral resources can be conserved

  5. Considerations on Writing Test Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣

    2005-01-01

    Writing test , wins its popularity in measuring the mastery of one's language ability. In view of the significant role writing playing in a test , some considerations on writing test construction are presented in this paper which anticipates the effective ways for measuring one's complex language ability of application.

  6. [Toothache with a neuropathic background].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchaturian, V; de Wijer, A; Kalaykova, S I; Steenks, M H

    2015-03-01

    A 48-year old woman in good general health was referred to the orofacial pain clinic in a centre for special dentistry with a toothache in the premolar region of the left maxillary quadrant. The complaints had existed for 15 years and various dental treatments, including endodontic treatments, apical surgery, extraction and splint therapy, had not helped to alleviate the complaints. As a result of the fact that anti-epileptic drugs were able to reduce the pain it was concluded that this 'toothache' satisfied the criteria of an atypical odontalgia: 'toothache' with a neuropathic background. PMID:26181392

  7. Breast cancer - background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summary is to provide the reader with a brief overview of the key concepts relating to epidemiology and etiology; clinical presentation and patterns of spread; Canadian guidelines for management; prognosis; and current Canadian screening recommendations in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. This information will enable the reader to have the appropriate background knowledge before delving into the subsequent articles in this special CJMRT breast cancer edition. A variety of references have been provided for readers who are interested in more than a skeleton version of the current literature. (author)

  8. Nature of the Background Ultraviolet Radiation Field at High Redshifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archana Samantaray; Pushpa Khare

    2000-06-01

    We have tried to determine the flux of the ultraviolet background radiation field from the column density ratios of various ions in several absorption systems observed in the spectra of QSOs. We find that in most cases the flux is considerably higher than what has been estimated to be contributed by the AGNs. The excess flux could originate locally in hot stars. In a few cases we have been able to show that such galactic flux can only contribute a part of the total required flux. The results suggest that the background gets a significant contribution from an unseen QSO population.

  9. [Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Anisotropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    One of the main areas of research is the theory of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and analysis of CMB data. Using the four year COBE data we were able to improve existing constraints on global shear and vorticity. We found that, in the flat case (which allows for greatest anisotropy), (omega/H)0 less than 10-7, where omega is the vorticity and H is the Hubble constant. This is two orders of magnitude lower than the tightest, previous constraint. We have defined a new set of statistics which quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity in small field cosmic microwave background maps. By looking at the distribution of power around rings in Fourier space, and at the correlations between adjacent rings, one can identify non-Gaussian features which are masked by large scale Gaussian fluctuations. This may be particularly useful for identifying unresolved localized sources and line-like discontinuities. Levin and collaborators devised a method to determine the global geometry of the universe through observations of patterns in the hot and cold spots of the CMB. We have derived properties of the peaks (maxima) of the CMB anisotropies expected in flat and open CDM models. We represent results for angular resolutions ranging from 5 arcmin to 20 arcmin (antenna FWHM), scales that are relevant for the MAP and COBRA/SAMBA space missions and the ground-based interferometer. Results related to galaxy formation and evolution are also discussed.

  10. Gamma background irradiation. Standards and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic deviation of the results of measuring the power of air dose absorbed from the natural gamma background radiation in Bulgaria is inadmissibly large and variable. This in turn augments the dispersion of results as well as the mean value relative to worldwide data, to an implausible level, hardly attributable to the variegated geographical relief of the country. Thus in practice local anthropogenic increases hardly lend themselves to detection and demonstration. In the Radiation Protection Standards (RPS-92) in effect in Bulgaria, and in other documents concerning the same radiation factors as well, the maximum allowable limits for the population as a whole are clearly specified on the basis of worldwide expertise along this line. As a rule these limits are being exceeded by the actually measured values, and for this reason the cited documents contain a clause stipulating that these limits do not refer to the natural radiation background and therefore the latter may be virtually ignored. Thus the basic risk factor for the population goes beyond control at levels commensurable with the officially established limits, its twofold increase inclusive. The maximum allowable limit becomes undefinable. Bearing in mind the fact that in compliance with the cited RPS-92 elimination of the technogenic ionizing radiation sources incorporated in the environment prior to 1992 is 'freezed', it is evident that exposure of the population to anthropogenic radiation becomes legally allowable in a much wider range than the one specified by world legislators. One may anticipate radiation induced health noxae for the population directly or by anthropogenic radiation stress on biocenosis. A relatively large part of the population is susceptible to the effect of low radiation doses. Presumably this contingent will augment as a result of eventual fluctuations. The casual relationship which is difficult to establish should be given due consideration in the analysis of the causes

  11. Outcomes Focussed Management in New Zealand - A Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Ussher; Andrew Kibblewhite

    2001-01-01

    "Outcomes" can be broadly defined as the results of Government interventions. Considerable effort, both in New Zealand and overseas, is focussing on ways in which information on outcomes can be better integrated into public policy decision-making. This paper outlines the environment for outcomes focussed management in New Zealand and discusses some innovative examples of the use of outcomes in public management. It provides a background for further work focussed on integrating the use of outc...

  12. Mineral Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Jordan’s natural resources are very limited: water is scarce, there is little arable land and the country has few sources of energy (fig. I.11). Jordan’s mineral industry has a long history: flint was used in prehistoric times and early copper mining started in Wadi Faynan during the Chalcolithic Period. The following is a brief presentation of Jordan’s resources. Mining and investments will be studied in Part 3. Figure I.11 — Jordan Mineral Resources. NRA 2012 Phosphates The Jordanian Natur...

  13. Background paper on aquaculture research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto;

    80 million tonnes accounting for close to 50 % of all aquatic food destined for the global human consumption. The Swedish aquaculture production currently includes about 11,000 tonnes rainbow trout in FW and SW, 1,100 tonnes arctic char (FW), 90 tonnes eel (FW), 1,500 tonnes mussels (SW) and a few...... platform for cooperation on research and education, exchange and transfer of knowledge from research to aquaculture practice. Further, integration of biological and technological research combined with education and training of skilled professionals as well as authority staff dealing with aquaculture...... due to the availability of vast water resources of good quality (both marine and fresh water), a high veterinary status and generally well developed public infrastructure. Swedish aquaculture has the potential to develop into a green business producing environmentally sustainable healthy food with low...

  14. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... land use, water quality, geology, biological and cultural resources, human health and safety... facilitate sound planning and consideration of environmental resources, the NPS intends to gather information... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave...

  15. Low background aspects of GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment operates bare Germanium diodes enriched in 76Ge in an environment of pure liquid argon to search for neutrinoless double beta decay. A very low radioactive background is essential for the success of the experiment. We present here the research done in order to remove radio-impurities coming from the liquid argon, the stainless steel cryostat and the front-end electronics. We found that liquid argon can be purified efficiently from 222Rn. The main source of 222Rn in GERDA is the cryostat which emanates about 55 mBq. A thin copper shroud in the center of the cryostat was implemented to prevent radon from approaching the diodes. Gamma ray screening of radio-pure components for front-end electronics resulted in the development of a pre-amplifier with a total activity of less than 1 mBq 228Th.

  16. Polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzelli, Alessandro; de Gasperis, Giancarlo; Vittorio, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In this work we present an extension of the ROMA map-making code for data analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background polarization, with particular attention given to the inflationary polarization B-modes. The new algorithm takes into account a possible cross-correlated noise component among the different detectors of a CMB experiment. We tested the code on the observational data of the BOOMERanG (2003) experiment and we show that we are provided with a better estimate of the power spectra, in particular the error bars of the BB spectrum are smaller up to 20% for low multipoles. We point out the general validity of the new method. A possible future application is the LSPE balloon experiment, devoted to the observation of polarization at large angular scales.

  17. The Cosmic Background Imager 2

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Angela C; Allison, James R; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bond, J Richard; Bronfman, Leonardo; Bustos, Ricardo; Davis, Richard J; Dickinson, Clive; Leech, Jamie; Mason, Brian S; Myers, Steven T; Pearson, Timothy J; Readhead, Anthony C S; Reeves, Rodrigo; Shepherd, Martin C; Sievers, Jonathan L

    2011-01-01

    We describe an upgrade to the Cosmic Background Imager instrument to increase its surface brightness sensitivity at small angular scales. The upgrade consisted of replacing the thirteen 0.9-m antennas with 1.4-m antennas incorporating a novel combination of design features, which provided excellent sidelobe and spillover performance for low manufacturing cost. Off-the-shelf spun primaries were used, and the secondary mirrors were oversized and shaped relative to a standard Cassegrain in order to provide an optimum compromise between aperture efficiency and low spillover lobes. Low-order distortions in the primary mirrors were compensated for by custom machining of the secondary mirrors. The secondaries were supported on a transparent dielectric foam cone to minimize scattering. The antennas were tested in the complete instrument, and the beam shape and spillover noise contributions were as expected. We demonstrate the performance of the telescope and the inter-calibration with the previous system using observ...

  18. Recognizing foreground-background interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jeffrey; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Can the background affect a foreground target in distant, low-quality imagery? If it does, it might occur in our mind, or perhaps it may represent a snapshot of our early vision. An affirmative answer, one way or another, may affect our current understanding of this phenomena and potentially for related applications. How can we be sure about this in the psycho-physical sense? We begin with the physiology of our brain's homeostasis, of which an isothermal equilibrium is characterized by the minimum of Helmholtz isothermal Free Energy: A = U - T0S >= 0, where T0 = 37°C, the Boltzmann Entropy S = KB1n(W), and U is the unknown internal energy to be computed.

  19. Gauging the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a new derivation of the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and find an exact expression that can be readily expanded perturbatively. Close attention is paid to gauge issues, with the motivation to examine the effect of super-Hubble modes on the CMB. We calculate a transfer function that encodes the behavior of the dipole, and examine its long-wavelength behavior. We show that contributions to the dipole from adiabatic super-Hubble modes are strongly suppressed, even in the presence of a cosmological constant, contrary to claims in the literature. We also introduce a naturally defined CMB monopole, which exhibits closely analogous long-wavelength behavior. We discuss the geometrical origin of this super-Hubble suppression, pointing out that it is a simple reflection of adiabaticity, and hence argue that it will occur regardless of the matter content.

  20. General B factory design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the general considerations that go into the design of an asymmetric B factory collider. Justification is given for the typical parameters of such a facility, and the physics and technology challenges that arise from these parameter choices are discussed. Cost and schedule issues for a B factory are discussed briefly. A summary of existing proposals is presented, noting their similarities and differences. (orig.)

  1. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  2. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  3. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  4. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    to the source, supply rate, sediment type and seabed topography. Indian Ocean is second largest and least explored for nonrenewable resources. Compared to deep-sea, relatively better knowledge is available for the near shore deposits. A concise account...

  5. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  6. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  7. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  8. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  9. Mars resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  10. Review - Water resources development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past 15 years the possibilities of employing nuclear explosives to develop and manage water resources for the benefit of man have been studied, Experimental and theoretical studies of many types have been undertaken. Numerous applications have been considered including site studies for particular projects. Attention has been given to the economics of specific applications, to hazards and safety problems, to legal limitations, to geologic and hydrologic considerations, and to effects on water quality. The net result of this effort has been the development of a large body of knowledge ready to be drawn upon wherever and whenever needed. Nuclear explosives are important tools for water resources development; they must be carefully selected so as to serve their intended purpose at minimum cost with few side effects. (author)

  11. Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    different time scales, so no single background source closely resembles any search template. We also briefly discuss other types of LISA searches where the non-Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds could perhaps have a much greater impact on search reliability and efficacy

  12. 现代社会下高校体育资源需求心理对教学改革原创作用的研究%The creative role of psychological demand of sports resources on collegiate education reform under the background of modern society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞

    2015-01-01

    This paper is to explore the influence and guide effect of the undergraduates′psychological demand of sports resources on the education reform under the development of modern society. Re-search shows that at the present stage,the sports resources that can be used in college sports educa-tion include sports curriculum resources,sports technology resources and sports brand resources. College students′psychological needs on sports resources can be divided into two types:interest need and comparing need. The interest need focuses on the factors that consist of sports curriculum re-sources while the comparing need on the sports brand resources. Hereby,it is proposed a″four dos and four don′ts″ plan for future college sports education reform.%探索当代社会发展的情况下,大学生高校体育资源的需求心理对教学改革的影响与引导,研究表明,现阶段可用于大学体育教育的高校体育资源包含体育课程资源、体育科技资源、体育品牌资源三个种类;大学生对高校体育资源的心理需求可分为兴趣需要和攀比需要两个类别;大学生对高校体育资源的兴趣需要优势集合在体育课程资源的构成因素上,而他们的攀比需要优势则集合在体育品牌资源的构成因素上;据此研究者提出了未来大学体育教育应作“四有四无”的改革。

  13. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  14. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  15. Mining and sustainable development: Considerations for minerals supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable development involves meeting the needs of human societies while maintaining viable biological and physical Earth systems. The needs include minerals: metals, fuels, industrial and construction materials. There will continue to be considerable demand for virgin mineral resources, even if levels of recycling and efficiency of use are optimal, and rates of population growth and globalisation decrease significantly. This article aims to stimulate debate on strategic issues for minerals supply. While the world has considerable stocks of mineral resources overall, international considerations of the environmental and social aspects of sustainable development are beginning to result in limitations on where mining will be conducted and what types of deposits will be mined. Current and emerging trends favour large mines in parts of the world where mining can be conducted within acceptable limits of environmental and social impact. Finding new deposits that meet such criteria will be all the more challenging given a disturbing global decline in the rate of discovery of major economic resources over the last decade, and the decreasing land area available for exploration and mining. To attract responsible exploration and mining, governments and mining nations will need to provide: regional-scale geo-scientific datasets as required to attract and guide future generations of exploration; resource access through multiple and sequential land use regimes, and frameworks for dealing with indigenous peoples' issues; and arrangements for consideration of mining proposals and regulation of mines that ensure responsible management of environmental and social issues. The minerals industry will need to continue to pursue advances in technologies for exploration, mining, processing, waste management and rehabilitation, and in public reporting of environmental and social performance. (author)

  16. Circuit considerations for repetitive railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honih, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Railgun electromagnetic launchers have significant military and scientific potential. They provide direct conversion of electrical energy to projectile kinetic energy, and they offer the hope of achieving projectile velocities greatly exceeding the limits of conventional guns. With over 10 km/sec already demonstrated, railguns are attracting attention for tactical and strategic weapons systems and for scientific equation-of-state research. The full utilization of railguns will require significant improvements in every aspect of system design - projectile, barrel, and power source - to achieve operation on a large scale. This paper will review fundamental aspects of railguns, with emphasis on circuit considerations and repetitive operation.

  17. Managing Human Resource Learning for Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    Managing human resource learning for innovation develops a systemic understanding of building innovative capabilities. Building innovative capabilities require active creation, coordination and absorption of useful knowledge and thus a cohesive management approach to learning. Often learning...... in organizations and work is approached without considerations on how to integrate it in the management of human resources. The book investigates the empirical conditions for managing human resources learning for innovation. With focus on innovative performance the importance of modes of innovation, clues...

  18. Scientific background of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the proposed project is the development of radioimmunometric assay(s) for the determination of free and total PSA in serum samples from normal and pathological individuals (BPH, PCa). This will be achieved by: A. Selection of appropriate antibody pairs (capture and labelled antibody) for determination of total PSA (free and complex) and for determination of free PSA. From bibliography we have already spotted some antibody pairs. B. Radiolabelling of antibodies. Several labelling and purification procedures will be followed in order to obtain the required analytical sensitivity and dynamic range of the assays. Special attention will be given to the affinity constant as well as to the stability of the radiolabelled molecules. C. Development of protocols for immobilisation of capture antibodies. We will use several solid support formats (plastic tubes, beads and magnetizable particles). Direct adsorption or covalent binding will be used. Immunoadsorption through immobilised second antibody will be also tested in order to decrease the preparation cost of the solid phase reagents. D. Preparation of standards of suitable purity levels. We will test different PSA-free matrices (Bovine serum, buffer solutions etc.) in order to select the most appropriate among them in terms of low background determination and low reagents cost. E. Optimisation of the immunoassays conditions for the free PSA and total PSA (e.g. assay buffers, incubation time, temperature, one or two step procedure, washings). F. Optimisation and standardisation of assay protocols for kit production. G. Production of kits for distribution in clinical laboratories in Greece for comparison with commercial kits. H. Evaluation of the developed assays in real clinical conditions using well characterised human serum samples. This will be performed in co-operation with the Hellenic Society for Tumor Markers, and other anticancer institutions and hospital clinicians of long standing relation

  19. Cosmic Microwave Background Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paykari, Paniez; Starck, Jean-Luc Starck

    2012-03-01

    About 400,000 years after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to about a few thousand degrees. As a result, the previously free electrons and protons combined and the Universe became neutral. This released a radiation which we now observe as the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The tiny fluctuations* in the temperature and polarization of the CMB carry a wealth of cosmological information. These so-called temperature anisotropies were predicted as the imprints of the initial density perturbations which gave rise to the present large-scale structures such as galaxies and clusters of galaxies. This relation between the present-day Universe and its initial conditions has made the CMB radiation one of the most preferred tools to understand the history of the Universe. The CMB radiation was discovered by radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in 1965 [72] and earned them the 1978 Nobel Prize. This discovery was in support of the Big Bang theory and ruled out the only other available theory at that time - the steady-state theory. The crucial observations of the CMB radiation were made by the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite [86]- orbited in 1989-1996. COBE made the most accurate measurements of the CMB frequency spectrum and confirmed it as being a black-body to within experimental limits. This made the CMB spectrum the most precisely measured black-body spectrum in nature. The CMB has a thermal black-body spectrum at a temperature of 2.725 K: the spectrum peaks in the microwave range frequency of 160.2 GHz, corresponding to a 1.9mmwavelength. The results of COBE inspired a series of ground- and balloon-based experiments, which measured CMB anisotropies on smaller scales over the next decade. During the 1990s, the first acoustic peak of the CMB power spectrum (see Figure 5.1) was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment [26] reported

  20. Transboundary diagnostic analysis. Vol. 2. Background and environmental assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Transboundary Diagnosis Analysis(TDA) quantifies and ranks water-related environmental transboundary issues and their causes according to the severity of environmental and/or socio-economic impacts. The three main issues in BOBLME are; overexploitation of marine living resources; degradation of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses; pollution and water quality. Volume 2 contains background material that sets out the bio-physical and socio-economic characteristics of the BOBLME; an analysi...

  1. 矿产资源与环境遥感本底数据库的设计与建设%The design and implementation of remote sensing image background database for mineral resources based on Oracle and SuperMap SDX+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建平; 张立福; 朱文君

    2011-01-01

    In order to organize and manage large volumes of remote sensing data more effectively, the authors have made an all-round study of the present style in organization and management of image data. The functional requirement was analyzed for remote sensing image background database. The database system was divided into four major functional modules, i.e., the import and upload module, the query and search module, the export and download module and the manage module. The distributed three-tier C\\S structure was adopted as the system structure. The metadata information which can meet the needs of search and query was chosen. The database table was designed for the storage of data. The SuperMap SDX+ spatial database engine was employed in this study. The pyramid technology and spatial index technology were utilized, which constituted vital technologies in this study. The building of the pyramid will benefit the quick view of the image. The creation of the spatial index can help query image more efficiently. Oracle database was used as the database platform, and C#2.0 was used as the development language. The SuperMap Objects component geographic information system was utilized for the development of platform, the database was accessed by Supermap SDX+ spatial database engine which was built in SuperMap Objects, and the remote sensing image database system was developed and implemented for mineral resources. The system automatically creates the pyramid and the default space index for image data when the data are imported into database. The database system supports massive, multi-source data management and multi-scale query. It can realize many functions, such as checking of data types and data integrity, import of different data types, data queried by data sources, data acquisition time, image name or latitude and longitude, export and download of the needed images, quick image browse, user management, data security management, database maintenance and data update.%为

  2. Orthodontic treatment considerations in Down syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sianiwati Goenharto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Down syndrome is an easily recognized congenital disease anomaly, a common autosomal chromosomal anomaly with high prevalence of malocclusion. Orthodontic treatment demand should be high but it seems difficult to be done because of specific condition of disability. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review was to discribe the orthodontic problems found in Down syndrome patients and several consideration that shoud be done to treat them. Reviews: Many studies report the high prevalence of malocclusion among people with Down syndrome. There is a greater frequency of clas III relationship, crossbite, crowding and also open bite. Several problems might appear in the treatment because of dental, medical, mental, and behavioural factor. Conclusion: It is concluded that orthodonic treatment can be performed in Down syndrome patient, although several difficulties may appear. Good consideration in mental, behavior, medical and also dental condition will influence whether the treatment will success or not. Special care and facilities will support the orthodontic treatment.Latar belakang: Sindroma Down adalah suatu kelainan congenital yang mudah dikenali, merupakan kelaian kromosom autosomal yang cukup banyak terjadi, dengan prevalensi maloklusi cukup tinggi. Seharusnya permintaan akan perawatan ortodonti juga tinggi meskipun tampaknya sulit dilakukan karena adanya kondisi ketidakmampuan/cacat yang spesifik. Tujuan: Tujuan studi pustaka ini adalah untuk menggambarkan problem perawatan ortodonti pada penderita sindroma Down dan pertimbangan apa yang sebaiknya diambil untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut. Tinjauan pustaka: Banyak penelitian melaporkan tentang prevalensi maloklusi yang tinggi pada penderita sindroma Down. Maloklusi yang sering dijumpai adalah relasi klas III, gigitan silang, berdesakan dan juga gigitan terbuka. Problem dapat terjadi saat perawatan ortodonti karena adanya faktor dental, medis, mental dan tingkah laku penderita

  3. 30 CFR 285.204 - What areas are available for leasing consideration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What areas are available for leasing consideration? 285.204 Section 285.204 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... OCS Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.204 What areas are available for...

  4. One and done? Equality of opportunity and repeated access to scarce, indivisible medical resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huesch Marco D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Existing ethical guidelines recommend that, all else equal, past receipt of a medical resource (e.g. a scarce organ should not be considered in current allocation decisions (e.g. a repeat transplantation. Discussion One stated reason for this ethical consensus is that formal theories of ethics and justice do not persuasively accept or reject repeated access to the same medical resources. Another is that restricting attention to past receipt of a particular medical resource seems arbitrary: why couldn’t one just as well, it is argued, consider receipt of other goods such as income or education? In consequence, simple allocation by lottery or first-come-first-served without consideration of any past receipt is thought to best afford equal opportunity, conditional on equal medical need. There are three issues with this view that need to be addressed. First, public views and patient preferences are less ambiguous than formal theories of ethics. Empirical work shows strong preferences for fairness in health care that have not been taken into account: repeated access to resources has been perceived as unfair. Second, while difficult to consider receipt of many other prior resources including non-medical resources, this should not be used a motive for ignoring the receipt of any and all goods including the focal resource in question. Third, when all claimants to a scarce resource are equally deserving, then use of random allocation seems warranted. However, the converse is not true: mere use of a randomizer does not by itself make the merits of all claimants equal. Summary My conclusion is that not ignoring prior receipt of the same medical resource, and prioritizing those who have not previously had access to the medical resource in question, may be perceived as fairer and more equitable by society.

  5. Lithium reserves and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of accelerating research efforts in the fields of secondary batteries and thermonuclear power generation, concern has been expressed in certain quarters regarding the availability, in sufficient quantities, of lithium. As part of a recent study by the National Research Council on behalf of the Energy Research and Development Administration, a subpanel was formed to consider the outlook for lithium. Principal areas of concern were reserves, resources and the 'surplus' available for energy applications after allowing for the growth in current lithium applications. Reserves and resources were categorized into four classes ranging from fully proved reserves to resources which are probably dependent upon the marketing of co-products to become economically attractive. Because of the proprietary nature of data on beneficiation and processing recoveries, the tonnages of available lithium are expressed in terms of plant feed. However, highly conservative assumptions have been made concerning mining recoveries and these go a considerable way to accounting for total losses. Western World reserves and resources of all classes are estimated at 10.6 million tonnes Li of which 3.5 million tonnes Li are located in the United States. Current United States capacity, virtually equivalent to Western World capacity, is 4700 tonnes Li and production in 1976 approximated to 3500 tonnes Li. Production for current applications is expected to grow to approx. 10,000 tonnes in year 2000 and 13,000 tonnes a decade later. The massive excess of reserves and resources over that necessary to support conventional requirements has limited the amount of justifiable exploration expenditures; on the last occasion, there was a a major increase in demand (by the USAEA) reserves and capacity were increased rapidly. There are no foreseeable reasons why this shouldn't happen again when the need is clear. (author)

  6. Geothermal resources of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  7. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  8. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON CLOUD ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Pacurari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud technologies have developed intensively during the last years. Cloud computing allows the customers to interact with their data and applications at any time, from any location, while the providers host these resources. A client company may choose to run in the cloud a part of its business (sales by agents, payroll, etc., or even the entire business. The company can get access to a large category of cloud-based software, including accounting software. Cloud solutions are especially recommended for small companies that do not have enough financial resources to invest in the IT infrastructure and in expensive accounting software. However, a special attention is required in the case of sensitive data, which should not be placed in a public cloud. All these aspects need to be discussed with the students, who should acquire the qualifications needed for operating with cloud applications. Our paper considers all the above issues regarding cloud computing for accountants and suggests some possibilities to approach these topics with the students.

  9. Security Consideration With Dynamic Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VISWESWARARAO BOLLA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues for data communication over wired and wireless networks is the security. the past work is on the designs of cryptography algorithms and system infrastructures. Dynamic routing algorithm called improved dynamic routing with security consideration, which is based on the concept of Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP that could randomize delivery paths for data transmission. The algorithm is easy to implement and compatible with popular routing protocols, such as the Routing Information Protocol (RIP in wired networks and Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV protocol in wireless networks, without introducing extra control messages. This algorithm is mainly proposed to improve the and to overcome the limitations existing with the present cryptographic algorithms and protocols. Although some designs like IP security, Secure Socket Layer provide essential security, E-Mail security they unavoidably introduce substantial overheads in the Gateway/Host performance and effective network bandwidths.

  10. Fundamental Considerations for Biobank Legacy Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, Lise Anne Marie; Fombonne, Benjamin; Watson, Peter Hamilton; Moore, Helen Marie

    2016-04-01

    Biobanking in its various forms is an activity involving the collection of biospecimens and associated data and their storage for differing lengths of time before use. In some cases, biospecimens are immediately used, but in others, they are stored typically for the term of a specified project or in perpetuity until the materials are used up or declared to be of little scientific value. Legacy planning involves preparing for the phase that follows either biobank closure or a significant change at an operational level. In the case of a classical finite collection, this may be brought about by the completion of the initial scientific goals of a project, a loss of funding, or loss of or change in leadership. Ultimately, this may require making a decision about when and where to transfer materials or whether to destroy them. Because biobanking in its entirety is a complex endeavour, legacy planning touches on biobank operations as well as ethical, legal, financial, and governance parameters. Given the expense and time that goes into setting up and maintaining biobanks, coupled with the ethical imperative to appropriately utilize precious resources donated to research, legacy planning is an activity that every biobanking entity should think about. This article describes some of the fundamental considerations for preparing and executing a legacy plan, and we envisage that this article will facilitate dialogue to help inform best practices and policy development in the future. PMID:26890981

  11. Analysis of background distributions of metals in the soil at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, David; Baskin, David; Brown, Dennis; Lund, Loren; Najita, Julie; Javandel, Iraj

    2009-03-15

    As part of its Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program (CAP), the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environmental Restoration Program conducted an evaluation of naturally occurring metals in soils at the facility. The purpose of the evaluation was to provide a basis for determining if soils at specific locations contained elevated concentrations of metals relative to ambient conditions. Ambient conditions (sometimes referred to as 'local background') are defined as concentrations of metals in the vicinity of a site, but which are unaffected by site-related activities (Cal-EPA 1997). Local background concentrations of 17 metals were initially estimated by LBNL using data from 498 soil samples collected from borings made during the construction of 71 groundwater monitoring wells (LBNL 1995). These concentration values were estimated using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) guidance that was available at that time (USEPA 1989). Since that time, many more soil samples were collected and analyzed for metals by the Environmental Restoration Program. In addition, the California Environmental Protection Agency (Cal-EPA) subsequently published a recommended approach for calculating background concentrations of metals at hazardous waste sites and permitted facilities (Cal-EPA 1997). This more recent approach differs from that recommended by the USEPA and used initially by LBNL (LBNL 2002). The purpose of the 2002 report was to apply the recommended Cal-EPA procedure to the expanded data set for metals that was available at LBNL. This revision to the 2002 report has been updated to include more rigorous tests of normality, revisions to the statistical methods used for some metals based on the results of the normality tests, and consideration of the depth-dependence of some sample results. As a result of these modifications, estimated background concentrations for some metals have been

  12. 行业背景高职院校协同创新模式思考与实践--以广东水利电力职业技术学院为例%Study and Practice of Collaborative Innovation Models in Higher Vocational Colleges with Industrial Background --Case Study of Guangdong Technical College of Water Resources and Electric Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋伯杰

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the models of collaborative innovation, and explains the background and the importance. Three models of collaborative innovation which are on the basis of the higher vocational colleges with industrial background are suggested in this paper. Through the analysis of the successful cases, the structure and operation of these three models are explored as well. Then, this paper emphasizes the pivotal role of the industry and government.%阐述协同创新背景和意义,提出适合行业背景高职院校的三种协同创新模式,通过分析成功案例,详细阐述三种模式的构建方法和运作优势,强调行业政府所起的关键作用。

  13. Considerations for the transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our society today the transportation of radioactive materials, and most particularly spent reactor fuel, is surrounded by considerable emotion and a wealth of information, good and bad. The transportation of these materials is viewed as unique and distinct from the transportation of other hazardous materials and as a particularly vulnerable component of the nuclear power activities of this nation. Added to this is the concept, widely held, that almost everyone is an expert on the transportation of radioactive materials. One significant contribution to this level of emotion is the notion that all roads (rail and highway), on which these goods will be transported, somehow traverse everyone's backyard. The issue of the transportation of spent fuel has thus become a political battleground. Perhaps this should not be surprising since it has all of the right characteristics for such politicization in that it is pervasive, emotional, and visible. In order that those involved in the discussion of this activity might be able to reach some rational conclusions, this paper offers some background information which might be useful to a broad range of individuals in developing their own perspectives. The intent is to address the safety of transporting spent fuel from a technical standpoint without the emotional content which is frequently a part of this argument

  14. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  15. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Bauldry; Shanahan, Michael J.; Rosemary Russo; Roberts, Brent W.; Rodica Damian

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that bot...

  16. China and Kazakhstan' s Oil and Gas Resources Cooperation Under the Background of"Silk-road Economic Belt"%"丝绸之路经济带"背景下中哈油气资源合作深化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志刚; 江 丽

    2015-01-01

    中亚五国是"丝绸之路经济带"上的重要国家,中国与中亚国家经贸关系发展良好,其中能源合作是双方合作的重要领域. 以中国和哈萨克斯坦的油气资源合作研究为重点,在阐述中哈油气资源禀赋和合作历史的基础上,进一步完善了国家层面的平台建设、企业层面的模式选择和油气资源领域的合作机制,进而对"丝绸之路经济带"框架下深化双边油气资源领域合作前景予以展望.%Five Central Asian countries are along the line of the"Silk-road Economic Belt".China has a good trade relations with them especially in energy cooperation field.Based on China and Kazakhstan' s oil and gas re-sources endowment and historical cooperation,this paper focus on two countries' oil and gas resources cooperation research, put forward to further improve the platform construction of the national level and enterprise level' s model choice, do some supplement of mechanism which is advantageous to the oil and gas cooperation between two coun-tries.Then, we give prospects on the deepening bilateral cooperation in oil and gas resources field within the frame-work of the"Silk-road Economic Belt".

  17. Multipurpose background for standardization in medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, G G

    1985-08-01

    A dual photography background system consisting of a quadrilled format on one side and a plain background on the other is described. It is mobile and efficient as a space- and time-saving device for medical photography.

  18. Considerations regarding dosimetry in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important consideration when deciding whether or not to perform a nuclear medicine procedure in a child is whether the benefit of the information obtained exceeds the potential risk. In most circumstances the potential benefits are well define. No patient should be studied unless the question to be answered is clearly understood and there is a reasonable change to answer it. To properly perform procedures in children one must not only have a schedule to scale the radiopharmaceutical dose to be administered to the child's body surface area but also one must have an established minimum dose for small babies and infants. There is no point in under-dosing the patient as then the information will not be obtained from the nuclear medicine society. The value of nuclear medicine in the pediatric population cannot be underestimated. It is often the single most important test that can be performed diagnostically. For these reasons it is very important to understand the proper relationship of an adequate study versus the minimization of radiation. 3 references

  19. TRIGA reactor health physics considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing the complexity of a TRIGA health physics program are discussed in details in order to serve as a basis for later consideration of various specific aspects of a typical TRIGA health physics program. The health physics program must be able to provide adequate assistance, control, and safety for individuals ranging from the inexperienced student to the experienced postgraduate researcher. Some of the major aspects discussed are: effluent release and control; reactor area air monitoring; area monitoring; adjacent facilities monitoring; portable instrumentation, personnel monitoring. TRIGA reactors have not been associated with many significant occurrences in the area of health physics, although some operational occurrences have had health physics implications. One specific occurrence at OSU is described involving the detection of non-fission-product radioactive particulates by the continuous air monitor on the reactor top. The studies of this particular situation indicate that most of the particulate activity is coming from the rotating rack and exhausting to the reactor top through the rotating rack loading tube

  20. Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Suzi; Hansen, Niels Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;......Dissociating Prediction Failure: Considerations from Music Perception The Journal of Neuroscience, 16 March 2016, 36(11): 3103-3105;...

  1. Background subtraction using probabilistic event weights

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yadi; Liu, Beijiang; Shen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Ziping

    2014-01-01

    Background treatment is crucial to extract physics from precision experiments. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to assign each event a signal probability. This could then be used to weight the event's contribution to the likelihood during fitting. To illustrate the effect of this method, we test it with MC samples. The consistence between the constructed background and the background from MC truth shows that the background subtraction method with probabilistic event weights is feasi...

  2. 新医改背景下卫生资源配置制度伦理研究——以效率与公平的平衡为视角%Ethlcal Study on Medical Resources Allocation under the Background of New Health Care Reform —from the Perspective of Balancing the Efficiency and Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    峗怡; 贺加

    2012-01-01

    Facing the growth of health needs of Chinese people, the scarcity of health resources increased the contradiction level of health supply and demand. In medical reform process, efficiency and fairness have become a debated issue in the field of health care resource allocation. In order to solve this problem, the authors proposed thai providing a system level guidance, fully respecting the social consensus and cultural values, with the guarantee of fair procedures and multiple constraints of all interests parties and then make the balance between efficiency and fairness in medical system come true.%面对中国民众日益增长的卫生需求,卫生资源的稀缺性更加重了日益突出的供需矛盾,在医疗改革进程中,效率和公平成为医疗资源分配领域争论的热点问题,就如何更好地开展卫生资源的配置工作,可以从制度层面加以引导,充分尊重社会共识文化价值观念,以公正的程序为保障,借以利益各方有效的制衡机制,来实现医疗系统效率和公平的平衡生态.

  3. RAG: An update to the RNA-As-Graphs resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmetwaly Shereef

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2004, we presented a web resource for stimulating the search for novel RNAs, RNA-As-Graphs (RAG, which classified, catalogued, and predicted RNA secondary structure motifs using clustering and build-up approaches. With the increased availability of secondary structures in recent years, we update the RAG resource and provide various improvements for analyzing RNA structures. Description Our RAG update includes a new supervised clustering algorithm that can suggest RNA motifs that may be "RNA-like". We use this utility to describe RNA motifs as three classes: existing, RNA-like, and non-RNA-like. This produces 126 tree and 16,658 dual graphs as candidate RNA-like topologies using the supervised clustering algorithm with existing RNAs serving as the training data. A comparison of this clustering approach to an earlier method shows considerable improvements. Additional RAG features include greatly expanded search capabilities, an interface to better utilize the benefits of relational database, and improvements to several of the utilities such as directed/labeled graphs and a subgraph search program. Conclusions The RAG updates presented here augment the database's intended function - stimulating the search for novel RNA functionality - by classifying available motifs, suggesting new motifs for design, and allowing for more specific searches for specific topologies. The updated RAG web resource offers users a graph-based tool for exploring available RNA motifs and suggesting new RNAs for design.

  4. The Spatial Representation of Heterogeneous Consideration Sets

    OpenAIRE

    DeSarbo, Wayne S, et al; Kamel Jedidi

    1995-01-01

    Consideration sets have been the recent focus of a large volume of research in marketing. The primary orientation of this stream of research has been toward consideration set composition, measurement, and the theoretical formation process itself. This paper proposes a new multidimensional scaling methodology (MDS) devised to spatially represent preference intensity collected over consumers' consideration sets. Predictions concerning the probability of consideration set membership, as well as ...

  5. Analysis on the Behavior of Teachers in Case of Teaching Under the Background of Professionalization--Taking the“Human Resource Management Case Studies”Courses as an Example%职业化背景下教师在案例教学中的行为分析--以《人力资源管理案例分析》课程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    班娟; 张欣

    2014-01-01

    职业化背景下教师在理论教学和案例教学中的行为存在诸多不同之处。通过对人力资源管理案例教学过程的研究,从知识要求、能力要求及价值要求三个方面探讨教师的职业素养、教师职业行为对学生态度产生的影响,以及教师如何运用观察、倾听、评价和反馈等行为对学生的行为进行引导。%There are many differences between the behavior of teachers in the theory of teaching and case teaching under professional background. Through the research on human resource management case teaching process, from the knowledge requirements, competency requirements and value requires three aspects of teacher professionalism, the impact of teachers on students' attitudes produce professional behavior, and how teachers can use to observe, listen, evaluate and feedback on student behavior and other acts to boot.

  6. Beam-Generated Detector Backgrounds at CESR

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Stuart; Cinabro, David

    2000-01-01

    The CESR/CLEO Phase II interaction region is described. The operational experience with beam-generated detector backgrounds is reviewed. The status of our understanding of beam-generated detector backgrounds at CESR is described and comparisons of background measurements with simulation predictions are presented.

  7. The Weyl anomaly and the nature of the background geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Quirós, I

    2000-01-01

    The Weyl anomaly problem is treated within a purely geometrical context. Arguments are given that hint at a possible classical origin of the conformal anomaly in the Riemannian nature of the background geometry where the matter fields play out their dynamics. Some considerations allowing for a possible resolution of the Weyl anomaly problem are briefly outlined. Following the spirit of the standard model of the fundamental interactions, it is argued that the Weyl anomaly should be a consequence of the breaking of the gauge symmetry at some stage during the evolution of the universe.

  8. Geometry of manifolds with area metric: Multi-metric backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Frederic P. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street N, Waterloo N2L 2Y5 (Canada) and Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. Postal 70-543, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)]. E-mail: fschuller@perimeterinstitute.ca; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R. [II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)]. E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.de

    2006-07-24

    We construct the differential geometry of smooth manifolds equipped with an algebraic curvature map acting as an area measure. Area metric geometry provides a spacetime structure suitable for the discussion of gauge theories and strings, and is considerably more general than Lorentzian geometry. Our construction of geometrically relevant objects, such as an area metric compatible connection and derived tensors, makes essential use of a decomposition theorem due to Gilkey, whereby we generate the area metric from a finite collection of metrics. Employing curvature invariants for multi-metric backgrounds we devise a class of gravity theories with inherently stringy character, and discuss gauge matter actions.

  9. URECA: Efficient Resource Location Middleware for Ubiquitous Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donggeon Noh; Heonshik Shin

    2008-01-01

    We describe an effective resource location framework for ubiquitous computing environments populated by a diverse set of networks, devices, services and computational entities. Our framework provides context adaptation with the aid of a middleware service to improve the quality of resource location. A resource location protocol suitable to each type of network locates resource effectively by means of dynamic reconfiguration to the current context. Our framework is also refined by support for interoperability between different types of resource location protocols occurring across a hybrid ubiquitous network. These characteristics also reduce the control overhead for resource location, saving resource, decreasing latency and permitting a considerable degree of scalability.

  10. Ethical considerations in sex selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846

  11. Problem of Time and Background Independence: the Individual Facets

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    I lay out the problem of time facets as arising piecemeal from a number of aspects of background independence. Almost all of these already have simpler classical counterparts. This approach can be viewed as a facet by facet completion of the observation that Barbour-type relationalism is a background independent precursor to 2 of the 9 facets. That completion proceeds in an order dictated by the additional layers of mathematical structure required to support each. Moreover, the `nonlinear nature' of the interactions between the Problem of Time facets renders a joint study of them mandatory. The current article is none the less a useful prequel via gaining a conceptual understanding of each facet, prior to embarking on rendering some combinations of facets consistent and what further obstructions arise in attempting such joint considerations. See [20, 21, 26] for up to date studies of this more complicated joint version. I also identify new facets (threading based), subfacets (of observables and of reconstruct...

  12. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  13. Stain Detection in Video with Background Restructured

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, multimedia, especially video, is used widely in many domains. But camera lens are easily stained because they are always outside, such as in traffic and monitoring. Admittedly, the video from these cameras is out of action because it cannot provide clear frames. In this paper, we provide a detecting method from video with background restructure. This method is presented to detect stains in video. Firstly, the first video frame is used as a pseudo-background because original cameras are clear with no stains. Then, background is constructed by the pseudo-background and the continuous frames which are from the video. Moreover, with training in the frames, we restructure background by dropped moving objects in it. Finally, after background restructured, we detect stains in camera lenses by the restructured background, and provide positions of stained area. Experimental results show its robustness and practicability

  14. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. [ed.

    1992-01-01

    This year`s Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  15. Information technology resources assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, D.F. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    This year's Information Technology Resources Assessment (ITRA) is something of a departure from traditional practice. Past assessments have concentrated on developments in fundamental technology, particularly with respect to hardware. They form an impressive chronicle of decreasing cycle times, increasing densities, decreasing costs (or, equivalently, increasing capacity and capability per dollar spent), and new system architectures, with a leavening of operating systems and languages. Past assessments have aimed -- and succeeded -- at putting information technology squarely in the spotlight; by contrast, in the first part of this assessment, we would like to move it to the background, and encourage the reader to reflect less on the continuing technological miracles of miniaturization in space and time and more on the second- and third-order implications of some possible workplace applications of these miracles. This Information Technology Resources Assessment is intended to provide a sense of technological direction for planners in projecting the hardware, software, and human resources necessary to support the diverse IT requirements of the various components of the DOE community. It is also intended to provide a sense of our new understanding of the place of IT in our organizations.

  16. Numerical considerations in simulating the global magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models of the global magnetosphere are very good research tools for investigating the topology and dynamics of the near-Earth space environment. While these models have obvious limitations in regions that are not well described by the MHD equations, they can typically be used (or are used to investigate the majority of magnetosphere. Often, a secondary consideration is overlooked by researchers when utilizing global models – the effects of solving the MHD equations on a grid, instead of analytically. Any discretization unavoidably introduces numerical artifacts that affect the solution to various degrees. This paper investigates some of the consequences of the numerical schemes and grids that are used to solve the MHD equations in the global magnetosphere. Specifically, the University of Michigan's MHD code is used to investigate the role of grid resolution, numerical schemes, limiters, inner magnetospheric density boundary conditions, and the artificial lowering of the speed of light on the strength of the ionospheric cross polar cap potential and the build up of the ring current in the inner magnetosphere. It is concluded that even with a very good solver and the highest affordable grid resolution, the inner magnetosphere is not grid converged. Artificially reducing the speed of light reduces the numerical diffusion that helps to achieve better agreement with data. It is further concluded that many numerical effects work nonlinearly to complicate the interpretation of the physics within the magnetosphere, and so simulation results should be scrutinized very carefully before a physical interpretation of the results is made. Our conclusions are not limited to the Michigan MHD code, but apply to all MHD models due to the limitations of computational resources.

  17. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of

  18. Social marketing: issues for consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, W D

    1983-01-01

    Few social organizations have been able to incorporate all the essential components of successful marketing, namely, a customer oriented perspective, careful product development, segmented targets and programs, and an interative process of analysis, planning, implementation, and replanning. The lack of resources is part of the problem of moving forward into comprehensive social marketing. Social organizations may use marketing's 4 "Ps" -- product, price, promotion, and place, but often they must also contend with low visibility, lamentable budgets, little research, and lack of continuity. Several general problems confront marketing planners who try to transfer marketing approaches used to sell toothpaste and laundry detergent to promote concepts like family planning, smoking cessation, and nutrition. It has not been possible simply to apply commercial techniques for market analysis and segmentation or product, price, channel, and communication strategy and implementation to social programs. Evaluating program effectiveness is another area where commercial methods fail to readily apply. Contraceptive social marketing programs can point to quantifiable success measures of units sold and revenue received, but generally social marketers must gauge their longterm program objectives such as reduced fertility rates according to intermediary measures such as knowledge change or reported behavior. Currently, organizational design is being studied by several contraceptive social marketing programs. Trained marketing managers in key positions, a systematic marketing planning process, and careful monitoring and control are key program success ingredients that frequently are missing in social agencies where marketing activities and functions may not be fully understood. Many social organizations have established communication functions, but they are not conducive to the broader role that marketing must play if any significant impact is to result. Additionally, in the absence of

  19. Palliative care. Some organisational considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welshman, A

    2005-01-01

    consideration. Another important issue faced daily by palliative care physicians is the broad number of chronic conditions which could make use of opioids. Severe cancer pain is the most obvious example of an appropriate use of opioids, but hardly the only one. The North American Chronic Pain Association of Canada (NACPAC) advocates the use of opioids for a wide range of conditions causing severe chronic pain, including lower back pain, inflammatory bowel disease, migraines, AIDS, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. Concerns regarding under treatment of chronic pain have captured the attention of patient advocacy groups, policy makers and scientific organisations. Misconceptions of opioid laws, negative social stigma and lack of valid prescribing alternatives to overcome this, together with paucity of formal provider education confound the issue. Much education needs to be done before opioids will be seen as a safe and reasonable treatment for chronic pain here in Italy.

  20. Extragalactic Background Light: Measurements and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light (EBL) intensity from gamma-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in the wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centered at 1 microns, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar system. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving Gamma-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 microns established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the path for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy for...

  1. CMB with the background primordial magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Dai G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the background primordial magnetic field (PMF) on the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The sound speed of the tightly coupled photon-baryon fluid is increased by the background PMF. The increased sound speed causes the odd peaks of the CMB temperature fluctuations to be suppressed and the CMB peak positions to be shifted to a larger scale. The background PMF causes a stronger decaying potential and increases the amplitude of the CMB. These two effects of the background PMF on a smaller scale cancel out, and the overall effects of the background PMF are the suppression of the CMB around the first peak and the shifting of peaks to a large scale. We also discuss obtaining information about the PMF generation mechanisms, and we examine the nonlinear evolution of the PMF by the constraint on the maximum scale for the PMF distributions. Finally, we discuss degeneracies between the PMF parameters and the standard cosmological parameters.

  2. Perturbative Double Field Theory on General Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hohm, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    We develop the perturbation theory of double field theory around arbitrary solutions of its field equations. The exact gauge transformations are written in a manifestly background covariant way and contain at most quadratic terms in the field fluctuations. We expand the generalized curvature scalar to cubic order in fluctuations and thereby determine the cubic action in a manifestly background covariant form. As a first application we specialize this theory to group manifold backgrounds, such as $SU(2) \\simeq S^3$ with $H$-flux. In the full string theory this corresponds to a WZW background CFT. Starting from closed string field theory, the cubic action around such backgrounds has been computed before by Blumenhagen, Hassler and L\\"ust. We establish precise agreement with the cubic action derived from double field theory. This result confirms that double field theory is applicable to arbitrary curved background solutions, disproving assertions in the literature to the contrary.

  3. Compressive Background Modeling for Foreground Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust and efficient foreground extraction is a crucial topic in many computer vision applications. In this paper, we propose an accurate and computationally efficient background subtraction method. The key idea is to reduce the data dimensionality of image frame based on compressive sensing and in the meanwhile apply sparse representation to build the current background by a set of preceding background images. According to greedy iterative optimization, the background image and background subtracted image can be recovered by using a few compressive measurements. The proposed method is validated through multiple challenging video sequences. Experimental results demonstrate the fact that the performance of our approach is comparable to those of existing classical background subtraction techniques.

  4. Ensembl variation resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Garcia Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maturing field of genomics is rapidly increasing the number of sequenced genomes and producing more information from those previously sequenced. Much of this additional information is variation data derived from sampling multiple individuals of a given species with the goal of discovering new variants and characterising the population frequencies of the variants that are already known. These data have immense value for many studies, including those designed to understand evolution and connect genotype to phenotype. Maximising the utility of the data requires that it be stored in an accessible manner that facilitates the integration of variation data with other genome resources such as gene annotation and comparative genomics. Description The Ensembl project provides comprehensive and integrated variation resources for a wide variety of chordate genomes. This paper provides a detailed description of the sources of data and the methods for creating the Ensembl variation databases. It also explores the utility of the information by explaining the range of query options available, from using interactive web displays, to online data mining tools and connecting directly to the data servers programmatically. It gives a good overview of the variation resources and future plans for expanding the variation data within Ensembl. Conclusions Variation data is an important key to understanding the functional and phenotypic differences between individuals. The development of new sequencing and genotyping technologies is greatly increasing the amount of variation data known for almost all genomes. The Ensembl variation resources are integrated into the Ensembl genome browser and provide a comprehensive way to access this data in the context of a widely used genome bioinformatics system. All Ensembl data is freely available at http://www.ensembl.org and from the public MySQL database server at ensembldb.ensembl.org.

  5. The development and utilization of curriculum resources of sports under the background of information network----in the Yoga course as an example%信息化背景下网络体育课程资源开发与利用--以瑜伽课程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斐

    2013-01-01

    随着我国科技的进步,网络也被广泛应用于教学之中,瑜伽作为一种被大众喜爱的新兴健身活动,需要更自由的教学方式。对于“引进来”的优秀文化,我们应该客观与理性的去对待,运用瑜伽网络教学的资源进行教学,使学生更好的掌握这一门课程。通过网络进行辅助教学能够帮助学生在课外有自主学习、探究的机会,同时也使瑜伽得到进一步的推广。%WSith the progress of science and technology,network has been widely used in teaching,yoga as a new fitness activities are popular,need more free way of teaching.For“outstanding cultural introduc-tion”,we should be objective and rational to treat,the Yoga of network teaching resources in teaching,en-able students to better grasp of this course.Aided teaching can help students autonomous learning,exploring opportunities in the outside through the network,but also to Yu Ga further.

  6. On Cultural Background Knowledge in English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琴; 郭成

    2009-01-01

    Reading comprehension is undoubtedly one of the most important abilities for English learners. This paper firstly makes a brief introduction to the reading theory and cultural background knowledge. Then using schema theory and typical examples, the paper demons~ates the role of cultural background knowledge in reading comprehension. The application of cultural background knowledge inreading practice is proposed as the keys to the improvement of reading comprehension ability.

  7. Frequentist Hypothesis Testing with Background Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Cranmer, Kyle S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the standard Neyman-Pearson hypothesis test of a signal-plus-background hypothesis and background-only hypothesis in the presence of uncertainty on the background-only prediction. Surprisingly, this problem has not been addressed in the recent conferences on statistical techniques in high-energy physics -- although the its confidence-interval equivalent has been. We discuss the issues of power, similar tests, coverage, and ordering rules. The method presented is compared to the Co...

  8. Gauge theories with non-trivial backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Binosi, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    We review our most recent results in formulating gauge theories in the presence of a background field on the basis of symmetry arguments only. In particular we show how one can gain full control over the dependence on the background field of the effective action, and how the so-called background field method emerges naturally from the requirement of invariance under the BRST and antiBRST symmetries.

  9. Do ethical considerations influence any in HTA reports? A review of reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams Moattar, Alireza; Asghari, Fariba; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dealing with ethical considerations is a major component of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) definitions. Objectives: Present study aimed to explore and describe the manner of ethical analyses in HTA reports and the effects it had on HTA-related decision making around the world. Methods: By considering the contextual milieu of reports and searching for ethical themes and subjects in HTA full reports, a descriptive analysis of HTA reports' contents and related processes was conducted. The review focused on all English HTA reports issued in a year. All ethical aspects, criteria, approaches, and also decision- making related ethical issues were described and summarized in retrieved reports. The inclusion of ethical aspects in final decision-making criteria of HTA reports was also considered. Results: Eighty-nine HTA reports issued in one year were included in this review and analyzed for ethical considerations. There was no trace of any ethical issues in 60.7% of retrieved HTA reports. Dimensions of equity in resource distribution, stakeholder engagement, social values, essence and nature of technology, and ethical issues about the method of assessment for decision making, and physician-patient relationship were raised and discussed in 38.2%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 34.8% and 3.4% of reports respectively. Those issues were also included in 44.1, 5.9, 2.9, 2.9, 0 and 2.9% of final reports, respectively. In overall, only in 16 cases (17.9%) of all 89 reports, ethical issues were included in HTA decision-making orientations. Conclusion: This review shows that ethical issues are occasionally raised and discussed in HTA reports. More importantly, the inclusion of ethical concerns as a decision criterion in HTAs is few and insufficient. PMID:27493906

  10. Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa F. Muhsem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will create a resource list, which includes the resource history that will help the user to search for resources. The proposal resources list system will improve the resource serving by showing the most resources used and will save the time search time for the job request, by these points we will improve the quality of the user jobs execution and the quality type of the used resources.

  11. General requirements and considerations for a design concept in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Appalachian Compact, for which Pennsylvania is the host state, prohibits traditional shallow land burial. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) must be disposed of using engineered confinement. Draft criteria have been developed by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, with assistance from a Public Advisory Committee, to define the requirements for engineered confinement and other requirements for engineered confinement and other requirements for an acceptable disposal technology. This Draft Technology Design/Performance Criteria establishes Performance Objectives, Technical Requirements and presents Other Considerations which apply to the design concept for the disposal facility. These requirements are summarized

  12. Financing health development projects: some macro-economic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, A L

    1986-01-01

    The paper briefly discusses the importance of macro-economic policy in health sector financing. The ways in which monetary and fiscal policy (macro-economic policy) affect interest rates, price levels and aggregate output are presented. The main portion of the paper considers a variety of methods for public financing of health and development projects. These approaches are analyzed in light of distributional and efficiency considerations. One way of increasing health sector resources is through reallocation from other sectors of the economy. The potential for redistribution from the defense to the health service industry is briefly considered. PMID:3961549

  13. Thermal inflation and the gravitational wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the impact of thermal inflation—a short, secondary period of inflation that can arise in supersymmetric scenarios—on the stochastic gravitational wave background. We show that while the primordial inflationary gravitational wave background is essentially unchanged at cosmic microwave background scales, it is massively diluted at solar system scales and would be unobservable by a Big Bang Observer (BBO) style experiment. Conversely, bubble collisions at the end of thermal inflation can generate a new stochastic background. We calculate the likely properties of the bubbles created during this phase transition, and show that the expected amplitude and frequency of this signal would fall within the BBO range

  14. Resource acquisition policy: Multiple account evaluation of electricity resource alternatives [and] resource acquisition strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Columbia Hydro has been directed by the provincial government to develop evaluation procedures to rank electricity resource alternatives in terms of their social benefits and costs, and to acquire resources on the basis of need. The current state of development of social costing at BC Hydro is detailed along with its application to the multiple account evaluation of resources. In this evaluation, BC Hydro's corporate costs, customer cost, transfer payments to the province, direct costs incurred by provincial or regional governments or other Crown agences, direct environmental impact costs from air emissions and land/water use, community and social impact costs, and economic development impacts are taken into account. The BC Hydro resource acquisition strategy is also described as it was developed in response to provincial policy on electricity supply from independent power producers. This strategy includes a determination of need, a decision to acquire need-determined resources either by itself or from a private sector developer, and decisions to acquire resources in advance of need for reasons such as economic opportunity, long-term strategies, or load displacement. Background information is included on calculation of air emissions costs. An illustrative example is provided of the multiple account evaluation of several types of resource projects. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Security Considerations and Recommendations in Computer-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh M. Al-Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT. However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.

  16. Quality assurance considerations for nuclear power system selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Factors that influence the selection of a nuclear power system, from considerations of quality assurance are discussed. These are categorised as reliability, public safety, technological resources, economics, industrial security, and regulatory framework. The key quality assurance principle to be applied is to establish that the technological basis is understood and used properly. Knowledgeable and capable personnel with experience in the application are needed, and they must have access to appropriate engineering, laboratory and manufacturing facilities. A suitable balance must be maintained between the responsibilities of the seller-supplier and the purchaser-owner to assure an even-handed treatment of the implementation programme. Safety and reliability must be inherent to the regulatory framework. There must be flexibility in the purchaser-owner resources to overcome unanticipated adversity. Given these quality assurance elements, the nuclear system selection process should result in a high probability that the performance objectives will be satisfied. (U.K.)

  17. Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleem, Saleh M; Ullah, Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee.

  18. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  19. 新课程背景下农村小学语文课程资源的开发与利用%The development and utilization of Chinese curriculum resources in rural primary school under the background of new curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小辉

    2012-01-01

      The reform and development of education lies not only in the improvement of teaching equipment, more important is the improvement of new teaching idea. In primary school Chinese teaching, teachers should be based on the actual local, from about rural natural resources, human nutrition. Through exploring the hometown history, culture, not only enrich the students' knowledge accumulation, and allowing them to experience the traditional virtues, cultivate their appreciation for beauty, creative ability, strengthen their language comprehension and control ability, enhance their responsibility and mission of inheritance and development of the rural cultural sense.%  教育的改革与发展不仅仅在于教学设备的改善,更为重要的是教学理念的更新与完善。在小学语文教学中,教师首先应该立足于当地实际,从有关于农村自然的、人文的资源汲取营养。通过探究家乡历史、文化,既丰富了学生的知识积累,又让他们体验到传统美德,培养他们对美的欣赏、创造能力,加强他们对语言的领悟和驾驭能力,更增强他们传承和发展农村文化的责任感和使命感

  20. Recursos genéticos do banco de germoplasma de hortaliças da UFV: histórico e expedições de coleta Genetic resources of the vegetable germplasm bank at the UFV, Brazil: historical background and assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derly José Henriques Silva

    2001-07-01

    decades, as registered by the germplasm bank of vegetables (BGH. In 1986, the UFV created the BGH with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation to recover native and non-native species; to register and maintain germplasm exchange with other world regions and to evaluate their potential for the various Brazilian climate conditions. The BGH genetic resources have been assessed for 23 years. This intermittent activity was initiated in 1964, covering six years of assessment during the 1960s and the 1970s plus seven and four years during the 1980s and the 1990s, respectively. Maximum assessment was carried out in 1967 with 1.480 accesses. Today, UFV's BGH owns 6.559 accesses comprising 25 families and 106 species. The most participating families are: solanaceae (44.21%; leguminosae (16.83%; cucurbitaceae (15.70% and the remaining families (23.26%. Data in this work show that the concern with assessing vegetable genetic resources aiming to recover the variability of major populations is previous to the creation of the IPGRI in the 1970s. A systematic data registration shows an expressive number of accesses and species diversity. This is an advantage since the germplasm of cultivated species will remain the most used source for variety development. Genetic vulnerability can only be avoided through variability, which is dependent on genetic resources.

  1. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    van der Meulen, M.J.; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy requires that scarce mineral resources (including silica sand) are taken into consideration in spatial planning and when preparing for largescale engineering or construction works. For this purpose, ...

  2. Stability and resource allocation in project planning

    OpenAIRE

    Leus, Roel; Herroelen, Willy

    2002-01-01

    The majority of resource-constrained project scheduling efforts assumes perfect information about the scheduling problem to be solved and a static deterministic environment within which the pre-computed baseline schedule is executed. In reality, project activities are subject to considerable uncertainty, which generally leads to numerous schedule disruptions. In this paper, we present a resource allocation model that protects a given baseline schedule against activity duration variability. A ...

  3. Precise muon drift tube detectors for high background rate conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engl, Albert

    2011-08-04

    The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS-experiment at the Large Hadron Collider consists of drift tube chambers, which provide the precise measurement of trajectories of traversing muons. In order to determine the momentum of the muons with high precision, the measurement of the position of the muon in a single tube has to be more accurate than {sigma}{<=}100 {mu}m. The large cross section of proton-proton-collisions and the high luminosity of the accelerator cause relevant background of neutrons and {gamma}s in the muon spectrometer. During the next decade a luminosity upgrade to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} is planned, which will increase the background counting rates considerably. In this context this work deals with the further development of the existing drift chamber technology to provide the required accuracy of the position measurement under high background conditions. Two approaches of improving the drift tube chambers are described: - In regions of moderate background rates a faster and more linear drift gas can provide precise position measurement without changing the existing hardware. - At very high background rates drift tube chambers consisting of tubes with a diameter of 15 mm are a valuable candidate to substitute the CSC muon chambers. The single tube resolution of the gas mixture Ar:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2} in the ratio of 96:3:1 Vol %, which is more linear and faster as the currently used drift gas Ar:CO{sub 2} in the ratio of 97:3 Vol %, was determined at the Cosmic Ray Measurement Facility at Garching and at high {gamma}-background counting rates at the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN. The alternative gas mixture shows similar resolution without background. At high background counting rates it shows better resolution as the standard gas. To analyse the data the various parts of the setup have to be aligned precisely to each other. The change to an alternative gas mixture allows the use of the existing hardware. The second approach are drift tubes

  4. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 4. The Northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, K.E.; Vilardo, J.M.; Schakenbach, J.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled in this chapter into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline are provided for in the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state. Assessments for individual states are presented. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters.

  5. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 9. The Southwest Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.L.; Norman, G.T.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-11-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in Nevada and California. Background on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted is presented. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. An introduction and outline to the descriptions of the wind resource given for each state are given. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed.

  6. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W.; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). Methods This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health—including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents’ attractiveness—and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Results Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Conclusions Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged

  7. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanski, B.

    2013-01-01

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ -gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ -gauge fixed Green–Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  8. 45 CFR 650.16 - Background rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the Bayh-Dole Act (35 U.S.C. 202(f)) as implemented by 37 CFR 401.12). ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background rights. 650.16 Section 650.16 Public... Background rights. The Foundation will acquire rights to a research performer's pre-existing technology...

  9. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  10. Energy dispersive spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation: intensity considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed considerations are given to the reliability of energy dependent integrated intensity data collected from the pressure cavity of a diamond-anvil pressure cell illuminated with heterochromatic radiation from a synchrotron storage ring. It is demonstrated that at least in one run, the electron beam current cannot be used to correct for energy-intensity variations of the incident beam. Rather there appears to be an additional linear relationship between the decay of the synchrotron beam and the magnitude of the background intensity. 13 refs., 7 figs

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  12. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rosado, Pablo A

    2011-01-01

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter $\\Omega(f)$, commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, $\\Omega(f)$ is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the ...

  13. PENGARUH BACKGROUND MAHASISWA TERHADAP KINERJA AKADEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trianasari Angkawijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Students’ Background on Academic Performance. This study examines the effect of background variables on the academic performance of accounting students in a private university in Surabaya. The background variables under study included previous academic performance, prior knowledge on accounting, sex, motivation, preparedness, and expectations. The results show that previous academic performance, motivation, and expectations have positive and significant effects on the students’ overall academic performance in accounting, while preparedness affects only the students’ performance in management accounting. In contrast, prior knowledge on accounting and sex do not give significant impacts to the students’ overall academic performance.These findings indicate the importance of previous aca­demic performance as well as motivation and expectations as background variables in current academic performance. Keywords: students’ background, academic performance, accounting Abstrak: Pengaruh Background Mahasiswa terhadap Kinerja Akademik. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh variabel background terhadap kinerja akademik mahasiswa akuntansi di Universitas Surabaya. Lima variabel background utama dipergunakan, yaitu kinerja akademik sebelumnya, pengetahuan akun­tansi sebelumnya, jenis kelamin, motivasi, kesiapan, dan ekspektasi. Hipotesis diuji menggunakan model regresi linier berganda OLS dan Robust Standar Error. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya, motivasi, dan ekspektasi memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan, sementara kesiapan memberikan pengaruh positif hanya pada kinerja akademik akuntansi manajemen. Sebaliknya, pengetahuan akuntansi sebelumnya dan jenis kelamin tidak memberi­kan pengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan. Temuan ini mengindikasikan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya beserta motivasi dan ekspektasi adalah variabel background

  14. An analysis of health system resources in relation to pandemic response capacity in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanvoravongchai Piya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing perception that countries cannot work in isolation to militate against the threat of pandemic influenza. In the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS of Asia, high socio-economic diversity and fertile conditions for the emergence and spread of infectious diseases underscore the importance of transnational cooperation. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution and inequalities can help determine the need for, and inform decisions regarding, resource sharing and mobilisation. Methods We collected data on healthcare resources deemed important for responding to pandemic influenza through surveys of hospitals and district health offices across four countries of the GMS (Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand, Vietnam. Focusing on four key resource types (oseltamivir, hospital beds, ventilators, and health workers, we mapped and analysed resource distributions at province level to identify relative shortages, mismatches, and clustering of resources. We analysed inequalities in resource distribution using the Gini coefficient and Theil index. Results Three quarters of the Cambodian population and two thirds of the Laotian population live in relatively underserved provinces (those with resource densities in the lowest quintile across the region in relation to health workers, ventilators, and hospital beds. More than a quarter of the Thai population is relatively underserved for health workers and oseltamivir. Approximately one fifth of the Vietnamese population is underserved for beds and ventilators. All Cambodian provinces are underserved for at least one resource. In Lao PDR, 11 percent of the population is underserved by all four resource items. Of the four resources, ventilators and oseltamivir were most unequally distributed. Cambodia generally showed higher levels of inequalities in resource distribution compared to other countries. Decomposition of the Theil index suggests that inequalities result principally from

  15. Resource Letter Exo-1: Exoplanets

    OpenAIRE

    Perryman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This Resource Letter gives an introduction to the main topics in exoplanet research. It is intended to serve as a guide to the field for upper-division undergraduate and graduate students, both theoretical and experimental, and for workers in other fields of physics and astronomy who wish learn about this new discipline. Topics include historical background, detection methods, host star properties, theories of planet formation and evolution, their interiors and atmospheres, their relationship...

  16. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  17. The efficiency of reading around learned backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Miguel P.; Pham, Binh T.; Abbey, Craig K.; Zhang, Yani

    2006-03-01

    Most metrics of medical image quality typically treat all variability components of the background as a Gaussian noise process. This includes task based model observers (non-prewhitening matched filter without and with an eye filter, NPW and NPWE; Hotelling and Channelized Hotelling) as well as Fourier metrics of medical image quality based on the noise power spectra. However, many investigators have observed that unlike many of the models/metrics, physicians often can discount signal-looking structures that are part of the normal anatomic background. This process has been referred to as reading around the background or noise. The purpose of this paper is to develop an experimental framework to systematically study the ability of human observers to read around learned backgrounds and compare their ability to that of an optimal ideal observer which has knowledge of the background. We measured human localization performance of one of twelve targets in the presence of a fixed background consisting of randomly placed Gaussians with random contrasts and sizes, and white noise. Performance was compared to a condition in which the test images contained only white noise but with higher contrast. Human performance was compared to standard model observers that treat the background as a Gaussian noise process (NPW, NPWE and Hotelling), a Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter, and an ideal observer. The Hotelling, NPW, NPWE models as well as the Fourier-based prewhitening matched filter predicted higher performance for the white noise test images than the background plus white noise. In contrast, ideal and human performance was higher for the background plus white noise condition. Furthermore, human performance exceeded that of the NPW, NPWE and Hotelling models and reached an efficiency of 19% relative to the ideal observer. Our results demonstrate that for some types of images human signal localization performance is consistent with use of knowledge about the high order

  18. CERN-derived analysis of lunar radiation backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.; Svoboda, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The Moon produces radiation which background-limits scientific experiments there. Early analyses of these backgrounds have either failed to take into consideration the effect of charm in particle physics (because they pre-dated its discovery), or have used branching ratios which are no longer strictly valid (due to new accelerator data). We are presently investigating an analytical program for deriving muon and neutrino spectra generated by the Moon, converting an existing CERN computer program known as GEANT which does the same for the Earth. In so doing, this will (1) determine an accurate prompt neutrino spectrum produced by the lunar surface; (2) determine the lunar subsurface particle flux; (3) determine the consequence of charm production physics upon the lunar background radiation environment; and (4) provide an analytical tool for the NASA astrophysics community with which to begin an assessment of the Moon as a scientific laboratory versus its particle radiation environment. This will be done on a recurring basis with the latest experimental results of the particle data groups at Earth-based high-energy accelerators, in particular with the latest branching ratios for charmed meson decay. This will be accomplished for the first time as a full 3-dimensional simulation.

  19. Effect of background music on auditory-verbal memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Matloubi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.

  20. 33 CFR 239.5 - Engineering considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... human ingress and their impact on project functions. (d) Effect of the cover on inspection and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engineering considerations. 239.5... § 239.5 Engineering considerations. Reports on proposals to provide covered channels shall include...

  1. 7 CFR 1735.92 - Accounting considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting considerations. 1735.92 Section 1735.92... All Acquisitions and Mergers § 1735.92 Accounting considerations. (a) Proper accounting shall be... in the absence of such a commission, as required by RUS based on Generally Accepted...

  2. 46 CFR 390.3 - Policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy considerations. 390.3 Section 390.3 Shipping... CONSTRUCTION FUND § 390.3 Policy considerations. (a) In general. It is the policy of the United States, as set... may waive the monetary limit in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section where the applicant proposes...

  3. 33 CFR 51.8 - Relevant considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relevant considerations. 51.8 Section 51.8 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PERSONNEL COAST GUARD DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD § 51.8 Relevant considerations. In determining the equity and propriety...

  4. First MARS Outpost: Development Considerations and Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. The central goal of this activity is to conceptualize a scenario of sequential, integrated private enterprise initiatives that can carry humankind forward to Mars. This presentation highlights planning considerations and design concepts for establishing a first settlement on Mars. The outpost would support surface missions lasting up to about 500 days and would serve as the initial stage of a larger and continuously operational development which would utilize Mars resources to be less reliant on materials from Earth. Key elements of this first stage mission development sequence include a new heavy-lift Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle; a plasma- drive Mars transit vehicle; habitat modules for crews in transit to and from Mars; "hard" and "inflatable" surface habitats and laboratories; a mobile power unit; a spacecraft to assist orbital assembly; and vehicles to lift crews off the Mars surface and land them safely back on Earth from LEO. SICSA's space development approach differs in fundamental ways from conventional NASA-sponsored initiatives. First, virtually all baseline planning assumptions are influenced by the private sector-driven nature of an approach that aims to avoid all possible reliance upon government financing, agendas and schedules. In this regard, any involvements with NASA or the space agencies of other countries would be premised upon mutual public-corporate partnership benefits rather than upon federal contract awards, management and control. Another potential difference relates to program philosophy. Unlike Apollo Program "sprint" missions which culminated with footprints and flagpoles on the Moon, the aim is to realize sustainable and continuing planetary exploration and development progress. This goal can be advanced through approaches that

  5. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, S.; Rabinovici, E.; Tallarita, G.

    2016-04-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is less suppressed than the rate of particle pair production. We discuss in some detail how the critical field is affected by the non-homogeneity, for both time and space dependent electric field backgrouds. We also comment on what could be an interesting new prediction for the small field limit. The third case we consider is pair production in holographic confining backgrounds with homogeneous and non-homogeneous fields.

  6. Lorentz-invariant ensembles of vector backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider gauge field theories in the presence of ensembles of vector backgrounds. While Lorentz invariance is explicitly broken in the presence of any single background, here, the Lorentz invariance of the theory is restored by averaging over a Lorentz-invariant ensemble of backgrounds, i.e., a set of background vectors that is mapped onto itself under Lorentz transformations. This framework is used to study the effects of a non-trivial but Lorentz-invariant vacuum structure or mass dimension two vector condensates by identifying the background with a shift of the gauge field. Up to now, the ensembles used in the literature comprise configurations corresponding to non-zero field tensors together with such with vanishing field strength. We find that even when constraining the ensembles to pure gauge configurations, the usual high-energy degrees of freedom are removed from the spectrum of asymptotic states in the presence of said backgrounds in Euclidean and in Minkowski space. We establish this result not only for the propagators to all orders in the background and otherwise at tree level but for the full propagator

  7. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  8. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub μJy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/γ-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  9. Radiation background of Black Sea coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project is to establish the level of radiation background and its sources in the Black Sea coastal environment. Marine samples will be collected in the Black Sea Coast area. The content of different radionuclides will be analyzed and the results will be used in a GIS application. The gamma emitting radionuclides will be measured in ultralow radiation background in the Romanian underground laboratory in salt mine in Slanic-Prahova. The main expected results is an up to date quantification of the radiation sources of the background of the Black Sea coastal environment. (authors)

  10. LAr instrumentation studies for low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicsko Csathy, Jozsef [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    We investigated different options to instrument a large volume of liquid Argon in a low background experiment like GERDA with special regard to alternatives to PMTs. The difficulty consists in producing all the components with a radiopurity that is compatible with the background goal of the experiment. WLS fibers read out with SiPMs seem to offer the best compromise between veto efficiency and induced background. We present optimization studies for about one ton instrumented LAr volume and preliminary results from our test stand at TUM.

  11. The astrophysical gravitational wave stochastic background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tania Regimbau

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic background of gravitational waves with astrophysical origins may have resulted from the superposition of a large number of unresolved sources since the beginning of stellar activity.Its detection would put very strong constraints on the physical properties of compact objects, the initial mass function and star formarion history.On the other hand, it could be a ‘noise' that would mask the stochastic background of its cosmological origin.We review the main astrophysical processes which are able to produce a stochastic background and discuss how they may differ from the primordial contribution in terms of statistical properties.Current detection methods are also presented.

  12. Frequentist Hypothesis Testing with Background Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, K

    2003-01-01

    We consider the standard Neyman-Pearson hypothesis test of a signal-plus-background hypothesis and background-only hypothesis in the presence of uncertainty on the background-only prediction. Surprisingly, this problem has not been addressed in the recent conferences on statistical techniques in high-energy physics -- although the its confidence-interval equivalent has been. We discuss the issues of power, similar tests, coverage, and ordering rules. The method presented is compared to the Cousins-Highland technique, the ratio of Poisson means, and ``profile'' method.

  13. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  14. Investigation and Consideration on the Deaf College Students’ Use of Library Resources---A Case Study of Technical College for the Deaf of TJUT(Tianjin University of Technology)%听障学生利用图书馆资源情况的调查与思考*--以天津理工大学聋人工学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲舒怡; 刘云

    2015-01-01

    Taking Technical College for the Deaf of TJUT as a research case, and by using the form of the combination of questionnaire and interview, this paper sums up the deaf college students’ use status of library resources and facilities, mastering status of the basic retrieval skills, and cognition degree of library’s various services, and further probes into the methods and countermeasures adopted by the library to improve the service for deaf readers.%以天津理工大学聋人工学院作为研究案例,采用问卷调查和访谈相结合的形式,归纳总结出听障大学生对图书馆资源设施的使用情况、对基本检索技能的掌握情况以及对图书馆各项服务的认知程度,探讨了图书馆提高对听障读者服务质量的方法与对策。

  15. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  16. The Spin-2 Equation on Minkowski Background

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Florian; Frauendiener, Jörg; Whale, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The linearised general conformal field equations in their first and second order form are used to study the behaviour of the spin-2 zero-rest-mass equation on Minkowski background in the vicinity of space-like infinity.

  17. Background by neutron activation in GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay is a proof of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The long half-life of this decay requires experiments of very low background rates in the region of interest at Qββ. Prompt γ-rays after neutron capture on germanium and the β-decay of 77Ge contribute to the background in experiments using 76Ge for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay. The poorly known prompt γ-ray spectra and the neutron capture cross sections for the (n,γ) reactions of 74Ge and 76Ge were measured at the research reactor FRM II (Munich). The obtained data are needed in MC simulations for qualitative and quantitative background prediction in the Gerda experiment. The data and their implication on the background in Gerda are presented.

  18. Background field method and nonrelativistic QED matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong-Wan

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the resolution of inconsistency between lattice background field methods and nonrelativistic QED matching conditions. In particular, we show that lack of on-shell conditions in lattice QCD with time-dependent background fields generally requires that certain operators related by equations of motion should be retained in an effective field theory to correctly describe the behavior of Green's functions. The coefficients of such operators in a nonrelativistic hadronic theory are determined by performing a robust nonrelativistic expansion of QED for relativistic scalar and spin-half hadrons including nonminimal electromagnetic couplings. Provided that nonrelativistic QED is augmented with equation-of-motion operators, we find that the background field method can be reconciled with the nonrelativistic QED matching conditions without any inconsistency. We further investigate whether nonrelativistic QED can be employed in the analysis of lattice QCD correlation function in background fields, but we are co...

  19. Background by neutron activation in GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meierhofer, Georg; Dietrich, Dennis; Freund, Kai; Grabmayr, Peter; Hegai, Alexander; Jochum, Josef; Knapp, Markus; Ritter, Florian [Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Canella, Lea [Institut fuer Radiochemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Jolie, Jan [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Kudejova, Petra [FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The observation of the neutrinoless double beta decay is a proof of the Majorana nature of the neutrino. The long half-life of this decay requires experiments of very low background rates in the region of interest at Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}. Prompt {gamma}-rays after neutron capture on germanium and the {beta}-decay of {sup 77}Ge contribute to the background in experiments using {sup 76}Ge for the search of the neutrinoless double beta decay. The poorly known prompt {gamma}-ray spectra and the neutron capture cross sections for the (n,{gamma}) reactions of {sup 74}Ge and {sup 76}Ge were measured at the research reactor FRM II (Munich). The obtained data are needed in MC simulations for qualitative and quantitative background prediction in the Gerda experiment. The data and their implication on the background in Gerda are presented.

  20. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  1. Permission Granted: Open Licensing for Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, Ahrash N.

    2009-01-01

    Open licences are critical for defining Open Educational Resources. The goal of this article is to explain the logic of open licensing to teachers, funders, and educational policy-makers--to explain the relatively simple but vital considerations that are necessary to build this global educational commons of free learning material. In particular,…

  2. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Bauldry

    Full Text Available People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1 whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2 whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution, but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification.This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health-including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents' attractiveness-and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution and mediation (amplification of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment.Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution. Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification. Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model.Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds than for people from

  3. Consideration on the Critical Problems of the Forest Resources Management of the State-owned Forest Area in Heilongjiang Province%黑龙江国有林区森林资源经营关键问题的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万志芳; 张琦

    2014-01-01

    With the background of the strategic shift and the reform of the state-owned forest right(experi-ments),this paper discusses the critical forest management problems of the state-owned forest area in Hei-longjiang in two aspects.Firstly,from the view of the state-owned forest reform,the critical managament problem is the change of the management object;secondly,from the view of the classification manage-ment,the critical management problem is the change of the management purpose.According to the prob-lems,the forest management practices of the state-owned forest area shall be reselected.%在国有林区整体战略转移和国有林权制度改革(试点)的背景下,从两个角度探讨黑龙江国有林区森林资源经营存在的关键问题:一是从国有林权制度改革角度出发,经营的关键问题即经营对象的变化;二是从分类经营角度出发,经营的关键问题即经营目的的变化,并针对上述问题对国有林区森林资源的经营方式进行重新选择。

  4. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  5. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto–Maldacena backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green–Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds

  6. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto–Maldacena backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefański, Bogdan, E-mail: Bogdan.Stefanski.1@city.ac.uk

    2014-06-15

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green–Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  7. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefański, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  8. Standard Model Background of the Cosmological Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xingang; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The inflationary universe can be viewed as a "Cosmological Collider" with energy of Hubble scale, producing very massive particles and recording their characteristic signals in primordial non-Gaussianities. To utilize this collider to explore any new physics at very high scales, it is a prerequisite to understand the background signals from the particle physics Standard Model. In this paper we describe the Standard Model background of the Cosmological Collider.

  9. Cosmic Coincidences: Investigations for Neutron Background Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Heimbach, Craig R.

    2007-01-01

    Two experimental investigations were made in order to reduce background counts in neutron detectors. Each investigation relied upon the fact that neutron background is largely due to cosmic ray interactions with the air and ground. The first attempt was to look at neutron arrival times. Neutron events close in time were taken to have been of a common origin due to cosmic rays. The second investigation was similar, but based on coincident neutron/muon events. The investigations showed only a s...

  10. Cross correlations of the cosmic infrared background

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pengjie

    2003-01-01

    The cosmic infrared background (CIB) is a sensitive measure of the star formation history. But this background is overwhelmed by foregrounds, which bias the CIB mean flux and auto correlation measurement severely. Since dominant foregrounds do not correlate with the large scale structure, the cross correlation of CIB with galaxies is free of such foregrounds and presents as an unbiased measure of the star formation history. This also allows the measurement of CIB based on integrated intensity...

  11. Interferometric Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    White, M; Dragovan, M; White, Martin; Carlstrom, John E.; Dragovan, Mark

    1999-01-01

    We present a formalism for analyzing interferometric observations of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy and polarization data. The formalism is based upon the ell-space expansion of the angular power spectrum favoured in recent years. Explicit discussions of maximum likelihood analysis, power spectrum reconstruction, parameter estimation, imaging and polarization are given. As an example, several calculations for the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) and Cosmic Background Interferometer (CBI) experiments are presented.

  12. Blank Background Image Lossless Compression Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Sawalha; Arafat Awajan

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique able to provide a very good compression ratio in preserving the quality of the important components of the image called main objects. It focuses on applications where the image is of large size and consists of an object or a set of objects on background such as identity photos. In these applications, the background of the objects is in general uniform and represents insignificant information for the application. The results of this new techniques show that ...

  13. Gravitational wave background from binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter Ω(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, Ω(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for Ω(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.

  14. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  15. Low background screening capability in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment

  16. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of 76Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 1025 years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Qββ = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from 214Bi (238U-series), 208Tl (232Th-series), 42K (progeny of 42Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  17. String pair production in non homogeneous backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, Stefano; Tallarita, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    We consider string pair production in non homogeneous electric backgrounds. We study several particular configurations which can be addressed with the Euclidean world-sheet instanton technique, the analogue of the world-line instanton for particles. In the first case the string is suspended between two D-branes in flat space-time, in the second case the string lives in AdS and terminates on one D-brane (this realizes the holographic Schwinger effect). In some regions of parameter space the result is well approximated by the known analytical formulas, either the particle pair production in non-homogeneous background or the string pair production in homogeneous background. In other cases we see effects which are intrinsically stringy and related to the non-homogeneity of the background. The pair production is enhanced already for particles in time dependent electric field backgrounds. The string nature enhances this even further. For spacial varying electrical background fields the string pair production is les...

  18. Background Modelling Using Edge-Segment Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaemyun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose an edge‐segment‐based statistical background modelling algorithm to detect the moving edges for the detection of moving objects using a static camera. Traditional pixel intensity‐based background modelling algorithms face difficulties in dynamic environments since they cannot handle sudden changes in illumination. They also bring out ghosts when a sudden change occurs in the scene. To cope with this issue, intensity and noise robust edge‐based features have emerged. However, existing edge‐pixel‐based methods suffer from scattered moving edge pixels since they cannot utilize the shape. Moreover, traditional segment‐ based methods cannot handle edge shape variations and miss moving edges when they come close to the background edges. Unlike traditional approaches, our proposed method builds the background model from ordinary training frames that may contain moving objects. Furthermore, it does not leave any ghosts behind. Moreover, our method uses an automatic threshold for every background edge distribution for matching. This makes our approach robust to illumination change, camera movement and background motion. Experiments show that our method outperforms others and can detect moving edges efficiently despite the above mentioned difficulties.

  19. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghag, Chamkaur [University College London, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  20. Holographic Thermalization in Quark Confining Background

    CERN Document Server

    Ageev, D S

    2014-01-01

    We study holographic thermalization of a strongly coupled theory inspired by two colliding shock waves in a vacuum confining background. Holographic thermalization means a black hole formation, in fact a trapped surface formation. As a vacuum confining background we considered a well know bottom-up AdS/QCD model that provides the Cornell potential as well as reproduces QCD beta-function. We perturb vacuum background by colliding domain shock waves, that are assumed to be holographically dual to heavy ions collisions. Our main physical assumption is that we can make a restriction on the time of a trapped surface production that makes a natural limitation on the size of the domain where the trapped surface is produced. This limits the intermediate domain where the main part of the entropy is produced. In this domain one can use an intermediate vacuum background as an approximation to the full confining background. In this intermediate background a dependence of the produced entropy on colliding energy is very s...

  1. Background Assay and Rejection in DRIFT

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, Jeff; Dorofeev, Alexei; Ezeribe, Anthony; Gauvreau, Jean-Luc; Gold, Michael; Harton, John; Lafler, Randy; Lauer, Robert; Lee, Eric R; Loomba, Dinesh; Matthews, John; Miller, Eric H; Monte, Alissa; Murphy, Alex; Paling, Sean; Phan, Nguyen; Sadler, Steve; Scarff, Andrew; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel; Spooner, Neil; Telfer, Sam; Walker, Daniel; Williams, Matt; Yuriev, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    The DRIFT-IId dark matter detector is a m$^3$-scale low-pressure TPC with directional sensitivity to WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. Its primary backgrounds were due to alpha decays from contamination on the central cathode. Efforts to reduce these backgrounds led to replacing the 20 \\mu m wire central cathode with one constructed from 0.9 \\mu m aluminized mylar, which is almost totally transparent to alpha particles. Detailed modeling of the nature and origin of the remaining backgrounds led to an in-situ, ppt-sensitive assay of alpha decay backgrounds from the central cathode. This led to further improvements in the thin-film cathode resulting in over 2 orders of magnitude reduction in backgrounds compared to the wire cathode. Finally, the addition of O$_2$ to CS$_2$ gas was found to produce multiple species of electronegative charge carriers, providing a method to determine the absolute position of nuclear recoils and reject all known remaining backgrounds while retaining a high efficiency for nuclear recoil...

  2. Low background screening capability in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghag, Chamkaur

    2015-08-01

    Low background rare event searches in underground laboratories seeking observation of direct dark matter interactions or neutrino-less double beta decay have the potential to profoundly advance our understanding of the physical universe. Successful results from these experiments depend critically on construction from extremely radiologically clean materials and accurate knowledge of subsequent low levels of expected background. The experiments must conduct comprehensive screening campaigns to reduce radioactivity from detector components, and these measurements also inform detailed characterisation and quantification of background sources and their impact, necessary to assign statistical significance to any potential discovery. To provide requisite sensitivity for material screening and characterisation in the UK to support our rare event search activities, we have re-developed our infrastructure to add ultra-low background capability across a range of complementary techniques that collectively allow complete radioactivity measurements. Ultra-low background HPGe and BEGe detectors have been installed at the Boulby Underground Laboratory, itself undergoing substantial facility re-furbishment, to provide high sensitivity gamma spectroscopy in particular for measuring the uranium and thorium decay series products. Dedicated low-activity mass spectrometry instrumentation has been developed at UCL for part per trillion level contaminant identification to complement underground screening with direct U and Th measurements, and meet throughput demands. Finally, radon emanation screening at UCL measures radon background inaccessible to gamma or mass spectrometry techniques. With this new capability the UK is delivering half of the radioactivity screening for the LZ dark matter search experiment.

  3. Relaxation time mapping of single quantum dots and substrate background fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenay-Severin, E.; Mukhin, I.; Fasold, S.; Geiss, R.; Steinbrück, A.; Grange, R.; Chipouline, A.; Pertsch, T.

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally investigated the role of background signal in time resolved photoluminescence experiments with single quantum dots on substrates. We show that the background fluorescence signal from thin gold films fabricated by electron-beam evaporation and from Al2O3 layers fabricated by atomic layer deposition have to be taken into consideration in experiments on the single photon level. Though all investigated components can be distinguished by their photoluminescence decay rates, the presence of the background signal prevents the observation of photon antibunching from single quantum dots. Moreover, a single quantum dot acts as a hot spot enabling the plasmon supported fluorescence enhancement of gold.

  4. Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calain Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan, I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.

  5. 47 CFR 32.1 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... financial reporting (including the results published for regulatory purposes). Accordingly, the USOA has been designed to reflect stable, recurring financial data based to the extent regulatory considerations permit upon the consistency of the well established body of accounting theories and principles...

  6. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  7. Growth and non-renewable resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Schou, Poul

    2007-01-01

    We contrast effects of taxing non-renewable resources with the effects of traditional capital taxes and investment subsidies in an endogenous growth model. In a simple framework we demonstrate that when non-renewable resources are a necessary input in the sector where growth is ultimately generated......, interest income taxes and investment subsidies can no longer affect the long-run growth rate, whereas resource tax instruments are decisive for growth. The results stand out both against observations in the literature from the 1970's on non-renewable resources and taxation-observations which were not based...... on general equilibrium considerations-and against the general view in the newer literature on taxes and endogenous growth which ignores the role of non-renewable resources in the "growth engine"...

  8. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  9. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  10. A Novel Approach for Moving Object Detection from Dynamic Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Pinky R. Rathod,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision application, moving object detection is the key technology for intelligent video monitoring system. Performance of an automated visual surveillance system considerably depends on its ability to detect moving objects in thermodynamic environment. A subsequent action, such as tracking, analyzing the motion or identifying objects, requires an accurate extraction of the foreground objects, making moving object detection a crucial part of the system. The aim of this paper is to detect real moving objects from un-stationary background regions (such as branches and leafs of a tree or a flag waving in the wind, limiting false negatives (objects pixels that are not detected as much as possible. In addition, it is assumed that the models of the target objects and their motion are unknown, so as to achieve maximum application independence (i.e. algorithm works under the non-prior training.

  11. Task force on resource development and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Alberta, the development and growth of the economy relies heavily on the resource sectors, which drive half of all employment. In 2009, the Alberta Chamber of Resources commissioned a task force, comprising groups from the 9 resource sectors in Alberta, to examine resource development and the economy. The aim of this team was to present the impact that the resource sectors had on Alberta's economy in the past, the impact it could have in the future, and to make recommendations on how to meet the full potential of resource development in the province. This reports states that considerable resources of bitumen and coal are present in Alberta and that forestry and diamonds could also play important roles in future resource development. The task force believes that the resource sectors will continue lead gross domestic product growth in Alberta and 16 recommendations for meeting the province's full potential are provided.

  12. The background in the experiment Gerda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A.; Freund, K.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Csáthy, J. Janicskó; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Palioselitis, D.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pessina, G.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Schönert, S.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2014-04-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array ( Gerda) experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) of INFN is searching for neutrinoless double beta () decay of Ge. The signature of the signal is a monoenergetic peak at 2039 keV, the value of the decay. To avoid bias in the signal search, the present analysis does not consider all those events, that fall in a 40 keV wide region centered around . The main parameters needed for the analysis are described. A background model was developed to describe the observed energy spectrum. The model contains several contributions, that are expected on the basis of material screening or that are established by the observation of characteristic structures in the energy spectrum. The model predicts a flat energy spectrum for the blinding window around with a background index ranging from 17.6 to 23.8 cts/(keV kg yr). A part of the data not considered before has been used to test if the predictions of the background model are consistent. The observed number of events in this energy region is consistent with the background model. The background at is dominated by close sources, mainly due to K, Bi, Th, Co and emitting isotopes from the Ra decay chain. The individual fractions depend on the assumed locations of the contaminants. It is shown, that after removal of the known peaks, the energy spectrum can be fitted in an energy range of 200 keV around with a constant background. This gives a background index consistent with the full model and uncertainties of the same size.

  13. Effects of host plant and genetic background on the fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, B.; Wright, D. J.; Bonsall, M B

    2010-01-01

    Novel resistance to pathogens and pesticides is commonly associated with a fitness cost. However, measurements of the fitness costs of insecticide resistance have used diverse methods to control for genetic background and rarely assess the effects of environmental variation. Here, we explored how genetic background interacts with resource quality to affect the expression of the fitness costs associated with resistance. We used a serially backcrossed line of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylo...

  14. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 12. Incorporating considerations of equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fretheim Atle

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the 12th of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on incorporating considerations of equity in guidelines and recommendations. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers We found few directly relevant empirical methodological studies. These answers are based largely on logical arguments. When and how should inequities be addressed in systematic reviews that are used as background documents for recommendations? • The following question should routinely be considered: Are there plausible reasons for anticipating differential relative effects across disadvantaged and advantaged populations? • If there are plausible reasons for anticipating differential effects, additional evidence should be included in a review to inform judgments about the likelihood of differential effects. What questions about equity should routinely be addressed by those making recommendations on behalf of WHO? • The following additional questions should routinely be considered: • How likely is it that the results of available research are applicable to disadvantaged populations and settings? • How likely are differences in baseline risk that would result in differential absolute effects across disadvantaged and advantaged populations? • How likely is

  16. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 12. Incorporating considerations of equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Andrew D; Schünemann, Holger J; Fretheim, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO), like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the 12th of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objectives We reviewed the literature on incorporating considerations of equity in guidelines and recommendations. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers We found few directly relevant empirical methodological studies. These answers are based largely on logical arguments. When and how should inequities be addressed in systematic reviews that are used as background documents for recommendations? • The following question should routinely be considered: Are there plausible reasons for anticipating differential relative effects across disadvantaged and advantaged populations? • If there are plausible reasons for anticipating differential effects, additional evidence should be included in a review to inform judgments about the likelihood of differential effects. What questions about equity should routinely be addressed by those making recommendations on behalf of WHO? • The following additional questions should routinely be considered: • How likely is it that the results of available research are applicable to disadvantaged populations and settings? • How likely are differences in baseline risk that would result in differential absolute effects across disadvantaged and advantaged populations? • How likely is it that there are important

  17. 15 CFR 1160.4 - Antitrust considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.4 Antitrust considerations. The Department of Commerce will offer no opinion on the antitrust merits of the formation of any industrial...

  18. Health physics considerations in decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings contain papers on legal considerations, environmental aspects, decommissioning equipment and methods, instrumentation, applied health physics, waste classification and disposal, and project experience. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  19. Dynamical properties of background neural networks with uniform firing rate and background input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yi Zhang [Computational Intelligence Laboratory, School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)]. E-mail: zhangyi@uestc.edu.cn

    2007-08-15

    In this paper, the dynamic properties of the background neural networks with the uniform firing rate and background input is investigated with a series of mathematical arguments including nondivergence, global attractivity and complete stability analysis. Moreover, it shows that shifting the background level affects the existence and stability of the equilibrium point. Depending on the increase or decrease in background input, the network can engender bifurcation and chaos. It may be have one or two different stable firing levels. That means the background neural network can exhibit not only monostability but also multistability.

  20. Holographic backgrounds from D-brane probes

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovic, Micha

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the derivation of holographic backgrounds from the field theory side, without using any supergravity equations of motion. Instead, we rely on the addition of probe D-branes to the stack of D-branes generating the background. From the field theory description of the probe branes, one can compute an effective action for the probes (in a suitable low-energy/near-horizon limit) by integrating out the background branes. Comparing this action with the generic probe D-brane action then allows to determine the holographic background dual to the considered field theory vacuum. In the first part, the required pre-requisites of field and string theory are recalled and this strategy to derive holographic backgrounds is explained in more detail on the basic case of D3-branes in flat space probed by a small number of D-instantons. The second part contains our original results, which have already appeared in arXiv:1301.3738, arXiv:1301.7062 and arXiv:1312.0621. We first derive the duals to three conti...

  1. On conformal higher spins in curved background

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, M

    2016-01-01

    We address the question of how to represent an interacting action for the tower of conformal higher spin fields in a form covariant with respect to a background metric. We use a background metric to define a star product which plays a central role in the definition of the corresponding gauge transformations. By an analogy with the kinetic term in the 4-derivative Weyl gravity action expanded near an on-shell background one expects that the kinetic term in such an action should be gauge-invariant in a Bach-flat metric. We demonstrate this fact to first order in expansion in powers of the curvature of the background metric. This generalizes the result of arXiv:1404.7452 for spin 3 case to all conformal higher spins. We also comment on a possibility of extending this claim to terms quadratic in the curvature and discuss the appearance of background-dependent mixing terms in the quadratic part of the conformal higher spin action.

  2. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deporzio, Nicholas; Cuore Collaboration

    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and Cherenkov radiation vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Quantum dot based liquid scintillator is similarly bombarded to produce a background induced scintillation light. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. These findings are extrapolated to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications to bolometer searches. Effects of these techniques on experiment duration and signal-background ratio are discussed.

  3. Can one measure the Cosmic Neutrino Background?

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand; Kovalenko, Sergey; Simkovic, Fedor

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) yields information about our Universe at around 380 000 years after the Big Bang (BB). Due to the weak interaction of the neutrinos with matter the Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) should give information about a much earlier time of our Universe, around one second after the Big Bang. Probably the most promising method to `see' the Cosmic Neutrino Background is the capture of the electron neutrinos from the Background by Tritium, which then decays into 3He and an electron with the energy of the the Q-value = 18.562 keV plus the electron neutrino rest mass. The `KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino' (KATRIN) experiment, which is in preparation, seems presently the most sensitive proposed method for measuring the electron antineutrino mass. At the same time KATRIN can also look by the reaction: electron neutrino (~1.95 Kelvin) + 3H --> 3He + e- (with the energy Q = 18.6 keV + electron neutrino mass). The capture of the Cosmic Background Neutrinos (CNB) should show in the electron spe...

  4. Researching Social Capital in Education: Some Conceptual Considerations Relating to the Contribution of Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses conceptual considerations for social capital research in education from a social network perspective. Specifically, the article raises three key conceptual issues that call for further elaboration of concepts of social capital: redefining potential resources as accessible but un-utilized sources of social capital;…

  5. Chronic pain - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain - resources; Resources - chronic pain ... The following organizations are good resources for information on chronic pain: American Chronic Pain Association -- www.theacpa.org National Fibromyalgia and Chronic Pain Association -- www.fmcpaware.org ...

  6. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... The following organizations are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd.org National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.drugabuse.gov ...

  7. Victim assistance - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rape - resources; Resources - rape ... The following organizations are good resources for information on domestic violence and rape : Administration for Children and Families -- www.acf.hhs.gov National Center for Victims of ...

  8. Tidal Forces in Naked Singularity Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Goel, Akash; Roy, Pratim; Sarkar, Tapobrata

    2015-01-01

    The end stage of a gravitational collapse process can generically result in a black hole or a naked singularity. Here we undertake a comparative analysis of the nature of tidal forces in these backgrounds. The effect of such forces is generically exemplified by the Roche limit, which predicts the distance within which a celestial object disintegrates due to the tidal effects of a second more massive object. In this paper, using Fermi normal coordinates, we numerically compute the Roche limit for a class of non-rotating naked singularity backgrounds, and compare them with known results for Schwarzschild black holes. Our analysis indicates that there might be substantially large deviations in the magnitudes of tidal forces in naked singularity backgrounds, compared to the black hole cases. If observationally established, these can prove to be an effective indicator of the nature of the singularity at a galactic centre.

  9. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, J S

    2015-01-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  10. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Gerda Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  11. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qββ come from 214Bi, 228Th, 42K, 60Co and α emitting isotopes in the 226Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions

  12. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, N. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA Collaboration

    2013-08-08

    The neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0νββ decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Q{sub ββ} come from {sup 214}Bi, {sup 228}Th, {sup 42}K, {sup 60}Co and α emitting isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  13. Background Model for the Majorana Demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Aguayo, E; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Boswell, M; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Byram, D; Caldwell, A S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Combs, D C; Cuesta, C; Detwiler, J A; Doe, P J; Efremenko, Yu; Egorov, V; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fast, J E; Finnerty, P; Fraenkle, F M; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Giovanetti, G K; Goett, J; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guiseppe, V E; Gusev, K; Hallin, A L; Hazama, R; Hegai, A; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howard, S; Howe, M A; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; LaFerriere, B D; Leon, J; Leviner, L E; Loach, J C; MacMullin, J; MacMullin, S; Martin, R D; Meijer, S; Mertens, S; Nomachi, M; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Overman, N R; Phillips, D G; Poon, A W P; Pushkin, K; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Ronquest, M C; Schubert, A G; Shanks, B; Shima, T; Shirchenko, M; Snavely, K J; Snyder, N; Suriano, A M; Thompson, J; Timkin, V; Tornow, W; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Young, A R; Yu, C H; Yumatov, V

    2014-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is constructing a system containing 40 kg of HPGe detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale in the inverted-hierarchy region. To realize this, a major goal of the Majorana Demonstrator is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 cnt/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials with analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements.

  14. Electron and Gamma Background in CRESST Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, R F; Bauer, M; Bavykina, I; Bento, A; Brown, A; Bucci, C; Ciemniak, C; Coppi, C; Deuter, G; Von Feilitzsch, F; Hauff, D; Henry, S; Huff, P; Imber, J; Ingleby, S; Isaila, C; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kimmerle, M; Kraus, H; Lanfranchi, J -C; Majorovits, B; Malek, M; McGowan, R; Mikhailik, V B; Pantic, E; Petricca, F; Pfister, S; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Seidel, W; Stodolsky, L; Tolhurst, A J B; Usherov, I; Westphal, W

    2009-01-01

    The CRESST experiment monitors 300g CaWO_4 crystals as targets for particle interactions in an ultra low background environment. In this paper, we analyze the background spectra that are recorded by three detectors over many weeks of data taking. Understanding these spectra is mandatory if one wants to further reduce the background level, and allows us to cross-check the calibration of the detectors. We identify a variety of sources, such as intrinsic contaminations due to primordial radioisotopes and cosmogenic activation of the target material. In particular, we detect a 3.6keV X-ray line from the decay of 41-Ca with an activity of (26\\pm4)\\mu Bq, corresponding to a ratio 41-Ca/40-Ca=(2.2\\pm0.3)\\times10^{-16}.

  15. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  16. Pythia Jet Finding Study with Trento Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Joseph [United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soltz, Ron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-06-22

    We present results applying the Pythia SlowJet Finder to Pythia generated QCD and QED hard processes in the presence of simulated heavy ion backgrounds. The hard process events are generated with Pythia version 8.219 for √sNN=200 GeV proton-proton collisions and the backgrounds are generated by the Reduced Thickness Event-by-event Nuclear Topology model TRENTo for Au-Au collisions with a nucleon-nucleon cross-section of 4.23 fm2. The TRENTo model is used to calculate the initial entropy and ellipticity from which the total charged particle multiplicity and elliptic ow are determined. We report results in the form of event displays, total pT distributions, and fragmentation distributions for SlowJet applied to Pythia events with and without the simulated heavy ion backgrounds.

  17. In-Beam Background Suppression Shield

    CERN Document Server

    Santoro, V; DiJulio, D D; Ansell, S; Bentley, P M

    2015-01-01

    The long (3ms) proton pulse of the European Spallation Source (ESS) gives rise to unique and potentially high backgrounds for the instrument suite. In such a source an instrument capabilities will be limited by it's Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio. The instruments with a direct view of the moderator, which do not use a bender to help mitigate the fast neutron background, are the most challenging. For these beam lines we propose the innovative shielding of placing blocks of material directly into the guide system, which allow a minimum attenuation of the cold and thermal fluxes relative to the background suppression. This shielding configuration has been worked into a beam line model using Geant4. We study particularly the advantages of single crystal sapphire and silicon blocks .

  18. Background modeling for the GERDA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Becerici-Schmidt, N

    2013-01-01

    The neutrinoless double beta (0nubb) decay experiment GERDA at the LNGS of INFN has started physics data taking in November 2011. This paper presents an analysis aimed at understanding and modeling the observed background energy spectrum, which plays an essential role in searches for a rare signal like 0nubb decay. A very promising preliminary model has been obtained, with the systematic uncertainties still under study. Important information can be deduced from the model such as the expected background and its decomposition in the signal region. According to the model the main background contributions around Qbb come from Bi-214, Th-228, K-42, Co-60 and alpha emitting isotopes in the Ra-226 decay chain, with a fraction depending on the assumed source positions.

  19. Non-perturbative background field calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C. R.

    1988-01-01

    New methods are developed for calculating one loop functional determinants in quantum field theory. Instead of relying on a calculation of all the eigenvalues of the small fluctuation equation, these techniques exploit the ability of the proper time formalism to reformulate an infinite dimensional field theoretic problem into a finite dimensional covariant quantum mechanical analog, thereby allowing powerful tools such as the method of Jacobi fields to be used advantageously in a field theory setting. More generally the methods developed herein should be extremely valuable when calculating quantum processes in non-constant background fields, offering a utilitarian alternative to the two standard methods of calculation—perturbation theory in the background field or taking the background field into account exactly. The formalism developed also allows for the approximate calculation of covariances of partial differential equations from a knowledge of the solutions of a homogeneous ordinary differential equation.

  20. Academic Resourcefulness, Coping Strategies and Doubting in University Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuereb, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study hypothesised that academic resourcefulness and coping strategies would predict doubting amongst university undergraduates. Doubting refers to the serious consideration of prematurely withdrawing from university. It was predicted that mature students would report higher levels of academic resourcefulness and adaptive coping strategies,…

  1. Background characterization for the GERDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becerici-Schmidt, Neslihan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: GERDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the LNGS laboratory of INFN searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 76}Ge. A discovery of this decay can greatly advance our knowledge on the nature and properties of neutrinos. The current best limit on the half-life of {sup 76}Ge 0νββ decay is 1.9 . 10{sup 25} years (90% C.L.). In order to increase the sensitivity on the half-life with respect to past experiments, the background rate in the energy region of interest (ROI) around Q{sub ββ} = 2039 keV has been reduced by a factor 10. Gerda started data-taking with the full set of Phase I detectors in November 2011. Identification of the background in the first phase of the experiment is of major importance to further mitigate the background for Gerda Phase II. An analysis of the Phase I data resulted in a good understanding of the individual components in the Gerda background spectrum. The background components in the ROI have been identified to be mainly due to β- and γ-induced events originating from {sup 214}Bi ({sup 238}U-series), {sup 208}Tl ({sup 232}Th-series), {sup 42}K (progeny of {sup 42}Ar) and α-induced events coming from isotopes in the {sup 226}Ra decay chain. A background decomposition in the ROI will be presented, with a special emphasis on the contribution from α-induced events.

  2. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  3. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas

  4. Semiclassical strings in Lunin-Maldacena background

    OpenAIRE

    Bobev, N. P.; Dimov, H.; Rashkov, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we investigate semiclassical rotating string configurations in the recently found Lunin-Maldacena background. This background is conjectured to be dual to the Leigh-Strassler beta-deformation of N=4 SYM and therefore a good laboratory for tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence beyond the well explored AdS(5)x S(5) case. We consider different multispin configurations of rotating strings by allowing the strings to move in both the AdS(5) and the deformed S(5) part of the Lunin-Maldac...

  5. Pulsating Strings in Lunin-Maldacena Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Giardino, Sergio; Rivelles, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We consider pulsating strings in Lunin-Maldacena backgrounds, specifically in deformed Minkowski spacetime and deformed AdS_5xS^5. We find the relation between the energy and the oscillation number of the pulsating string when the deformation is small. Since the oscillation number is an adiabatic invariant it can be used to explore the regime of highly excited string states. We then quantize the string and look for such a sector. For the deformed Minkowski background we find a precise match w...

  6. Quark Matter in a Strong Magnetic Background

    CERN Document Server

    Gatto, Raoul

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss several aspects of the theory of strong interactions in presence of a strong magnetic background. In particular, we summarize our results on the effect of the magnetic background on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement at finite temperature. Moreover, we compute the magnetic susceptibility of the chiral condensate and the quark polarization at zero temperature. Our theoretical framework is given by chiral models: the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL), the Polyakov improved NJL (or PNJL) and the Quark-Meson (QM) models. We also compare our results with the ones obtained by other groups.

  7. Geodesics and Newton's Law in Brane Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Mück, W; Volovich, I V

    2000-01-01

    In brane world models our universe is considered as a brane imbedded into ahigher dimensional space. We discuss the behaviour of geodesics in theRandall-Sundrum background and point out that free massive particles cannotmove along the brane only. The brane is repulsive, and matter will be expelledfrom the brane into the extra dimension. This is rather undesirable, and hencewe study an alternative model with a non-compact extra dimension, but with anattractive brane embedded into the higher dimensional space. We study thelinearized gravity equations and show that Newton's gravitational law is validon the brane also in the alternative background.

  8. Cognitive psychology and depth psychology backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth chapter gives an insight into the risk perception process which is highly determined by emotions, and, thus, deals with the psychological backgrounds of both the conscious cognitive and the subconscious intuitive realms of the human psyche. The chapter deals with the formation of opinion and the origination of an attitude towards an issue; cognitive-psychological patterns of thinking from the field of risk perception; the question of man's rationality; pertinent aspects of group behaviour; depth psychological backgrounds of the fear of technology; the collective subconscious; nuclear energy as a preferred object of projection for various psychological problems of modern man. (HSCH)

  9. Propagation of light in area metric backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Schuller, Frederic P, E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.d, E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.d [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-02-07

    The propagation of light in area metric spacetimes, which naturally emerge as refined backgrounds in quantum electrodynamics and quantum gravity, is studied from first principles. In the geometric-optical limit, light rays are found to follow geodesics in a Finslerian geometry, with the Finsler norm being determined by the area metric tensor. Based on this result, and an understanding of the nonlinear relation between ray vectors and wave covectors in such refined backgrounds, we study light deflection in spherically symmetric situations and obtain experimental bounds on the non-metricity of spacetime in the solar system.

  10. Gamma radiation background measurements from Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.; Gregory, John C.; Fishman, Gerald J.

    1989-01-01

    A Nuclear Radiation Monitor incorporating a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was flown as part of the verification flight instrumentation on the Spacelab 2 mission, July 29 to August 6, 1985. Gamma-ray spectra were measured with better than 20 s resolution throughout most of the mission in the energy range 0.1 to 30 MeV. Knowledge of the decay characteristics and the geomagnetic dependence of the counting rates enable measurement of the various components of the Spacelab gamma-ray background: prompt secondary radiation, earth albedo, and delayed induced radioactivity. The status of the data analysis and present relevant examples of typical background behavior are covered.

  11. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged. PMID:27790111

  12. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  13. Resource price turbulence and macroeconomic adjustment for a resource exporter. A conceptual framework for policy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Grant M. [School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 522 (Australia); Harvie, Charles [School of Economics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    Increased global demand for energy and other resources, particularly from the rapidly developing economies of China and India and the opening up of global resource markets to global investors and speculative activity, has resulted in considerable recent turbulence in resource prices. The recent magnitude of change in resource prices, both positive and negative, and their macroeconomic implications is of considerable contemporary importance to both resource importing and exporting economies. For a resource exporting economy, such as that of Australia, the recent resource price boom has resulted in: increased government taxation revenue, increased employment and wages in the resource and resource related sectors, increased spending in the domestic economy that contributed to buoyant economic growth, increased resource exports to the booming economies of China and India and contributed to a stronger domestic currency with beneficial effects upon inflation. On the other hand these developments have had adverse effects on the non-resource sector by: subjecting it to more intense competition for limited resources, contributing to a loss of international competitiveness and reduced exports arising from a stronger exchange rate, reducing employment in the relatively more labour intensive non-resource sector, and contributing to an eventual slow down in the overall economy. These positive and negative effects, and the overall impact of a resource price boom, require a fundamentally closer analysis of the structure of the economy under scrutiny. In this context the policy response by government is likely to be pivotal in determining the overall macroeconomic outcomes from a resource price boom. The aim of this paper is to develop a generic analytical framework to appraise economic outcomes in the wake of a resource price boom for a resource producing and exporting economy. To this end a dynamic long run macroeconomic model is developed, emphasising the important role and

  14. 44 CFR 350.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... coordinate civil emergency planning, management and assistance functions and to represent the President in... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 350.3 Section 350.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. Ambient background measurement at PUSHEP tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of upcoming INO laboratory in India, a feasibility study of neutrinoless double beta decay (0υββ) in 124Sn has been initiated. The objective is to make a prototype bolometric detector of 124Sn (∼ 1 Kg equivalent) and install it in a low background area

  16. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  17. Ablation plume dynamics in a background gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoruso, Salvatore; Schou, Jørgen; Lunney, James G.

    2010-01-01

    the expansion. The model also leads to an insightful treatment of the stopping behavior in dimensionless units for plumes and background gases of different atomic/molecular masses. The energetics of the plume dynamics can also be treated with this model. Experimental time-of-flight data of silver ions in a neon...

  18. 22 CFR 1501.2 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....C. 290h)). It is a non-profit, non-stock issuing, tax-exempt corporation, and is subject to title I... Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION ORGANIZATION Substantive Rule of General Applicability § 1501.2 Background. (a) The African Development Foundation (“ADF”) is a wholly-owned corporation of the United...

  19. Superconformal invariance and superstring in background fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider the propagation of the superstring on a general classical background containing the effects of the metric, the antisymmetric tensor and the dilaton fields. Using the operator product expansion method for two dimensional superconformal field theories we derive the equations for these fields as a consequence of the superconformal invariance of the theory. (author)

  20. DUSEL Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Keenan

    2007-10-01

    The Homestake Mine in western South Dakota has been confirmed by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the site for a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). Many of the physics, geosciences, and microbiology experiments in the facility will be funded by DOE and NSF, and will benefit the missions of these agencies. In support of these programs, physics faculty in South Dakota and scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been working together to establish a multidisciplinary research cluster to provide baseline characterization for physics and geosciences/geomicrobiology experiments at the Homestake Mine through an Ultra-Low Background Counting Facility (ULBCoF). The proposed project utilizes two low-background germanium detectors with massive shielding underground to carefully analyze materials for low background experiments. Low background experiments such as double-beta decay, solar neutrino, geoneutrino, and dark matter must control the purity of all the materials used in the construction of a detector. Measuring such low counting rates is a very challenging task that will be best accomplished by primarily using high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors.

  1. Comparative Risk Aversion under Background Risk Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Masamitsu Ohnishi; Yusuke Osaki

    2010-01-01

    This paper determines a new sufficient condition of the (von Neumann-Morgenstern) utility function that preserves comparative risk aversion under background risk. It is the single crossing condition of risk aversion. Because this condition requires monotonicity in the local sense, it may satisfy the U-shaped risk aversion observed in the recent empirical literature.

  2. Building Background Knowledge within Literature Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the strength of literature circles in developing background knowledge--an acknowledged sticking point in the development of understanding for middle graders--with a special focus on the literature circle role of "investigator," where it is student initiative and not teacher direction that guides comprehension. Observing…

  3. The spinorial method of classifying supersymmetric backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2006-01-01

    We review how the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity can be reduced to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This is an extension of the work [hep-th/0503046] t

  4. Geometry of all supersymmetric type I backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, Ulf; Papadopoulos, George; Sloane, Peter; Roest, Diederik

    2007-01-01

    We find the geometry of all supersymmetric type I backgrounds by solving the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations, using the spinorial geometry technique, in all cases. The solutions of the gravitino Killing spinor equation are characterized by their isotropy group in Spin(9, 1), while th

  5. Perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Y K

    2006-01-01

    We study perturbations of supertube in KK monopole background, at both DBI and supergravity levels. We analyse both NS1-P as well as D0-F1 duality frames and study different profiles. This illuminates certain aspects of bound states of KK monopoles with supertubes.

  6. Climate change. Scientific background and process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Seip, Hans Martin; Skodvin, Tora

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes briefly the natural and man-made forces behind climate change and outlines climate variations in the past. It also discusses the future impact of anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases, and the background, organisation and functioning of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  7. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  8. Generalized geometry lectures on type II backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The first part of these notes is a self-contained introduction to generalized complex geometry. It is intended as a `user manual' for tools used in the study of supersymmetric backgrounds of supergravity. In the second part we review some past and recent results on the generalized complex structure of supersymmetric type II vacua in various dimensions.

  9. Controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RENA is a research programm into the controllable forms of natural background radiation, which cover the activities originating from the naturally occurring radionuclides enhanced by human intervention. In the RENA-program emphasis lays upon the policy aspects of environmental-hygienic, economical and governmental character. (H.W.). 15 refs.; 2 tabs

  10. Contemporary Rhetoric: A Conceptual Background with Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterowd, W. Ross, Ed.

    Designed for use by composition students as well as teachers, the essays and background discussions in this book address themselves to questions of theory and practice in rhetoric. The book is divided into sections on invention, form, and style, and contains articles by such authors as Janet Emig, Wayne C. Booth, Richard L. Larson, Kenneth Burke,…

  11. Background model for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, C; Arnquist, I J; Avignone, F T; Barabash, A S; Bertrand, F E; Bradley, A W; Brudanin, V; Busch, M; Buuck, M; Caldwell, T S; Chan, Y-D; Christofferson, C D; Chu, P -H; Detwiler, J A; Dunagan, C; Efremenko, Yu; Ejiri, H; Elliott, S R; Fullmer, A; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Gilliss, T; Giovanetti, G K; Green, M P; Gruszko, J; Guinn, I S; Guiseppe, V E; Henning, R; Hoppe, E W; Howe, M A; Jasinski, B R; Keeter, K J; Kidd, M F; Konovalov, S I; Kouzes, R T; Leon, J; Lopez, A M; MacMullin, J; Martin, R D; Massarczyk, R; Meijer, S J; Mertens, S; Orrell, J L; O'Shaughnessy, C; Poon, A W P; Radford, D C; Rager, J; Rielage, K; Robertson, R G H; Romero-Romero, E; Shanks, B; Shirchenko, M; Suriano, A M; Tedeschi, D; Trimble, J E; Varner, R L; Vasilyev, S; Vetter, K; Vorren, K; White, B R; Wilkerson, J F; Wiseman, C; Xu, W; Yakushev, E; Yu, C -H; Yumatov, V; Zhitnikov, I

    2016-01-01

    The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing a system containing 44 kg of high-purity Ge (HPGe) detectors to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a future tonne-scale experiment capable of probing the neutrino mass scale to ~15 meV. To realize this, a major goal of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate a path forward to achieving a background rate at or below 1 count/(ROI-t-y) in the 4 keV region of interest (ROI) around the Q-value at 2039 keV. This goal is pursued through a combination of a significant reduction of radioactive impurities in construction materials and analytical methods for background rejection, for example using powerful pulse shape analysis techniques profiting from the p-type point contact HPGe detectors technology. The effectiveness of these methods is assessed using simulations of the different background components whose purity levels are constrained from radioassay measurements. Preliminary background results obtained during the engineering runs of the Demonstrator are pre...

  12. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Far InfraRed Absolute Spectrophotometer data are independently recalibrated using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to obtain a cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature of 2.7260 ± 0.0013. Measurements of the temperature of the CMB are reviewed. The determination from the measurements from the literature is CMB temperature of 2.72548 ± 0.00057 K.

  13. BACKGROUND FACTORS AND SUCCESS IN COLLEGE PHYSICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOLTE, JOHN R.

    FACTORS RELATED TO ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN FIRST YEAR COLLEGE PHYSICS WERE IDENTIFIED. DATA WERE OBTAINED FROM THE RECORDS OF 923 STUDENTS WHO HAD COMPLETED THE FIRST SEMESTER OF A COLLEGE PHYSICS COURSE DURING A 5-YEAR PERIOD. MULTIPLE CORRELATIONS WERE USED TO RELATE STUDENT BACKGROUND VARIABLES TO ACHIEVEMENT IN COLLEGE PHYSICS. HIGH SCHOOL…

  14. Educational Background in a Prison Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Hilde; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Manger, Terje; Diseth, Age; Asbjornsen, Arve

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the educational background of the total population of inmates in Norwegian prisons. The sample consisted of all 3 289 inmates over 18 years of age in Norwegian prisons. The response rate was 71.1 percent. Ninety four percent of the participants were men and mean age was 35 years. A questionnaire…

  15. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... adversaries shape the nature and gravity of the threat as well as its likelihood and timing of...

  16. National-Scale Wind Resource Assessment for Power Generation (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E. I.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation describes the current standards for conducting a national-scale wind resource assessment for power generation, along with the risk/benefit considerations to be considered when beginning a wind resource assessment. The presentation describes changes in turbine technology and viable wind deployment due to more modern turbine technology and taller towers and shows how the Philippines national wind resource assessment evolved over time to reflect changes that arise from updated technologies and taller towers.

  17. A DYNAMIC EVALUATION MODEL OF MINERAL RESOURCE PROPERTY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮建伟; 冯志亮

    2000-01-01

    Based on the value theory of mineral resource, a dynamic evaluation model of mineral resource property is erected, which not only takes the factors of extractions into consideration but also those of explorations. The solution process of the model is described and the differential solution is presented. Then the paper comes to the conclusion that the differential solution is also the optimal depletion path of the resource.

  18. Background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Fukao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Lamb waves of the Earth's atmosphere in the millihertz band have been considered as transient phenomena excited only by large events [e.g. the major volcanic eruption of Krakatoa in 1833, the impact of Siberian meteorite in 1908, the testing of large nuclear tests and the huge earthquakes, Garrett1969]. In a case of the solid Earth, observation of background free oscillations in the millihertz band-now known as Earth's background free oscillations or seismic hum, has been firmly established. Above 5 mHz, their dominant excitation sources are oceanic infragravity waves. At 3.7 and 4.4 mHz an elasto-acoustic resonance between the solid Earth and the atmosphere was observed [Nishida et al., 2000]. These seismic observations show that the contribution of atmospheric disturbances to the seismic hum is dominant below 5 mHz. Such contribution implies background excitations of acoustic-gravity waves in this frequency range. For direct detection of the background acoustic-gravity waves, our group conducted observations using an array of barometers [Nishida et al. 2005]. However, the spatial scale of the array of about 10 km was too small to detect acoustic modes below 10 mHz. Since then, no direct observations of these waves have been reported. In 2011, 337 high-resolution microbarometers were installed on a continental scale at USArray Transportable Array. The large and dense array enables us to detect the background atmospheric waves. Here, we show the first evidence of background Lamb waves in the Earth's atmosphere from 0.2 to 10 mHz, based on the array analysis of microbarometer data from the USArray in 2012. The observations suggest that the excitation sources are atmospheric disturbances in the troposphere. Theoretically, their energy in the troposphere tunnels into the thermosphere at a resonant frequency via thermospheric gravity wave, where the observed amplitudes indeed take a local minimum. The energy leak through the frequency window could partly contribute to

  19. Background and future activities of PBNCC's nuclear training working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a review of the background and activities of the nuclear training working group of the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee. The working group has examined various mechanisms for regional cooperation including the development of aregional catalog of training programs and the conceptualization of sharing training facilities among nuclear operators in the region. The working group has focused its attention on the exchange of information on the on-going training programs, operator training facilities, available resources for training assistance and proposed cooperative schemes. These activities are expected to continue and will provide invaluable information for nuclear power programs in the Pacific Basin region. The group also reviewed problems and issues associated with developing regional cooperation. (author)

  20. Untapped Resources or Deficient ‘Foreigners’ : Students of Vietnamese Background in Icelandic Upper Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Anh-Dao Tran 1959

    2015-01-01

    As Iceland’s population becomes more diverse, so does the student body in upper secondary schools. A number of studies during the past decade reported a high drop-out rate among immigrant students. The basic reasons students cited were low proficiency in the Icelandic language, low self-esteem, lack of motivation, and social isolation. Based on these findings, I ask how these phenomena can be explained by the theory and practice of multicultural education. The study applies the critical ...

  1. 76 FR 42074 - Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    .... Background The NRC recently published the Decommissioning Planning Rule (DPR) (76 FR 33512; June 17, 2011... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 20 Consideration of Rulemaking To Address Prompt Remediation of Residual Radioactivity... rulemaking to address prompt remediation of residual radioactivity during the operational phase of...

  2. Ethical considerations of worksite health promotion: an exploration of stakeholders’ views

    OpenAIRE

    van Berkel, Jantien; Meershoek, Agnes; Janssens, Rien MJPA; Boot, Cécile RL; Karin I. Proper; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Background Developing, implementing and evaluating worksite health promotion requires dealing with all stakeholders involved, such as employers, employees, occupational physicians, insurance companies, providers, labour unions and research and knowledge institutes. Although worksite health promotion is becoming more common, empirical research on ethical considerations of worksite health promotion is scarce. Methods We explored the views of stakeholders involved in worksite health promotion in...

  3. Background reduction in the SNO+ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segui, L. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, OX1 Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-17

    SNO+ is a large multi-purpose liquid scintillator experiment, which first aim is to detect the neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 130}Te. It is placed at SNOLAB, at 6000 m.w.e. and it is based on the SNO infrastructure. SNO+ will contain approximately 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator, loaded with {sup 130}Te inside an acrylic vessel (AV) with an external volume of ultra pure water to reduce the external backgrounds. Light produced in the scintillator by the interaction of particles will be detected with about 9,000 photomultiplier’s. For the neutrinoless double beta decay phase, due to its the extremely low rate expected, the control, knowledge and reduction of the background is essential. Moreover, it will also benefit other phases of the experiment focused on the study of solar neutrinos, nucleon decay, geoneutrinos and supernovae. In order to reduce the internal background level, a novel purification technique for tellurium loaded scintillators has been developed by the collaboration that reduces the U/Th concentration and several cosmic-activated isotopes by at least a factor 10{sup 2} -10{sup 3} in a single pass. In addition, different rejection techniques have been developed for the remaining internal backgrounds based on Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, the scintillator purification technique and the levels obtained with it will be discussed. Furthermore, an overview of the different backgrounds for the double-beta phase will be presented, highlighting some of the techniques developed to reject the remained decays based on their expected timing differences.

  4. Study on the background information for the geological disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has published first R and D report in 1992, in which the fruits of the R and D work were compiled. Since then, JNC, has been promoting the second R and D progress report until before 2000, in which the background information on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) was to be presented as well as the technical basis. Recognizing the importance of the social consensus to the geological disposal, understanding and consensus by the society are essential to the development and realization of the geological disposal of HLW. In this fiscal year, studies were divided into 2 phases, considering the time schedule of the second R and D progress report. 1. Phase 1: Analysis of the background information on the geological disposal concept. Based on the recent informations and the research works of last 2 years, final version of the study was made to contribute to the background informations for the second R and D progress report. (This was published in Nov. 1999 as the intermediate report: JNC TJ 1420 2000-006). 2. Phase 2: Following 2 specific items were selected for the candidate issues which need to be studied, considering the present circumstances around the R and D of geological disposal. (1) Educational materials and strategies related to nuclear energy and nuclear waste. Specific strategies and approaches in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear waste educational outreach and curriculum activities by the nuclear industry, government and other entities in 6 countries were surveyed and summarized. (2) Alternatives to geological disposal of HLW: Past national/international consideration and current status. The alternatives for the disposal of HLW have been discussed in the past and the major waste-producing countries have almost all chosen deep geological disposal as preferred method. Here past histories and recent discussions on the variations to geological disposal were studied. (author)

  5. Choice of Study and Persistence in Higher Education by Immigrant Background, Gender, and Social Background

    OpenAIRE

    Støren, Liv Anne

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present documentation of new analyses carried out at NIFU STEP concerning differences by immigrant background, gender and social background with regard to choice of type study programme in higher education, as well as educational attainment and persistence in higher education. Many studies have been undertaken concerning completion of upper secondary education and enrolment into higher education in relation to immigrant background. Little is known, however, about ...

  6. Family Background and School Effects on Student Achievement: A Multilevel Analysis of the Coleman Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Borman, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: A main objective of the Equality of Educational Opportunity Survey (EEOS), conducted in 1965, was to document the lack of availability of equal educational opportunities for minority students in public schools. Another equally important objective was to reveal specific inequalities in facilities and resources available to…

  7. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…

  8. The Influence of Social Background on Participation in Adult Education:Applying the Cultural Capital Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincinnato, Sebastiano; De Wever, Bram; Van Keer, Hilde; Valcke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we address the issue of participation in adult education building on the cultural capital framework. This theoretical framework suggests that (educational) practices are affected by one's social background and, more precisely, by the cultural resources handed down in the family context. To examine the validity of this theoretical…

  9. [Resource activation in clinical psychology and psychotherapy: review of theoretical issues and current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, L J; Stemmler, M; de Zwaan, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises theoretical issues and current research on working with clients' resources and strengths in clinical psychology and psychotherapy. Resource activation is considered as an important common factor in psychotherapy. In general, resource activation means an explicit focus on resources, strengths and potentials of the clients. After defining the term resources, considerations with regard to therapeutic attitude, principles of resource activation, approaches to resource diagnostics and different research strategies are presented. Current research focuses especially on the relation between resource activation and process variables in out-patient treatment.

  10. Managing Opioid Abuse in Older Adults: Clinical Considerations and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreck, David; Brandt, Nicole J; DiPaula, Bethany

    2016-04-01

    Opioid use disorder is a public health epidemic. There is increasing attention being given to opioid abuse and overdose in the United States. The overall use of illicit substances by older adults is on the rise and in part can be attributed to the aging of Baby Boomers. Furthermore, much attention is being given to prescription opioid drug overdose, but it is important to note that heroin-related deaths have also increased sharply. Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem, with more than nine in 10 individuals who use heroin also using at least one other drug (e.g., cocaine, prescription opioid medication). The current article highlights treatment approaches, namely buprenorphine, buprenorphine/naloxone, and naltrexone; insurance considerations; and resources to aid in understanding and managing this public health crisis. PMID:27027362

  11. Considerations and Infrastructure Milestones for a Research Reactor Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a research reactor is a major project requiring careful planning, preparation, implementation, and investment in time and human resources. The implementation of such a project requires establishment of sustainable infrastructures, including legal and regulatory, safety, technical, and economic. This paper discusses the scope of these infrastructures and the major stages in their development; starting with a robust pre-project justification for the research reactor and moving through three milestones in the establishment of the infrastructure itself. The paper discusses also the main elements of the feasibility study for a new research reactor project and specific safety and technical considerations in different phases of the project as well as the major activities to be performed along with the project phases, including progressive involvement of the main organizations in the project, and application of the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors and IAEA Safety Standards. (author)

  12. Site identification: environmental and radiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and environmental considerations are recognized as being of utmost importance in planning, siting, licensing, operating, and decommissioning a high-level nuclear waste repository. In such a complex undertaking, it is important to identify the major concerns anticipated to arise in all of these phases in order to address them as early as possible in the program. Three representative activities/studies are summarized which will identify some of the important radiological and environmental considerations which must be addressed through this prolonged sequence of events and will indicate how these considerations are being addressed. It should be emphasized that these are only three of many which could have been chosen. The three key activities/studies are: (1) the NWTS Program criteria for identifying repository sites, (2) the generic guide for preparing environmental evaluations for deep drilling and (3) a preliminary environmental assessment for disposal of mined rock during excavation of a repository

  13. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  14. The New Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  15. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together t

  16. Technical Considerations in Magnetic Analogue Models

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Patrick W M

    2016-01-01

    The analogy between vorticity and magnetic fields has been a subject of interest to researchers for a considerable period of time, mainly because of the structural similarities between the systems of equations that govern the evolution of the two fields. We recently presented the analysis of magnetic fields and hydrodynamics vorticity fields and argued for a formal theory of analogue magnetism. This article provides in depth technical details of the relevant considerations for the simulation procedures and extends the analyses to a range of fluids.

  17. Scheduler Design Criteria: Requirements and Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanbong

    2016-01-01

    This presentation covers fundamental requirements and considerations for developing schedulers in airport operations. We first introduce performance and functional requirements for airport surface schedulers. Among various optimization problems in airport operations, we focus on airport surface scheduling problem, including runway and taxiway operations. We then describe a basic methodology for airport surface scheduling such as node-link network model and scheduling algorithms previously developed. Next, we explain how to design a mathematical formulation in more details, which consists of objectives, decision variables, and constraints. Lastly, we review other considerations, including optimization tools, computational performance, and performance metrics for evaluation.

  18. Digital filtering: background and tutorial for psychophysiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E W; Miller, G A

    1992-05-01

    Digital filtering offers more to psychophysiologists than is commonly appreciated. An introduction is offered here to foster the explicit design and use of digital filters. Because of considerable confusion in the literature about terminology important to both analog and digital filtering, basic concepts are reviewed and clarified. Because some time series concepts are fundamental to digital filtering, these are also presented. Examples of filters commonly used in psychophysiology are given, and procedures are presented for the design and use of one type of digital filter. Properties of some types of digital filters are described, and the relative advantages of simple analog and digital filters are discussed.

  19. Electromagnetic Polarizabilities: Lattice QCD in Background Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Detmold, W; Walker-Loud, A

    2011-01-01

    Chiral perturbation theory makes definitive predictions for the extrinsic behavior of hadrons in external electric and magnetic fields. Near the chiral limit, the electric and magnetic polarizabilities of pions, kaons, and nucleons are determined in terms of a few well-known parameters. In this limit, hadrons become quantum mechanically diffuse as polarizabilities scale with the inverse square-root of the quark mass. In some cases, however, such predictions from chiral perturbation theory have not compared well with experimental data. Ultimately we must turn to first principles numerical simulations of QCD to determine properties of hadrons, and confront the predictions of chiral perturbation theory. To address the electromagnetic polarizabilities, we utilize the background field technique. Restricting our attention to calculations in background electric fields, we demonstrate new techniques to determine electric polarizabilities and baryon magnetic moments for both charged and neutral states. As we can study...

  20. Cosmic Infrared Background Fluctuations and Zodiacal Light

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Richard G; Moseley, S H; Mather, J

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a specific observational test to measure the effect that the zodiacal light can have on measurements of the spatial fluctuations of the near-IR background. Previous estimates of possible fluctuations caused by zodiacal light have often been extrapolated from observations of the thermal emission at longer wavelengths and low angular resolution, or from IRAC observations of high latitude fields where zodiacal light is faint and not strongly varying with time. The new observations analyzed here target the COSMOS field, at low ecliptic latitude where the zodiacal light intensity varies by factors of $\\sim2$ over the range of solar elongations at which the field can be observed. We find that the white noise component of the spatial power spectrum of the background is correlated with the modeled zodiacal light intensity. Roughly half of the measured white noise is correlated with the zodiacal light, but a more detailed interpretation of the white noise is hampered by systematic uncertainties that ...