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Sample records for background australian infants

  1. Health services utilisation disparities between English speaking and non-English speaking background Australian infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jack

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the differences in health services utilisation and the associated risk factors between infants from non-English speaking background (NESB and English speaking background (ESB within Australia. Methods We analysed data from a national representative longitudinal study, the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC which started in 2004. We used survey logistic regression coupled with survey multiple linear regression to examine the factors associated with health services utilisation. Results Similar health status was observed between the two groups. In comparison to ESB infants, NESB infants were significantly less likely to use the following health services: maternal and child health centres or help lines (odds ratio [OR] 0.56; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.40-0.79; maternal and child health nurse visits (OR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.95; general practitioners (GPs (OR 0.58; 95% CI, 0.40-0.83; and hospital outpatient clinics (OR 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93. Multivariate analysis results showed that the disparities could not be fully explained by the socioeconomic status and language barriers. The association between English proficiency and the service utilised was absent once the NESB was taken into account. Maternal characteristics, family size and income, private health insurance and region of residence were the key factors associated with health services utilisation. Conclusions NESB infants accessed significantly less of the four most frequently used health services compared with ESB infants. Maternal characteristics and family socioeconomic status were linked to health services utilisation. The gaps in health services utilisation between NESB and ESB infants with regard to the use of maternal and child health centres or phone help, maternal and child health nurse visits, GPs and paediatricians require appropriate policy attentions and interventions.

  2. A review of life expectancy and infant mortality estimations for Australian Aboriginal people

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant variation exists in published Aboriginal mortality and life expectancy (LE) estimates due to differing and evolving methodologies required to correct for inadequate recording of Aboriginality in death data, under-counting of Aboriginal people in population censuses, and unexplained growth in the Aboriginal population attributed to changes in the propensity of individuals to identify as Aboriginal at population censuses. The objective of this paper is to analyse variation in reported Australian Aboriginal mortality in terms of LE and infant mortality rates (IMR), compared with all Australians. Methods Published data for Aboriginal LE and IMR were obtained and analysed for data quality and method of estimation. Trends in reported LE and IMR estimates were assessed and compared with those in the entire Australian population. Results LE estimates derived from different methodologies vary by as much as 7.2 years for the same comparison period. Indirect methods for estimating Aboriginal LE have produced LE estimates sensitive to small changes in underlying assumptions, some of which are subject to circular reasoning. Most indirect methods appear to under-estimate Aboriginal LE. Estimated LE gaps between Aboriginal people and the overall Australian population have varied between 11 and 20 years. Latest mortality estimates, based on linking census and death data, are likely to over-estimate Aboriginal LE. Temporal LE changes by each methodology indicate that Aboriginal LE has improved at rates similar to the Australian population overall. Consequently the gap in LE between Aboriginal people and the total Australian population appears to be unchanged since the early 1980s, and at the end of the first decade of the 21st century remains at least 11–12 years. In contrast, focussing on the 1990–2010 period Aboriginal IMR declined steeply over 2001–08, from more than 12 to around 8 deaths per 1,000 live births, the same level as Australia overall in

  3. Australians from a Non-English Speaking Background with Intellectual Disability: The Importance of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolan, Claire E.; Gomez, Miriam Taylor; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors review available data on Australians from a non-English speaking background (NESB) with intellectual disability (ID). They find that intellectual disability in the Australian NESB community has received limited attention in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research. The existing literature is over 10 years old and is relevant…

  4. Maternal health, breast-feeding and infant nutrition in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1989-08-01

    Undernutrition is widespread in Australian Aboriginal infants and children and is associated with high rates of infections, particularly of the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Maternal ill-health and undernutrition seem to be neglected factors which contribute to the high incidence of low birthweight in Aboriginal babies and to their poor growth in the first five years of life. More effective preventive programmes are needed to help overcome these problems. PMID:2514558

  5. Infant Feeding Practices and Nut Allergy over Time in Australian School Entrant Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Paton; Marjan Kljakovic; Karen Ciszek; Pauline Ding

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To measure the association between infant feeding practices and parent-reported nut allergy in school entrant children. Method. The Kindergarten Health Check Questionnaire was delivered to all 110 Australian Capital Territory (ACT) primary schools between 2006 and 2009. Retrospective analyses were undertaken of the data collected from the kindergarten population. Results. Of 15142 children a strong allergic reaction to peanuts and other nuts was reported in 487 (3.2%) and 307 (3.9%), chi...

  6. Uniform treatment thresholds for hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants : Background and synopsis of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre Elisabeth; Dijk, Peter Hendrik; Hulzebos, Christian Victor

    2011-01-01

    Background: To prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics' management guideline for hyperbilirubinemia in near term infants is used worldwide. A leading guideline for jaundiced preterm infants is lacking whereas the risk on severe hyperbilirubin

  7. Uniform treatment thresholds for hyperbilirubinemia in preterm infants: background and synopsis of a national guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin neurotoxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics' management guideline for hyperbilirubinemia in near term infants is used worldwide. A leading guideline for jaundiced preterm infants is lacking whereas the risk on severe hyperbilirubin

  8. Immigrant Status and Home Language Background: Implications for Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, John

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that immigrant status and home language background may have on the performance of Australian students who participated in the OECD/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231 schools across Australia participated in the study. In this…

  9. Depression literacy among Australians of Chinese-speaking background in Melbourne, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poon Ada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. Methods Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette describing an individual with depression and then asked questions to assess their understanding of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods. A comparative approach was used to compare the findings with those of a previous study of the mental health literacy of Australian and Japanese adults. Results Compared to the Australian and Japanese samples, a much lower percentage of Chinese-speaking Australians (14% could correctly identify major depression described in the vignette, and a higher percentage believed that counseling professionals could be helpful. Higher percentages of those who believed that close family members could be helpful were found in the Chinese-speaking Australian and Japanese samples, and these two groups also expressed more uncertainty about the usefulness or harmfulness of certain medications compared to the Australian sample. Higher percentages of respondents in both the Chinese-speaking Australian and the Australian sample considered "lifestyle changes" to be helpful compared to the Japanese sample. In the Chinese-speaking sample, 30%, 17.4%, 33% and 27% of the respondents rated "traditional Chinese medicine doctors," "Chinese herbal medications," "taking Chinese nutritional foods/supplements" and "qiqong" as helpful. Many perceived "changing fungshui" and "traditional Chinese worship" to be harmful. Regarding the perception of causes of mental illness, items related to psychosocial perspectives

  10. Depression literacy among Australians of Chinese-speaking background in Melbourne, Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Poon Ada; Lam Yuk; Wong Fu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the knowledge of depression and preference for professional help, medications and treatment methods among Australians of Chinese-speaking background, and the perceptions of this population of the causes of mental illness. Methods Adopting a cluster convenience sampling method, the study recruited 200 Chinese-speaking subjects from four major areas in metropolitan Melbourne where many Chinese live. The respondents were presented with a vignette descr...

  11. Mean organ weights of an Australian population of fetuses and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussen, L; Scurry, J; Mitropoulos, G; McTigue, C; Gross, J

    1990-04-01

    Charts of organ weights for an Australian population of fetuses and infants are presented. The organ-weight charts were compiled from 1337 stillbirths and liveborn babies whose gestational age ranged from 20 to 43 weeks, and who lived less than 72 h. Macerated stillbirths, multiple births and malformed organs were excluded. Pathological conditions aside from malformations were not excluded, leading to higher standard deviations compared with currently used charts. The organ weights are presented in two-week increments from 20 to 43 weeks' gestation as means, with standard deviations. PMID:2361065

  12. Cultural consistency in Australian dental students from two different ethnic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Winning, Tracey; Morgan, Michael V; Thomson, W Murray; Marshall, Roderick I; Gotjamanos, Theo

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the value orientations of dental students from different ethnic backgrounds studying in Australian dental schools. A ninety-eight-item questionnaire was used to collect the data, including fifteen subscales developed consistent with the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck value orientation model. To compare the value orientation structure and to determine if any ethnic differences existed, a multivariate analysis of variance called profile analysis was performed on the fifteen value subscales. Of the 401 participants, 30.2 percent were Anglo-Australian and 44.9 percent were Asian. The remainder (24.9 percent) were "Other-background residents" or "Other-international students." This article presents data from Asian (n=184) and Anglo-Australian (n=124) background respondents. Mean age was 21.7 years (s.e. 0.35 years) among Anglo-Australian and 20.8 years (s.e. 0.17 years) among Asians. Asians born overseas represented 70.7 percent (n=130) of this group. Of Australia-born Asians (n=54), 90.6 percent were first-generation Australians. When comparing their value profile, we found a significant association between ethnicity and value orientation profile scores (p<0.05). Despite the significant overall result, the strength of the association (eta(2)=0.007) indicated that this effect was trivial relative to the unexplained variance in value orientation. The findings suggest that, behind an apparent ethnic diversity, a single distinctive value profile might exist to which the majority of dental students subscribe. PMID:15520237

  13. Chinese Curriculum Design and Motivation of Chinese Background Students in Australian Tertiary Education

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Li

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the need for a change in the current Chinese curriculum for Chinese-background students at the University of Newcastle (UoN). It examines the motivation behind the learning behaviour of Chinese-background students enrolling in the discipline of Chinese at the UoN as well as Chinese curriculum design at other Australian universities. The data from two sources were collected and analysed, Chinese-background students in the Chinese discipline at the UoN and lecturers in the C...

  14. Measuring Neural Entrainment to Beat and Meter in Infants: Effects of Music Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirelli, Laura K.; Spinelli, Christina; Nozaradan, Sylvie; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers often engage in musical interactions with their infants. For example, parents across cultures sing lullabies and playsongs to their infants from birth. Behavioral studies indicate that infants not only extract beat information, but also group these beats into metrical hierarchies by as early as 6 months of age. However, it is not known how this is accomplished in the infant brain. An EEG frequency-tagging approach has been used successfully with adults to measure neural entrainment to auditory rhythms. The current study is the first to use this technique with infants in order to investigate how infants' brains encode rhythms. Furthermore, we examine how infant and parent music background is associated with individual differences in rhythm encoding. In Experiment 1, EEG was recorded while 7-month-old infants listened to an ambiguous rhythmic pattern that could be perceived to be in two different meters. In Experiment 2, EEG was recorded while 15-month-old infants listened to a rhythmic pattern with an unambiguous meter. In both age groups, information about music background (parent music training, infant music classes, hours of music listening) was collected. Both age groups showed clear EEG responses frequency-locked to the rhythms, at frequencies corresponding to both beat and meter. For the younger infants (Experiment 1), the amplitudes at duple meter frequencies were selectively enhanced for infants enrolled in music classes compared to those who had not engaged in such classes. For the older infants (Experiment 2), amplitudes at beat and meter frequencies were larger for infants with musically-trained compared to musically-untrained parents. These results suggest that the frequency-tagging method is sensitive to individual differences in beat and meter processing in infancy and could be used to track developmental changes. PMID:27252619

  15. Background Television and Infants' Allocation of Their Attention during Toy Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Alissa E.; Courage, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of background television on 6- and 12-month-olds' attention during 20 min of toy play was examined. During the first or second half of the session, a clip from a variety of commonly available television programs was presented. The duration and frequency of infants' looks to the toys and to the television indicated that regardless of age…

  16. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crouch Simon

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experience and child wellbeing. Research to date lacks a holistic view with the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of children not yet addressed. In addition, most studies have focused only on families with lesbian parents and have studied only small numbers of children. Methods/design The Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families (ACHESS is a national study that aims to determine the complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children under the age 18 years with at least one parent who self identifies as being same-sex attracted. There will be a particular focus on the impact that stigma and discrimination has on these families. Parent and child surveys will be used to collect data and will be available both online and in paper form. Measures have been chosen whenever possible that have sound conceptual underpinnings, robust psychometric properties and Australian normative data, and include the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10. Discussion ACHESS aims to be the largest study of its kind and will for the first time produce a detailed quantitative analysis of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents. By inviting participants to take part in further research it will also establish a valuable cohort of children, and their families, to launch future waves of research that will help us better understand the health and

  17. Adherence to management guidelines for growth faltering and anaemia in remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal infants and barriers to health service delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bar-Zeev, Sarah J; Kruske, Sue G; Barclay, Lesley M; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Kildea, Sue V

    2013-01-01

    Background Remote dwelling Aboriginal infants from northern Australia have a high burden of disease and frequently use health services. Little is known about the quality of infant care provided by remote health services. This study describes the adherence to infant guidelines for anaemia and growth faltering by remote health staff and barriers to effective service delivery in remote settings. Methods A mixed method study drew data from 24 semi-structured interviews with clinicians working in ...

  18. Blue Collar and Beyond: The Experiences of Non-English Speaking Background Women in the Australian Labour Force [and] Strategies for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Caroline; Harrison, Graham

    The report on women with non-English-speaking backgrounds (NESB) in the Australian labor force was prepared to review the experience and needs of this population in recent years and to examine the various available sources of information. The first section reviews the standard statistical sources and their research methodologies. The second and…

  19. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and…

  20. Immigrant-Background Australians' Recollections of Justice, Injustice and Agency in Stories about Starting School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Perry, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the recollections of justice, injustice and agency in the autobiographical narratives of a group of Australian immigrants who shared their experiences of starting school. The data consists of 24 autobiographical narrative interviews with participants who started school either overseas and then in Australia, or in…

  1. Pneumococcal vaccination and otitis media in Australian Aboriginal infants: comparison of two birth cohorts before and after introduction of vaccination

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    Mackenzie Grant

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal children in remote Australia have high rates of complicated middle ear disease associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other pathogens. We assessed the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination for prevention of otitis media in this setting. Methods We compared two birth cohorts, one enrolled before (1996–2001, and the second enrolled after introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate and booster 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (2001–2004. Source populations were the same for both cohorts. Detailed examinations including tympanometry, video-recorded pneumatic otoscopy and collection of discharge from tympanic membrane perforations, were performed as soon as possible after birth and then at regular intervals until 24 months of life. Analyses (survival, point prevalence and incidence were adjusted for confounding factors and repeated measures with sensitivity analyses of differential follow-up. Results Ninety-seven vaccinees and 51 comparison participants were enrolled. By age 6 months, 96% (81/84 of vaccinees and 100% (41/41 of comparison subjects experienced otitis media with effusion (OME, and by 12 months 89% and 88% experienced acute otitis media (AOM, 34% and 35% experienced tympanic membrane perforation (TMP and 14% and 23% experienced chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM. Age at the first episode of OME, AOM, TMP and CSOM was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusted incidence of AOM (incidence rate ratio: 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.69–1.13] and TMP (incidence rate ratio: 0.63 [0.36–1.11] was not significantly reduced in vaccinees. Vaccinees experienced less recurrent TMP, 9% (8/95 versus 22% (11/51, (odds ratio: 0.33 [0.11–1.00]. Conclusion Results of this study should be interpreted with caution due to potential bias and confounding. It appears that introduction of pneumococcal vaccination among Aboriginal infants was not associated with significant changes

  2. Practice related factors that may impact on postpartum care for mothers and infants in Australian general practice: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Brodribb, Wendy E; Mitchell, Benjamin L; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-01-01

    Background While there is a significant focus on the health and well-being of women during pregnancy, labour and birth, much less emphasis is placed on the care of postpartum women and their infants in primary care following the birth. Some studies have investigated the role of GPs in postpartum care, and others examined facilitators and barriers to mothers accessing care. However there is little information available to investigate the effect of practice related factors on access to care of ...

  3. ACHESS – The Australian study of child health in same-sex families: background research, design and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch Simon; Waters Elizabeth; McNair Ruth; Power Jennifer; Davis Elise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background There are an increasing number of children in Australia growing up with same-sex attracted parents. Although children from same-sex parent families do in general perform well on many psychosocial measures recent research is beginning to consider some small but significant differences when these children are compared with children from other family backgrounds. In particular studies suggest that there is an association between the stigma that same-sex parent families experi...

  4. Relationship of postnatal depressive symptoms to infant temperament, maternal expectations, social support and other potential risk factors: findings from a large Australian cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eastwood John G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From 2000 a routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for postnatal depressive symptoms in women living in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. Methods Mothers (n=15,389 delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2–3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were EPDS >9 and >12. Logistic regression was used for the multivariate analysis. Results The prevalence of EPDS >9 was 16.93 per 100 (95% CI: 16.34 to 17.52 and EPDS >12 was 7.73 per 100 (95% CI: 6.96 to 7.78. The final parsimonious logistic regression models included measures of infant behaviour, financial stress, mother’s expectation of motherhood, emotional support, sole parenthood, social support and mother’s country of birth. Conclusions Infant temperament and unmet maternal expectations have a strong association with depressive symptoms with implications for the design of both preventative and treatment strategies. The findings also support the proposition that social exclusion and social isolation are important determinants of maternal depression.

  5. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  6. The National WIC Evaluation: evaluation of the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children. I. Background and introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, D; Horvitz, D G; Seaver, W B; Alvir, J M; Garbowski, G C; Leighton, J; Sloan, N L; Johnson, S S; Kulka, R A; Shanklin, D S

    1988-08-01

    The Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) aims to improve the nutrition and health of low-income, nutritionally at-risk pregnant women and preschool children with supplemental food, nutrition education, and coordination of health care. Started in 1972, it recently served greater than 3.4 million persons monthly and at a cost of $1.66 billion annually. The National WIC Evaluation (NWE) consisted of four studies: The historical study estimated changes in birth outcome attributable to WIC from 1972 to 1980 in 19 states and the District of Columbia from WIC program data and vital statistics. The longitudinal study of pregnant women compared dietary intake, weight gain, anthropometry, duration of gestation, birth weight, and infant length and head circumference between a representative national sample of WIC participants and economically comparable women. The cross-sectional study of preschool children related WIC to dietary intake, anthropometry, and psychological development. The food expenditures study estimated the impact of WIC on family grocery and other food expenditures. PMID:3400624

  7. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  8. A Critical Analysis of the Language Background Other than English (LBOTE) Category in the Australian National Testing System: A Foucauldian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creagh, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a Foucauldian analysis of the political rationalities of national testing and accountability practices in Australia, and their inconsistencies for students for whom English is a second or additional language. It focuses on a problem associated with the statistical data category "Language Background Other Than…

  9. How do Australian maternity and early childhood health services identify and respond to the settlement experience and social context of refugee background families?

    OpenAIRE

    Yelland, Jane; Riggs, Elisha; Wahidi, Sayed; Fouladi, Fatema; Casey, Sue; Szwarc, Josef; Duell-Piening, Philippa; Chesters, Donna; Brown, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Refugees have poor mental, social and physical health related to experiences of trauma and stresses associated with settlement, however little is known about how refugee families experience maternity and early childhood services. The aim of this study was to explore the responsiveness of health services to the social and mental health of Afghan women and men at the time of having a baby. Method Participatory methods including community engagement and consultation with the Afghan co...

  10. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  11. CPR - infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescue breathing and chest compressions - infant; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - infant; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - infant ... those who take care of children should learn infant and child CPR. See www.americanheart.org for ...

  12. Australian Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Massive extinctions of animals and the arrival of the first humans in ancient Australia--which occurred 45,000 to 55,000 years ago--may be linked. Researchers at the Carnegie Institution, University of Colorado, Australian National University, and Bates College believe that massive fires set by the first humans may have altered the ecosystem of…

  13. Are Young Muslims Adopting Australian Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Nahid Afrose

    2008-01-01

    Recently politicians in Australia have raised concerns that some Muslims are not adopting Australian values to a sufficient extent. In this paper I explore the notion of Australian values with respect to immigrant youth. By analysing interviews with 32 Muslim students who are 15-18 years of age and of diverse backgrounds in two state schools in…

  14. The relationship between breastfeeding and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Jane A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding has been shown consistently in observational studies to be protective of overweight and obesity in later life. This study aimed to investigate the association between breastfeeding duration and weight status in a national sample of Australian children and adolescents. Methods A secondary analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data involving 2066, males and females aged 9 to 16 years from all Australian states and territories. The effect of breastfeeding duration on weight status was estimated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to those who were never breastfed, children breastfed for ≥6 months were significantly less likely to be overweight (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45, 0.91 or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51, 95%CI: 0.29, 0.90 in later childhood, after adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education and ethnicity and children's age, gender, mean energy intake, level of moderate and vigorous physical activity, screen time and sleep duration. Conclusions Breastfeeding for 6 or more months appears to be protective against later overweight and obesity in this population of Australian children. The beneficial short-term health outcomes of breastfeeding for the infant are well recognised and this study provides further observational evidence of a potential long-term health outcome and additional justification for the continued support and promotion of breastfeeding to six months and beyond.

  15. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preterm infant; Preemie; Premie ... The infant may have trouble breathing and keeping a constant body temperature. ... A premature infant may have signs of the following problems: Anemia Bleeding into the brain or damage to the brain's white ...

  16. Strategies for Washing Australian Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, W.L.A.; Swanson, A.R. [Downer EDI Engineering Projects Pty. Ltd. QCC, East Maitland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    This article represents a distillation of QCC's experience over the last 20 years in developing coal-washing circuits to optimize coal recoveries for a wide range of Australian coals. The article will look at typical washabilities and product types to capture the general washing requirements. The major processing equipment will be reviewed as to their typical usage in the Australian context. From this background the processing circuits and strategies commonly used will be discussed for the relevant coal types, including hard coking coal, semi-hard coking coal, PCI, export thermal, and domestic thermal coal from the major producing regions in NSW and Queensland.

  17. Australian Research Council

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Australian Research Council(ARC) is the Australian Government's main agency for allocating research funding to academics and researchers in Australian universities.Its mission is to deliver policy and programs that advance Australian research and innovation globally and benefit the community.

  18. First time parents' paid work patterns in Amsterdam: father's part-time work, family's immigrant background and mother's work for pay when the infant is very young

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzels, Cecile

    2007-01-01

    We analyze first time parents' work patterns. Little empirical work exists on the influence of the partner's (change of) employment status. There is no study known to us that investigates the effects of the family's immigrant background. This study explores both issues in addition to the effects of human capital, the mother's partner not sharing the household, the women's breastfeeding intentions and practices. We use panel data of 2003-2004 on families in Amsterdam at early pregnancy and at ...

  19. The Changing Political Economy of Australian Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins

    1994-01-01

    The Australian labour market is undergoing fundamental change, following economic restructuring and industrial relations and vocational education reform. This article outlines the recent evidence relating to unequal outcomes for immigrants from non English-speaking background and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian labour market. It then argues that, rather than meritocratic, these outcomes are partially the result of racial discrimination. The paper then considers the so...

  20. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  1. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mugambi Mary N; Musekiwa Alfred; Lombard Martani; Young Taryn; Blaauw Reneé

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011) on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled t...

  2. Infant Communicative Behaviors and Maternal Responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Cynthia F.; Onwujuba, Chinwe; Baumgartner, Jennifer I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study applies attachment and transactional theories in evaluating the dyadic interactions observed between a mother and her infant. Infant communication and maternal responsivity are highlighted as the medium for positive interaction. Objective: The impact of individualized maternal training on mother infant communicative…

  3. Representations and coverage of non-English-speaking immigrants and multicultural issues in three major Australian health care publications

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Pamela W; Dickson, Hugh G; Whelan, Anna Klinken; Whyte, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Background No recent Australian studies or literature, provide evidence of the extent of coverage of multicultural health issues in Australian healthcare research. A series of systematic literature reviews in three major Australian healthcare journals were undertaken to discover the level, content, coverage and overall quality of research on multicultural health. Australian healthcare journals selected for the study were The Medical Journal of Australia (MJA), The Australian Health Review (AH...

  4. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  5. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Activities Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Depression Among Women Depression Treatment Resources Publications Maternal and Infant Health Pregnancy Complications Severe Maternal Morbidity Weight Gain During Pregnancy ...

  6. Making Space for Multilingualism in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Marianne; Cross, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In this article we introduce the special issue: Language(s) across the curriculum in Australian schools. The special issue includes a focus on English as an additional language in mainstream classes, Indigenous education, heritage languages and foreign languages, and we give background to these different--though frequently overlapping--contexts.…

  7. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    OpenAIRE

    D. Jepsen

    1994-01-01

    The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband) stations (see fig. 1 and table 1). The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  8. The Australian National Seismograph Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jepsen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Seismological Centre of the Australian Geological Survey Organisation, operates and co-operates a national seismograph network consisting of 24 analogue and 8 digitally telemetred (3 broadband stations (see fig. 1 and table 1. The network covers the Australian continent and the Australian Antarctic Territory.

  9. Micafungin in Premature and Non-premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Paolo; Wu, Chunzhang; Tweddle, Lorraine; Roilides, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause excessive morbidity and mortality in premature neonates and severely ill infants. Methods: Safety and efficacy outcomes of micafungin were compared between prematurely and non-prematurely born infants

  10. Dietary sources and sodium intake in a sample of Australian preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    O'Halloran, Siobhan A; Grimes, Carley A; Lacy, Kathleen E; Caryl A. Nowson; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess dietary sodium intake and the food sources of sodium in a sample of Australian preschool children. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Mothers were followed up when children were approximately 3.5 years of age after participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial: the Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial Program. Participants 251 Australian children aged 3.5±0.19 (SD) years. Primary and secondary outcome measures The average daily sodium intake was det...

  11. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home ...

  12. Premature infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A premature infant is a baby born before 37 completed weeks of gestation (more than 3 weeks before the ... baby is classified as one of the following: Premature (less than 37 weeks gestation) Full term (37 ...

  13. Pneumothorax - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around the lungs, which leads to a lung collapse. This article discusses pneumothorax in infants. Causes A pneumothorax occurs when some of the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in a baby's lung become overinflated and burst. ...

  14. Neutropenia - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007230.htm Neutropenia - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neutropenia is an abnormally low number of white blood ...

  15. Effect of Gaviscon Infant on gastro-oesophageal reflux in infants assessed by combined intraluminal impedance/pH

    OpenAIRE

    Del Buono, R; Wenzl, T; Ball, G.; Keady, S; Thomson, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Gaviscon Infant (GI) has been recommended for gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in infants. Its efficacy has not been examined with a physiologically appropriate denominator to define the degree of GOR.

  16. Increase in caesarean deliveries after the Australian Private Health Insurance Incentive policy reforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Australian Private Health Insurance Incentive (PHII policy reforms implemented in 1997-2000 increased PHI membership in Australia by 50%. Given the higher rate of obstetric interventions in privately insured patients, the reforms may have led to an increase in surgical deliveries and deliveries with longer hospital stays. We aimed to investigate the effect of the PHII policy introduction on birth characteristics in Western Australia (WA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All 230,276 birth admissions from January 1995 to March 2004 were identified from administrative birth and hospital data-systems held by the WA Department of Health. Average quarterly birth rates after the PHII introduction were estimated and compared with expected rates had the reforms not occurred. Rate and percentage differences (including 95% confidence intervals were estimated separately for public and private patients, by mode of delivery, and by length of stay in hospital following birth. The PHII policy introduction was associated with a 20% (-21.4 to -19.3 decrease in public birth rates, a 51% (45.1 to 56.4 increase in private birth rates, a 5% (-5.3 to -5.1 and 8% (-8.9 to -7.9 decrease in unassisted and assisted vaginal deliveries respectively, a 5% (-5.3 to -5.1 increase in caesarean sections with labour and 10% (8.0 to 11.7 increase in caesarean sections without labour. Similarly, birth rates where the infant stayed 0-3 days in hospital following birth decreased by 20% (-21.5 to -18.5, but rates of births with >3 days in hospital increased by 15% (12.2 to 17.1. CONCLUSIONS: Following the PHII policy implementation in Australia, births in privately insured patients, caesarean deliveries and births with longer infant hospital stays increased. The reforms may not have been beneficial for quality obstetric care in Australia or the burden of Australian hospitals.

  17. Australian G20 Presidency

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei G. Sakharov; Andrei V. Shelepov; Elizaveta A. Safonkina; Mark R. Rakhmangulov

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Australian presidency took place against the backdrop of multiple challenges in both global economy and international politics, with Ukrainian crisis, Syrian conflict, Islamic State, and Ebola. Thus, despite being an economic forum, the G20 could not avoid addressing these issues, with discussions taking place during the bilateral meetings and on the sidelines of the forum. The article attempts to analyze the Australian G20 Presidency within a functional paradigm, assessing G20 perfo...

  18. Birth defects in infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection: an alternative interpretation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kurinczuk, J.J.; Bower, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that liveborn infants conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection are at an increased risk of having a major birth defect. DESIGN: Reclassification of the birth defects reported in infants born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in Belgium and comparison with prevalence estimated in Western Australian population by means of same classification system. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 420 liveborn infants who were conceived after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in...

  19. Pulmonary Function in Infants with Swallowing Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Tutor, James D.; Srinivasan, Saumini; Gosa, Memorie M.; Spentzas, Thomas; Stokes, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Swallowing dysfunction can lead to recurring aspiration and is frequently associated with chronic symptoms such as cough and wheezing in infants. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of infants with swallowing dysfunction, determine if pulmonary function abnormalities are detectable, and if they improve after therapy. Methods We studied 38 infants with a history of coughing and wheezing who had pulmonary function tests performed within two weeks of their diagnosis of s...

  20. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Woods John A; Katzenellenbogen Judith M; Davidson Patricia M; Thompson Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google ...

  1. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurrin Lyle; Dharmage Shyamali C; Dassanayake Jayantha; Sundararajan Vijaya; Payne Warren R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001) and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity ...

  2. CPR: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Putting It All Together: CPR—Infant (1:52) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  3. Scleroderma in Australian aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurauskas, J; Beroukas, D; Walker, J G; Smith, M D; Ahern, M J; Roberts-Thomson, P J

    2005-01-01

    Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) has not been reported before in Australian Aborigines. We describe in detail a community middle-aged Aboriginal woman whose diffuse scleroderma terminated fatally with a renal crisis. Moreover, we have identified a further five Aboriginal patients on the South Australian Scleroderma Register (two with diffuse, two with limited and one with overlap scleroderma), a number consistent with that expected from the 2001 census data for our state. However, an analysis of all antinuclear antibody (ANA) requests from the Top End of Australia over a 6-year period revealed only two Aborigines with low titre anticentromere antibody (despite frequent occurrence of ANA with other specificities). Neither of these Aborigines had features of scleroderma. In conclusion, scleroderma does occur in indigenous Australians but further studies are needed to confirm the apparent infrequency of centromere-associated limited scleroderma (which is the commonest form of scleroderma in our Caucasian population). PMID:15667472

  4. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Hearfield; Brian Dollery

    2009-01-01

    In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more...

  5. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2013-01-01

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes, such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  6. Patterns of care for patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma: experience from Australian sarcoma services

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Susie; Crowe, Philip; Gowda, Raghu; Joubert, Warren; Carey-Smith, Richard; Stalley, Paul; Desai, Jayesh

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the current management of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) in the Australian health care setting. This study utilised the Australian sarcoma database to evaluate the patterns of care delivered to patients with advanced STS at Australian sarcoma services. Methods Prospectively collected data from six sarcoma centres in Australia were sourced to identify patients diagnosed with advanced STS between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Des...

  7. Ethnic Differences in Mother-Infant Language and Gestural Communications Are Associated with Specific Skills in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Song, Lulu; Leavell, Ashley Smith; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    We examined gestural and verbal interactions in 226 mother-infant pairs from Mexican, Dominican, and African American backgrounds when infants were 14 months and 2 years of age, and related these interactions to infants' emerging skills. At both ages, dyads were video-recorded as they shared a wordless number book, a wordless emotion book, and…

  8. Infant temperament contributes to early infant growth: A prospective cohort of African American infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Barbara

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective studies linking infant temperament, or behavioral style, to infant body composition are lacking. In this longitudinal study (3 to 18 months, we seek to examine the associations between two dimensions of infant temperament (distress to limitations and activity level and two anthropometric indicators (weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ and skin fold (SF measures in a population at high risk of overweight. Methods Data are from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Project, a longitudinal study of North Carolina low income African American mother-infant dyads (n = 206. Two temperament dimensions were assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. A high distress to limitations score denotes an infant whose mother perceives that s/he often cries or fusses, and a high activity level score one who moves his/her limbs and squirms frequently. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using ordinary least squares regression. Fixed effects longitudinal models were used to estimate anthropometric outcomes as a function of time varying infant temperament. Results In longitudinal models, increased activity levels were associated with later decreased fatness and WLZ. In contrast, high levels of distress to limitations were associated with later increased fatness at all time points and later increased WLZ at 12 months. Conclusion Infant temperament dimensions contribute to our understanding of the role of behavior in the development of the risk of overweight in the formative months of life. Identification of modifiable risk factors early in life may help target strategies for establishing healthy lifestyles prior to the onset of overweight.

  9. Osteopathy may decrease obstructive apnea in infants: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Denayer, Etienne; Vandenbossche, Thierry; Vermet, Luc; Hauser, Bruno; Deschepper, Jean; Engelen, Agnes

    2008-01-01

    Background Obstructive apnea is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep: breathing is interrupted by a physical block to airflow despite effort. The purpose of this study was to test if osteopathy could influence the incidence of obstructive apnea during sleep in infants. Methods Thirty-four healthy infants (age: 1.5–4.0 months) were recruited and randomized in two groups; six infants dropped out. The osteopathy treatment group (n = 15 infants) received 2 osteopathi...

  10. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, M. J.; W. Hutchinson

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  11. Heart failure among Indigenous Australians: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods John A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular diseases contribute substantially to the poor health and reduced life expectancy of Indigenous Australians. Heart failure is a common, disabling, progressive and costly complication of these disorders. The epidemiology of heart failure and the adequacy of relevant health service provision in Indigenous Australians are not well delineated. Methods A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cinahl Plus, Informit and Google Scholar was undertaken in April 2012 for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to the topic of heart failure in Indigenous Australians. Additionally, a website search was done to identify other pertinent publications, particularly government reports. Results There was a paucity of relevant peer-reviewed research, and government reports dominated the results. Ten journal articles, 1 published conference abstract and 10 reports were eligible for inclusion. Indigenous Australians reportedly have higher morbidity and mortality from heart failure than their non-Indigenous counterparts (age-standardised prevalence ratio 1.7; age-standardised hospital separation ratio ≥3; crude per capita hospital expenditure ratio 1.58; age-adjusted mortality ratio >2. Despite the evident disproportionate burden of heart failure in Indigenous Australians, the accuracy of estimation from administrative data is limited by poor indigenous identification, inadequate case ascertainment and exclusion of younger subjects from mortality statistics. A recent journal article specifically documented a high prevalence of heart failure in Central Australian Aboriginal adults (5.3%, noting frequent undiagnosed disease. One study examined barriers to health service provision for Indigenous Australians in the context of heart failure. Conclusions Despite the shortcomings of available published data, it is clear that Indigenous Australians have an excess burden of heart failure. Emerging data

  12. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  13. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... so that the baby's bones will grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of ...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden, unexplained death of an infant younger than one year old. Some people call ... boys, African Americans, and American Indian/Alaska Native infants have a higher risk of SIDS. Although health ...

  15. Osteopenia - premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal rickets; Brittle bones - premature infants; Weak bones - premature infants; Osteopenia of prematurity ... the baby. This helps the baby grow. A premature infant may not receive the proper amount of calcium ...

  16. Food Security in Older Australians from Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Harriet; Feldman, Susan; Bird, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the experiences and barriers to food security of community-dwelling older people. Design: Quantitative questionnaire and 5 focus group discussions using purposive sampling. Setting: Shire of Melton, Victoria, Australia. Participants: Thirty-seven people (13 male and 24 female), between 58 and 85 years of age, from…

  17. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  18. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Ravuri, Rajasekhara Reddy; Koneru, Padmaja; Urade, BP; Sarkar, BN; Chandrasekar, A; Rao, VR

    2009-01-01

    Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route". PMID:19624810

  19. Reconstructing Indian-Australian phylogenetic link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar BN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An early dispersal of biologically and behaviorally modern humans from their African origins to Australia, by at least 45 thousand years via southern Asia has been suggested by studies based on morphology, archaeology and genetics. However, mtDNA lineages sampled so far from south Asia, eastern Asia and Australasia show non-overlapping distributions of haplogroups within pan Eurasian M and N macrohaplogroups. Likewise, support from the archaeology is still ambiguous. Results In our completely sequenced 966-mitochondrial genomes from 26 relic tribes of India, we have identified seven genomes, which share two synonymous polymorphisms with the M42 haplogroup, which is specific to Australian Aborigines. Conclusion Our results showing a shared mtDNA lineage between Indians and Australian Aborigines provides direct genetic evidence of an early colonization of Australia through south Asia, following the "southern route".

  20. Depression in Mothers in a Multi-Ethnic Urban Industrial Municipality in Melbourne. Aetiological Factors and Effects on Infants and Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Howard; Carmichael, Allan

    1985-01-01

    Comparison of poor Australian-born and immigrant mothers revealed a significantly higher rate of depression among recently arrived, non-English-speaking immigrant mothers having no supporting social network. Depressed Australian-born mothers often had unhappy, unstable, and insecure childhoods. Behavioral problems in infants and preschool children…

  1. Recruiting and engaging new mothers in nutrition research studies: lessons from the Australian NOURISH randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniels Lynne A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite important implications for the budgets, statistical power and generalisability of research findings, detailed reports of recruitment and retention in randomised controlled trials (RCTs are rare. The NOURISH RCT evaluated a community-based intervention for first-time mothers that promoted protective infant feeding practices as a primary prevention strategy for childhood obesity. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description and evaluation of the recruitment and retention strategies used. Methods A two stage recruitment process designed to provide a consecutive sampling framework was used. First- time mothers delivering healthy term infants were initially approached in postnatal wards of the major maternity services in two Australian cities for consent to later contact (Stage 1. When infants were approximately four months old mothers were re-contacted by mail for enrolment (Stage 2, baseline measurements (Time 1 and subsequent random allocation to the intervention or control condition. Outcomes were assessed at infant ages 14 months (Time 2 and 24 months (Time 3. Results At Stage 1, 86% of eligible mothers were approached and of these women, 76% consented to later contact. At Stage 2, 3% had become ineligible and 76% could be recontacted. Of the latter, 44% consented to full enrolment and were allocated. This represented 21% of mothers screened as eligible at Stage 1. Retention at Time 3 was 78%. Mothers who did not consent or discontinued the study were younger and less likely to have a university education. Conclusions The consent and retention rates of our sample of first time mothers are comparable with or better than other similar studies. The recruitment strategy used allowed for detailed information from non-consenters to be collected; thus selection bias could be estimated. Recommendations for future studies include being able to contact participants via mobile phone (particularly text messaging

  2. A pediatrician and his mothers and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, M

    1997-01-01

    Pediatricians are in a unique place in society by being able not only to care for the health and well-being of mothers and which, are their clinical responsibility, but also by being able to act as advocates for those patients who are often among the most vulnerable of our population. This article illustrates some of these points by referring to Australian Aboriginals from the vast desert areas of Westerns Australia. In remote areas of Western Australia, Aboriginal infants have high rates of low birth weight, failure to thrive and undernutrition. They also have high rates of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other infections. Aboriginal infant mortality has improved significantly over recent years, but Aboriginal health and mortality rates are still much worse than those of non-Aboriginal children and tend to be worst in more remote parts of the state. Overall, Aboriginal infants less than one year in age were hospitalized 9.5 times more frequently than non-Aboriginal infants for respiratory diseases (such as pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis and asthma); diarrheal diseases and skin infections were other very important causes of hospitalization for Aboriginal infants. Another poorly understood aspect of Aboriginal health is their widespread proneness to urinary tract infections. This is very important now in Australian Aboriginals in whom end-stage renal failure is becoming very prevalent. Rapid social and lifesyle changes have been very important in the poor health status of Aboriginals. They are also subject to severe socio-economic discrimination, underemployment, limited education, overcrowding, social depression and severely depressed housing conditions, relative inaccessibility to adequate and nutritious foodstuffs, and limited access to clinical services. Aboriginal people are prone to obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Overuse of alcohol and tobacco smoking have also become important challenges, particularly among

  3. The Australian synchrotron project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Australian Synchrotron to be built at Monash University, is a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring. It is scheduled to be fully operational in 2007. In this paper we describe the accelerator systems that lie at the heart of the facility, and describe the spectral characteristics of the 'light' - ranging from infra-red to hard x-rays - that will be provided from bend magnets, undulators, and wigglers

  4. Australian Hackers and Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Warren

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to look at the way hackers act and ways in which society can protect itself. The paper will show the current views and attitudes of hackers in an Australian context. The paper will also include a case study to show how a hacking incident can develop and how technology can be used to protect against hacking.

  5. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media. PMID:26285323

  6. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  7. Towards Inclusion: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the views of the Australian Special Education Principals' Association (ASEPA) on inclusion and the impact this is having on Australian Government Schools from a school based perspective. ASEPA is a relatively young association and was formed in 1997 out of the need to put forward the case to support students with special…

  8. NPT review conference: Australian statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains the text of statement delivered by the leader of the Australian delegation to the Second Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference in Geneva on August 14, 1980. An outline is given of Australian policy regarding nuclear weapons proliferation

  9. The U.S. infant formula industry: is direct-to-consumer advertising unethical or inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Bob D; Wright, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Throughout their history, U.S. based infant formula companies have promoted their products as though they required a prescription. This form of marketing is called "ethical" promotion, which focuses on gaining a physician to parent recommendation for a brand of infant formula. Until Nestle's entry into the U.S. infant formula market in 1988, there was little direct-to-consumer promotion of infant formula. This article provides a background on the history of infant formula practices in the United States and then focuses on a descriptive model to explain how mothers' make their infant formula selection. Finally, we offer suggestions for the "ethical" marketers of infant formula. PMID:12077809

  10. Mechanisms of gastro-oesophageal reflux in preterm and term infants with reflux disease

    OpenAIRE

    Omari, T.I.; Barnett, C P; Benninga, M A; Lontis, R.; Goodchild, L.; Haslam, R.R.; Dent, J; Davidson, G P

    2002-01-01

    Background: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) is the predominant mechanism of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) in healthy infants but the mechanisms of GOR in infants with GOR disease (GORD) are poorly understood.

  11. Bone mineralisation in premature infants cannot be predicted from serum alkaline phosphatase or serum phosphate

    OpenAIRE

    Faerk, J; Peitersen, B; Petersen, S; Michaelsen, K

    2002-01-01

    Background: The bone mineral content of premature infants at term is lower than in mature infants at the same postconceptional age. Serum alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphate are often used as indicators of bone mineralisation.

  12. Australian Students' Perceptions of Racial Attitudes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anna M.; Evans, Virden; Evans, Adeline L.

    1998-01-01

    This survey of the perceptions of Australian high school students toward racism in America indicates that a majority knew little about cultural diversity; had various cultural backgrounds; were influenced more by television than other forms of media; and believed African Americans do not have equal access to education, equal opportunity to…

  13. An Assessment of Intellectual Disability Among Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasson, E. J.; Sullivan, S. G.; Hussain, R.; Bittles, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The health and well-being of Indigenous people is a significant global problem, and Aboriginal Australians suffer from a considerably higher burden of disease and lower life expectancy than the non-Indigenous population. Intellectual disability (ID) can further compromise health, but there is little information that documents the…

  14. Learning Mathematics: Perspectives of Australian Aboriginal Children and Their Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Peter; Perry, Bob

    2005-01-01

    Two key stakeholders in enhancing and building Aboriginal children's capacity to learn mathematics are teachers and the Aboriginal children themselves. In Australian schools it is often the case that the two groups come from different cultural backgrounds with very differing life experiences. This paper reports on an ethnographic study and focuses…

  15. Infant SES as a predictor of personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although research into the continuity and change of personality traits during a lifespan has been fairly extensive, little research has been conducted on childhood predictors of adult personality. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the association between infant socioeconomic status (SES...... revealed no direct effect of infant SES on any of the adult personality traits, but only indirect effects mediated by intelligence and years of education, with intelligence being the main mediating factor. CONCLUSION: Only weak associations were observed between infant SES and personality in young...... adulthood, and the observed associations were mediated by adult intelligence and educational level. Thus, factors associated with infant SES or family background appears to have weak direct effects on personality development....

  16. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, S.B. [Australian Radiation Lab., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be {approx}1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m{sup -3} in Queensland to 16 Bq m{sup -3} in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Exposure to background radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average effective dose received by the Australian population is estimated to be ∼1.8 mSv / year. One half of this exposure arises from exposure from terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays, the remainder from radionuclides within the body and from inhalation of radon progeny. This paper reviews a number of research programmes carried out by the Australian Radiation Laboratory to study radiation exposure from natural background, particularly in the workplace and illustrate approaches to the quantification and management of exposure to natural radiation. The average radiation doses to the Australian population are relatively low; the average annual radon concentration ranged from 6 Bq m-3 in Queensland to 16 Bq m-3 in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Of more importance is the emerging issue of exposure to elevated background radiation in the workplace. Two situation are presented; the radiation exposure to air crues and show cave tour guides. Annual doses up to 3.8 mSv were estimated for international crew members while the highest estimate for show cave tour guides was 9 mSv per year

  18. Representative Democracy in Australian Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Hearfield

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In an assessment of representative democracy in Australian local government, this paper considers long-run changes in forms of political representation, methods of vote counting, franchise arrangements, numbers of local government bodies and elected representatives, as well as the thorny question of constitutional recognition. This discussion is set against the background of ongoing tensions between the drive for economic efficiency and the maintenance of political legitimacy, along with more deep-seated divisions emerging from the legal relationship between local and state governments and the resultant problems inherent in local government autonomy versus state intervention.

  19. Logistic support provided to Australian disaster medical assistance teams: results of a national survey of team members

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods: Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployme...

  20. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xue-qiang; Zheng Nan-nan; Yu Lei; Lu Wei; Bian Hong-qiang; Yang Jun; Duan Xu-fei; Qin Xin-ke

    2015-01-01

    Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusi...

  1. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Močić Pavić A; Hojsak I

    2014-01-01

    Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect) an...

  2. The study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a family-centred tobacco control program about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to reduce respiratory illness in Indigenous infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segan Catherine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory illness (ARI is the most common cause of acute presentations and hospitalisations of young Indigenous children in Australia and New Zealand (NZ. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS from household smoking is a significant and preventable contributor to childhood ARI. This paper describes the protocol for a study which aims to test the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program about ETS to improve the respiratory health of Indigenous infants in Australia and New Zealand. For the purpose of this paper 'Indigenous' refers to Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples when referring to Australian Indigenous populations. In New Zealand, the term 'Indigenous' refers to Māori. Methods/Design This study will be a parallel, randomized, controlled trial. Participants will be Indigenous women and their infants, half of whom will be randomly allocated to an 'intervention' group, who will receive the tobacco control program over three home visits in the first three months of the infant's life and half to a control group receiving 'usual care' (i.e. they will not receive the tobacco control program. Indigenous health workers will deliver the intervention, the goal of which is to reduce or eliminate infant exposure to ETS. Data collection will occur at baseline (shortly after birth and when the infant is four months and one year of age. The primary outcome is a doctor-diagnosed, documented case of respiratory illness in participating infants. Discussion Interventions aimed at reducing exposure of Indigenous children to ETS have the potential for significant benefits for Indigenous communities. There is currently a dearth of evidence for the effect of tobacco control interventions to reduce children's exposure to ETS among Indigenous populations. This study will provide high-quality evidence of the efficacy of a family-centred tobacco control program on ETS to reduce respiratory illness. Outcomes of

  3. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Giles Lynne C; Glonek Gary FV; Moore Vivienne M; Davies Michael J; Luszcz Mary A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years). We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) associated with...

  4. Marine Biodiversity in the Australian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Alan J.; Rees, Tony; Beesley, Pam; Bax, Nicholas J.

    2010-01-01

    The entire Australian marine jurisdictional area, including offshore and sub-Antarctic islands, is considered in this paper. Most records, however, come from the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) around the continent of Australia itself. The counts of species have been obtained from four primary databases (the Australian Faunal Directory, Codes for Australian Aquatic Biota, Online Zoological Collections of Australian Museums, and the Australian node of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System),...

  5. Laparoscopic Versus Open Nissen Fundoplication in Infants After Neonatal Laparotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Barsness, Katherine A.; Feliz, Alexander; Potoka, Douglas A.; Gaines, Barbara A.; Upperman, Jeffery S.; Kane, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Nissen fundoplication is an effective treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in infants. Laparoscopic procedures after previous laparotomy are technically more challenging. The role of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication after neonatal laparotomy for diseases unrelated to reflux is poorly described. Methods: This was a retrospective review of open vs laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in infants after neonatal laparotomy. Of 32 infants who underwent neonatal laparotomy, 26 required a...

  6. Intergenerational Pathways From Reflective Functioning to Infant Attachment Through Parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Ensink, K.; Normandin, L.; Plamondon, A.; Berthelot, N.; Fonagy, P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine temporal pathways from mothers’ reflective functioning (RF) through parenting to infant attachment measured more than 16 months later. Participants were 88 mother–infant dyads from demographically diverse backgrounds and included a group of mothers with histories of childhood maltreatment. RF was assessed using the RF rating of the Adult Attachment Interview before the birth of the baby. Parenting was assessed when the infants were 6 months old...

  7. Infant - newborn development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002004.htm Infant - newborn development To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Infant development is most often divided into the following areas: ...

  8. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice starch. They are usually needed only for infants with reflux who are not gaining weight or who are very uncomfortable. Formulas for premature and low-birth-weight infants have extra calories and minerals to meet the ...

  9. Infant and Newborn Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It has all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Infant formulas are available for babies whose mothers are not able or decide not to breastfeed. Infants usually start eating solid foods between 4 and ...

  10. Prebiotics in infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota ...

  11. Caudal ropivacaine in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Ilett, K F; Reid, C;

    2001-01-01

    Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months.......Ropivacaine is a new long-acting amino-amide local anesthetic. However, there are no data on its use in infants. In the current study, the authors investigated the pharmacokinetics of caudal ropivacaine in 30 infants younger than 12 months....

  12. Infant crying and abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; van der Wal, M.F.; Brugman, E.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important causes of child morbidity and death. We assessed potentially detrimental parental actions induced by infant crying in 3259 infants aged 1-6 months, in the Netherlands. In infants aged 6 months, 5.6% (95% CI 4.2-7.0) of parents reported having smothered, slapped,

  13. An Australian Sense of Xenophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Burney

    2009-01-01

    Linda Burney of the Wiradjuri Nation and Minister for Community Services in New South Wales discusses how xenophobia has manifested itself as forms of political and institutional racism in Australian history. She asks us to think of Australia as a giant and beautiful mosaic with over 200 Aboriginal Nations and for the rest of the Australian population to welcome ways to work with all its nation's people.

  14. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    STEWART, D.

    2004-01-01

    Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the be...

  15. Chinese Rebalancing and Australian Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Kelly

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese authorities plan to gradually rebalance the composition of Chinese economic growth from investment towards household consumption. This article uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to give a general sense of how this rebalancing might affect Australian exports and economic activity. Dollar for dollar, Chinese investment appears to absorb more than twice as much Australian value-added output as Chinese household consumption. This largely reflects the significant role of resou...

  16. Prospects for Australian uranium exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the focus of this paper is Australian uranium exports, the status of other energy minerals is also discussed briefly. The size of its uranium resources has given Australia the opportunity to become a major exporter; however, it is estimated that any major long-term expansion of uranium production hinges on favourable market conditions and on major changes in the Australian government's policy towards the industry. 4 tabs., ill

  17. Poor Adherence to National and International Breastfeeding Duration Targets in an Australian Longitudinal Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Hure, Alexis J; Powers, Jennifer R.; Chojenta, Catherine L.; Byles, Julie E.; Loxton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To report on the proportion and characteristics of Australian infants who are fed, and mothers who feed, in accordance with the national and international breastfeeding duration targets of six, 12 and 24 months. Furthermore, to examine the longitudinal breastfeeding duration patterns for women with more than one child. Methods Breastfeeding duration data for 9773 children have been self-reported by a national sample of 5091 mothers aged 30–36 years in 2009, participating in the Aus...

  18. Scheduling slots and sports league objectives: an empirical analysis of the Australian football league

    OpenAIRE

    Jakee, Keith; Kenneally, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We concentrate on the redistributional aspects of sports league decisions by analyzing the allocation of scheduling slots in the Australian Football League. We model and empirically test a number of team variables that we hypothesize are likely to influence the league’s allocation of scheduling slots to teams. We frame each of these variables in terms of its likelihood of contributing to either competitive balance or "infant industry" objectives versus its likelihood of contributing to increa...

  19. Infant developmental milestones and adult intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of studies suggest a positive association between faster infant motor development and intellectual function in childhood and adolescence. However, studies investigating the relationship between infant motor development and intelligence in adulthood are lacking. Aims...... Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Associations between motor developmental milestones and IQwere analysed bymultiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: Later acquisition of infant developmental milestones was associated with lower subsequent IQ, and the majority of significant....... The effects remained significant after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion: This is the first study to find significant interactions with parental social status, thereby suggesting that associations between early motor development and intelligence are stronger in infants of low social...

  20. When to start antiretroviral therapy in infants and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Cotton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This articles provides a background for antiretroviral therapy in infants and children, incorporating both old and new data. There is increasing data favouring early therapy for all age groups. Below a year of age, all HIV-infected infants should commence therapy and thereafter at higher CD4 thresholds than previous recommendations

  1. Oral microflora in infants delivered vaginally and by caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelun Barfod, Mette; Magnusson, Kerstin; Lexner, Michala Oron;

    2011-01-01

    International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2011 Background. Early in life, vaginally delivered infants exhibit a different composition of the gut flora compared with infants delivered by caesarean section (C-section); however, it is unclear whether this also applies to the oral cavity. Aim. To...

  2. The Effect of Empowerment Program on Mother-Infant Interaction and Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Leili Borimnejad; Nasrin Mehrnush; Naeime Seyed-Fatemi; Hamid Haghani

    2012-01-01

    Background: The hospitalization of premature newborns in neonatal intensive care unit causes the family to experience a sense of loss and to disturb the emotional connection of the mother with the newborn. The present study aimed to determine the effect of empowerment programs on mother-infant interaction and the weight gain of premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, after obtaining written consent, a total of 140 mothers ...

  3. Depressive symptoms among immigrant and Canadian born mothers of preterm infants at neonatal intensive care discharge: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne Marilyn; Benzies Karen M; Trute Barry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mothers of preterm infants are considered at higher risk for depressive symptoms, higher than for mothers of healthy term infants. Predictors of depressive symptoms in mothers of preterm infants are not yet well established. Immigrant mothers of term infants have higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than Canadian born mothers but the relative prevalence for immigrant mothers of preterm infants is unknown. This study had two aims: (i) to investigate the prevalence of de...

  4. Links between Infant Temperament and Neurophysiological Measures of Attention to Happy and Fearful Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinos, Marina; Matheson, Anna; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Background: Developing control of attention helps infants to regulate their emotions, and individual differences in attention skills may shape how infants perceive and respond to their socio-emotional environments. This study examined whether the temperamental dimensions of self-regulation and negative emotionality relate to infants' attention…

  5. Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of…

  6. Response to pediatric physical therapy in infants with positional preference and skull deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, R.M. van; Pelsma, M.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C.G.; IJzerman, M.J.; Vlimmeren, L.A. van; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric physical therapy seems to reduce skull deformation in infants with positional preference. However, not all infants show improvement. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to determine which infant and parent characteristics were related to responses to pediatric physical therapy i

  7. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 or beta position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. This is important to consider in ...

  8. Prophylactic Probiotics for Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rie; Greisen, Gorm; Schrøder, Morten;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in preterm neonates. Probiotics seem to have a beneficial role in preventing NEC, which is confirmed in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We therefore aimed to review and confirm the efficacy...... of probiotics in preterm neonates obtained in observational studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of prophylactic probiotics in preterm infants. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed searching PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library) and www.clinicaltrials.gov. Reference lists of reviews...... of RCTs were also searched. Included studies were observational studies that enrolled preterm infants <37 weeks of gestational age. Trials were included if they administered any probiotics and measured at least one clinical outcome (e.g. NEC, all-cause mortality, sepsis or long-term development...

  9. Infant-Infant Interaction in a Daycare Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Joan T.; Lee, Lee C.

    The Infant-Infant Contact Code, developed to observe the social behavior in infants, is described. Results from using this scale with nine infants under nine months indicated that contacts between infants are complex in nature, that there are developmental changes in models of encounter, and that babies take different roles in relation to the…

  10. Nursing churn and turnover in Australian hospitals: nurses perceptions and suggestions for supportive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Angela J; Stasa, Helen; Roche, Michael A; Homer, Caroline S. E.; Duffield, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to reveal nurses’ experiences and perceptions of turnover in Australian hospitals and identify strategies to improve retention, performance and job satisfaction. Nursing turnover is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety, increase health care costs and impact on staff morale. A qualitative design was used to analyze responses from 362 nurses collected from a national survey of nurses from medical and surgical nursing units across 3 Australian States/Ter...

  11. Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of DSM-5 eating disorders in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Phillipa; Girosi, Federico; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background New DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for eating disorders were published in 2013. Adolescent cohort studies in the Australian community indicate that the point prevalence of DSM-5 eating disorders may be as high as 15% in females and 3% in males. The goal of the current study was to determine the 3-month prevalence of DSM-5 disorders in a representative sample of Australian older adolescents and adults. A secondary aim was to explore the demographic correlates of these disorders, specific...

  12. Reducing psychological distress and obesity in Australian farmers by promoting physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    McCoombe Scott; Chandrasekara Ananda; Brumby Susan; Torres Susan; Kremer Peter; Lewandowski Paul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies have confirmed that the rate of mental illness is no higher in rural Australians than that of urban Australians. However, the rate of poor mental health outcomes, and in particular suicide, is significantly raised in rural populations. This is thought to be due to lack of early diagnosis, health service access, the distance-decay effect, poor physical health determinants and access to firearms. Research conducted by the National Centre for Farmer Health between 200...

  13. A health policy for hearing impairment in older Australians: what should it include?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Leeder, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Background As in all western countries, Australia's older population experiences high levels of hearing impairment coupled with relatively low levels of hearing device usage. Poor hearing diminishes the quality of life of affected individuals and their families. This paper discusses how to improve Australian hearing health policies in order to better combat this impairment amongst older Australians. Method We searched the databases Medline, Meditext and Web of Science to find articles that di...

  14. Is enough attention given to climate change in health service planning? An Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Anthony J.; Hilary J. Bambrick; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Within an Australian context, the medium to long-term health impacts of climate change are likely to be wide, varied and amplify many existing disorders and health inequities. How the health system responds to these challenges will be best considered in the context of existing health facilities and services. This paper provides a snapshot of the understanding that Australian health planners have of the potential health impacts of climate change.Methods: The first author interviewe...

  15. Grandmothers' Beliefs and Practices in Infant Safe Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Mary E; Rose, Alison; Mullins, S Hope; Miller, Beverly K; Nick, Todd; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Nabaweesi, Rosemary; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2016-07-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and suffocation are leading causes of infant mortality. Supine sleep position and use of appropriate sleep surfaces reduce SIDS risk but are not universally practiced. Mothers' decisions about sleep position and environment may be influenced by guidance provided by infants' grandmothers and other caregivers. Methods A survey was conducted of a convenience sample of grandmothers aged 30-70 years who provide care at least weekly for an infant grandchild grandmother demographic characteristics and beliefs on their reported practices related to infant sleep. Results Among the 239 grandmothers, 45 % reported placing infants to sleep supine on an appropriate sleep surface at the grandmother's house, while 58 % reported doing so when the infant was sleeping in the mother's house. After adjusting for other factors, respondents were less likely to adhere to recommended guidelines when they believed supine position increased choking risk (OR 0.34, 95 % CI 0.18-0.62) or believed infants are more comfortable or sleep longer when on their stomachs (OR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.28-0.93). Discussion Grandmothers do not universally observe evidence-based safe sleep practices, particularly if the infant is not sleeping in the home of the parent. Interventions for senior caregivers focused on perceived choking risk, infant comfort in the supine position, and other recent changes in recommended safety practices are warranted. PMID:26987862

  16. Patterns of multimorbidity in working Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Shu-Kay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multimorbidity is becoming more prevalent. Previously-used methods of assessing multimorbidity relied on counting the number of health conditions, often in relation to an index condition (comorbidity, or grouping conditions based on body or organ systems. Recent refinements in statistical approaches have resulted in improved methods to capture patterns of multimorbidity, allowing for the identification of nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. This paper aims to identify nonrandom clusters of multimorbidity. Methods The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study cross-sectional screening dataset (approximately 78,000 working Australians was used to explore patterns of multimorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify nonrandomly occurring clusters of multimorbid health conditions. Results Six clinically-meaningful groups of multimorbid health conditions were identified. These were: factor 1: arthritis, osteoporosis, other chronic pain, bladder problems, and irritable bowel; factor 2: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and allergies; factor 3: back/neck pain, migraine, other chronic pain, and arthritis; factor 4: high blood pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, diabetes, and fatigue; factor 5: cardiovascular disease, diabetes, fatigue, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and arthritis; and factor 6: irritable bowel, ulcer, heartburn, and other chronic pain. These clusters do not fall neatly into organ or body systems, and some conditions appear in more than one cluster. Conclusions Considerably more research is needed with large population-based datasets and a comprehensive set of reliable health diagnoses to better understand the complex nature and composition of multimorbid health conditions.

  17. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Infants with Recurrent Brief Apneic Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Shahid; Thomas C Stephen; Sisson, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Apnea in an infant can be a diagnostic dilemma for the treating pediatrician. It is suggested that in some infants, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) might be a factor in the pathogenesis of apnea, although its role as a cause of apnea is still controversial.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of GER in infants presenting with recurrent brief apneic periods.PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of all the infants who underwent prolonged esophageal pH st...

  18. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in infants in a rural population: longitudinal data over the first six months

    OpenAIRE

    Storms Michelle R; Van Howe Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing numbers of infants are receiving prescription medications for symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Our aim was to prospectively measure reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in healthy term infants for the first six months of life. Methods In a prospective cohort study in the rural Upper Peninsula of Michigan, 128 consecutive maternal-infant pairs were followed for six months and administered the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire Revi...

  19. Supporting-emotional needs of Iranian parents with premature infants admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    OpenAIRE

    Aliabadi, Faranak; Kamali, Mohammad; Borimnejad, Leili; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Rasti, Mehdi; Shafaroodi, Narges; Rafii, Foroogh; Askary Kachoosangy, Reihaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a stressful and painful experience. Unlike to normal births, this birth is associated with admission and separation of infant from parents. The aim of this study was to compile the supporting-emotional needs of Iranian parents who have a premature infant admitted in (NICU). Methods: This study was performed using qualitative research approach. Twelve participants including 9 parents whose infant had been hospitalized i...

  20. Comparison of vaccination-related pain in infants who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection

    OpenAIRE

    Boroumandfar, Khadijeh; Fatemeh KHODAEI; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Maroufi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. Despite the irreparable consequences and complications of acute pain in infants, and existence of pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods for pain control, pain control in infants has received less attention. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants younger than 6 months who receive vapocoolant spray and breastfeeding during injection, in order to suggest a strateg...

  1. Respiratory Function in Healthy Taiwanese Infants: Tidal Breathing Analysis, Passive Mechanics, and Tidal Forced Expiration

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Shen-Hao; Liao, Sui-Ling; Yao, Tsung-Chieh; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Yeh, Kuo-Wei; Huang, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    Background Although infant lung function (ILF) testing is widely practiced in developed Western countries it is not typically performed in Eastern countries, and lung measurements are scarce for Asian infants. Therefore, this study aimed to establish normal reference values for Taiwanese infants. Materials and Methods Full-term infants without any chronic diseases and major anomalies were enrolled in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children (PATCH) cohort study. Detailed medical data...

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Rovers, M.M.; Molenaar, J.M.; Winkler-Seinstra, P.L.; Meijer, A.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Bont, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent recurrent wheeze. Observational studies cannot determine whether RSV infection is the cause of recurrent wheeze or the first indication of preexistent pulmonary vulnerability in preterm infants. The monoclonal anti

  3. When infants talk, infants listen: pre-babbling infants prefer listening to speech with infant vocal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-03-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to vowel sounds with infant vocal properties over vowel sounds with adult vocal properties. A listening preference favoring infant vowels may derive from their higher voice pitch, which has been shown to attract infant attention in infant-directed speech (IDS). In addition, infants' nascent articulatory abilities may induce a bias favoring infant speech given that 4- to 6-month-olds are beginning to produce vowel sounds. We created infant and adult /i/ ('ee') vowels using a production-based synthesizer that simulates the act of speaking in talkers at different ages and then tested infants across four experiments using a sequential preferential listening task. The findings provide the first evidence that infants preferentially attend to vowel sounds with infant voice pitch and/or formants over vowel sounds with no infant-like vocal properties, supporting the view that infants' production abilities influence how they process infant speech. The findings with respect to voice pitch also reveal parallels between IDS and infant speech, raising new questions about the role of this speech register in infant development. Research exploring the underpinnings and impact of this perceptual bias can expand our understanding of infant language development. PMID:25754812

  4. Supplementation of prebiotics in infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Močić Pavić A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ana Močić Pavić, Iva Hojsak Referral Center for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia Background: In recent years prebiotics have been added to infant formula to make it resemble breast milk more closely and to promote growth and development of beneficial intestinal microbiota. This review aims to present new data on the possible positive effects of prebiotics in infant formula on intestinal microbiota (bifidogenic and lactogenic effect and on clinical outcomes including growth, infections, and allergies. With that aim, a literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, and Science Direct in the last 10 years (December 2003 to December 2013 was performed. Results: Altogether 24 relevant studies were identified. It was found that during intervention, prebiotics can elicit a bifidogenic and lactogenic effect. As far as clinical outcomes were concerned, 14 studies investigated the effect of infant formula supplemented with prebiotics on growth and found that there was no difference when compared with non-supplemented infant formula. All available data are insufficient to support prebiotic supplementation in order to reduce risk of allergies and infections. Conclusion: There is currently no strong evidence to recommend routine supplementation of infant formulas with prebiotics. Further well-designed clinical studies with long-term follow-up are needed. Keywords: prebiotics, infant formula, growth, allergy, infections, supplementation

  5. Changing Patterns of Governance for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Kay; Treadgold, Elaine

    2007-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the "corporate" model for university governance, a model advocated by both sides of the Australian parliament and adopted by Australian universities over the past two decades, prompted the Australian Vice-Chancellors' Committee (AVCC) in 2003 to suggest an alternative "trusteeship" model. The paper discusses how this model…

  6. Planning infant learning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S K; Wilson, J M

    1976-12-01

    Based on a review of the literature, a theoretical basis for planning learning programs for infants is presented. The prerequisites for effective programming include attention to the characteristics of the learning environment, the infant or learner, and the stimulus-response mechanism. The goals of such a program include provision of sensorimotor experience and promotion of infant attachment to a mother or mother-surrogate as a basis for establishing a sense of security and competency in the infant. The parent must be taught to recognize the infant's best periods of alertness, develop sensitivity to the infant's signals, and utilize appropriate stimulation routines in interactive patterns in order to create an environment most conducive to cognitive development. Specific program content may be varied within the theoretical framework to fit the needs of special children and their families. PMID:996090

  7. Emotional processing of infants displays in eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Cardi

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to examine emotional processing of infant displays in people with Eating Disorders (EDs. BACKGROUND: Social and emotional factors are implicated as causal and maintaining factors in EDs. Difficulties in emotional regulation have been mainly studied in relation to adult interactions, with less interest given to interactions with infants. METHOD: A sample of 138 women were recruited, of which 49 suffered from Anorexia Nervosa (AN, 16 from Bulimia Nervosa (BN, and 73 were healthy controls (HCs. Attentional responses to happy and sad infant faces were tested with the visual probe detection task. Emotional identification of, and reactivity to, infant displays were measured using self-report measures. Facial expressions to video clips depicting sad, happy and frustrated infants were also recorded. RESULTS: No significant differences between groups were observed in the attentional response to infant photographs. However, there was a trend for patients to disengage from happy faces. People with EDs also reported lower positive ratings of happy infant displays and greater subjective negative reactions to sad infants. Finally, patients showed a significantly lower production of facial expressions, especially in response to the happy infant video clip. Insecure attachment was negatively correlated with positive facial expressions displayed in response to the happy infant and positively correlated with the intensity of negative emotions experienced in response to the sad infant video clip. CONCLUSION: People with EDs do not have marked abnormalities in their attentional processing of infant emotional faces. However, they do have a reduction in facial affect particularly in response to happy infants. Also, they report greater negative reactions to sadness, and rate positive emotions less intensively than HCs. This pattern of emotional responsivity suggests abnormalities in social reward sensitivity and might indicate new

  8. BOOMERANG - the Australian light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposal has been prepared for the installation in Australia of a national high performance synchrotron light facility called Boomerang. The Boomerang proposal had its origin in the establishment of the Australian Synchrotron Research Program (ASRP) which was one of the seven Major National Research Facilities announced by the Federal Government in December 1995. The ASRP provides the opportunity and funding for Australian researchers to access international synchrotron facilities, specifically two consortia at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the Argonne National Laboratory, USA and continued interaction with the Photon Factory at the KEK Laboratory in Japan. The ASRP was the successor to the Australian National Beamline Facility project (ANBF) which began in 1991 following the ASTEC inquiry titled 'Small Country - Big Science'. The Federal Government also provided funding for a Feasibility Study to determine the value of establishing an Australian-based synchrotron radiation facility. The Feasibility Study was completed in August 1998 and endorsed by the institutional members of the ASRP and the research community in general. The study concluded that, on the data available in Australia, there was a strong case for the installation of an Australian-based facility. The study considered several options for an Australian-based facility and recommended that these options and the data supporting the general conclusions receive further investigation. A mission was arranged to a select group of overseas laboratories to explore these questions in detail. The review team included a mix of scientific and industrial experience and also represented the interests of the ASRP and an Industrial Synchrotron Consortium based in Victoria. Based on the conclusions of the overseas mission and incorporating the advice of all international specialists in the design and use of synchrotron facilities consulted during the mission, the most cost-effective option was an extended

  9. Immunisation of premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bonhoeffer, J; Siegrist, C‐A; Heath, P T

    2006-01-01

    Premature infants are at increased risk of vaccine preventable infections, but audits have shown that their vaccinations are often delayed. Early protection is desirable. While the evidence base for immunisation of preterm infants is limited, the available data support early immunisation without correction for gestational age. For a number of antigens the antibody response to initial doses may be lower than that of term infants, but protective concentrations are often achieved and memory succ...

  10. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    The traditional cultures of Aboriginal Australians include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition, ceremony, and art. This astronomical component includes a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky, and this knowledge was used for practical purposes such as constructing calendars. There is also evidence that traditional Aboriginal Australians made careful records and measurements of cyclical phenomena, paid careful attention to unexpected phenomena such as eclipses and meteorite impacts, and could determine the cardinal points to an accuracy of a few degrees.

  11. Australian uranium and the election

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international and national complexities of the situation in Australia over the question of mining of the country's large and rich uranium deposits are explored with especial reference to the pending general election. The present position is ironical since access to low cost uranium would give a welcome boost to the nuclear industry which is enthusiastically supported by the Australian prime minister and his colleagues yet the Australian government is unable to promote mining as rapidly as it would like because of the international commitments it has made to provide a justification for its policy. (U.K.)

  12. Intergenerational transmission of dietary behaviours: A qualitative study of Anglo-Australian, Chinese-Australian and Italian-Australian three-generation families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kate; Chan, Flora; Prichard, Ivanka; Coveney, John; Ward, Paul; Wilson, Carlene

    2016-08-01

    Family food choice is complex with a number of people within the family sharing food choice and preparation responsibilities. Differences in dietary behaviours also exist between various ethnic groups worldwide, and are apparent within multicultural nations such as Australia. This study examined the intergenerational transmission of eating behaviour through semi-structured family interviews with 27 three generation families (Anglo-Australian: n = 11, Chinese-Australian: n = 8, Italian-Australian: n = 8; N = 114). The influence of generation (grandparent, parent, child), role (grandmother, grandfather, mother, father, daughter, son), and ethnic background were considered. Thematic analysis identified that regardless of ethnic background, grandmothers and mothers dominated family food choice decisions even in families where fathers were primarily responsible for the preparation of family meals. The women in each generation influenced fruit and vegetable intake by controlling purchasing decisions (e.g., by shopping for food or editing family grocery shopping lists), insisting on consumption, monitoring and reminding, utilizing food as a prerequisite for conditional treats (e.g., eating fruit before being allowed snacks), instigating and enforcing food rules (e.g., fast food only on weekends), and restricting others' food choices. Grandparents and children shared a relationship that skipped the parent generation and influenced dietary behaviours bi-directionally. These findings have implications for the delivery of dietary health messages used in disease prevention interventions designed to successfully reach culturally and linguistically diverse populations and all members of multigenerational families. PMID:27133550

  13. Western Australian school students' understanding of biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Schibeci, Renato

    2003-01-01

    Are science educators providing secondary school students with the background to understand the science behind recent controversies such as the recently introduced compulsory labelling of genetically modified foods? Research from the UK suggests that many secondary school students do not understand the processes or implications of modern biotechnology. The situation in Australia is unclear. In this study, 1116 15-year-old students from eleven Western Australian schools were surveyed to determine their understanding of, and attitude towards, recent advances in modern biotechnology. The results indicate that approximately one third of students have little or no understanding of biotechnology. Many students over-estimate the use of biotechnology in our society by confusing current uses with possible future applications. The results provide a rationale for the inclusion of biotechnology, a cutting edge science, in the school science curriculum

  14. The Australian solar scene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, Paul [IT Power Australia (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation mainly talks about the actions taken by the Australian country concerning the use of renewable energy and the reduction of the peak load in some areas. In the first part, there are found both the geographical aspects as well as the major political, e.g. Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean development and Climate. There are also explained the issues related to peak load growth and it is shown a comparison graphic having information about the most used photovoltaic systems. Then, there are mentioned the communities that are testing one of the model photovoltaic systems in order to: reduce the peak load, use the energy in a properly way, reduce the energy cost, among others. Finally, it is succinctly explained the photovoltaic rebate program as well as the use of the off-grid systems, besides, it is given relevant information about those remote communities of Australia and the benefits of the implementation of Bushlight. [Spanish] Esta presentacion trata primordialmente de las acciones, referentes al uso de energia renovable, tomadas por Australia y creadas con el fin de reducir la maxima demanda en algunas regiones de este pais. En la primera parte, se encuentran tanto los aspectos geograficos como los principales aspectos politicos; por ejemplo, la Sociedad Asia-Pacifico para el Desarrollo no Contaminante y el Clima. Asimismo, se da una explicacion acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas al crecimiento de la maxima demanda; ademas, se muestra un cuadro comparativo, que contiene informacion relacionada con los sistemas fotovoltaicos mas utilizados. Despues, se mencionan aquellas comunidades que tienen en periodo de prueba alguno de los modelos fotovoltaicos con el fin de: reducir la maxima demanda, utilizar eficientemente la energia, reducir el costo de la misma, entre otros aspectos mas. Finalmente, se explica escuetamente el programa de reembolso centrado en el uso de sistemas fotovoltaicos, asi como el uso de sistemas asilados de la red; ademas, se

  15. The determinants of fertility among Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowlishaw, G

    1981-06-01

    This paper concerns the determinants of fertility of precontact Australian Aborigine women. Emphasis is placed on social organization as well as the physical environment and considerations of adaptation. The key to understanding the fertility of Australian Aborigines is the structural tension evident in male-female relations. Ethnographic data on hunter-gatherers fertility indicate a low fertility rate, e.g. 4.7-5.2 live births/woman for the Kung. Traditional Aboriginal physiological fertility was also low if infant mortality is separated from infertility. Past studies of population and transition theory in pre-contact situations have attributed increase in population to reduction in mortality. This paper suggests that there must have been an increase in the birth rate. Factors affecting ovulation, conception, and parturition are examined for traditional Aboriginal populations. Ovulation is affected by nutrition, lactation, and introcision. Lack of body fat in women causes anovulation due to insufficent energy reserves. Increased fertility appears to be a greatly reduced energy expenditure and an increased carbohydrate intake leading to a build up of body weight. Pre-contact Aboriginal fertility was low because of a low caloric intake and a high energy expenditure. Prolonged lactation does not seem to cause birth spacing. The actual length of time after parturition appears to be an independent cause of reduced prolactin, and of reestablishment of ovulation. Stress and anxiety are factors which could reduce fertility by causing anovulation in women and/or reduced sperm counts in men. Contraception is affected by coital frequency and male fertility. Aboriginal coital frequency may have been affected by the lack of privacy and competition of a co-wife. Gestation is affected by spontaneous abortion, sterility, and foetal wastage. Harsh conditions of traditional Aborigines may have affected their ability to conceive. Voluntary controls on fertility for Aborigines

  16. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  17. Stress Literacy in Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlow, Megan; Wuthrich, Viviana; Murrihy, Rachael; Remond, Louise; Tuqiri, Rebekka; van Kessel, Jacobine; Wheatley, Anna; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Kidman, Antony

    2009-01-01

    Stress literacy is a term that refers to knowledge about stress and stress management techniques. Levels of stress literacy were examined in more than nine hundred Australian adolescents by providing a short stress-management education session and assessing stress literacy using a pre-post survey design. It was found that while adolescents had a…

  18. Staff Bullying in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Dan; Duncan, Deirdre J.; Edwards, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of staff bullying in Australian schools, to identify bullies and targets and to examine some implications for school leaders in dealing with staff bullying. Design/methodology/approach: The quantitative research design survey instrument contained 11 demographic items, 44 questions of…

  19. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  20. Understanding caregiver judgments of infant pain: Contrasts of parents, nurses and pediatricians

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca R Pillai Riddell; Horton, Rachel E.; Hillgrove, Jessica; Kenneth D Craig

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research suggests that caregivers’ beliefs pertaining to infant pain and which infant pain cues are perceived to be important play an integral role in pediatric pain assessment and management.OBJECTIVES: Following a recent quasi-experimental study reporting on caregiver background and age differences in actual infant pain judgments, the present study clarified these findings by analyzing caregivers’ pain beliefs and the cues they use to make pain assessments, and by examining how ...

  1. Breastfeeding intentions, patterns, and determinants in infants visiting hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsson Jonas F

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent ecological research from Latin America has shown that infant health could be promoted through exclusive breastfeeding in infants aged 0–3 months and partial breastfeeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Methods In a cross-sectional study in 1995, the author interviewed 518 mothers with infants ≤ 1 year in La Paz, Bolivia, to describe the breastfeeding pattern and its determinants including socio-economic, religious and ethnic background. Results The rate of any...

  2. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  3. Cerebral Asymmetry in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Corballis, Michael C.

    This paper describes two experiments conducted to replicate the reported findings (Entus, 1975) that infants demonstrate a right ear advantage in the perception of dichotically presented syllables. Using the non-nutritive sucking paradigm, 48 infants 1-3 months of age were presented with verbal stimuli contingent upon criterion level sucking.…

  4. Are Australian immigrants at a risk of being physically inactive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurrin Lyle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined whether physical activity risk differed between migrant sub-groups and the Australian-born population. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian National Health Survey (2001 and each resident's country of birth was classified into one of 13 regions. Data were gathered on each resident's physical activity level in the fortnight preceding the survey. Multivariable logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders examined the risk of physical inactivity of participants from each of the 13 regions compared to the Australian-born population. Results There was a greater prevalence of physical inactivity for female immigrants from most regions compared to male immigrants from a like region. Immigrants from South East Asia (OR 2.04% 95% CI 1.63, 2.56, Other Asia (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.10, 2.13, Other Oceania (1.81 95% CI 1.11, 2.95, the Middle East (OR 1.42 95% CI 0.97, 2.06 [note: border line significance] and Southern & Eastern Europe are at a significantly higher risk of being physically inactive compared to those born in Australian. In contrast, immigrants from New Zealand (OR 0.77 95% CI 0.62, 0.94, the UK & Ireland (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.73, 0.92, and other Africa (OR 0.69 95% CI 0.51, 0.94 are at a significantly lower risk of being physically inactive compared to the Australian born population. Conclusion Future research identifying potential barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity will inform culturally sensitive physical activity programs that aim to encourage members of specific regional ethnic sub-groups to undertake physical activity.

  5. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  6. Auditory Brainstem Response Improvements in Hyperbillirubinemic Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Farzaneh Zamiri; Manchaiah, Vinaya; Lotfi, Yones

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Hyperbillirubinemia in infants have been associated with neuronal damage including in the auditory system. Some researchers have suggested that the bilirubin-induced auditory neuronal damages may be temporary and reversible. This study was aimed at investigating the auditory neuropathy and reversibility of auditory abnormalities in hyperbillirubinemic infants. Subjects and Methods The study participants included 41 full term hyperbilirubinemic infants (mean age 39.24 days) with normal birth weight (3,200-3,700 grams) that admitted in hospital for hyperbillirubinemia and 39 normal infants (mean age 35.54 days) without any hyperbillirubinemia or other hearing loss risk factors for ruling out maturational changes. All infants in hyperbilirubinemic group had serum bilirubin level more than 20 milligram per deciliter and undergone one blood exchange transfusion. Hearing evaluation for each infant was conducted twice: the first one after hyperbilirubinemia treatment and before leaving hospital and the second one three months after the first hearing evaluation. Hearing evaluations included transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) screening and auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold tracing. Results The TEOAE and ABR results of control group and TEOAE results of the hyperbilirubinemic group did not change significantly from the first to the second evaluation. However, the ABR results of the hyperbilirubinemic group improved significantly from the first to the second assessment (p=0.025). Conclusions The results suggest that the bilirubin induced auditory neuronal damage can be reversible over time so we suggest that infants with hyperbilirubinemia who fail the first hearing tests should be reevaluated after 3 months of treatment. PMID:27144228

  7. When Infants Talk, Infants Listen: Pre-Babbling Infants Prefer Listening to Speech with Infant Vocal Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masapollo, Matthew; Polka, Linda; Ménard, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    To learn to produce speech, infants must effectively monitor and assess their own speech output. Yet very little is known about how infants perceive speech produced by an infant, which has higher voice pitch and formant frequencies compared to adult or child speech. Here, we tested whether pre-babbling infants (at 4-6 months) prefer listening to…

  8. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton Peter M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1 examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2 relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES, TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3 compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015 in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB consumption for Australian children is still high despite the decrease since 1995 in some age groups. It provides little support to conclude that overweight in children is currently being driven by excessive SSB consumption although it may be factor in some obese children. Conclusions are limited by the cross

  9. Western Australian Mineral and Petroleum Statistics Digest 2006-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the most comprehensive statistical information available on the Western Australian minerals and petroleum industry. The statistics in this Digest show that in 2006-07 the value of sales by the State's minerals and petroleum sector set a new record, rising by 25 per cent to reach $53.4 billion. This follows a decade of average annual growth of twelve per cent. This record result was driven by strong overseas demand for our resources and rising commodity prices. Despite the robust nature of the industry, the year produced many challenges and the impressive result was achieved against a background of a strengthening Australian dollar, adverse weather conditions, skills shortages and mining equipment supply constraints

  10. Breastfed infants metabolize perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelor, C Phillip; Kirk, Andrea B; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Kroll, Martina; Campbell, Catrina A; Choudhary, Pankaj K

    2012-05-01

    Bifidobacteria are the dominant intestinal bacteria in breastfed infants. It is known that they can reduce nitrate. Although no direct experiments have been conducted until now, inferred pathways for Bifidobacterium bifidum include perchlorate reduction via perchlorate reductase. We show that when commercially available strains of bifidobacteria are cultured in milk, spiked with perchlorate, perchlorate is consumed. We studied 13 breastfed infant-mother pairs who provided 43 milk samples and 39 infant urine samples, and 5 formula-fed infant-mother pairs who provided 21 formula samples and 21 infant urine samples. Using iodine as a conservative tracer, we determined the average urinary iodine (UI) to milk iodine (MI) concentration ratio to be 2.87 for the breastfed infants. For the same samples, the corresponding perchlorate concentration ratio was 1.37 (difference significant, p perchlorate is lost. For the formula fed infant group the same ratios were 1.20 and 1.58; the difference was not significant (p = 0.68). However, the small number of subjects in the latter group makes it more difficult to conclude definitively whether perchlorate reduction does or does not occur. PMID:22497505

  11. Achieving professional status: Australian podiatrists' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Wesley

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper explores the notion of professional status from the perspective of a sample of Australian podiatrists; how it is experienced, what factors are felt to affect it, and how these are considered to influence professional standing within an evolving healthcare system. Underpinning sociological theory is deployed in order to inform and contextualise the study. Methods Data were drawn from a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 21 and focus groups (n = 9 with podiatrists from across four of Australia's eastern states (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Australian Capital Territory, resulting in a total of 76 participants. Semi-structured interview schedules sought to explore podiatrist perspectives on a range of features related to professional status within podiatry in Australia. Results Central to the retention and enhancement of status was felt to be the development of specialist roles and the maintenance of control over key task domains. Key distinctions in private and public sector environments, and in rural and urban settings, were noted and found to reflect differing contexts for status development. Marketing was considered important to image enhancement, as was the cache attached to the status of the universities providing graduate education. Conclusion Perceived determinants of professional status broadly matched those identified in the wider sociological literature, most notably credentialism, client status, content and context of work (such as specialisation and an ideological basis for persuading audiences to acknowledge professional status. In an environment of demographic and workforce change, and the resultant policy demands for healthcare service re-design, enhanced opportunities for specialisation appear evident. Under the current model of professionalism, both role flexibility and uniqueness may prove important.

  12. Nazi medical experiments on Australian prisoners of war: Commentary on the testimony of an Australian soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M

    2015-12-01

    Archival research reveals that Australian prisoners of war were exposed to non-consensual medical experiments during World War II. This article discusses the first known case of an Australian soldier exposed to German medical experiments. PMID:26939510

  13. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...... indicating that some of the excess risk may have a placental origin. To further understand the associations between maternal obesity and late fetal and infant death, we need better and more detailed clinical data, which is difficult to obtain on a population level given the rarity of the outcomes. The best...

  14. How safe is Australian Radiotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many incidents and near-incidents are known to occur in Australian radiation oncology departments. The vast majority of incidents are minor in nature; however a small percentage represent major threats to good patient care, administrative structures and public confidence. A small but regular number of incidents result in ad-hoc local and/or State committees of inquiry or Tort actions and inevitably have substantial personal and departmental repercussions. Apart from some local databases on treatment delivery incidents maintained by radiation therapists, no systematic data collection or analysis of treatment incidents exists for radiation oncology in Australia. This paper argues the case for a prospective, systematic approach to the recording and analysis of treatment-related incidents and near incidents. Major barriers to such a scheme, including fear of litigation, misuse of information and lack of understanding on the nature of an incident are discussed. Copyright (2003) Australian Institute of Radiography

  15. Research Output of Australian Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Abbot; Hristos Doucouliagos

    2003-01-01

    Research plays an important role in underpinning a country’s economic and social life. Universities are at the centre of the research and human capital generating process. The aim of this paper is to explore the links between research output, research income, academic and non-academic labour and some of the characteristics of Australian universities. The results indicate that research income, academic staff and post-graduates are all positively associated with research output. There are notic...

  16. Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2010-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of Australian Aboriginal accounts of meteors. The data used were taken from anthropological and ethnographic literature describing oral traditions, ceremonies, and Dreamings of 97 Aboriginal groups representing all states of modern Australia. This revealed common themes in the way meteors were viewed between Aboriginal groups, focusing on supernatural events, death, omens, and war. The presence of such themes around Australia was probably due to the unpredictable nature of meteors in an otherwise well-ordered cosmos.

  17. There is (still too much aluminium in infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burrell Shelle-Ann M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant formulas are sophisticated milk-based feeds for infants which are used as a substitute for breast milk. Historically they are known to be contaminated by aluminium and in the past this has raised health concerns for exposed infants. We have measured the aluminium content of a number of widely used infant formulas to determine if their contamination by aluminium and consequent issues of child health persists. Methods Samples of ready-made milks and powders used to make milks were prepared by microwave digestion of acid/peroxide mixtures and their aluminium content determined by THGA. Results The concentration of aluminium in ready-made milks varied from ca 176 to 700 μg/L. The latter concentration was for a milk for preterm infants. The aluminium content of powders used to make milks varied from ca 2.4 to 4.3 μg/g. The latter content was for a soya-based formula and equated to a ready-to-drink milk concentration of 629 μg/L. Using the manufacturer's own guidelines of formula consumption the average daily ingestion of aluminium from infant formulas for a child of 6 months varied from ca 200 to 600 μg of aluminium. Generally ingestion was higher from powdered as compared to ready-made formulas. Conclusions The aluminium content of a range of well known brands of infant formulas remains high and particularly so for a product designed for preterm infants and a soya-based product designed for infants with cow's milk intolerances and allergies. Recent research demonstrating the vulnerability of infants to early exposure to aluminium serves to highlight an urgent need to reduce the aluminium content of infant formulas to as low a level as is practically possible.

  18. Relationship between maternal obesity and infant feeding-interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifshitz Fima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data regarding the relationship between maternal adiposity and interaction and feeding of infants and possible contribution to childhood obesity. In this study we determined the relationship between maternal body weight and composition and infant feeding patterns and maternal-infant interaction during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the Enhanced Metabolic Testing Activity Chamber (EMTAC. Methods The amount of time four obese (BMI = 33.5 ± 5.3 kg/m2 and three normal weight (BMI = 23.1 ± 0.6 kg/m2 biological mothers, spent feeding and interacting with their infants, along with what they ingested, was recorded during 24-hour metabolic rate measurements in the EMTAC. The seven infants were 4.9 ± 0.7 months, 69 ± 3 cm, 7.5 ± 0.8 kg, 26 ± 3 % fat and 29 ± 25 percentile for weight for length. Energy and macronutrient intake (kcal/kg were assessed. Maternal body composition was determined by air displacement plethysmorgraphy and that of the infants by skin-fold thicknesses. Pearson correlations and independent t-tests were utilized for statistical analysis (p Results Infants born to obese biological mothers consumed more energy (87.6 ± 18.9 vs. 68.1 ± 17.3 and energy as carbohydrate (25 ± 6 vs.16 ± 3; p Conclusion Greater maternal body weight and percent body fat were associated with greater infant energy intakes. These infants were fed less frequently and consumed more carbohydrates in a shorter period of time as compared to infants from normal weight biological mothers. These variations in feeding patterns may predispose certain infants to obesity.

  19. Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an important component of environmental characterization activities and serves as a basis for distinguishing the presence and significance of contamination. Background data can also be used to assess the levels of baseline risk to which humans or other receptors are typically exposed and to establish remediation goals. Evaluating background on a sitewide basis provides a consistent, technically defensible definition of background as opposed to determining area-specific background compositions for each waste management unit being considered for remediation across the Hanford Site

  20. Time Travel: Australian Tourists and Britain's Past

    OpenAIRE

    Richard White

    2012-01-01

    Across the twentieth century, Britain drew more Australian tourists for longer and more intense experiences than anywhere else, though as early as the 1970s Asia was attracting more Australians than Europe. They found much to admire and to deprecate in Britain but above all they were seduced by Britain’s past, or what they imagined it to be. This paper examines the Australian experience of history in Britain, their admiration for notions of tradition, for an unchanging village life, for fadin...

  1. Immune dysfunction in Australian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Roberts-Thomson, R A; Nikoloutsopoulos, T; Gillis, D

    2005-12-01

    An examination of the prevalence and phenotype of immune disorders in different ethnic groups may provide important clues to the etiopathogenesis of these disorders. Whilst still conjectural the restricted and somewhat unique polymorphisms of the MHC (and other genetic loci involving host defences) of the Australian Aborigines may provide an explanation for their apparent heightened susceptibility to newly encountered infections and their resistance to many (auto) immune and allergic disorders. In comparison with non-Aboriginal Australians, Australian Aborigines have heightened frequencies of rheumatic fever, systemic lupus erythematosus, various infections and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. In contrast various autoimmune disorders (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, CREST, biliary cirrhosis, coeliac disease, pernicious anaemia, vitiligo), B27 related arthropathies, psoriasis, lymphoproliferative disorders and atopic disorders appear infrequent or absent. Similarly various autoantibodies occur with increased or diminished frequency. With continuing racial admixture, social deprivation and deleterious lifestyles of these people it is likely that further changes in both the frequencies and phenotype of these immune disorders will occur. It is only with a full understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in these immune disorders that meaningful and clinical relevant interventions will be possible. PMID:16572744

  2. Clinical Features and Correlates of Outcomes for High-Risk, Marginalized Mothers and Newborn Infants Engaged with a Specialist Perinatal and Family Drug Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee; Hutchinson, Delyse; Rapee, Ron; Burns, Lucy; Stephens, Christine; Haber, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of research in Australia on the characteristics of women in treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and the health outcomes of their neonates. Aims. To determine the clinical features and outcomes of high-risk, marginalized women seeking treatment for illicit substance use in pregnancy and their neonates. Methods. 139 women with a history of substance abuse/dependence engaged with a perinatal drug health service in Sydney, Australia. Maternal (demographic, drug use, psychological, physical, obstetric, and antenatal care) and neonatal characteristics (delivery, early health outcomes) were examined. Results. Compared to national figures, pregnant women attending a specialist perinatal and family drug health service were more likely to report being Australian born, Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, younger, unemployed, and multiparous. Opiates were the primary drug of concern (81.3%). Pregnancy complications were common (61.9%). Neonates were more likely to be preterm, have low birth weight, and be admitted to special care nursery. NAS was the most prevalent birth complication (69.8%) and almost half required pharmacotherapy. Conclusion. Mother-infant dyads affected by substance use in pregnancy are at significant risk. There is a need to review clinical models of care and examine the longer-term impacts on infant development. PMID:23227054

  3. Nutrition of preterm infants in relation to bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschirch Edda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is multifactorial. In addition to prenatal inflammation, postnatal malnutrition also affects lung development. Methods A retrospective study was performed to analyse during the first two weeks of life the total, enteral and parenteral nutrition of premature infants ( Results Ninety-five premature infants were analysed: 26 with BPD (27 ± 1 weeks and 69 without BPD (28 ± 1 weeks. There was no statistical significant difference in the total intake of fluids, calories, glucose or protein and weight gain per day in both groups. The risk of developing BPD was slightly increased in infants with cumulative caloric intake below the minimal requirement of 1230 kcal/kg and a cumulative protein intake below 43.5 g/kg. Furthermore, the risk of developing BPD was significantly higher when infants had a cumulative fluid intake above the recommended 1840 ml/kg. In infants who developed BPD, the enteral nutrition was significantly lower than in non-BPD infants [456 ml/kg (IQR 744, 235 vs. 685 (IQR 987, 511]. Infants who did not develop BPD reached 50% of total enteral feeding significantly faster [9.6 days vs. 11.5]. Conclusions Preterm infants developing BPD received less enteral feeding, even though it was well compensated by the parenteral nutrient supply. Data suggest that a critical minimal amount of enteral feeding is required to prevent development of BPD; however, a large prospective clinical study is needed to prove this assumption.

  4. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  5. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly...

  6. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase ...

  7. CPR - infant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100216.htm CPR - infant - series To use the sharing features on ... yourself to call 911 until you have performed CPR for about 2 minutes. 3. Carefully place the ...

  8. Infant formulas - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be ... free formulas: These formulas are also used for galactosemia and for children who can't digest lactose. ...

  9. Parenting Your Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Parenting Your Infant ...

  10. CHEST PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti S. Christian (M.P.T Cardiopulmonary Conditions

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the normal lung, secretions are removed by Mucociliary activity, normal breathing cycles, and cough. In disease, increased secretion viscosity and volume, dyskinesia of the cilia, and ineffective cough combine to reduce the ability to clear secretions, and may increase exacerbations and infections. Many chest physiotherapy techniques like postural drainage, percussion and vibration are used since many years. These techniques are derived from adult studies but these techniques are quite stressful for the infants as the infant respiratory system is different from the adult respiratory system. Advance chest physiotherapy techniques were developed specifically for infants; in accordance with their physiological characteristics. So this review is to introduce some new chest physiotherapy helpful for newborn infants.

  11. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  12. Infant dental care (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though newborns and infants do not have teeth, care of the mouth and gums is important. ... sugar water. As the child grows, establishing proper dental hygiene will promote healthy teeth and gums which ...

  13. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Swift Judy A; Siriwardena A Niroshan; Nathan Dilip; Atkinson Philippa; Redsell Sarah A; Glazebrook Cris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning th...

  14. Clopidogrel in infants with systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessel, David L; Berger, Felix; Li, Jennifer S;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt are at risk for shunt thrombosis and death. We investigated whether the addition of clopidogrel to conventional therapy reduces mortality from any cause and morbidity related......) or placebo (439 infants), in addition to conventional therapy (including aspirin in 87.9% of infants). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death or heart transplantation, shunt thrombosis, or performance of a cardiac procedure due to an event considered to be thrombotic in nature before...

  15. Evaluation of the Sodium Serum Level in Infants with Jaundice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inadequate milk intake during the first year of neonate’s life can result in weight loss, severe hyperbilirubinemia, and sometimes hypernatremia. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between neonatal weight loss and hypernatremia in term breastfed infants with idiopathic jaundice, as well as the necessity of sodium concentration measurement in newborns with idiopathic jaundice via weight loss measurement. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined 273 infants with jaundice of unknown etiology at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, in years 2008-2012. The study sample consisted of 226 infants in the control group (serum sodium concentration

  16. Unnatural sudden infant death

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, R

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To identify features to help paediatricians differentiate between natural and unnatural infant deaths.
METHOD—Clinical features of 81 children judged by criminal and family courts to have been killed by their parents were studied. Health and social service records, court documents, and records from meetings with parents, relatives, and social workers were studied.
RESULTS—Initially, 42 children had been certified as dying from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and 29 wer...

  17. Tracheotomy for infant botulism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, J A; Rowe, L D; Pasquariello, P; Potsic, W P

    1979-01-01

    Botulism is a serious intoxication caused by ingestion of food containing preformed botulinus toxin and characterized by rapidly progressive bulbar paralysis, generalized weakness, and respiratory insufficiency. In 1976 a distinct clinical entity of infant botulism was recognized. The disease apparently results from intraintestinal toxin production which produces a defect in neuromuscular transmission by interfering with release of acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses. Five cases of infant botulism were identified at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 1975 and 1977. Initial symptoms included constipation, slow feeding, lethargy and weak cry. Four of the patients progressed to respiratory insufficiency requiring nasotracheal intubation. Three of the infants with respiratory failure required tracheotomy. Because infants with respiratory failure may require support for months, we recommend that a tracheotomy be performed early in the management to avoid the complications associated with prolonged intubation. The effectiveness of antitoxin or antibiotics to treat infant botulism remains questionable and therefore prolonged respiratory supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. In addition, we offer guidelines for decannulation in cases of infant botulism. None of the patients in our series could be decannulated prior to initial discharge from the hospital. PMID:517932

  18. Effects of infant massage on jaundiced neonates undergoing phototherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chien-Heng; Yang, Hsiu-Chuan; Cheng, Chien-Sheng; Yen, Chin-En

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant massage is a natural way for caregivers to improve health, sleep patterns, and reduce colic. We aimed to investigate the effects of infant massage on neonates with jaundice who are also receiving phototherapy. Methods Full-term neonates with jaundice, admitted for phototherapy at a regional teaching hospital, were randomly allocated to either a control group or a massage group. The medical information for each neonate, including total feeding amount, body weight, defecation ...

  19. Infant Male Circumcision: Healthcare Provider Knowledge and Associated Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Starzyk, Erin J.; Kelley, Michele A; Rachel N Caskey; Schwartz, Alan; Kennelly, Joan F.; Robert C Bailey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s) and guardian(s). The purpose of this study was to assess providers’ level of infa...

  20. Cardiac Muscarinic Receptor Overexpression in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Livolsi, Angelo; Niederhoffer, Nathalie; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Rambaud, Caroline; Olexa, Catherine; Mokni, Walid; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Bousquet, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains the leading cause of death among infants less than 1 year of age. Disturbed expression of some neurotransmitters and their receptors has been shown in the central nervous system of SIDS victims but no biological abnormality of the peripheral vago-cardiac system has been demonstrated to date. The present study aimed to seek vago-cardiac abnormalities in SIDS victims. The cardiac level of expression of muscarinic receptors, as well as acety...

  1. Lung Function in African Infants: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, DM; Willemse, L; Alberts, A.; Simpson, S.; Sly, PD; Hall, GL; Zar, HJ

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of childhood respiratory illness is large in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Infant lung function (ILF) testing may provide useful information about lung growth and susceptibility to respiratory disease. However, ILF has not been widely available in LMICs settings where the greatest burden of childhood respiratory disease occurs. Aim To implement and evaluate a pilot study of ILF testing in a semi-rural setting in South Africa. Method Infant lung function testin...

  2. Brain sonography in African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Eze; Sam U Enukegwu; Odike, Angela I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To determine the structural findings in brain sonography of African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective assessment of medical records of patients who underwent brain sonography on account of complicated bacterial meningitis. The brain sonography was carried out over a 4-year period (between September 15, 2004 and September 14, 2008). Result : A total of 86 infants were studied (40 boys and 46 girls in a ratio of 1:1.1); more...

  3. NEONATAL MORBIDITY AND EARLY OUTCOME OF VERY PRETERM INFANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Heljić Suada; Terzić Sabina; Spahović Raho; Maksić Hajrija

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions.The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome var...

  4. Influence of women's autonomy on infant mortality in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepalese women lag behind men in many areas, such as educational attainment, participation in decision-making and health service utilization, all of which have an impact on reproductive health outcomes. This paper aims to examine the factors influencing infant mortality, specifically, whether women's autonomy has an impact on infant mortality in the Nepali context. Methods Data were drawn from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2006. The analysis is confined to 5,545 children who were born within the five years preceding the survey. Association between infant mortality and the explanatory variables was assessed using bivariate analysis. Variables were then re-examined in multivariate analysis to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on infant mortality after controlling for other variables. Results The infant mortality rate (IMR in the five years preceding the survey was 48 deaths per one thousand live births. Infant mortality rate was high among illiterate women (56 per 1000 live births and among those not involved in decision making for health care (54 per 1000 live births. Furthermore, infant mortality was high among those women who had more children than their comparison group, who had birth intervals of less than two years, who had multiple births, who were from rural areas, who were poor, whose source of water was the river or unprotected sources, and who did not have a toilet facility in their household. Results from logistic regression show that women's autonomy plays a major role in infant mortality after controlling other variables, such as mother's sociodemographic characteristics, children's characteristics and other household characteristics. Children from literate women had a 32 percent lower chance (OR = 0.68 of experiencing infant mortality than did children from illiterate women. Furthermore, infants of women who were involved in decision-making regarding their own health care had a 25 percent lower

  5. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Valorie Eddy; Laura Clary; Katrina Crowell

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition...

  6. Human resources issues and Australian Disaster Medical Assistance Teams: results of a national survey of team members

    OpenAIRE

    Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) are likely to continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, this study was designed to evaluate Australian DMAT experience in relation to the human resources issues associated with deployment. Methods: Data was collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Austr...

  7. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of high antioxidant australian fruits with antiproliferative activity against cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Sirdaarta; Anton Maen; Paran Rayan; Ben Matthews; Ian Edwin Cock

    2016-01-01

    Background: High antioxidant capacities have been linked to the treatment and prevention of several cancers. Recent reports have identified several native Australian fruits with high antioxidant capacities. Despite this, several of these species are yet to be tested for anticancer activity. Materials and Methods: Solvent extracts prepared from high antioxidant native Australian fruits were analyzed for antioxidant capacity by the di (phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium free radical sc...

  8. Food and beverage portion sizes in Australian children: a secondary analysis of 1995 and 2007 national data

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Kate; Watson, Jane F.; Collins, Clare E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Portion size of foods is reported to contribute to the rise in obesity prevalence. However, evidence of changes in portion size for commonly consumed foods in Australia is lacking. The aim was to evaluate whether Australian child and adolescent portion sizes of selected foods changed from 1995 to 2007. Methods Time-series study, comparing dietary data from two national cross-sectional surveys in nationally representative population survey of Australian households. The dietary data ...

  9. The evolution of nursing in Australian general practice: a comparative analysis of workforce surveys ten years on

    OpenAIRE

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Salamonson, Yenna; Davidson, Patricia M; Kaur, Rajneesh; Young, Samantha AM

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing in Australian general practice has grown rapidly over the last decade in response to government initiatives to strengthen primary care. There are limited data about how this expansion has impacted on the nursing role, scope of practice and workforce characteristics. This study aimed to describe the current demographic and employment characteristics of Australian nurses working in general practice and explore trends in their role over time. Methods In the nascence of the exp...

  10. Australian news media framing of medical tourism in low- and middle-income countries: a content review

    OpenAIRE

    Imison, Michelle; Schweinsberg, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourism – travel across international borders for health care – appears to be growing globally, with patients from high-income nations increasingly visiting low- and middle-income countries to access such services. This paper analyses Australian television and newspaper news and current affairs coverage to examine how medical tourism and these destinations for the practice are represented to media audiences. Methods Electronic copies of Australian television (n = 66) and ne...

  11. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; David J Johnston; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, B...

  12. Maternal and infant vitamin D status during the first 9 months of infant life-a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Við Streym, S; Kristine Moller, U; Rejnmark, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status and possible consequences of low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in a population of healthy mothers and their infants.Subjects/methods:A total of 107 women aged 24-41 years gave birth to 108 infants......% of mothers and 61% of infants had 25OHD 50  nmol/l. During follow-up, most....../l), with increasing levels (Pinfant or their growth during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in newborn. Maternal 25OHD levels above 50  nmol...

  13. Comparison of Congenital Abnormalities of Infants Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Techniques versus Infants with Natural Conception in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gourabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries, 1 to 3% of newborn infants are conceived by assisted reproductivetechniques (ART. Despite the success of ART, there is concern about the risk of congenitalmalformations among these infants. We report our experience to determine whether use of ARTis associated with an increase in major congenital malformations or adverse pregnancy outcomes.Materials and Methods: Historical cohort study of major congenital malformations (MCMwas performed in 978 births from January 2008 to December 2010. The data for this analysiswere derived from a Tehran’s ART linked data file by simple sampling method. In our study, therisk of congenital malformations was compared in 326 ART infants and 652 naturally conceived(NC infants. We also performed multiple logistic regression analyses to calculate the odds ratio(OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the independent association of ART on each outcome.Results: We found 56 infants with major congenital malformations, these included 29 NC infants(4.4% and 27 ART infants (8.3%. In comparison with NC infants, ART infants had a significant1.94-fold increased risk of MCM.After adjustment for maternal age, infant’s sex stillbirth,abortion and type of delivery, we found a relatively small difference in risk (OR=2.04. Inthis study the majority (94.3% of all infants were normal but 5.7% of infants had at least oneMCM. The prevalence rate for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI was 6.5% for the Invitro fertilisation (IVF group was 15.9% or 2.73-fold higher than ICSI group (P=0.018. Alsowe ignore the possible role of genotype and other unknown factors in causing more malformationsin ART infants.Conclusion: Other studies have shown a slightly increased risk of major congenital malformationsin pregnancies resulting from ART. Likewise, this study reports a greater risk ofMCMs in ART infants than in naturally conceived infants. We also found evidence of a differencein risk of MCMs between IVF

  14. Formula-fed full term infants have lower fractional absorption but greater total calcium absorption than human milk-fed infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) profile of infant formula resembles the FA profile of human milk (HM), but the % of palmitic acid in the sn-2 position of the triglyceride in infant formula is lower than that of HM, and this may limit calcium (Ca) absorption. Objective: We sought to evaluate the effe...

  15. The management of diabetes in indigenous Australians from primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Merlin C

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians have high rates of diabetes and its complications. This study examines ethnic differences in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian primary care. Methods Diabetes management and outcomes in Indigenous patients enrolled in the NEFRON study (n = 144 was systematically compared with that in non-Indigenous patients presenting consecutively to the same practitioner (n = 449, and the NEFRON cohort as a whole (n = 3893. Results Indigenous Australians with diabetes had high rates of micro- and macrovascular disease. 60% of Indigenous patients had an abnormal albumin to creatinine ratio compared to 33% of non-Indigenous patients (p 1c ≥ 8.0%, observed in 55% of all Indigenous patients, despite the similar frequency use of oral antidiabetic agents and insulin. Smoking was also more common in Indigenous patients (38%vs 10%, p Conclusion Although seeing the same doctors and receiving the same medications, glycaemic and smoking cessation targets remain unfulfilled in Indigenous patients. This cross-sectional study confirms Aboriginal ethnicity as a powerful risk factor for microvascular and macrovascular disease, which practitioners should use to identify candidates for intensive multifactorial intervention.

  16. Differential effects of risk factors on infant wheeze and atopic dermatitis emphasize a different etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Simonsen, Jacob B; Petersen, Janne;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) often develops in infancy as the first manifestation of the atopic phenotype. Wheezing is also common in infancy, but it is less clear whether infant wheezing should be considered as an atopic phenotype. If infant wheeze and AD share a common aetiology, this would...... indicate that infant wheezing is an atopic phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether potential risk factors for infant wheeze and AD have similar effects on these 2 phenotypes, indicating a common etiology. METHODS: A total of 34.793 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were......-feeding, number of older siblings, day care attendance, and pets in the home. CONCLUSION: The majority of risk factors had differential effects on infant wheeze and AD indicative of a different etiology. Infant wheezing does not seem to be etiologically linked to the epidemic of atopic disease, and infant...

  17. Surfactant administration in premature infants with RDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalkan, Ismeta; Heljic, Suada; Cengic, Amra; Misanovic, Verica; Anic, Dusko; Jonuzi, Fedzat; Maksic, Hajrija

    2007-01-01

    Background. The significant advancement in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome can be attributed to prenatal identification of high risk pregnancies, prevention of illness through antenatal care, prenatal administration of glucocorticoids, advancement in respiratory support and surfactant therapy. These measures resulted in the reduction of mortality and morbidity rates in preterm infants. Patients and methods. We analyzed data of 78 preterm babies with respiratory distress synd...

  18. Do Parentese Prosody and Fathers' Involvement in Interacting Facilitate Social Interaction in Infants Who Later Develop Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David; Cassel, Raquel S.; Saint-Georges, Catherine; Mahdhaoui, Ammar; Laznik, Marie-Christine; Apicella, Fabio; Muratori, Pietro; Maestro, Sandra; Muratori, Filippo; Chetouani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background Whether development of autism impacts the interactive process between an infant and his/her parents remains an unexplored issue. Methodology and Principal Findings Using computational analysis taking into account synchronic behaviors and emotional prosody (parentese), we assessed the course of infants' responses to parents' type of speech in home movies from typically developing (TD) infants and infants who will subsequently develop autism aged less than 18 months. Our findings indicate: that parentese was significantly associated with infant responses to parental vocalizations involving orientation towards other people and with infant receptive behaviours; that parents of infants developing autism displayed more intense solicitations that were rich in parentese; that fathers of infants developing autism spoke to their infants more than fathers of TD infants; and that fathers' vocalizations were significantly associated with intersubjective responses and active behaviours in infants who subsequently developed autism. Conclusion The parents of infants who will later develop autism change their interactive pattern of behaviour by both increasing parentese and father's involvement in interacting with infants; both are significantly associated with infant's social responses. We stress the possible therapeutic implications of these findings and its implication for Dean Falk's theory regarding pre-linguistic evolution in early hominins. PMID:23650498

  19. Four Management Agendas for Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    In a new mixed economy of higher learning, Australian universities require more strategic management to compete and collaborate sustainably. However, many scholars argue that new modes of university management are at odds with scholarly aims and values. This article examines how Australian universities frame their missions and communicate their…

  20. Recent developments in the Australian housing market

    OpenAIRE

    James Bond

    2003-01-01

    Housing plays an important role in Australia’s economic growth and in the welfare of Australians. This article examines developments in the Australian housing market over recent years. It argues that investors have played an increasingly important role in the housing market for both detached houses and apartments.

  1. Understanding Culture and Diversity: Australian Aboriginal Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal culture is rich, complex and fascinating. The art of Aboriginal Australians shows a great understanding of the earth and its creatures. This article presents an activity which has been designed as a multi-age project. The learning outcomes have been written to suit both younger and older students. Aspects of the project could…

  2. A global history of Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brett M

    2011-01-01

    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in a variety of climates and ecological conditions. Five non-biological factors largely determined the success of these attempts to grow Australian trees: the abundance or paucity of natural forests, state power, the amount of scientific research directed to planting Australian trees, the cost of labor, and the ability to utilize hardwood timbers and bark. This paper compares the use of Australian trees in Australia, India, and South Africa to demonstrate that biology was not the determining factor in the long-term success of many Australian genera and species. PMID:20665086

  3. Australia and the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register for the birth cohort 1993 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This is a brief background paper for a supplementary issue of Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology by the Australian Cerebral Palsy Register Group. It provides context for the reader of the supplement including a description of the establishment and development of state and territory cerebral palsy registers in Australia. PMID:26806361

  4. Using Aptitude Testing to Diversify Higher Education Intake--An Australian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Coates, Hamish; Friedman, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Australian higher education is currently entering a new phase of growth. Within the remit of this expansion is an express commitment to widen participation in higher education among under-represented groups--in particular those from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper argues that one key mechanism for achieving this goal should be the…

  5. Australian Vocational Education and Training Statistics: The Likelihood of Completing a VET Qualification, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Australian vocational education and training (VET) system provides training across a wide range of subject areas and is delivered through a variety of training institutions and enterprises (including to apprentices and trainees). The system provides training for students of all ages and backgrounds. Students may study individual subjects or…

  6. Individual and School-Level Socioeconomic Gradients in Physical Activity in Australian School children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Lucy; Maher, Carol; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Olds, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine whether there was a socioeconomic gradient in 9- to 11-year-old Australian children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and whether school facilities or policies supporting physical activity were associated with school-level socioeconomic status (SES) and MVPA. Methods: Children (N = 528) from 26…

  7. School Policies on Bullying and Cyberbullying: Perspectives across Three Australian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Caitlin; Campbell, Marilyn Anne; Spears, Barbara A; Butler, Des; Cross, Donna; Slee, Phillip; Kift, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite decades of research, bullying in all its forms is still a significant problem within schools in Australia, as it is internationally. Anti-bullying policies and guidelines are thought to be one strategy as part of a whole school approach to reduce bullying. However, although Australian schools are required to have these…

  8. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods

  9. In Pursuit of Becoming a Senior Coach: The Learning Culture for Australian Football League Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Clifford J.; Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the turbulent and highly contested environment in which professional coaches work, a prime concern to coach developers is how coaches learn their craft. Understanding the learning and development of senior coaches (SCs) and assistant coaches (ACs) in the Australian Football League (AFL--the peak organisation for…

  10. Determinants of infant care practices in Minangkabau ethnic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masrul

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Child care practices are important for a growth and development, and are influenced by cultural determinants. Indicators of infant care practices have not been determinated for the Minangkabau ethnic group. Objective To determine indicators of infant care among a Minangkabau ethnic community. Methods A cross-sectional study was done in Solok, West Sumatera, a region populated by largely Minangkabau ethnic groups. Infants feeing care (IFC, infant health care (IHC, infant clean care (ICC, and infant psychosocial stimulation care (IPSC were the components of infant care used as indicators. Data on these four components were obtained through interviews with parents and direct observation. A score was assigned to each component. We used the confirmatory factors analysis (CFA method to determine whether the indicators were valid in the studied population. Results We enrolled 417 infants in the study, with a mean age of 8.7 months, and 51.6% were female. IFC scores were fair in 72.7%, high in 20.4%, and low in 6.7%. IHC scores were poor in 25.7%, fair in 58.8%, and good in 15.5%. ICC scores were poor in 0.7%, fair in 42.2%, and good in 58.1%. IPSC scores were poor in 10.6%, fair in 84.9%, and high in 4.5%. On CFA, ICC contributed least to the indicator model (l:0.5 and 0.47, respectively. Goodness of fit of the to the model (l:0.5 and 0.46, respectively. Goodness of fit of the model was good (P>0.005. Root mean square error apporximation was 0.9 Conclusions Infant clean care was the most significant contributor to the infant care practice indicator in the Minangkabau ethnic community. Similar studies need to be done in other Indonesian ethnic groups.

  11. The Australian Synchrotron Project - Update

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Australian Synchrotron - a synchrotron light facility based on a 3-GeV electron storage ring is under construction at a site in the Metropolitan District of Melbourne. Building preparation started on a "green-field" site in September 2003 and staff moved in to their new offices in February 2005. Installation of the technical equipment started in April 2005 with all accelerator contracts expected to be completed before April 2006. Storage Ring commissioning with beam will start in June 2006, and project completion is scheduled for March 2007. In this paper we present an overview of the facility and discuss progress to date in meeting this very aggressive schedule.

  12. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  13. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2010-01-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  14. Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2013-07-01

    Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

  15. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  16. Australian Aboriginal Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip A.

    Australian Aboriginal ethnoastronomical traditions were recorded from a wide variety of sources in different periods. While the corpus of mythology concerning the heavens is diverse, it is unified by beliefs of a Skyworld as land with its own topography, containing plants and animals familiar to those living below. Spirits of the dead reside alongside the Creation Ancestors as celestial bodies in the Skyworld. Aboriginal hunter-gatherers used the regular movement of constellations and planets to measure time and to indicate the season, while unexpected change in the sky was seen as an omen.

  17. Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics in infant formula for full term infants: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugambi Mary N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics are being added to infant formula to promote growth and development in infants. Previous reviews (2007 to 2011 on term infants given probiotics or prebiotics focused on prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity. This review focused on growth and clinical outcomes in term infants fed only infant formula containing synbiotics, probiotics or prebiotics. Methods Cochrane methodology was followed using randomized controlled trials (RCTs which compared term infant formula containing probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics to conventional infant formula with / without placebo among healthy full term infants. The mean difference (MD and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were reported for continuous outcomes, risk ratio (RR and corresponding 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed; heterogeneity was explored using subgroup and sensitivity analyses. If studies were too diverse a narrative synthesis was provided. Results Three synbiotic studies (N = 475, 10 probiotics studies (N = 933 and 12 prebiotics studies (N = 1563 were included. Synbiotics failed to significantly increase growth in boys and girls. Use of synbiotics increased stool frequency, had no impact on stool consistency, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Probiotics in formula also failed to have any significant effect on growth, stool frequency or consistency. Probiotics did not lower the incidence of diarrhoea, colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. Prebiotics in formula did increase weight gain but had no impact on length or head circumference gain. Prebiotics increased stool frequency but had no impact on stool consistency, the incidence of colic, spitting up / regurgitation, crying, restlessness or vomiting. There was no impact of prebiotics on the volume of formula tolerated, infections and gastrointestinal

  18. The Effect of Empowerment Program on Mother-Infant Interaction and Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili Borimnejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospitalization of premature newborns in neonatal intensive care unit causes the family to experience a sense of loss and to disturb the emotional connection of the mother with the newborn. The present study aimed to determine the effect of empowerment programs on mother-infant interaction and the weight gain of premature infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, after obtaining written consent, a total of 140 mothers with infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups. The empowerment program was performed on mothers of the experimental group and then mother-infant interaction was assessed through the observation form of attachment behavior and the measurement of neonate weight in both groups and the data were analyzed by SPSS-16 software.Results: The mean of the total maternal attachment behaviors in the experimental and control groups were 52.01±6.65 and 36.28±28.09, respectively. The result of the independent t-test (p=0.001 showed that there was statistically a significant difference between the two groups and the mean weight of infants two months after the intervention were 3620±877.31 and 3200±824.85 grams in experimental and control groups, respectively. The result of the independent t-test (p=0.005 showed that there was statistically a significant difference between the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: Regarding the increase of mother-infant interaction and the weight gain of premature infants, it is recommended to provide the necessary training to parents, especially to mothers, in order to appropriately confront and communicate with the newborn and to empower mothers in order to care for premature neonates.

  19. Renal transplantation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalanko, Hannu; Mattila, Ilkka; Holmberg, Christer

    2016-05-01

    Renal transplantation (RTx) has become an accepted mode of therapy in infants with severe renal failure. The major indications are structural abnormalities of the urinary tract, congenital nephrotic syndrome, polycystic diseases, and neonatal kidney injury. Assessment of these infants needs expertise and time as well as active treatment before RTx to ensure optimal growth and development, and to avoid complications that could lead to permanent neurological defects. RTx can be performed already in infants weighing around 5 kg, but most operations occur in infants with a weight of 10 kg or more. Perioperative management focuses on adequate perfusion of the allograft and avoidance of thrombotic and other surgical complications. Important long-term issues include rejections, infections, graft function, growth, bone health, metabolic problems, neurocognitive development, adherence to medication, pubertal maturation, and quality of life. The overall outcome of infant RTx has dramatically improved, with long-term patient and graft survivals of over 90 and 80 %, respectively. PMID:26115617

  20. [Changes in infant mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A

    1997-01-01

    Mexico's infant mortality rate is estimated to have declined from 189 in 1930 to 129 in 1950 and 30 in 1995. The infant mortality rate has continued its decline despite the economic crisis of recent years. The use of oral rehydration therapy has reduced mortality from diarrhea, and the spread of family planning has reduced the numbers of births at high risk due to maternal age, parity, or short birth intervals. The types of causes of infant death have changed as the numbers have decreased. They can be grouped in ascending order according to the difficulty of prevention: diseases preventable by immunization, acute diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, perinatal disorders, and congenital anomalies. Over two-thirds of infant deaths recorded since 1950 have been due to these causes. Infectious diseases, including diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, and conditions preventable by immunization predominated as causes of infant mortality before 1930. As the epidemiological transition progresses, diseases preventable by immunization lose importance, and diarrhea and respiratory infections occupy the first two places, with perinatal disorders being third. Between 1980 and 1990, in Mexico, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections dropped to second and third place after perinatal disorders, with congenital anomalies in fourth place. In most developed countries, perinatal disorders and congenital anomalies are the two most frequent causes of death, while diarrhea and respiratory infections no longer appear in the top five. In 1995, the four main causes in Mexico in descending order were perinatal disorders, congenital anomalies, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. PMID:12158082

  1. Prognosis of psychomotor and mental development in premature infants by early cranial ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-Qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Methods Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography ...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in preterm infants with retinopathy of prematurity

    OpenAIRE

    Manizheh Mostafa Gharehbaghi; Ali Peirovifar; Karim Sadeghi; Haleh Mostafidi

    2012-01-01

    Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is the main cause of visual impairment in preterm newborn infants. Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether insulin-like growth factor binding protein -3 (IGFBP-3) is associated with proliferative ROP and has a role in pathogenesis of the disease in premature infants. Materials and Methods: A total of 71 preterm infants born at or before 32 weeks of gestation participated in this study. Studied patients consisted of 41 neonates with...

  3. Infant mortality in Brazil, 1980-2000: A spatial panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barufi Ana; Haddad Eduardo; Paez Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important measure of human development, related to the level of welfare of a society. In order to inform public policy, various studies have tried to identify the factors that influence, at an aggregated level, infant mortality. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional pattern of infant mortality in Brazil, evaluating the effect of infrastructure, socio-economic, and demographic variables to understand its distribution across the countr...

  4. Breastfeeding and lactation research: exploring a tool to measure infant feeding patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Noel-Weiss, Joy; Taljaard, Monica; Kujawa-Myles, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant feeding categories, often referred to as breastfeeding definitions, form the basis to describe infant feeding patterns; especially, breastfeeding duration and degree of breastfeeding exclusivity. Researchers use a variety of algorithms and no validated tool exists to measure feeding patterns for research purposes. The goal of this research project was to develop and test a tool to measure patterns of infant feeding for breastfeeding and lactation research. Methods We used a ...

  5. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Infant Oral Healthcare among the Pediatricians of Mysore: A Questionnaire Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira, MD; Dhull, Kanika Singh; Nandlal, B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The aim of this study was to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the pediatricians toward infant oral healthcare and the objective was to determine what can improve the knowledge, attitude and practice toward infant oral healthcare. Materials and methods: A systematic random survey of pediatricians in Mysore received a questionnaire pertaining to individual details, knowledge level and approach toward infant oral healthcare. Results: Most of pediatricians acknow...

  6. Tools for teen moms to reduce infant obesity: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Horodynski, Mildred A; Silk, Kami; Hsieh, Gary; Hoffman, Alice; Robson, Mackenzie

    2015-01-01

    Background Unhealthy infant feeding practices, such as a combination of formula feeding and early introduction of solids may lead to rapid or excessive weight gain in early infancy. Adolescent mothers’ feeding behaviors are most directly related to infant weight gain in the first year of life. Compared to adult mothers, adolescent mothers are less knowledgeable, less responsive, more controlling, and less skilled in infant feeding, which interferes with infants’ healthy growth. The Tools for ...

  7. Kangaroo care procedure as a primary environment for preterm infants and their caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Genesoni, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A preterm birth, usually accompanied by the need for neonatal intensive care (NICU) and subsequent parents-infant separation, can disrupt infants’ early development, parental psychological well-being and parent-infant bonding. Recent research indicates that the early environment and experiences play a critical role in infant development and parenting processes. Kangaroo Care (KC) procedure has been introduced in high technology settings to supplement incubator care ...

  8. Virologic, immunologic and clinical response of infants to antiretroviral therapy in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tukei, Vincent J; Murungi, Miriam; Asiimwe, Alice R; Migisha, Daniella; Maganda, Albert; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Kalyesubula, Israel; Musoke, Philippa; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata

    2013-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known to save lives. Among HIV-infected infants living in resource constrained settings, the short and long term benefits of ART are only partially known. This study was designed to determine the virologic, immunologic and clinical outcomes of antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of HIV-infected infants receiving care from an outpatient clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Methods A prospective cohort of HIV-infected infants receiving treatment at the Baylor-Uga...

  9. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Badiee; Salar Faramarzi; Tahereh MiriZadeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Pre...

  10. Early cranial ultrasound findings among infants with neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Tann, C J; Nakakeeto, M; Hagmann, C.; Webb, E.L.; Nyombi, N.; Namiiro, F.; Harvey-Jones, K.; Muhumuza, A.; Burgoine, K; Elliott, A M; Kurinczuk, J. J.; Robertson, N J; Cowan, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) are unknown. We evaluated cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with and without NE for evidence of brain injury. METHODS: Infants were recruited from a national referral hospital in Kampala. Cases (184) had NE and controls (100) were systematically selected unaffected term infants. All had cUS scans

  11. Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Qasem, Wafaa; Fenton, Tanis; Friel, James

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite a World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of all full-term infants to 6 months of age, it is not clear what the health implications may be. Breast milk alone may not meet the nutrition needs for all growing infants, leaving them at risk for deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate (4 months) versus late (6 months) introduction of complementary foods to the full-term breastfed infant on iron s...

  12. Diagnostic value of gastric shake test for hyaline membrane disease in preterm infant

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood NooriShadkam; Mohammad Hossein Lookzadeh; Mahmood Taghizadeh; Azam Golzar; Zahra NooriShadkam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaline membrane disease (HMD) has remained a common neonatal problem and is a cause of morbidity in infants. The shake test can be used to assess whether surfactant is present in the infant's lungs at birth. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the usefulness and accuracy of gastric aspirate shake test for the diagnosis of two HMD. Materials and Methods: This was a diagnostic accuracy study carried out on 49 preterm infant born at Shahid Sadoughi hospital in 2...

  13. Reducing the incidence of chronic lung disease in very premature infants with aminophylline

    OpenAIRE

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian; Zohreh Badiee; Raha Afghari; Nima Salehimehr; Akbar Hassanzade; Soghra Sheikhzadeh; Maryam Shariftehrani; Gohar Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to assess the safety and preventative effects of aminophylline on the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very premature infants. Methods: This was a long follow-up randomized clinical trial. The prophylactic effect of aminophylline on the incidence of CLD was investigated in very premature infants. The study group received aminophylline for the 1 st 10 days of life and control infants received no aminophylline during the 1 st 10 days of l...

  14. Respiratory impedance in healthy unsedated South African infants: Effects of maternal smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Diane; Czövek, Dorottya; Smith, Emilee; Willemse, Lauren; Alberts, Ane; Gingl, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L.; Heather J. Zar; Peter D Sly; Hantos, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Non-invasive techniques for measuring lung mechanics in infants are needed for a better understanding of lung growth and function, and to study the effects of prenatal factors on subsequent lung growth in healthy infants. The forced oscillation technique requires minimal cooperation from the individual but has rarely been used in infants. The study aims to assess the use of the forced oscillation technique to measure the influence of antenatal exposures on respiratory...

  15. Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Journal Articles for Community Water Fluoridation Overview: Infant Formula and Fluorosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... dentist or hygienist to see. Because most infant formulas contain low levels of fluoride, regularly mixing powdered ...

  16. Cronobacter Illness and Infant Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most at risk. Illnesses Linked to Powdered Infant Formula In some outbreak investigations, Cronobacter was found in ... other sources of this rare sickness. Powdered Infant Formula is Not Sterile Manufacturers report that, using current ...

  17. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  19. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  20. Wearable Sensor Systems for Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihua Zhu; Tao Liu; Guangyi Li; Tong Li; Yoshio Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Continuous health status monitoring of infants is achieved with the development and fusion of wearable sensing technologies, wireless communication techniques and a low energy-consumption microprocessor with high performance data processing algorithms. As a clinical tool applied in the constant monitoring of physiological parameters of infants, wearable sensor systems for infants are able to transmit the information obtained inside an infant's body to clinicians or parents. Moreover, such sys...

  1. Australian Expatriates: Who are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Calderón Prada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Australia is made up of 20 million people and, interestingly enough, over one million of the total population live overseas. Australians living abroad are known as `expatriates´ and they have a particular profile: highly educated and better skilled than their counterparts at home. Thus, on the one hand, a general division may be established between expatriates and Australians living at home; on the other, a particular division between expatriates themselves, which depends on the individual reasons that push them to leave Australia. At this point, it is important to outline the general reasons that lead expatriates to go overseas. To begin with, in terms of migration, Australia is both historically and contemporarily linked to other countries. Secondly, Australia is geographically isolated and, therefore, far away from the main global markets. Finally, it is quite right to conclude that although the logical assumption of expatriation is distance, expatriates are mentally, and often emotionally, linked to Australia and, therefore, the understanding of their situation is more positive than negative

  2. Learner discipline: An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Stewart

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Australian schools by and large are safe schools. Nonetheless discipline problems do exist – including bullying behaviour. For this kind of problem schools should have management policies in place. As traditional behaviour-management practices – including corporal punishment – are largely prohibited in Australian schools, contemporary practices centre on management through supportive school programmes, including appropriate curricula and school-support structures. This article supports the belief that measures such as the exclusion of misbehaving learners should be treated with caution. Measures such as this might not reflect accepted international principles and practices and should only be exercised in the most extreme circumstances. The article also supports the view that it is part of the school’s role to ensure that all learners are aware of the reality that while they have rights, they also have corresponding responsibilities. This awareness is more likely to be achieved in a supportive school culture where each learner is recognised as having unique qualities that can mature and grow in an appropriate learning environment.

  3. Effective teaching strategies in Australian multicultural classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高芳卉

    2011-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction@@ Australia's population is increasingly culturally diverse.The diverse composition of the Australian population is reflected in the ACT.The 1991 census showed 65,739 people counted in the ACT were bern overseas,representing 23.5% of the population.Almost 10% of the respondents to the census came from non-English - speaking countries.(1) The results from the 2001 census showed that of the 4,645,000 people in Victoria,almost one quarter (23.4%) were born overseas,represented 208 countries and spoke 151 languages.English was spoken at home by 75.3% of Victorians.(2) These numbers are reflected in our schools because students come from many cultural,educational and language backgrounds.The increasingly muhieultural populations in our schools present many challenges for schools and teachers,with regards to inclusive teaching strategies,language differences,muhieuhural curricular practices,racism issues and numerous other factors.

  4. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  5. Breastfeeding the preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Corvaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its peculiar nutritional and non-nutritional contents, which include long-chain polyunsatured fatty acids (LC-PUFA, prebiotics, immunological factors, hormones and growth factors, breast milk shows significant advantages over infant formulas in nourishing preterm infants. Better neurocognitive outcomes, which are reported to persist far beyond the early childhood, have been largely observed in breastfed preterm infants; a role of LC-PUFA in promoting neural and retinal development is assumed. As far as the gastrointestinal tract is concerned, several evidences have reported a dose-related reduction in NEC incidence among preterm infants fed on human milk. Moreover, the higher amount of immunological factors as secretory IgA within preterm breast milk might play a remarkable role in reducing the overall infections. Despite breastfeeding in preterm infants is generally linked with lowered growth rates which might potentially affect neurocognitive outcomes, the beneficial effects of human milk on neurodevelopment prevail. Fortified human milk might better fulfill the particular nutritional needs of preterm infants. However, as breast milk fortification is difficult to carry out after the achievement of full oral feeding, some concerns on the nutritional adequacy of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization as well as after discharge have been raised. Finally, breastfeeding also entails maternal psychological beneficial effects, as promoting the motherhood process and the mother-child relationship, which could be undermined in those women experiencing preterm delivery. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  6. Infant feeding and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameena Ebrahim Goga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on antiretroviral prophylaxis during breastfeeding show that maternal HAART (alone or with 1,4 or 24 weeks infant prophylaxis or infant prophylaxis alone (with limited maternal prophylaxis for 6, 14 or 24 weeks reduces HIV transmission through breastmilk (postnatal transmission. Maternal postnatal regimens appear to be as efficacious as infant postnatal regimens, although one study shows a trend favouring infant nevirapine over maternal HAART (both used from 1 week to 6 months post-delivery. These new findings necessitate a review of existing PMTCT interventions, and the immediate implementation of regimens that reduce postnatal transmission - where this is feasible – to save children’s lives. In the public sector, whilst stakeholders engage in discussions about which is the best regimen to minimise postnatal transmission SSSUPPORT should be given to all HIV-positive women, as explained below, to improve infant outcomes and reduce postnatal transmission: Screen all women for HIV, Send off CD4 cell counts on all HIV-positive women, Screen all HIV-positive women for AFASS using a standardised tool (e.g. Table 3; Understand the woman’s personal and socio-cultural context; Promote exclusive or predominant breastfeeding if all AFASS criteria are not met; Promote exclusive formula feeding if all AFASS criteria are met; Organise supplies of formula milk and cotrimoxazole; Review mothers and infants in the first 3 days post-delivery, in the first two weeks postnatally and monthly thereafter, and review health and feeding practices, regardless of feeding choice, at every visit; lastly Treat all pregnant women with HAART if they meet national criteria for HAART initiation.

  7. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  8. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Andrade Brum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. Objective: To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. Methods: This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Results: Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%, which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. Conclusion: It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  9. Infant Neurobehavioral Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lester, Barry M.; Miller, Robin J.; Hawes, Katheleen; Salisbury, Amy; Bigsby, Rosemarie; Sullivan, Mary C.; James F. Padbury

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward single-room neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) is increasing; however scientific evidence is, at this point, mostly anecdotal. This is a critical time to assess the impact of the single-room NICU on improving medical and neurobehavioral outcomes of the preterm infant. We have developed a theoretical model that may be useful in studying how the change from an open-bay NICU to a single-room NICU could affect infant medical and neurobehavioral outcome. The model identifies me...

  10. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...

  11. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); S. Patandin (Svati); G.A. Berbers; T.C.J. Sas (Theo); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to P

  12. A comparison of beliefs about exercise during pregnancy between Chinese and Australian pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Guelfi, Kym J; Wang, Chen; Dimmock, James A.; Jackson, Ben; NEWNHAM, John P; Yang, Huixia

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the well-established benefits of exercise during pregnancy, many women remain inactive. This may be related, in part, to women’s beliefs about exercise in pregnancy, which are likely influenced by cultural background. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control toward exercise, together with current levels of exercise participation between Chinese and Australian women during pregnancy. A second aim was to ...

  13. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sadgrove; Graham Jones

    2015-01-01

    This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with ...

  14. THE ONTOGENY OF SALIVA SECRETION IN INFANTS AND ESOPHAGOPROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro COLLARES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Several studies have reported that severe reflux esophagitis is rare in infants despite the well known high occurrence of regurgitation in early infancy. There is evidence of the importance of saliva for the pre-epithelial protection of the esophageal mucosa. Results A longitudinal study conducted on healthy infants indicated that the stimulated capacity of saliva secretion (saliva output per kg of body weight was significantly higher during their first year of age compared to older children and adults. In addition, this secretion pattern was also observed in low weight newborns during the first weeks of life and persisted in infants with severe protein-calorie malnutrition (marasmus. Conclusion The greater ability to secrete saliva is an important physiological condition that may protect the infant from acid/pepsin aggression to the esophagus during early stages of development.

  15. A Caucasian Australian presenting with human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We report the first known case of human T-lymphotropic virus type I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis in an Australian Caucasian, a disease reported in Aboriginal and immigrant populations where the virus is often endemic. Case presentation A 41-year-old Caucasian Australian man had a 3-year background of progressive functional decline from a myelopathy with spastic paraparesis and sphincteric dysfunction. Conclusions Although studies have shown a very low prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I in the greater Australian population, increased focus on Aboriginal health, and the expanding diversity and integration of the Australian population means that presentation of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated disease is likely to increase. PMID:25416840

  16. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  17. The Portrayal of Indigenous Health in Selected Australian Media

    OpenAIRE

    Melissa J. Stoneham; Jodie Goodman; Mike Daube

    2014-01-01

    It is acknowledged that health outcomes for Australian Indigenous peoples are lower than those of non-Indigenous Australians. Research suggests negative media in relation to Indigenous Australians perpetuates racist stereotypes among the wider population and impacts on the health of Indigenous Australians. This study examined the media portrayal of Indigenous Australian public health issues in selected media over a twelve month period and found that, overwhelmingly, the articles were negative...

  18. The historical decline of tobacco smoking among Australian physicians: 1964–1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Derek R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians occupy an important position as tobacco control exemplars and their own smoking habits are known to influence how effective they may be in such a role. Methods A comprehensive review of all published manuscripts describing tobacco usage rates and tobacco control activities in the Australian medical profession between 1964 and 1997. Results Some of the earliest surveys revealed that around one-quarter of Australian physicians were smoking in the mid twentieth century, a rate which rapidly declined in the 1970s and 1980s, with reductions beyond that achieved by the general population. Conclusion Overall, our review suggests that not only do contemporary Australian physicians smoke at very low rates when compared internationally, but that an active professional community can also make a real difference to the lifestyle choices of its own members.

  19. Can Family Affectedness Inform Infant Sibling Outcomes of Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Young, G. S.; Sigman, M.; Hutman, T.; Ozonoff, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Difficulties in communication and reciprocal social behavior are core features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and are often present, to varying degrees, in other family members. This prospective longitudinal infant sibling study examines whether social-communicative features of family members may inform which infants are at…

  20. Risks associated with communication delays in infants from underserved South African communities

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannie van der Linde; De Wet Swanepoel; Glascoe, Frances P.; Louw, E.M.; Jannie F.M. Hugo; Bart Vinck

    2015-01-01

    Background For optimal development young children need warm, responsive, enriched and communicative environments for learning social, language, and other skills. Infants and toddlers exposed to psychosocial risk lack enriched environments and may present with communication delays. Aim To investigate the relationship between psychosocial risks and communication delays in infants from underserved communities in South Africa. Setting Primary healthcare facilities in Tshwane district, South Afric...

  1. Greater Mortality and Morbidity in Extremely Preterm Infants Fed a Diet Containing Cow Milk Protein Products

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Steven A.; Schanler, Richard J.; Lee, Martin L.; Rechtman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  2. Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Isolated From Newly Weaned Infant Rhesus Monkeys and Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Yu,; He; Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background Proteus mirabilis is an important uropathogen that causes complicated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and induces diarrhea in infants. Objectives This study aimed to investigate P. mirabilis infection in newly weaned infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea. Materials and Methods Stool samples were collected from 74 rhesus mo...

  3. Language Experiences and Vocabulary Development in Dominican and Mexican Infants across the First 2 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Wu, Irene

    2012-01-01

    We longitudinally investigated parental language context and infants' language experiences in relation to Dominican American and Mexican American infants' vocabularies. Mothers provided information on parental language context, comprising measures of parents' language background (i.e., childhood language) and current language use during interviews…

  4. Reduced occurrence of early atopic dermatitis because of immunoactive prebiotics among low-atopy-risk infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grueber, Christoph; van Stuijvenberg, Margriet; Mosca, Fabio; Moro, Guido; Chirico, Gaetano; Braegger, Christian P.; Riedler, Josef; Boehm, Guenther; Wahn, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Background: Most infants developing atopic dermatitis have a low risk for atopy. Primary prevention of atopic dermatitis is difficult. Objective: To assess the effect of supplementation of an infant and follow-on formula with prebiotic and immunoactive oligosaccharides on the occurrence of atopic de

  5. Time Series Analysis of Spontaneous Upper-Extremity Movements of Premature Infants With Brain Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgi, Shohei; Morita, Satoru; Loo, Kek Khee; Mizuike, Chihiro

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Comparisons of spontaneous movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries can provide insights into normal and abnormal processes in the ontogeny of motor development. In this study, the characteristics of spontaneous upper-extremity movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries were examined with time series analysis.

  6. Preventing proliferation : the role of Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium debate has polarised Australian society for almost a decade. From 1977 until just before it achieved office in 1983 the Australia Labor Party took a position of strong opposition to uranium exports. The Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Australian Democrats, the Nuclear Disarmament Party, and many other organisations and sections of the community continue to oppose uranium mining and exports. Australia's uranium is currently exported for use in the commercial nuclear fuel cycle. But as the nuclear plants which are part of this cycle spread across the world, the risk rises that they will provide the cover and facilities for increasing numbers of countries to move towards nuclear weapons capability

  7. Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary accruals using the modified Jones model. It is hypothesised that higher levels of compliance would be associated with lower levels of discretionary accruals. Data from a random sample of 214 Australian listed companies for the years 2009 and 2010 were used to test the hypothesis. The results demonstrate a significant negative relationship indicating that companies with higher levels of compliance engage in lower levels of earnings management via discretionary accruals.

  8. A new opportunity for Australian uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyses the outlook for the world uranium industry and includes projections of uranium demand, supply and prices over the next decade and a comparison with other forecasts. The potential increases in Australian output are quantified, under both continuation of the three mine policy and an open mine policy, as well as the potential impact on the world uranium market, using the well known ORANI model of the Australian economy. It is estimated that Australian output could almost double by 2004 if the three mine policy were abolished. 53 refs., 20 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Australian natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new study of the Australian natural gas industry by leading Australian economics and policy consultancy ACIL Tasman highlights the significant supply and demand side uncertainties currently facing the industry. The ACIL Tasman 'Australian Gas Market Review and Outlook 2004' study presents modelling results for three supply/demand scenarios in Eastern Australia and two in Western Australia. The results show that, even under moderate assumptions about future levels of gas demand growth, major supply-side investment is likely to be needed over the next ten to fifteen years. The base supply/demand scenario for Eastern Australia and Northern Territory, illustrated in Figure 1, shows that even allowing for substantial new discoveries in existing production basins and major expansion of coal seam methane production, in the absence of a northern gas connection to the eastern states (Timor Sea or PNG Highlands) a significant supply gap will begin to emerge from around 2013. The study identifies several supply-side options for Eastern Australia - new discoveries in the established production provinces in Bass Strait and Central Australia; greenfield developments such as the Otway Basin offshore from Victoria and South Australia; continuing expansion of coal seam methane production in Queensland and New South Wales; and gas from Papua New Guinea, Timor Sea or from the North West Shelf region delivered via a trans-continental pipeline. The study concludes that it is unlikely that any single option will suffice to meet future demand. Almost inevitably, a combination of these sources will be needed if anticipated growth opportunities are to be met. With regard to prices, the study shows that in the short to medium term the outlook is for some real reductions in wholesale prices in most regional markets. This reflects increasing levels of upstream competition and declining real costs of pipeline transportation. However in the longer term, supply-side constraints will tend to

  10. Unconscious Choking: Infant

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Unconscious Choking—Infant (1:36) Refresher videos only utilize this player QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  11. Ptosis - infants and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...

  12. ZINC ABSORPTION BY INFANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc is a vital mineral in human nutrition, and rare cases of overt zinc deficiency are well described in term and preterm infants. A variety of methods have been developed to assess zinc absorption, retention, and balance in humans, either using mass (metabolic) balance or stable isotope-based METH...

  13. Colic in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colic in infants leads one in six families (17%) with children to consult a health professional. One systematic review of 15 community-based studies found a wide variation in prevalence, which depended on study design and method of recording. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a system

  14. Parent-Infant Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Lucile; Myre, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the development and philosophy of parent-infant education programs provided by Washington State community colleges and vocational technical schools consisting of parent-participation classes and cooperative preschools for 10,000 families. Describes program at Seattle Community College. (BF/JH)

  15. Australian national residue survey – closing the loop on pesticide residue risk management for Australian grain

    OpenAIRE

    Reichstein, I.; Healy, K; James, A.; Murray, B.

    2010-01-01

    Australia exports a major proportion of its agricultural production and is highly dependent on maintaining and developing access to, and competitiveness in, export markets. To preserve Australia’s status as a provider of high quality grain, the majority of Australian primary producers rely on pesticides to protect their crops from pests and diseases, particularly in post-harvest situations. The Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) supports Australian agriculture by...

  16. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  17. Under Utilization of Local Anesthetics in Infant Lumbar Punctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchynski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lumbar Puncture (LP is an invasive procedure frequently used to diagnose meningitis among the pediatric population. Neonates and infants have not routinely received local anesthesia prior to LP. Study Objective: To determine whether emergency medicine physicians and pediatricians use local analgesics on neonates and infants prior to performing an LP and to identify which local anesthetics, if any, were used. Methods: Prospective, cohort study of all infants, six months of age or less, that received an LP in the emergency department (ED or inpatient pediatric units for suspected meningitis during a period of year at a university tertiary care hospital. Results: A total sample population of 111 infants that received an LP within the study period. A control population of 42 adults received an LP. Only 40.4% (45/111 of the infants received local analgesia prior to LP: either 1% lidocaine, EMLA or a combination of the two. Infants were less likely to receive lidocaine or EMLA prior to LP compared to adult subjects (OR= 0.27; 95% CI0.12 to 0.62. No neonates that were less than one month of age received local procedural anesthesia by emergency medicine or pediatric physicians. ED physicians’ use of local anesthesia prior to LP increased with increasing age of the infant. The pediatricians in this study used local anesthesia prior to LP when the infant was at least five months of age. Discussion: The data objectively support recent literature regarding the under use or lack of use of analgesia prior to LP among neonates and infants. Local anesthetics should be used routinely without exception prior to performing an LP in the pediatric population.

  18. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  19. Parameter selection for and implementation of a web-based decision-support tool to predict extubation outcome in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hulsey Thomas C; Knapp Rebecca G; Annibale David J; Wagner Carol L; Mueller Martina; Almeida Jonas S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 30% of intubated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) will fail attempted extubation, requiring reintubation and mechanical ventilation. Although ventilator technology and monitoring of premature infants have improved over time, optimal extubation remains challenging. Furthermore, extubation decisions for premature infants require complex informational processing, techniques implicitly learned through clinical practice. Computer-aided deci...

  20. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  1. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2011-01-01

    We explore 50 Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarise the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses, showing that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, Elders or medicine men were believed to have the ability to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their role as provider and protector within the community. We also show that many Aboriginal groups understood the motions of the sun-earth-moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the moon blocking the sun.

  2. Eclipses in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-07-01

    We explore about fifty different Australian Aboriginal accounts of lunar and solar eclipses to determine how Aboriginal groups understood this phenomenon. We summarize the literature on Aboriginal references to eclipses. We show that many Aboriginal groups viewed eclipses negatively, frequently associating them with bad omens, evil magic, disease, blood and death. In many communities, elders or medicine men claimed to be able to control or avert eclipses by magical means, solidifying their roles as providers and protectors within their communities. We also show that some Aboriginal groups seem to have understood the motions of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, the connection between the lunar phases and tides, and acknowledged that solar eclipses were caused by the Moon blocking the Sun.

  3. Australians' attitudes to nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of surveys of 2900 Australians show that some 80 per cent favour nuclear disarmament. The nuclear disarmament view is broad-based, for example it cuts across differences in age, sex and education. However the view is more common among people towards the left of the political spectrum who view the world as benign rather than hostile and who consider stockpiles can be reduced by small, reciprocated and supervised reductions. Between 2.5 per cent and 5.5 per cent of respondents act to bring about nuclear disarmament. The findings support and extend results from studies outside Australia showing that attitudes favouring nuclear disarmament are distributing themselves widely

  4. Causes and risk factors for infant mortality in Nunavut, Canada 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Sorcha A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The northern territory Nunavut has Canada’s largest jurisdictional land mass with 33,322 inhabitants, of which 85% self-identify as Inuit. Nunavut has rates of infant mortality, postneonatal mortality and hospitalisation of infants for respiratory infections that greatly exceed those for the rest of Canada. The infant mortality rate in Nunavut is 3 times the national average, and twice that of the neighbouring territory, the Northwest Territories. Nunavut has the largest Inuit population in Canada, a population which has been identified as having high rates of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and infant deaths due to infections. Methods To determine the causes and potential risk factors of infant mortality in Nunavut, we reviewed all infant deaths ( Results Sudden death in infancy (SIDS/SUDI; 48% and infection (21% were the leading causes of infant death, with rates significantly higher than for Canada (2003–2007. Of SIDS/SUDI cases with information on sleep position (n=42 and bed-sharing (n=47, 29 (69% were sleeping non-supine and 33 (70% were bed-sharing. Of those bed-sharing, 23 (70% had two or more additional risk factors present, usually non-supine sleep position. CPT1A P479L homozygosity, which has been previously associated with infant mortality in Alaska Native and British Columbia First Nations populations, was associated with unexpected infant death (SIDS/SUDI, infection throughout Nunavut (OR:3.43, 95% CI:1.30-11.47. Conclusion Unexpected infant deaths comprise the majority of infant deaths in Nunavut. Although the CPT1A P479L variant was associated with unexpected infant death in Nunavut as a whole, the association was less apparent when population stratification was considered. Strategies to promote safe sleep practices and further understand other potential risk factors for infant mortality (P479L variant, respiratory illness are underway with local partners.

  5. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Leonides; Jariod Manel; García Natalia; Albújar Mar; Arroyo Rebeca; Maldonado Antonio; Delgado Susana; Jiménez Esther; Gómez Adolfo; Rodríguez Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed) participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples...

  6. Innovation in Australian Workplaces: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The determinants of innovation were examined using data from 698 Australian workplaces. Results suggest that better employee-management communications are associated with more change and that workplaces with higher levels of training undergo more change. (Author/JOW)

  7. China's first Australian Garden opens in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The opening for the Australian Garden was jointly held by the BHP Billiton China and the CAS South China Botanical Garden (SCBG) in Guangzhou, capital of south China's Guangdong Province on 18 January.

  8. ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization conducts or is engaged in collaborative research and development in the application of nuclear science and associated technology. Through its Australian radio-isotopes unit, it markets radioisotopes, their products and other services for nuclear medicine industry and research. It also operates national nuclear facilities ( HIFAR and Moata research reactors), promote training, provide advice and disseminates information on nuclear science and technology. The booklet briefly outlines these activities. ills

  9. Australian Politics in a Digital Age

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Peter John

    2013-01-01

    Information and communications technologies are increasingly important in the Australian political landscape. From the adoption of new forms of electoral campaigning to the use of networking technology to organise social movements, media technology has the potential to radically change the way politics is conducted and experienced in this country. The first comprehensive volume on the impact of digital media on Australian politics, this book examines the way these technologies shape political...

  10. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  11. Ownership of Australian Equities and Corporate Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Black; Joshua Kirkwood

    2010-01-01

    Australian financial and non-financial companies tap capital markets – particularly equity and bond markets – to source funds from households, foreign investors and domestic institutional investors. Foreign investors supply around half of these funds, with institutional investors providing most of the remainder; households’ direct holdings are comparatively modest. During the financial crisis, foreign investors’ appetite for Australian assets remained strong, underpinned by the streng...

  12. Diffuse panbronchiolitis in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James; Simpson, Graham

    2014-06-01

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a chronic sino-bronchial disease. It has remained restricted to the Japanese and cases in the West are unusual. We present a patient of Australian aboriginal origin with DPB. The known efficacy of low-dose erythromycin in DPB is again described. Chronic respiratory disease is common in the Australian aboriginal population and DPB should be considered in the differential. PMID:25473569

  13. An overview of Australian Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯静

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes a brief introduction to Australian higher education in the following aspects such as educational ideas, teaching methods and assessment. The author of this paper holds the opinion that it’s necessary to take an overview of Australian higher education into consideration, if you hope that your study in Australia runs smoothly. In brief, this paper makes an attempt to provide a brief idea of higher education in Australia, especially to those who want to study in Australia for reference.

  14. Differences in perinatal and infant mortality in high-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deb-Rinker, Paromita; León, Juan Andrés; Gilbert, Nicolas L.;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Variation in birth registration criteria may compromise international comparisons of fetal and infant mortality. We examined the effect of birth registration practices on fetal and infant mortality rates to determine whether observed differences in perinatal and infant mortality rates...... by gestational age and birth weight; gestational age-and birth weight-specific stillbirth rates; neonatal, post-neonatal, and cause-specific infant mortality. RESULTS: Proportion of live births ... of viability are likely due to differences in birth registration practices, although true differences in maternal, fetal and infant health cannot be ruled out. This study emphasises the need for further standardisations, in order to enhance the relevance of international comparisons of infant mortality....

  15. Does acute maternal stress in pregnancy affect infant health outcomes? Examination of a large cohort of infants born after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlin Ava Marie S

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants in utero during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 may have been negatively affected by maternal stress. Studies to date have produced contradictory results. Methods Data for this retrospective cohort study were obtained from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and included up to 164,743 infants born to active-duty military families. Infants were considered exposed if they were in utero on September 11, 2001, while the referent group included infants gestating in the same period in the preceding and following year (2000 and 2002. We investigated the association of this acute stress during pregnancy with the infant health outcomes of male:female sex ratio, birth defects, preterm birth, and growth deficiencies in utero and in infancy. Results No difference in sex ratio was observed between infants in utero in the first trimester of pregnancy on September 11, 2001 and infants in the referent population. Examination of the relationship between first-trimester exposure and birth defects also revealed no significant associations. In adjusted multivariable models, neither preterm birth nor growth deficiencies were significantly associated with the maternal exposure to the stress of September 11 during pregnancy. Conclusion The findings from this large population-based study suggest that women who were pregnant during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had no increased risk of adverse infant health outcomes.

  16. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  17. Publishing and Australian Literature: Crisis, Decline or Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Bode

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation and consolidation of book publishing is widely seen as having negative consequences for Australian literature. Some commentators argue that this shift is detrimental to Australian literature as a whole; others identify the growth of multinational publishing conglomerates with a specific decline in Australian literary fiction. This article explores both positions, first identifying and investigating trends in Australian novel publication and comparing these to trends in the publication of novels from other countries as well as other Australian-originated literature (specifically, poetry and auto/biography. It then considers the specific case of Australian literary fiction, before looking in detail at the output of large publishers of Australian novels. This analysis reveals a recent decline in Australian novel and poetry titles, but offers a more complex picture of this trend than dominant expressions of nostalgia and alarm about the fate of Australian literature and publishing would suggest.

  18. Expressed breast milk as 'connection' and its influence on the construction of 'motherhood' for mothers of preterm infants: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Sweet Linda

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast milk is considered the optimal nutrition for all newborn infants. While there is high initiation of lactation among mothers of preterm infants in Australia, there is a rapid decline of continued lactation. Furthermore, there is an inverse relationship between infant gestation and duration of lactation. To better understand the breastfeeding experience of parents of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants an interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. Met...

  19. An Antiregurgitation Milk Formula in the Management of Infants with Mild to Moderate Gastroesophageal Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Xinias, Ioannis; Spiroglou, Kleomenis; Demertzidou, Vasiliki; Karatza, Eliza; Panteliadis, Christos

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thickened milk formulas are used to treat infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), but these substances often increase the duration of reflux episodes and worsen symptoms, and they have been associated with diarrhea, constipation, and cough.

  20. National Natality Survey/National Maternal and Infant Health Survey (NMIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survey provides data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of mothers, prenatal care, pregnancy history, occupational background, health status of mother and infant, and types and sources of medical care received.

  1. A Contemporary Introduction to Essential Oils: Chemistry, Bioactivity and Prospects for Australian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sadgrove

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to pertinent aspects of the extraction methodology, chemistry, analysis and pharmacology of essential oils, whilst providing a background of general organic chemistry concepts to readers from non-chemistry oriented backgrounds. Furthermore, it describes the historical aspects of essential oil research whilst exploring contentious issues of terminology. This follows with an examination of essential oil producing plants in the Australian context with particular attention to Aboriginal custom use, historical successes and contemporary commercial prospects. Due to the harsh dry environment of the Australian landmass, particularly to the cyclical climatic variation attendant upon repeated glaciation/post-glaciation cycles, the arid regions have evolved a rich assortment of unique endemic essential oil yielding plants. Though some of these aromatic plants (particularly myrtaceous species have given birth to commercially valuable industries, much remains to be discovered. Given the market potential, it is likely that recent discoveries in our laboratory and elsewhere will lead to new product development. This review concludes with an emphasis on the use of chemotaxonomy in selection of commercially viable cultivar chemotypes from the Australian continent. Finally, drawing largely from our own results we propose a list of Australian endemic species with novel commercial potential.

  2. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  3. Infant-Directed Speech Drives Social Preferences in 5-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Adena; Hannon, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Adults across cultures speak to infants in a specific infant-directed manner. We asked whether infants use this manner of speech (infant- or adult-directed) to guide their subsequent visual preferences for social partners. We found that 5-month-old infants encode an individuals' use of infant-directed speech and adult-directed speech, and use this…

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  5. Changes in physical activity levels, lesson context, and teacher interaction during physical education in culturally and linguistically diverse Australian schools

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley Dean A; Okely Anthony D; Pearson Philip; Cotton Wayne G; Caputi Peter

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent data show that only 15% of Australian adolescents participate in adequate amounts of physical activity (PA) and those students from Asian and Middle-Eastern backgrounds in Grades 6–12 are significantly less active than their English-speaking background peers. Schools have recently been recognised as the most widely used and cost-effective setting for promoting PA among youth and one domain within schools where PA can occur regularly for all youth, regardless of cult...

  6. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  7. Infant Visual Habituation

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, John; Mitchell, D. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The use of visual habituation in the study of infant cognition and learning is reviewed. This article traces the history of the technique, underlying theory, and procedural variation in its measurement. In addition, we review empirical findings with respect to the cognitive processes that presumably contribute to habituation, studies of developmental course and long-term prediction, as well as recent attempts to address or explain the phenomenon of visual habituation through the use of mathem...

  8. Neuroprotection in Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, R.; Söder, S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm infants born before the 30th week of pregnancy are especially at risk of perinatal brain damage which is usually a result of cerebral ischemia or an ascending intrauterine infection. Prevention of preterm birth and early intervention given signs of imminent intrauterine infection can reduce the incidence of perinatal cerebral injury. It has been shown that administering magnesium intravenously to women at imminent risk of a preterm birth leads to a significant reduction in the likelih...

  9. Infant male circumcision: healthcare provider knowledge and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin J Starzyk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The emerging science demonstrates various health benefits associated with infant male circumcision and adult male circumcision; yet rates are declining in the United States. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that healthcare providers present evidence-based risk and benefit information for infant male circumcision to parent(s and guardian(s. The purpose of this study was to assess providers' level of infant male circumcision knowledge and to identify the associated characteristics. METHODS: An online survey was administered to healthcare providers in the family medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics medical specialties at an urban academic health center. To assess infant male circumcision knowledge, a 17 point summary score was constructed to identify level of provider knowledge within the survey. RESULTS: Ninety-two providers completed the survey. Providers scored high for the following knowledge items: adverse event rates, protects against phimosis and urinary tract infections, and does not prevent hypospadias. Providers scored lower for items related to more recent research: protection against cervical cancer, genital ulcer disease, bacterial vaginosis, and reduction in HIV acquisition. Two models were constructed looking at (1 overall knowledge about male circumcision, and (2 knowledge about male circumcision reduction in HIV acquisition. Pediatricians demonstrated greater overall infant male circumcision knowledge, while obstetricians exhibited significantly greater knowledge for the HIV acquisition item. CONCLUSION: Providers' knowledge levels regarding the risks and benefits of infant male circumcision are highly variable, indicating the need for system-based educational interventions.

  10. Modification of stool's water content in constipated infants: management with an adapted infant formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Marina M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Constipation is a common occurrence in formula-fed infants. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of a formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium, in compliance with the official regulations, on stool water content, as well as a parental assessment of constipation. Materials and methods Thirty healthy term-born, formula-fed infants, aged 4-10 weeks, with functional constipation were included. All infants were full-term and fed standard formula. Exclusion criteria were preterm and/or low birth weight, organic constipation, being breast fed or fed a formula specially designed to treat constipation. Stool composition was measured by near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA and parents answered questions about crying associated with defecation and stool consistency at baseline and after two weeks of the adapted formula. Results After 2 weeks of the adapted formula, stool water content increased from 71 +/- 8.1% to 84 +/- 5.9%, (p Conclusions This preliminary study suggests that an adapted formula with high levels of lactose and magnesium increases stool water content and improves symptoms of constipation in term-born, formula-fed infants. A larger randomized placebo-controlled trial is indicated.

  11. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Haverd

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study of the full carbon (C-CO2 budget of the Australian continent, focussing on 1990–2011 in the context of estimates over two centuries. The work is a contribution to the RECCAP (REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes project, as one of numerous regional studies. In constructing the budget, we estimate the following component carbon fluxes: net primary production (NPP; net ecosystem production (NEP; fire; land use change (LUC; riverine export; dust export; harvest (wood, crop and livestock and fossil fuel emissions (both territorial and non-territorial. Major biospheric fluxes were derived using BIOS2 (Haverd et al., 2012, a fine-spatial-resolution (0.05° offline modelling environment in which predictions of CABLE (Wang et al., 2011, a sophisticated land surface model with carbon cycle, are constrained by multiple observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climate variability and rising CO2 contributed 12 ± 24 (1σ error on mean and 68 ± 15 TgC yr−1, respectively. However these gains were partially offset by fire and LUC (along with other minor fluxes, which caused net losses of 26 ± 4 TgC yr−1 and 18 ± 7 TgC yr−1, respectively. The resultant net biome production (NBP is 36 ± 29 TgC yr−1, in which the largest contributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP offset fossil fuel emissions (95 ± 6 TgC yr−1 by 38 ± 30%. The interannual variability (IAV in the Australian carbon budget exceeds Australia's total carbon emissions by fossil fuel combustion and is dominated by IAV in NEP. Territorial fossil fuel emissions are significantly smaller than the rapidly growing fossil fuel exports: in 2009–2010, Australia exported 2.5 times more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning fossil fuels.

  12. Food groups consumed by infants and toddlers in urban areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food consumption patterns of young children in China are not well known. Objective: Characterised food groups consumed by infants and young children in urban China using data from the Maternal Infant Nutrition Growth (MING study. Design: One 24-h dietary recall was completed for 1,350 infants and young children (436 infants aged 6–11 months and 914 young children aged 12–35 months, who were recruited from maternal and child care centres in eight cities via face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver. All foods, beverages and supplements reported were assigned to one of 64 food groups categorised into the following: milk and milk products, grains, vegetables, fruits, protein foods and desserts/sweets. The percentage of infants and young children consuming foods from specific food groups was calculated, regardless of the amount consumed. Results: Less than half of infants consumed breast milk (47%, whereas 59% of infants consumed infant formula and 53–75% of young children consumed growing-up (fortified milk. Rice was the number one grain food consumed after 6 months (up to 88% and the consumption of infant cereal was low. About 50% of infants did not consume any fruits or vegetables, and 38% of young children did not consume any fruits on the day of the recall. Only 40% of all children consumed dark green leafy vegetables and even fewer consumed deep yellow vegetables. Eggs and pork were the most commonly consumed protein foods. Conclusions: The data provide important insight for developing detailed food consumption guidelines for this population group. Mothers of infants should be encouraged to continue breastfeeding after the first 6 months. Parents should be advised to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, particularly dark green leafy and deep yellow vegetables and colourful fruits. The consumption of fortified infant cereal should be advocated to improve the iron intake of Chinese infants.

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Glynn, Laura M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin; Chicz-Demet, Aleksandra; Sandman, Curt A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that prenatal maternal and fetal processes can have a lasting influence on infant and child development. Results from animal models indicate that prenatal exposure to maternal stress and stress hormones has lasting consequences for development of the offspring. Few prospective studies of human pregnancy…

  14. Maternal Stress and Depression and the Lateralisation of Infant Cradling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, Nadja; Hopkins, Brian; Helms, Peter; Williams, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies show that 65-85% of mothers cradle their infants to the left side of their body, but that this bias changes with maternal mood and stress. The present study examines the hypothesis that maternal stress and depression status will influence the cradling bias differentially. Method: As part of a larger study on mother-infant…

  15. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; Arends, Lidia R; de Jongste, Johan C;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results. OBJECTIVES: We performed an individual participant data meta-analysis for 147,252 children of 31...

  16. Safety of routine early MRI in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Plaisier (Annemarie); M.M.A. Raets (Marlou); C. van der Starre (Cynthia); M. Feijen-Roon (Monique); P. Govaert (Paul); M.H. Lequin (Maarten); A.M. Heemskerk; J. Dudink (Jeroen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cerebral MRI performed on preterm infants at term-equivalent 30 weeks' gestational age (GA) is increasingly performed as part of standard clinical care. Objective: We evaluated safety of these earlyMRI procedures. Materials and methods We retrospectively collected data on pat

  17. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the…

  18. Maternal Infant Feeding Behaviors and Disparities in Early Child Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Rachel S.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Hauser, Nicole R.; Messito, Mary Jo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although disparities in child obesity exist during infancy, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Assessing dissimilarities in feeding practices, styles, and beliefs may provide a better understanding of these mechanisms. This study sought to identify modifiable maternal-infant feeding behaviors that may contribute to disparities in early child obesity.

  19. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Paul

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

  20. Iron Therapy for Preterm Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Raghavendra; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for both iron deficiency and iron overload. The role of iron in multiple organ functions suggests that iron supplementation is essential for the preterm infant. Conversely, the potential for iron overload and the poorly developed anti-oxidant measures in the preterm infant argues against indiscriminate iron supplementation in this population. The purpose of this article is to review the predisposing factors and consequences of iron deficiency and iron overload in t...

  1. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  2. Infant of a substance using mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maternal substance use; Maternal drug use; Narcotic exposure - infant; Substance use disorder - infant ... ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS SEEN IN AN INFANT OF A SUBSTANCE-ABUSING MOTHER? Babies born to ...

  3. Introducing the Australian Uranium Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Uranium Association was formed in September last year in the midst of a very exciting period of change for the industry. What forged this new grouping was the industry's belief that it needed a strong representative organisation to play an advocacy role for uranium exploration and mining, at a very important moment of opportunity for the industry. That 'moment of opportunity' was the result of some critical trends and events, First, the very rapid increase in the price of uranium was driving renewed exploration and investment across Australia and the world. In the previous twelve months, the spot price of uranium had risen more than 90%. Second, the Federal Government had established the Uranium Industry Framework as a means by which government and industry could discuss a better regulatory framework. This led to some very fruitful interchanges between industry players. While the UIF talks were continuing, the Federal Government announced a parallel inquiry into whether Australia ought to move further into the nuclear power cycle. Third, the new interest in Australia in climate change and greenhouse gas emissions had led to a steep increase in public interest in the nuclear power option, with many former opponents now willing to listen to the argument

  4. The Australian Replacement Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Shane; Robinson, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The 20-MW Australian Replacement Research Reactor represents possibly the greatest single research infrastructure investment in Australia's history. Construction of the facility has commenced, following award of the construction contract in July 2000, and the construction licence in April 2002. The project includes a large state-of-the-art liquid deuterium cold-neutron source and supermirror guides feeding a large modern guide hall, in which most of the instruments are placed. Alongside the guide hall, there is good provision of laboratory, office and space for support activities. While the facility has "space" for up to 18 instruments, the project has funding for an initial set of 8 instruments, which will be ready when the reactor is fully operational in July 2006. Instrument performance will be competitive with the best research-reactor facilities anywhere, and our goal is to be in the top 3 such facilities worldwide. Staff to lead the design effort and man these instruments have been hired on the international market from leading overseas facilities, and from within Australia, and 7 out of 8 instruments have been specified and costed. At present the instrumentation project carries 10contingency. An extensive dialogue has taken place with the domestic user community and our international peers, via various means including a series of workshops over the last 2 years covering all 8 instruments, emerging areas of application like biology and the earth sciences, and computing infrastructure for the instruments.

  5. Multi-Risk Infants: Predicting Attachment Security from Sociodemographic, Psychosocial, and Health Risk among African-American Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo; Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ecological and transactional theories link child outcomes to accumulated risk. This study hypothesized that cumulative risk was negatively related to attachment, and that maternal sensitivity mediated linkages between risk and attachment. Methods: One hundred and twelve high-risk African-American premature infant-mother dyads…

  6. Socioeconomic patterns of overweight, obesity but not thinness persist from childhood to adolescence in a 6 -year longitudinal cohort of Australian schoolchildren from 2007 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    O’Dea, Jennifer A.; Chiang, Hueiwen; Peralta, Louisa R

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased during the 1980s to the late 1990s. The prevalence of obesity is higher in socially and economically disadvantaged communities in most Westernised countries. The purpose of this study was to examine how the socioeconomic gradient in weight status, namely thinness, overweight and obesity, changes over time in a longitudinal cohort of Australian schoolchildren, from 2007–2012. Methods 939 Australian children in school grade...

  7. Second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine concentrations, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation status and sexual activity as predictors of preterm birth in Chinese and Australian women

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Matthew S.; Feng, Zhenhua; Li, Shaofu; Doherty, Dorota A; Xu, Biyun; Li, Jie; Liu, Lenan; Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Zhou, Yi Hua; Dickinson, Jan E.; HU, YALI; Newnham, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study tested if second trimester amniotic fluid cytokine levels, Ureaplasma sp. colonisation and sexual activity predict preterm birth and explain the differential preterm birth rates in Chinese compared to Australian women. Methods Amniotic fluid was collected by amniocentesis (Chinese 480, Australian 492). Cytokines were measured by multiplex assay and Ureaplasma sp. DNA was detected by PCR analysis. Lifestyle factors, including history of smoking and sexual activity during ...

  8. Analysis of the Three Most Prevalent Injuries in Australian Football Demonstrates a Season to Season Association Between Groin/Hip/Osteitis Pubis Injuries With ACL Knee Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Verrall, Geoffrey M.; Esterman, Adrian; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Injuries are common in contact sports like Australian football. The Australian Football League (AFL) has developed an extensive injury surveillance database that can be used for epidemiological studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify any association between the three most prevalent injuries in the AFL. Patients and Methods: From the AFL injury surveillance data 1997-2012 the injury incidence (new injuries per club per season) and the injury prevalence data (m...

  9. Quantifying disparities in cancer incidence and mortality of Australian residents of New South Wales (NSW) by place of birth: an ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Feletto, Eleonora; Sitas, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2013, about 32 % of the Australian population over 15 years of age was born overseas. Previous cancer-related immigrant health studies identified differences in mortality and incidence between immigrants and Australian-born people. To identify groups that may require targeted interventions, we describe by region of birth: 1. the highest cancer incidence and mortality rates for NSW residents, Australia’s most populous state; and 2. mortality to incidence ratios (MIR) for all canc...

  10. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  11. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  12. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  13. Infant Neurosensory Development: Considerations for Infant Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Infant brain development is a dynamic process dependent upon endogenous and exogenous stimulation and a supportive environment. A critical period of brain and neurosensory development occurs during the third trimester and into the "fourth" trimester (first three months of life). Disruption, damage, or deprivation in the infant's social and…

  14. Living with aphasia: three Indigenous Australian stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth; Hersh, Deborah; Hayward, Colleen; Fraser, Joan; Brown, Melita

    2012-06-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disorders and stroke in Australian Aboriginal communities is more than twice as high as non-Indigenous Australians. Approximately 30% of people who survive stroke are left with some level of aphasia, and yet Indigenous Australians appear to be infrequent users of speech-language pathology services, and there is virtually no research literature about the experiences of aphasia for this group of people. This paper presents the stories of living with aphasia for three Indigenous Australian men living in Perth, Western Australia. Their narratives were collected by an Indigenous researcher through in-depth, supported interviews, and were explored using both within-case and cross-case analyses for common and recurring themes. It is argued that there is value for speech-language pathologists, and other health professionals, to be aware of the broad experiences of living with aphasia for Indigenous Australians because their stories are rarely heard and because, as with people with aphasia generally, they are at risk of social isolation and tend to lack visibility in the community. This study explores the key issues which emerge for these three men and highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:22472033

  15. Inequality in provider continuity for children by Australian general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Graham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little published on provider continuity in Australian general practice and none on its effect on inequality of care for children. Method Questionnaire administered to parents of the ACT Kindergarten Health Screen asking the name of their child's usual GP and practice address between 2001 and 2008. Results Parents of 30,789 children named 433 GPs and 141 practices. In each year, an average of 77% of parents could name both the GP and the practice, an average of 11% of parents could name only the practice, and an average of 12% of parents could name neither. In each year, 25% of parents could not name a usual GP for children of Aboriginal or Torres Straight Islander descent, or children born outside of Australia, compared to 10% of all other children (p = Conclusions Many GPs (39% were reported to provide continuity of care for in the ACT region and some GPs (20% displayed transient care. Indigenous children or children born outside of Australia had less equity of access to a nominated GP than all other children. Such inequity might disappear if voluntary registration of children was adopted in Australian general practice.

  16. Language core values in a multicultural setting: An Australian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolicz, Jerzy J.

    1991-03-01

    While it has been agreed by the members of the European Community (except the UK) that all secondary students should study two EC languages in addition to their own, in Australia the recent emphasis has been on teaching languages for external trade, particularly in the Asian region. This policy over-looks the 13 per cent of the Australian population who already speak a language other than English at home (and a greater number who are second generation immigrants), and ignores the view that it is necessary to foster domestic multiculturalism in order to have fruitful links with other cultures abroad. During the 1980s there have been moves to reinforce the cultural identity of Australians of non-English speaking background, but these have sometimes been half-hearted and do not fully recognise that cultural core values, including language, have to achieve a certain critical mass in order to be sustainable. Without this recognition, semi-assimilation will continue to waste the potential cultural and economic contributions of many citizens, and to lead to frustration and eventual violence. The recent National Agenda for a Multicultural Australia addresses this concern.

  17. "Like roulette": Australian women's explanations of gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderson, Lenore; Markovic, Milica; Quinn, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Drawing on data from interviews and other ethnographic research, we examine how Australian women from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds make sense of having gynecological cancer. Alternative explanatory models often co-exist in a single narrative, but there is significant consistency in the etiology of cancer among Australian-born and immigrant women. In acknowledging the unpredictability of cancer and the prognosis of particular disease, women contextualize their own experience as a matter of luck, outside their control or influence. Most often women relate their own occurrence of cancer to their social setting and relational factors rather than personal behavior, but at the same time, they acknowledge the interaction of external forces and individual factors, particularly in the case of diet and stress. Women can control diet to some extent, although many note the irony of having developed cancer even when they have eaten well. Stress, on the other hand, is largely considered as external to and beyond women's control. Women speak of stress as a characteristic of contemporary social life, as well as their own public and domestic, physical and emotional lives; for these women stress in any of these areas can create physical vulnerability that may result in cancer. Since women associate cancer with loss of control, the idea of cancerous cells out-of-control within their bodies operates as a metonym of women's views of themselves interpersonally and socially. PMID:15893049

  18. Combined Esophageal Intraluminal Impedance, pH and Skin Conductance Monitoring to Detect Discomfort in GERD Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Cresi, Francesco; Castagno, Emanuele; Storm, Hanne; Silvestro, Leandra; Miniero, Roberto; Savino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical significance of weakly acidic reflux in infants is unclear. Skin conductance is a novel not-invasive method to evaluate discomfort. The aim of our study was to evaluate reflux-induced discomfort in infants with gastroesophageal reflux disease using simultaneously combined skin conductance and esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring. Methodology/Principal Findings Infants with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms were investigated for almost 20 hour...

  19. Behavioral, cognitive, and adaptive development in infants with autism spectrum disorder in the first 2 years of life

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Annette; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Gu, Hongbin; St. John, Tanya; Paterson, Sarah; Elison, Jed T.; Hazlett, Heather; Botteron, Kelly; Dager, Stephen R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Kostopoulos, Penelope; Evans, Alan; Dawson, Geraldine; Eliason, Jordana; Alvarez, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Background To delineate the early progression of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, this study investigated developmental characteristics of infants at high familial risk for ASD (HR), and infants at low risk (LR). Methods Participants included 210 HR and 98 LR infants across 4 sites with comparable behavioral data at age 6, 12, and 24 months assessed in the domains of cognitive development (Mullen Scales of Early Learning), adaptive skills (Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales), and ear...

  20. Morbidity and mortality amongst infants of diabetic mothers admitted into a special care baby unit in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Onubogu Uche C; Jaja Tamunopriye; Opara Peace I

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Infants born to diabetic women have certain distinctive characteristics, including large size and high morbidity risks. The neonatal mortality rate is over five times that of infants of non diabetic mothers and is higher at all gestational ages and birth weight for gestational age (GA) categories. The study aimed to determine morbidity and mortality pattern amongst infants of diabetic mothers (IDMS) admitted into the Special Care Baby Unit of University of Port Harcourt Te...

  1. Evaluation of the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Ann; Jacob, Anoop; Kunhambu, Dhanalakshmi; Shetty, Priya; Shetty, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mothers play a crucial role in developing and maintaining their infants’ oral hygiene. Maternal oral health, their knowledge and attitude toward infant oral health are strong indicators of their infant's oral health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of expectant mothers about infant oral health and their oral hygiene practices. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey conducted among expectant mothers in ...

  2. Is targeted fortification of human breast milk an optimal nutrition strategy for preterm infants? An interventional study

    OpenAIRE

    Morlacchi, Laura; Mallardi, Domenica; Giannì, Maria Lorella; Roggero, Paola; Amato, Orsola; Piemontese, Pasqua; Consonni, Dario; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Background Fortifying human milk contributes to the prevention of postnatal growth failure in preterm infants. Because of the natural variability of human milk, targeted fortification of human milk has been advocated. However, data regarding the efficacy and safety of prolonged targeted fortification are scarce. We aimed to assess the safety of targeted fortification of human milk in preterm infants compared with standard fortification, as well as the effects on infant growth. Methods We cond...

  3. The prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency is more common in breastfed infants than their mothers in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Henjum, Sigrun; Ulak, Manjeswori; Andrew L. Thorne-Lyman; Ulvik, Rune Johan; Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Locks, Lindsey; FAWZI, Wafaie W.; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron deficiency anemia is a widespread public health problem, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal iron status around and during pregnancy may influence infant iron status. We examined multiple biomarkers to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and anemia among breastfed infants and explored its relationship with maternal and infant characteristics in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Subjects/Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we randomly selected 50...

  4. The OPTIMIST-A trial: evaluation of minimally-invasive surfactant therapy in preterm infants 25–28 weeks gestation

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Dargaville; Kamlin, Camille Omar F; De Paoli, Antonio G; Carlin, John B.; Orsini, Francesca; Soll, Roger F; Davis, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    Background It is now recognized that preterm infants ≤28 weeks gestation can be effectively supported from the outset with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. However, this form of respiratory therapy may fail to adequately support those infants with significant surfactant deficiency, with the result that intubation and delayed surfactant therapy are then required. Infants following this path are known to have a higher risk of adverse outcomes, including death, bronchopulmonary dysplas...

  5. Enhancing mother infant interactions through video feedback enabled interventions in women with schizophrenia: A single subject research design study

    OpenAIRE

    Pashapu Dharma Reddy; Geehta Desai; Ameer Hamza; Sheshachala Karthik; Supraja Thirumalai Ananthanpillai; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been shown that mother infant interactions are often impaired in mothers with schizophrenia. Contributory factors include psychotic symptoms, negative symptoms and surrogate parenting by others. Aim: This study describes the effectiveness of video feedback in enhancing mother-infant interaction in mothers with schizophrenia who have impaired interaction with their infant. Materials and Methods: Two women with schizophrenia who were admitted for persistent psychotic symptoms...

  6. Are Universities Responding to the Needs of Students from Refugee Backgrounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Jaya; Joyce, Andrew; de Mori, Gabriella; Silvagni, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although many Australian universities have been proactive in responding to students' diverse needs through orientation and support programs, very little is known about programs needed for the successful transition of students from refugee backgrounds into tertiary study. Facilitating the early engagement of students with their studies and campus…

  7. An expanded prescribing role for pharmacists - an Australian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kreshnik Hoti; Jeffery Hughes; Bruce Sunderland

    2011-01-01

    Expanded pharmacist prescribing is a new professional practice area for pharmacists. Currently, Australian pharmacists’ prescribing role is limited to over-the-counter medications. This review aims to identify Australian studies involving the area of expanded pharmacist prescribing. Australian studies exploring the issues of pharmacist prescribing were identified and considered in the context of its implementation internationally. Australian studies have mainly focused on the attitudes of com...

  8. Representations of the Japanese in Contemporary Australian Literature and Film

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Smith

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to investigate general contemporary Australian perceptions of the Japanese. I will do this by exploring how Australian contemporary literature (2006- 2007) and Australian contemporary film (1997-2007) depicts Japanese characters. By analysing the representation of the Japanese characters in these areas I will attempt to gather a broad understanding of how Australians represent, perceive and identify the Japanese today.

  9. Lung volume, breathing pattern and ventilation inhomogeneity in preterm and term infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Latzin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morphological changes in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD have functional consequences on lung volume, ventilation inhomogeneity and respiratory mechanics. Although some studies have shown lower lung volumes and increased ventilation inhomogeneity in BPD infants, conflicting results exist possibly due to differences in sedation and measurement techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 127 infants with BPD, 58 preterm infants without BPD and 239 healthy term-born infants, at a matched post-conceptional age of 44 weeks during quiet natural sleep according to ATS/ERS standards. Lung function parameters measured were functional residual capacity (FRC and ventilation inhomogeneity by multiple breath washout as well as tidal breathing parameters. Preterm infants with BPD had only marginally lower FRC (21.4 mL/kg than preterm infants without BPD (23.4 mL/kg and term-born infants (22.6 mL/kg, though there was no trend with disease severity. They also showed higher respiratory rates and lower ratios of time to peak expiratory flow and expiratory time (t(PTEF/t(E than healthy preterm and term controls. These changes were related to disease severity. No differences were found for ventilation inhomogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that preterm infants with BPD have a high capacity to maintain functional lung volume during natural sleep. The alterations in breathing pattern with disease severity may reflect presence of adaptive mechanisms to cope with the disease process.

  10. Water metabolism in Australian marsupials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies are discussed in which tritiated water (TOH) has been used to investigate water metabolism in Australian marsupials, particularly arid-zone species. Equilibration of injected TOH in large kangaroos was slower than in smaller marsupials and similar to that in ruminants and camels, presumably because of the high gut water space of all large forestomach fermenters. Loss of TOH in urine, faeces and insensible water during equilibration was also similar to that in ruminants. Total body water (TBW) was similar whether estimated by equilibration or extrapolation. TBW of small marsupial species (16 g to 6.5 kg body weight) was usually in the range found for small eutherian mammals (56 to 68% of body weight). However, in the larger kangaroos TBW ranged from 73 to 78% of body weight, possibly due to the low body fat content and the high ratio of gut contents to total body weight of kangaroos. In general, the water turnover rate of marsupials is about 30% below that of eutherians; this has been related to their lower metabolic rate. Nevertheless, significant differences in water turnover have been found between some species. It has been suggested that there may be a correlation between the water turnover rates measured under ad libitum water availability and the aridity of the animal's habitat. However, this is not always so; differences in behaviour and in the water content of the natural diet explain why some marsupials with high ad libitum water turnovers can survive in desert environments. The physiological state of the animals (e.g. lactation) has also been shown to affect water turnover, both in the laboratory and in the field. (author)

  11. Data Convergence - An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, S. S.; Howell, B.

    2012-12-01

    Coupled numerical physical, biogeochemical and sediment models are increasingly being used as integrators to help understand the cumulative or far field effects of change in the coastal environment. This reliance on modeling has forced observations to be delivered as data streams ingestible by modeling frameworks. This has made it easier to create near real-time or forecasting models than to try to recreate the past, and has lead in turn to the conversion of historical data into data streams to allow them to be ingested by the same frameworks. The model and observation frameworks under development within Australia's Commonwealth and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) are now feeding into the Australian Ocean Data Network's (AODN's) MARine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) . The sensor, or data stream, brokering solution is centred around the "message" and all data flowing through the gateway is wrapped as a message. Messages consist of a topic and a data object and their routing through the gateway to pre-processors and listeners is determined by the topic. The Sensor Message Gateway (SMG) method is allowing data from different sensors measuring the same thing but with different temporal resolutions, units or spatial coverage to be ingested or visualized seamlessly. At the same time the model output as a virtual sensor is being explored, this again being enabled by the SMG. It is only for two way communications with sensor that rigorous adherence to standards is needed, by accepting existing data in less than ideal formats, but exposing them though the SMG we can move a step closer to the Internet Of Things by creating an Internet of Industries where each vested interest can continue with business as usual, contribute to data convergence and adopt more open standards when investment seems appropriate to that sector or business.Architecture Overview

  12. Number Sense in Human Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Spelke, Elizabeth S.; Goddard, Sydney

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments used a preferential looking method to investigate 6-month-old infants' capacity to represent numerosity in visual-spatial displays. Building on previous findings that such infants discriminate between arrays of eight versus 16 discs, but not eight versus 12 discs (Xu & Spelke, 2000), Experiments 1 and 2 investigated whether…

  13. Learning and Memory in Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses important recent strides in the documentation and understanding of the infant's learning and memory capacity. Focuses on the psychobiology of learning, hedonic mediation of approach-avoidance and learned behavior, infant memory, and critical conditions of infancy and behavioral misadventures. (RJC)

  14. What Is Infant Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace

    2012-01-01

    Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.

  15. Determinants of Infant Behaviour IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, B. M., Ed.

    This volume consists of reports of individual studies and surveys of research work on mother-infant interactions. It is divided into two parts. The first section presents a wide range of studies on mother-infant relations as exhibited in the behavior of animals. The second part, concerning human behavior, includes studies on the natural history of…

  16. Australian Indigenous Perspectives on Quality Assurance in Children's Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Teresa; Frances, Katie; Saggers, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government has recently committed to the development of an integrated system of assuring national quality standards for Australian childcare and preschool services (Australian Government, 2008). This article addresses two fundamental issues relating to the development of an integrated system as it applies to Indigenous children's…

  17. Modelling Choice: Factors Influencing Modes of Delivery in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Ling, Peter; Hill, Doug

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study of Multiple Modes of Delivery in Australian universities that was commissioned by Australian Universities Teaching Committee over the period 2001-2004. The project examined and described the various means of educational delivery deployed by Australian universities. It identified the pedagogical,…

  18. Drama in the Australian National Curriculum: Decisions, Tensions and Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Madonna; Saunders, John Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, the Australian Federal Government endorsed the final version of the Australian Curriculum arts framework a document resulting from nearly seven years of consultation and development. "The Australian Curriculum: The Arts Version 8.0" comprises five subjects: dance, drama, media arts, music and visual arts. This article…

  19. Aboriginal Agency and Marginalisation in Australian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that while state rhetoric may be inclusionary, policies and practices may be exclusionary. This can imply that the power to include rests only with the state. In some ways, the implication is valid in respect of Aboriginal Australians. For instance, the Australian state has gained control of Aboriginal inclusion via a singular, bounded category and Aboriginal ideal type. However, the implication is also limited in their respect. Aborigines are abject but also agents in their relationship with the wider society. Their politics contributes to the construction of the very category and type that governs them, and presses individuals to resist state inclusionary efforts. Aboriginal political elites police the performance of an Aboriginality dominated by notions of difference and resistance. The combined processes of governance act to deny Aborigines the potential of being both Aboriginal and Australian, being different and belonging. They maintain Aborigines’ marginality.

  20. Topics from Australian Conferences on Teaching Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Brian; Martin, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The first OZCOTS conference in 1998 was inspired by papers contributed by Australians to the 5th International Conference on Teaching Statistics. In 2008, as part of the program of one of the first National Senior Teaching Fellowships, the 6th OZCOTS was held in conjunction with the Australian Statistical Conference, with Fellowship keynotes and contributed papers, optional refereeing and proceedings. This venture was so successful that the 7th and 8th OZCOTS were similarly run, conjoined with Australian Statistical Conferences in 2010 and 2012. Authors of papers from these OZCOTS conferences were invited to develop chapters for refereeing and inclusion in this volume. There are sections on keynote topics, undergraduate curriculum and learning, professional development, postgraduate learning, and papers from OZCOTS 2012. Because OZCOTS aim to unite statisticians and statistics educators, the approaches this volume takes are immediately relevant to all who have a vested interest in good teaching practices. Glo...

  1. Isotopes in Australian environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: ANSTO Environment is playing a pioneering role in developing new methods for monitoring adherence to the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty. Working with the IAEA Department of Safeguards, new analytical procedures have been developed to assist with their environmental monitoring programme. Signatures of nuclear activities, in the form of trace amounts of radioisotopes in environmental samples, can be used to identify undeclared nuclear facilities or undeclared activities at declared facilities. At ANSTO we have developed the use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of 236U in environmental samples. 236U is a sensitive indicator of irradiated uranium. AMS is also used to detect the long- lived fission product 129I at extremely low levels. The presence of 129I can be a signature of reprocessing. ANSTO performs analyses of these radioisotopes as an accredited member of the IAEA Safeguards network of analytical laboratories. Australian soldiers on duty in the Gulf risk possible exposure to depleted uranium. Depleted uranium is the uranium that is left after most of the radioactive isotopes are removed for nuclear fuel. Due to its high density, it is the ideal material for use in armour-piercing ammunition and in armour for fighting vehicles. However, like any heavy metal, it is toxic in high doses. Depleted uranium enters the body through inhalation of the dust- like particles, ingestion of contaminated food or through wounds. At ANSTO, a sensitive analytical technique based on isotope dilution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to detect depleted uranium in urine samples. By addition of known quantities of 236U (isotope dilution) to the urine samples and measuring the relative abundances of different isotopes (236U, 235U and 238U) of uranium by ICP-MS, we are able to quantify (quantification limit of 20 ng/L) and distinguish between natural and depleted uranium. In Australia, there are legislative limits on the

  2. Health Status and Coping Strategies among Older Parent-Carers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in an Australian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; McConnell, David; Gething, Lindsay; Cant, Rosemary; Kendig, Hal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Older parent-carers in Australia are the subject of increasing policy and practice attention due to concerns about their ongoing ability to care in the light of their own ageing and the ageing of their adult son or daughter. This paper examines health status and the coping strategies of a group of older Australian parents caring for an…

  3. Student Teachers' Understanding of Policy Behavioural Directives Concerning the Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse: Findings from One Australian State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background: In the Australian state of Queensland, many Department of Education Policies include behavioural directives for school teachers, whereby "the teacher must..." behave in a certain manner. The introduction of an education policy, such as the mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by teachers, has significant and wide-ranging…

  4. Evaluating Locally-Developed Language Testing: A Predictive Study of "Direct Entry" Language Programs at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the predictive validity of language assessments by "Direct Entry" programs at an Australian University--programs developed on site for Non English Speaking Background international students, principally to provide (i) pre-entry academic and language preparation and (ii) language assessment for university…

  5. Choosing Work and Care: Four Australian Women Negotiating Return to Paid Work in the First Year of Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Wendy; Walker, Susan; Thorpe, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Australian women make decisions about returning to paid work and care for their child within a policy environment that presents mixed messages about maternal employment and childcare standards. Against this background, an investigation of first-time mothers' decision-making about workforce participation and childcare was undertaken. Four…

  6. Beset by Obstacles: A Review of Australian Policy Development to Support Ageing in Place for People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Background: Australian government policy regards people with intellectual disability (ID) as citizens with equal rights, which means that they should have access to the same opportunities as the wider community. Ageing in place is central to aged care policy in Australia for the general population. Method: This paper reviews policy to support the…

  7. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tooten Anneke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA, n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual, a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG. The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, anxiety and feelings of anger and hostility. Infant secondary outcomes are behavioral aspects such as crying

  8. The effectiveness of video interaction guidance in parents of premature infants: A multicenter randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have consistently found a high incidence of neonatal medical problems, premature births and low birth weights in abused and neglected children. One of the explanations proposed for the relation between neonatal problems and adverse parenting is a possible delay or disturbance in the bonding process between the parent and infant. This hypothesis suggests that due to neonatal problems, the development of an affectionate bond between the parent and the infant is impeded. The disruption of an optimal parent-infant bond -on its turn- may predispose to distorted parent-infant interactions and thus facilitate abusive or neglectful behaviours. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is expected to promote the bond between parents and newborns and is expected to diminish non-optimal parenting behaviour. Methods/design This study is a multi-center randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of Video Interaction Guidance in parents of premature infants. In this study 210 newborn infants with their parents will be included: n = 70 healthy term infants (>37 weeks GA), n = 70 moderate term infants (32–37 weeks GA) which are recruited from maternity wards of 6 general hospitals and n = 70 extremely preterm infants or very low birth weight infants (<32 weeks GA) recruited by the NICU of 2 specialized hospitals. The participating families will be divided into 3 groups: a reference group (i.e. full term infants and their parents, receiving care as usual), a control group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving care as usual) and an intervention group (i.e. premature infants and their parents, receiving VIG). The data will be collected during the first six months after birth using observations of parent-infant interactions, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Primary outcomes are the quality of parental bonding and parent-infant interactive behaviour. Parental secondary outcomes are (posttraumatic) stress symptoms

  9. Determination of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method and appartus for determining the level of background radiation in a spectral region where a Raman peak characteristic of a particular substance, in particular diamond, is expected to occur. The method includes the steps of isolating the radiation in a first spectral band, and isolating the radiation in a second spectral band which overlaps the first spectral band at least partially to form an overlapping band in the vicinity of the expected Raman Peak and a least one sideband. At least one sideband value representative of the radiation present in the one or more sidebands is then obtained, and further values, representative of the radiation isolated by any one or more of the other spectral bands, such as the first and second bands, are then used to derive a background value indicative of the level of background radiation present at the position of the expected Raman peak

  10. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  11. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity the spectrum is free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

  12. Refractive Error and Fixation Conditions of Infants Born by Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Jafarzadehpur

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to evaluate the refractive error and oculomotor conditions of infants born by assisted reproductive techniques (ART in patients referring to Royan Institute as well as Child Health and Development Center.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 ART-exposed infants aged less than 9 months were tested by retinoscopy, fixation conditions, Hirschberg and Doll's eye maneuver.Results: The average refractive error of these infants shows hyperopic Shift +0.9±1.1 D. The average astigmatism recorded in these infants is -0.6±0.6D. The prevalence of refractive errors in these infants is myopia 6%, hyperopia 85% and emmetropia 9%. Impairment of fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll's eye maneuver was respectively observed in 20.4, 1.4 and 3.7% of the studied infants.Conclusion Given the sensitivities in the visual system development process and critical period which is important for every infant in the very first months of birth, it seems that visual-ocular studies are more important in ART-exposed infants who were exposed to different factors until their birth. The results of refractive errors, fixation conditions, Hirschberg test and Doll’s head maneuver which was conducted in this study for these infants reveal that, it is likely that visual impairment in these infants is higher than the results of foreign studies. However, lack of access to population studies in infants below 1 year of age in Iran necessitates more extensive studies and follow-ups of vision of ART-exposed infants more seriously.

  13. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  14. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  15. Australian clinical guidelines for radiological event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Health Protection Committee oversees national health protection priorities in: communicable disease outbreaks; chemical, biological or radiological incidents; mass casualty incidents; and deployment of Australian health teams overseas. The Australian Clinical Guidelines for a Radiological Event to complement existing national guidelines on chemical agents, anthrax, and smallpox. Other prompts included the need to revise the ARPANSA Guidance Manual, Medical Management of Individuals Involved in Radiation Accidents, 2000, and the requirement for specific therapeutic information regarding the indications and use of radiological decorporation agents held as part of the National Medical Stockpile. Matters identified by clinicians requiring specific guidance included: basic understanding of radiation; an approach to dose assessment; specific thresholds for initiating decorporation and other therapy; the role of gastric lavage, as contemporary practice considers this ineffective for other toxicological indications. rationale for, and detailed description of pulmonary lavage; advice on prenatal exposure to radiation; protocols for biodosimetry and other laboratory analysis. The objective was to produce a plain language guidance document for Australian clinicians on the diagnosis and management of radiation injury. It was to be based on evaluation of existing Australian documents, a literature review and consultation of appropriate specialists. Content areas included human health effects of radiation, scenario-based risk assessment and risk management, pre-hospital and hospital systems of care, management of specific injury types, radionuclide pathophysiology and decorporation protocols, biodosimetry options, individual psychological support 'and public health information, and Australian responsibilities under the Radiation Emergency Medical Preparedness and Assistance Network, of the World Health Organization. The range of resources utilised in preparing the

  16. Australian alcohol policy 2001–2013 and implications for public health

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Steven J.; Gordon, Ross; Jones, Sandra C

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a complex and multi-faceted alcohol policy environment in Australia, there are few comprehensive reviews of national and state alcohol policies that assess their effectiveness and research support. In mapping the Australian alcohol policy domain and evaluating policy interventions in each of the core policy areas, this article provides a useful resource for researchers. The implications for protecting public health emanating from this mapping and evaluation of alcohol polic...

  17. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Christopher E. Davies; Searle, Amelia K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Verhagen, Alan; Benassi, Helen; Stephanie E Hodson

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population.Objective: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening methods, and identify specific occupational factors that influence mental health. This paper describes the design, sampling strategies, and methodology used in this study.Method: At Phase 1, approximately ...

  18. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Erica; Anthony J. Saliba; Wiener, Karl K.; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. Methods An online cro...

  19. Access to eye health services among indigenous Australians: an area level analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kelaher Margaret; Ferdinand Angeline; Taylor Hugh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background This project is a community-level study of equity of access to eye health services for Indigenous Australians. Methods The project used data on eye health services from multiple sources including Medicare Australia, inpatient and outpatient data and the National Indigenous Eye Health Survey. The analysis focused on the extent to which access to eye health services varied at an area level according to the proportion of the population that was Indigenous (very low = 0-1.0%, ...

  20. Non-surgical treatment of hallux valgus: a current practice survey of Australian podiatrists

    OpenAIRE

    Hurn, Sheree E; Vicenzino, Bill T; Smith, Michelle D

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with hallux valgus (HV) frequently present to podiatrists for non-surgical management, with a wide range of concerns including pain, footwear difficulty and quality of life impacts. There is little research evidence guiding podiatrists’ clinical decisions surrounding non-surgical management of HV. Thus practitioners rely largely upon clinical experience and expert opinion. This survey was conducted to determine whether a consensus exists among Australian podiatrists regard...

  1. The Australian Racism, Acceptance, and Cultural-Ethnocentrism Scale (RACES): item response theory findings

    OpenAIRE

    Grigg, Kaine; Manderson, Lenore

    2016-01-01

    Background Racism and associated discrimination are pervasive and persistent challenges with multiple cumulative deleterious effects contributing to inequities in various health outcomes. Globally, research over the past decade has shown consistent associations between racism and negative health concerns. Such research confirms that race endures as one of the strongest predictors of poor health. Due to the lack of validated Australian measures of racist attitudes, RACES (Racism, Acceptance, a...

  2. Introducing BASE: the Biomes of Australian Soil Environments soil microbial diversity database

    OpenAIRE

    Bissett, Andrew; Fitzgerald, Anna; Meintjes, Thys; Mele, Pauline M.; Reith, Frank der; Dennis, Paul G; Martin F Breed; Brown, Belinda; Brown, Mark V; Brugger, Joel; Byrne, Margaret; Caddy-Retalic, Stefan; Carmody, Bernie; Coates, David J; Correa, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Background Microbial inhabitants of soils are important to ecosystem and planetary functions, yet there are large gaps in our knowledge of their diversity and ecology. The ‘Biomes of Australian Soil Environments’ (BASE) project has generated a database of microbial diversity with associated metadata across extensive environmental gradients at continental scale. As the characterisation of microbes rapidly expands, the BASE database provides an evolving platform for interrogating and integratin...

  3. Incorporating health literacy in education for socially disadvantaged adults: an Australian feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Muscat, Danielle M.; Smith, Sian; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morony, Suzanne; Davis, Esther L.; Luxford, Karen; Shepherd, Heather L; Hayen, Andrew; Comings, John; Nutbeam, Don; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult education institutions have been identified as potential settings to improve health literacy and address the health inequalities that stem from limited health literacy. However, few health literacy interventions have been tested in this setting. Methods Feasibility study for an RCT of the UK Skilled for Health Program adapted for implementation in Australian adult education settings. Implementation at two sites with mixed methods evaluation to examine feasibility, test for ch...

  4. Estimating the Number of Organ Donors in Australian Hospitals—Implications for Monitoring Organ Donation Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pilcher, David; Gladkis, Laura; Arcia, Byron; Bailey, Michael; Cook, David; Cass, Yael; Opdam, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background The Australian DonateLife Audit captures information on all deaths which occur in emergency departments, intensive care units and in those recently discharged from intensive care unit. This information provides the opportunity to estimate the number of donors expected, given present consent rates and contemporary donation practices. This may then allow benchmarking of performance between hospitals and jurisdictions. Our aim was to develop a method to estimate the number of donors u...

  5. Improving healthcare for Aboriginal Australians through effective engagement between community and health services

    OpenAIRE

    Durey, Angela; McEvoy, Suzanne; Swift-Otero, Val; Taylor, Kate; Katzenellenbogen, Judith; Bessarab, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Background Effectively addressing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians is long overdue. Health services engaging Aboriginal communities in designing and delivering healthcare is one way to tackle the issue. This paper presents findings from evaluating a unique strategy of community engagement between local Aboriginal people and health providers across five districts in Perth, Western Australia. Local Aboriginal community members formed District Aboriginal Healt...

  6. Evaluation of paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in an Australian population using linked administrative hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Sally; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Hauck, Yvonne; Finn, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Background Research into nursing-sensitive outcomes using administrative health data has focussed on hospitalised adults. However, we developed algorithms for the identification of 13 paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes, which we seek to examine for clinical utility. The aims were to determine the rates of paediatric nursing-sensitive outcomes in a Western Australian hospital and ascertain sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with a greater risk of developing nursing-sen...

  7. Associations between insulin and glucose concentrations and anthropometric measures of fat mass in Australian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Denney-Wilson Elizabeth; Cowell Christopher T; Okely Anthony D; Hardy Louise L; Aitken Robert; Dobbins Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the most serious, yet common co-morbidities of obesity is insulin resistance, which if untreated may progress to type 2 diabetes. This paper describes the insulin and glucose concentration distributions, the prevalence of elevated insulin, the associations between insulin and body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and fat mass index in a representative sample of Australian adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional population-based study ...

  8. Starting to smoke: a qualitative study of the experiences of Australian indigenous youth

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston Vanessa; Westphal Darren W; Earnshaw Cyan; Thomas David P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adult smoking has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not initiate smoking during this period it is unlikely they ever will. In high income countries, smoking rates among Indigenous youth are disproportionately high. However, despite a wealth of literature in other populations, there is less evidence on the determinants of smoking initiation among Indigenous youth. The aim of this study was to explore the determinants of smoking among Australian Indigenous young pe...

  9. A survey of resilience, burnout, and tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice registrars

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke Georga PE; Doust Jenny A; Steele Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Burnout and intolerance of uncertainty have been linked to low job satisfaction and lower quality patient care. While resilience is related to these concepts, no study has examined these three concepts in a cohort of doctors. The objective of this study was to measure resilience, burnout, compassion satisfaction, personal meaning in patient care and intolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice (GP) registrars. Methods We conducted a paper-based cross-sectional...

  10. Evaluation of an Australian indigenous housing programme: community level impact on crowding, infrastructure function and hygiene

    OpenAIRE

    Bailie, Ross S; McDonald, Elizabeth L; Stevens, Matthew; Guthridge, Steven; Brewster, David R

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aim Housing programmes in indigenous Australian communities have focused largely on achieving good standards of infrastructure function. The impact of this approach was assessed on three potentially important housing-related influences on child health at the community level: (1) crowding, (2) the functional state of the house infrastructure and (3) the hygienic condition of the houses. Methods A before-and-after study, including house infrastructure surveys and structured inter...

  11. Exploring Doctor–Patient Communication in Immigrant Australians with Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kokanovic, Renata; Manderson, Lenore

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The study explored the perceptions of Australian immigrants about their interactions with doctors regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 men and women from Greek, Indian, Chinese, and Pacific Island backgrounds living in Melbourne, Australia, to elicit their perceptions of the management of diabetes and its impact. Participants were recruited through a convenience sample o...

  12. Consumer demand for low-alcohol wine in an Australian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Anthony J Saliba, Linda A Ovington, Carmen C MoranCharles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaBackground: The aim of this paper is to inform wine producers and marketers of those in the population who are interested in low-alcohol wine by describing the results of an Australian survey.Method: In the present study, 851 adult wine consumers completed an online questionnaire on their purchasing and consumption of wine, demographics, knowledge, and reasons for consuming wine. Reasons for...

  13. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfee...

  14. ASSESSMENT OF GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN INFANTS OF AGE 6 TO 18 MONTHS WITH PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION USING ALBERTA INFANT MOTOR SCALE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Amruta Kulkarni; Deepa Metgud

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: Malnutrition is one of the leading cause of death among young children of developing countries and occurs due to deficiency of essential nutrients. In infancy protein deficiency (PEM) can severely affect the different domains of development. Motor development, one of the domains of development has been previously assessed in older children with PEM and not in younger infants. Early detection of motor impairment in infants with PEM followed by early intervention wil...

  15. Australian internet histories: Past, present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2012-01-01

    This Afterword compares the articles in this issue of Media International Australia to the ‘first wave’ of Australian internet historiography, a field of study established by Australian internet scholars around 2000. After identifying what is new in the present issue, I outline four paths that may...... be worth considering in the future: constituting the field based on shared theoretical and methodological reflections; using archived web material to a larger extent; participating in the shaping of a digital research infrastructure for internet studies; and increasing international research...

  16. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Ray P

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  17. Astronomical Symbolism in Australian Aboriginal Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ray P.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2011-05-01

    Traditional Aboriginal Australian cultures include a significant astronomical component, perpetuated through oral tradition and ceremony. This knowledge has practical navigational and calendrical functions, and sometimes extends to a deep understanding of the motion of objects in the sky. Here we explore whether this astronomical tradition is reflected in the rock art of Aboriginal Australians. We find several plausible examples of depictions of astronomical figures and symbols, and also evidence that astronomical observations were used to set out stone arrangements. However, we recognise that the case is not yet strong enough to make an unequivocal statement, and describe our plans for further research.

  18. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dudek

    Full Text Available The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1 or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2. To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG and event-related potentials (ERPs in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200 and increased conflict processing (larger N450, albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is

  19. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  20. Does β-APP staining of the brain in infant bed-sharing deaths differentiate these cases from sudden infant death syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisbeth Lund; Banner, Jytte; Byard, Roger W

    2014-01-01

    Archival cerebral tissue from infants whose deaths were attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) from South Australia and Western Denmark were stained for β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) and graded according to a simple scoring chart. The resulting APP scores were correlated...... with sleeping situation (shared vs. alone) showing a significantly higher amount of β-APP staining in the non-bed-sharing, than in the bed-sharing infants (Mann-Whitney, Australia: p = 0.0128, Denmark: p = 0.0014, Combined: p = 0.0031). There was also a marked but non-significant difference in sex distribution...... between bed-sharers and non-bed-sharers with a male to female ratio of 1:1 in the first group and 2:1 in the latter. Of 48 Australian and 76 Danish SIDS infants, β-APP staining was present in 116 (94%) cases. The eight negative cases were all from the Danish cohort. This study has shown that the amount...

  1. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Jellouli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The infantile form of primary hyperoxaluria type-1 (PH-1 is characterized by a rapid progression to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD due to both increased oxalate load and reduced glomerular filtration rate. In the literature, data on this form are limited. The purpose of this study is to analyze retrospectively the clinical, biological, and radiological features of children who were diagnosed with PH-1 during the 1styear of life. We reviewed the records of all children with PH-1 diagnosed and followed-up at our department between January 1995 and December 2013. Among them, only infants younger than 12 months of age were retrospectively enrolled in the study. Fourteen infants with the median age of two months were enrolled in the study. At diagnosis, 11 patients had ESRD. All patients had nephrocalcinosis and two of them had calculi. The diagnosis was established in nine patients on the basis of the positive family history of PH-1, bilateral nephrocalcinosis, and quantitative crystalluria. In four patients, the diagnosis was made with molecular analysis of DNA. Kidney biopsy contributed to the diagnosis in one patient. During follow-up, two patients were pyridoxine sensitive and preserved renal function. Seven among 11 patients who had ESRD died, four patients are currently undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Children with infantile PH and ESRD are at high risk of early death. Peritoneal dialysis is not a treatment of choice. Combined liver-kidney transplantation is mandatory.

  2. Access to general practitioner services amongst underserved Australians: a microsimulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schofield Deborah J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One group often identified as having low socioeconomic status, those living in remote or rural areas, are often recognised as bearing an unequal burden of illness in society. This paper aims to examine equity of utilisation of general practitioner services in Australia. Methods Using the 2005 National Health Survey undertaken by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, a microsimulation model was developed to determine the distribution of GP services that would occur if all Australians had equal utilisation of health services relative to need. Results It was estimated that those who are unemployed would experience a 19% increase in GP services. Persons residing in regional areas would receive about 5.7 million additional GP visits per year if they had the same access to care as Australians residing in major cities. This would be a 18% increase. There would be a 20% increase for inner regional residents and a 14% increase for residents of more remote regional areas. Overall there would be a 5% increase in GP visits nationally if those in regional areas had the same access to care as those in major cities. Conclusion Parity is an insufficient goal and disadvantaged persons and underserved areas require greater access to health services than the well served metropolitan areas due to their greater poverty and poorer health status. Currently underserved Australians suffer a double disadvantage: poorer health and poorer access to health services.

  3. Strategies for piloting a breast health promotion program in the Chinese-Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Fung Kuen; Kwok, Cannas; White, Kate; D'Abrew, Natalie; Roydhouse, Jessica K

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, women from non-English-speaking backgrounds participate less frequently in breast cancer screening than English-speaking women, and Chinese immigrant women are 50% less likely to participate in breast examinations than Australian-born women. Chinese-born Australians comprise 10% of the overseas-born Australian population, and the immigrant Chinese population in Australia is rapidly increasing. We report on the strategies used in a pilot breast health promotion program, Living with Healthy Breasts, aimed at Cantonese-speaking adult immigrant women in Sydney, Australia. The program consisted of a 1-day education session and a 2-hour follow-up session. We used 5 types of strategies commonly used for cultural targeting (peripheral, evidential, sociocultural, linguistic, and constituent-involving) in a framework of traditional Chinese philosophies (Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism) to deliver breast health messages to Chinese-Australian immigrant women. Creating the program's content and materials required careful consideration of color (pink to indicate femininity and love), symbols (peach blossoms to imply longevity), word choice (avoidance of the word death), location and timing (held in a Chinese restaurant a few months after the Chinese New Year), communication patterns (the use of metaphors and cartoons for discussing health-related matters), and concern for modesty (emphasizing that all presenters and team members were female) to maximize cultural relevance. Using these strategies may be beneficial for designing and implementing breast cancer prevention programs in Cantonese-speaking Chinese immigrant communities. PMID:22172170

  4. Cohort Profile: Footprints in Time, the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Katherine A; Banks, Emily; Banwell, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    Indigenous Australians experience profound levels of disadvantage in health, living standards, life expectancy, education and employment, particularly in comparison with non-Indigenous Australians. Very little information is available about the healthy development of Australian Indigenous children; the Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC) is designed to fill this knowledge gap.This dataset provides an opportunity to follow the development of up to 1759 Indigenous children. LSIC conducts annual face-to-face interviews with children (aged 0.5-2 and 3.5-5 years at baseline in 2008) and their caregivers. This represents between 5% and 10% of the total population of Indigenous children in these age groups, including families of varied socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. Study topics include: the physical, social and emotional well-being of children and their caregivers; language; culture; parenting; and early childhood education.LSIC is a shared resource, formed in partnership with communities; its data are readily accessible through the Australian Government Department of Social Services (see http://dss.gov.au/lsic for data and access arrangements). As one of very few longitudinal studies of Indigenous children, and the only national one, LSIC will enable an understanding of Indigenous children from a wide range of environments and cultures. Findings from LSIC form part of a growing infrastructure from which to understand Indigenous child health. PMID:25011454

  5. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  6. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  7. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  8. Applying ecological modeling to parenting for Australian refugee families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Julian; Guerin, Pauline B

    2014-10-01

    Children in families with parents from refugee backgrounds are often viewed as a vulnerable group with increased risks of developing physical or psychological problems. However, there is very little research regarding the strategies that parents might use to parent their children in a new country while they also manage the interrelated challenges of poverty, social isolation, maternal stress, and mental ill health that often go along with resettlement. We explore the application of ecological modeling, specifically at individual, institutional, and policy levels, within an Australian context to critique the factors that shape the development of parenting capacity within refugee families settling in a new Western country. Ecological modeling enables examination of how public policy at local state and national levels influences the individual and family directly and through the organizations that are given the task of implementing many of the policy recommendations. Recommendations for health practice and research are made. PMID:24583875

  9. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Patandin, Svati; Berbers, G A; Sas, Theo; Sauer, Pieter; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Mulder, Paul

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with the prevalence of infectious or allergic diseases and humoral immunity at preschool age. The total study group consisted of 207 healthy mother-infant pairs. We estimated prenatal exposure to P...

  10. NEONATAL MORBIDITY AND EARLY OUTCOME OF VERY PRETERM INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions.The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s < 30 weeks’ gestation, who were admitted to the NICU. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 102 infants with gestational age less than 30 weeks’ gestation, hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Clinical University Center Sarajevo, from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2010. Parameters taken at admission were: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, excess base and CRIB score. Early outcome is considered as a survival at discharge or common preterm morbidities presented during hospitalizationResults: The mean BW of evaluated preterm infants was 1086 ± 250 g, the mean GA27.89 ± 1.97, Apgar score 5.41 ± 1.76, excess base at admission 6.39 ± 1.74 and mean CRIB score 3.72 ± 3.16. The overall survival rate was 70.5%. Selected outcomes at discharge were: RDS with 70.5% infants treated with natural surfactant, PDA treated with NSAIDS (23.5%, brain injury ( ≥ grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the mostfrequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm

  11. Actuarial survival of a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohlsson Arne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased survival of preterm and very low birth weight infants in recent years has been well documented but continued surveillance is required in order to monitor the effects of new therapeutic interventions. Gestation and birth weight specific survival rates most accurately reflect the outcome of perinatal care. Our aims were to determine survival to discharge for a large Canadian cohort of preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, and to examine the effect of gender on survival and the effect of increasing postnatal age on predicted survival. Methods Outcomes for all 19,507 infants admitted to 17 NICUs throughout Canada between January 1996 and October 1997 were collected prospectively. Babies with congenital anomalies were excluded from the study population. Gestation and birth weight specific survival for all infants with birth weight Results Survival to discharge at 24 weeks gestation was 54%, compared to 82% at 26 weeks and 95% at 30 weeks. In infants with birth weights 600–699, survival to discharge was 62%, compared to 79% at 700–799 g and 96% at 1,000–1,099 g. In infants born at 24 weeks gestational age, survival was higher in females but there were no significant gender differences above 24 weeks gestation. Actuarial analysis showed that risk of death was highest in the first 5 days. For infants born at 24 weeks gestation, estimated survival probability to 48 hours, 7 days and 4 weeks were 88 (CI 84,92%, 70 (CI 64, 76% and 60 (CI 53,66% respectively. For smaller birth weights, female survival probabilities were higher than males for the first 40 days of life. Conclusion Actuarial analysis provides useful information when counseling parents and highlights the importance of frequently revising the prediction for long term survival particularly after the first few days of life.

  12. The Effects of Maternal Cigarette Smoking on Infant Anthropometric Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Sahin Mutlu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The association between maternal smoking and poor pregnancy outcome, which is well established in medi­cal literature, has also been corroborated by the results of this study conducted in a Turkish hospital. Our objective was to investi­gate the effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy on infant head circumference, height, weight, and body mass in­dex (BMI."nMethods: In this retrospective study, the data was collected from the Medical Live Birth Registry in a maternity hospital with the largest capacity of births in a city of northwest Turkey during 2002."nResults: We found that 16.4% (1040/6332 of mothers investigated had smoked during their pregnancy, with a mean of 5 ciga­rettes per day. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of male infants whose mothers smoked were found to be less than those of infants whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, for each one. Head circumference, height, weight and BMI values of female infants whose mothers smoked were less than those whose mothers did not smoke (P> 0.05, P< 0.01, P< 0.05 and P> 0.05, respectively. According to analysis of variance, infant head circumferences, heights and weights in all infants decreased as the rate of the mother's smoking increased (P> 0.05, P< 0.001 and P> 0.05, respec­tively."nConclusions: The results support that maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a linear reduction of height meas­urement, and the infants appeared to be more susceptible to the growth retarding effects of cigarette smoking on height. Thus, if cessation-of-smoking programs are initiated before conception, many of the harmful effects of smoking on fe­tal growth might be prevented.

  13. Parental perceptions and experiences after childbirth: a Comparison between mothers and fathers of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hoffenkamp, H.R.; Hall, R.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.; Bakel, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parents experience a lot of positive and negative feelings and emotions after birth. The main purpose of this study was to compare perceptions and experiences of mothers and fathers with term, moderately and very preterm infants. Methods We included 202 infants with both parents, divided

  14. Differences Between the Family-Centered "COPCA" Program and Traditional Infant Physical Therapy Based on Neurodevelopmental Treatment Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirks, Tineke; Blauw-Hospers, Cornill H.; Hulshof, Lily J.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Background. Evidence for effectiveness of pediatric physical therapy in infants at high risk for developmental motor disorders is limited. Therefore, "Coping With and Caring for Infants With Special Needs" (COPCA), a family-centered, early intervention program, was developed. The COPCA program is ba

  15. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Infant Cortisol Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiden, Rina D.; Veira, Yvette; Granger, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and reactivity at 7 months of infant age. Participants were 168 caregiver-infant dyads (87 cocaine exposed, 81 not cocaine exposed; 47% boys). Maternal behavior, caregiving instability, and infant growth and behavior were assessed,…

  16. Observed Infant Reactions during Live Interparental Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; White, Clare R.; Fleischhauer, Emily A.; Fitzgerald, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    Associations between interparental conflict and infant reactions were examined. Infants' history of exposure to interparental conflict and infant reactive temperament were examined as moderators. A community sample of 74 infants, aged 6-14 months, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' marital conflict and…

  17. Maternal Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy and Infant Structural Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Källén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question is debated on whether maternal hypothyroidism or use of thyroxin in early pregnancy affects the risk for infant congenital malformations. Objectives. To expand the previously published study on maternal thyroxin use in early pregnancy and the risk for congenital malformations. Methods. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register were used for the years 1996–2011 and infant malformations were identified from national health registers. Women with preexisting diabetes or reporting the use of thyreostatics, anticonvulsants, or antihypertensives were excluded from analysis. Risk estimates were made as odds ratios (ORs or risk ratios (RRs after adjustment for year of delivery, maternal age, parity, smoking, and body mass index. Results. Among 23 259 infants whose mothers in early pregnancy used thyroxin, 730 had a major malformation; among all 1 567 736 infants, 48012 had such malformations. The adjusted OR was 1.06 (95% CI 0.98–1.14. For anal atresia the RR was 1.85 (95% CI 1.00–1.85 and for choanal atresia 3.14 (95% CI 1.26–6.47. The risk of some other malformations was also increased but statistical significance was not reached. Conclusions. Treated maternal hypothyroidism may be a weak risk factor for infant congenital malformations but an association with a few rare conditions is possible.

  18. What could infant and young child nutrition learn from sweatshops?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagoe-Moses Isabella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate infant and young child nutrition demands high rates of breastfeeding and good access to nutrient rich complementary foods, requiring public sector action to promote breastfeeding and home based complementary feeding, and private sector action to refrain from undermining breastfeeding and to provide affordable, nutrient rich complementary foods. Unfortunately, due to a lack of trust, the public and private sectors, from both the North and the South, do not work well together in achieving optimal infant and young child nutrition. Discussion As the current debate in infant and young child nutrition is reminiscent of the "sweatshop" debate fifteen years ago, we argue that lessons from the sweatshops debate regarding cooperation between public and private sectors - and specific organizational experiences such as the Ethical Trading Initiative in which companies, trade unions, and civil society organizations work together to enhance implementation of labour standards and address alleged allegations - could serve as a model for improving cooperation and trust between public, civil society and private groups, and ultimately health, in infant and young child nutrition. Summary Lessons from the sweatshops debate could serve as a model to promote cooperation and trust between public and private groups, such that they learn to work together towards their common goal of improving infant and young child nutrition.

  19. A community based study of Infant Mortality in rural Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah MS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInfant mortality rate is regarded as an important andsensitive indicator of the health status of a community. Italso reflects the living standard of the people and theeffectiveness of interventions for improving maternal andchild health. Multiple factors related to social and economicconditions, health care and environment have a significantrole to play on childhood mortality and improving childhoodmortality is a national priority. The present study wasplanned to 1 determine the mortality rate among neonatesand infants. 2 identification of pattern of various factors inrelation to infant mortality and 3 to identify the causes ofdeath in this age group.MethodAll the deaths in children under 12 months during July 2005to June 2006 in Jawan block of district Aligarh, India wererecorded. The cause of death was ascertained using thestandard verbal autopsy procedure.ResultsIn the study period, 446 live births and 37 deaths in childrenunder one year of age were reported. The neonatal andinfant mortality rates were 49.4 and 83.0 per thousand livebirths respectively. The main causes of infant deaths werebirth asphyxia, diarrhoea, pneumonia, prematurity(including Low birth weight and malnutrition.ConclusionMost of the death among infants are preventable, thoughpromotion of institutional deliveries, strengthening of referralsystem, early recognition of danger signs and periodicretraining of health workers.

  20. Sudden infant death syndrome, childhood thrombosis, and presence of genetic risk factors for thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, TB; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B; Lundemose, JB;

    2000-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome or "cot death" has until the late eighties been a significant cause of death in children between the ages of 1 month and 1 year. Approximately two per 1000 children born alive dies of sudden infant death syndrome each year in Western Europe, North America, and Australia......,251,027 inhabitants in Denmark, the incidence of venous thromboembolism was 0.9 per 1000 per year in the background population, and less than one-thousandth of these were children. Consequently it is not likely that venous thrombosis is a major cause of sudden infant death syndrome. On the other hand, this does not....... The vulnerability of the infant brain stem to ischemia has been suggested to be a conceivable cause of sudden infant death syndrome. This is compatible with a hypothesis that genetic risk factors for cerebral thrombosis could cause microinfarction in the brain stem during the first month of life...

  1. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  2. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzakis, Nikos; Quiros, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying gra...

  3. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  4. Background, phenomenology, and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the background to the kinetics of adsorption and desorption after an elementary introduction to the problem of chemisorption in two limiting cases. Other topics discussed include the thermodynamics of adsorption, reaction mechanisms outside surfaces, and a case history of catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Figures show the potential energy barrier as a function of an appropriate reaction coordinate, and bonding of carbon monoxide to platinum metal

  5. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  6. Parents' beliefs about appropriate infant size, growth and feeding behaviour: implications for the prevention of childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift Judy A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need

  7. Professional Standards for Australian Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Ian; Dally, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Although professional standards for Australian teachers were developed several years ago, this country is yet to develop such standards for special education teachers. The lack of standards for the special education profession is associated with the absence of a consistent process of accreditation in Australia and a lack of clarity in the pathways…

  8. Is achievement in Australian chemistry gender based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John; Fogliani, Charles; Owens, Chris; Wilson, Audrey

    1993-12-01

    This paper compares the performances of female and male secondary students in the 1991 and 1992 Australian National Chemistry Quizzes. Male students consistently achieved a higher mean score in all Year groups (7 to 12), even though the numbers of female and male entrants were approximately equal. Implications for class tests and assessment tasks are addressed.

  9. Commercial Activities and Copyright in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Marita

    2008-01-01

    With government funding for most Australian universities below 60% and falling a major strategic emphasis for universities has been on securing other sources of operating revenue, including commercial opportunities and partnerships. The implication of increasing commercial activities such as non-award and tailored professional programmes, contract…

  10. Bacteriophages from the forestomachs of Australian marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A V

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of Australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (Macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (Aepyprymnus rufescens). Forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae, were identified. The range of forms varied between host species. The greatest d...

  11. Education for Sustainability and the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Serow, Pep

    2011-01-01

    A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014. Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with…

  12. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  13. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paix, D. (South Australian Inst. of Tech., Adelaide)

    1983-11-01

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means.

  14. Exposures to patients in Australian radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of a 1980 Australian Radiation Laboratory study of genetic and bone-marrow doses to the population from medical, dental and chiropractic uses of ionising radiation are discussed. Attention is drawn to the large variability in patient exposure: maximum values were from five to eleven times greater than the means

  15. Understanding Australian Aboriginal Tertiary Student Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith; Bennell, Debra; Anderson, Roz; Cooper, Inala; Forrest, Simon; Exell, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from a study of the experiences of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university students, this paper presents an overview of the specific needs of these students as they enter and progress through their tertiary education. Extracts from a set of case studies developed from both staff and student interviews and an online…

  16. Linguistic Aspects of Australian Aboriginal English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    It is probable that the majority of the 455 000 strong Aboriginal population of Australia speak some form of Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) at least some of the time and that it is the first (and only) language of many Aboriginal children. This means their language is somewhere on a continuum ranging from something very close to Standard…

  17. Is There Cultural Safety in Australian Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochecouste, Judith; Oliver, Rhonda; Bennell, Debra

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the cultural safety offered to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students within their university environments. In the context of this paper, cultural safety includes cultural competency, as recently subscribed by Universities Australia, and "extends beyond (to) cultural awareness and cultural…

  18. Wilson's disease in an Australian aborigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, D H; Shepherd, R; Cooksley, W G; Patrick, M; Powell, L W

    1990-01-01

    Wilson's disease is due to a genetically determined defect inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Most reported cases have been caucasoid. This report describes a case of Wilson's disease in an Australian Aboriginal girl, only the second such case reported. PMID:2129845

  19. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  20. Brain drain threat to Australian science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Around half of all academics in Australia intend to retire, move to an overseas university or leave Australian higher education within the next 10 years, according to a survey of more than 5500 researchers based at 20 universities in the country.

  1. Licensing of the Australian replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO)'s Replacement Research Reactor has been submitted to a comprehensive licensing process of which peer review has been a fundamental part. Following Australian Regulation, an application for a site licence was the first step supported by an Environmental Impact Statement approved by The Minister for the Environment and Heritage, and a Reference Accident Analysis. After the site licence had been granted and the contract awarded to the Designer and Constructor, INVAP S.E:, a 2500 page Preliminary Safety Analysis Report was submitted by ANSTO to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA), which conducted its review. ARPANSA requested that the PSAR be also reviewed by an experts mission from the International Atomic Energy Agency. The PSAR was also reviewed by the Argentine Regulatory Body, it was submitted to public examination in Australia and it was reviewed by international experts hired as consultants by several Australian organisations. A public forum was also held in Sydney. The Regulator, the applicant and the Designer-Constructor maintained constant interaction during the whole process, so that questions, comments and observations that arose from the review of the PSAR were fed back to the designers. This process allowed for a robust, safe design enriched by the results of the safety analysis and review process. (author)

  2. Revitalising Languages in Australian Universities: What Chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Bianco, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education teach fewer languages, in less secure ways, for less time per week, for shorter periods, by an increasingly casually employed staff, in often underfunded, underappreciated and under stress modes, but participants in the Australian Academy of the Humanities' "Beyond the Crisis: Revitalising Languages in Australian…

  3. Cognitive and Social Play of Australian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.

    1995-01-01

    Observed behaviors of 37 female and 23 male Australian preschoolers. Found that only 20% engaged in thematic pretend play (linked to perspective taking, language development, impulse control, divergent problem solving) whereas 24% used cooperative social play (linked to divergent problem solving). Results suggest need for assistance in the…

  4. Sustainability in the Australian Curriculum: Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, Alaric

    2014-01-01

    "Sustainability" is one of the seven major concepts in the geography curriculum. It is also one of the three cross-curriculum priorities in the Australian curriculum, together with Asia and Australia's engagement with Asia, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures. This paper describes how the concept is explained…

  5. Demands of Training: Australian Tourism and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeland, Brett

    Qualitative research was conducted as part of a four-industry project studying operation of training markets, one of which was Australian tourism and hospitality (T&H). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 individuals representing stakeholder groups. Interviews were conducted across Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia and…

  6. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  7. Does Academic Work Make Australian Academics Happy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roderick; Tilbrook, Kerry; Krivokapic-Skoko, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Happiness research is a rapidly-growing area in social psychology and has emphasised the link between happiness and workplace productivity and creativity for knowledge workers. Recent articles in this journal have raised concerns about the level of happiness and engagement of Australian academics with their work, however there is little research…

  8. Exporting Australian Educational Services to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the overseas student sector that took place in Australia during the mid-1980s. It focuses specifically upon the short-term English- language courses that were sold to students from the People's Republic of China. The article suggests that the Hawke government's policy of encouraging Australian language…

  9. Australian Study Cites Low English Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study showing that one-third of all foreign students who studied at Australian universities speak English so poorly that they should never have been granted visas to study in the country in the first place. The study, by Robert Birrell, director of the Centre for Population and Urban Research at Australia's…

  10. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  11. Australian University Technology Transfer Managers: Backgrounds, Work Roles, Specialist Skills and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Grant; Stone, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Technology transfer managers are a new group of specialist professionals engaged in facilitating transfer of university research discoveries and inventions to business firms and other research users. With relatively high academic qualifications and enjoying higher salaries than many other comparable university staff, technology transfer managers…

  12. The Impact of Maternal Characteristics on the Moderately Premature Infant: An Antenatal Maternal Transport Clinical Prediction Rule

    OpenAIRE

    Dukhovny, Dmitry; Dukhovny, Stephanie; Pursley, DeWayne; Escobar, Gabriel J.; McCormick, Marie C.; Mao, Wenyang; Zupancic, John AF

    2012-01-01

    Background: Moderately premature infants, defined here as those born between 30 \\(\\frac{0}{7}\\) and 34 \\(\\frac{6}{7}\\) weeks gestation, comprise 3.9% of all births in the United States and 32% of all preterm births. While long-term outcomes for these infants are better than for less mature infants, morbidity and mortality are still substantially increased in comparison to infants born at term. There is an added survival benefit resulting from birth at a tertiary neonatal care center, and alth...

  13. Predictors of Low Birth Weight Infants in the North West Province of Iran: a Case-control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Karamzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ninety-five percent of low birth weight infants are born in developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the predictors of low birth in East Azerbaijan, North-west province of Iran. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design involving 49 women delivering low birth weight infants and 98 delivering normal weight infants. The data analysis was using SPSS-13 software with bivariate and multivariate methods. Results: There was a significant positive association between maternal chronological and marriage ages with low birth weight infants (P

  14. Infant hip sonography: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcke, H T; Grissom, L E

    1994-08-01

    Sonography of the infant hip has gained wide acceptance in the decade since its introduction. The two principle techniques of Graf and Harcke have been combined with the proposal of a Dynamic Standard Minimum Examination. Whereas sonography is used increasingly to manage developmental dislocation and/or displasia of the hip, there is no agreement on the use of sonography for universal newborn screening. This article describes in detail the Dynamic Standard Minimum Sonographic Examination of the infant hip. In addition, this article reviews the classification and management of infant hip disorders. PMID:7946476

  15. Breastfeeding infants with congenital torticollis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genna, Catherine Watson

    2015-05-01

    Infants with unilateral sternocleidomastoid tension and associated craniofacial, spinal, and hip asymmetries may feed poorly. Anatomic and muscular asymmetry stress both biomechanics and state control, increasing the potential for difficulty latching and sucking. A combination of positioning modifications to allow the infant to maintain his or her comfortable head tilt and turn, supportive techniques to restore alignment of oral structures, and handling techniques to help activate the weak contralateral muscles have been effective in the author's practice. Lactation consultants can promote positioning and muscle activation strategies and encourage physical therapy referrals for infants who do not respond promptly to reduce the risk of craniofacial deformity and developmental problems. PMID:25616913

  16. Evaluation of non-verbal cognitive function in infants with severe hearing impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyu Wang; Xiaoming Li; Li Zhao; Jianhong Li; Yuxia Pan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between hearing impairment and verbal developmental deficits in infants has become a hotspot in research, focusing on improving hearing and promoting verbal development. However, language is only one element of cognition. There are other elements of non-verbal cognitive deficits in infants with hearing impairment.OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to compare the differences in gross motor, fine motor, adaptability, and behavioral development between infants with severe hearing impairment and ordinary children of the same age. DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-two infants with hearing impairment, who received treatment in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head Surgery, Bethune International Peace Hospital from February to December 2007, were confirmed to suffer from severe (or extremely severe) sensorineural deafness by auditory brain-stem response (ABR) and were recruited for this study. The infants comprised 30 males and 22 females. Among them, 18 were aged 0-1 year, 18 were aged 1-2 years, and 16 were aged 2-3 years. An additional 60 individuals, aged 0-3 years, who received developmental monitoring simultaneously, and were confirmed to have normal hearing and verbal ability, were included as controls. Among the control subjects, there were 31 males and 29 females: 20 were 0.05). The behavioral developmental quotient was significantly less in hearing-impaired infants compared to control infants, who were between 1 and 2 years of age (P < 0.05). The development quotients of fine motor and behavioral development were significantly less in hearing-impaired infants than in control infants, who were 2-3 years of age (P < 0.05).CONCLUSION: Compared to control infants, severe hearing-impaired infants have a lower behavioral developmental quotient after 1 year and a lower fine motor developmental quotient after 2 years of age.

  17. Sugar sweetened beverage consumption by Australian children: Implications for public health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafekost Katherine

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs has been linked to unhealthy weight gain and nutrition related chronic disease. Intake of SSB among children remains high in spite of public health efforts to reduce consumption, including restrictions on marketing to children and limitations on the sale of these products in many schools. Much extant literature on Australian SSB consumption is out-dated and lacks information on several key issues. We sought to address this using a contemporary Australian dataset to examine purchase source, consumption pattern, dietary factors, and demographic profile of SSB consumption in children. Methods Data were from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, a representative random sample of 4,834 Australian children aged 2-16 years. Mean SSB intake by type, location and source was calculated and logistic regression models were fitted to determine factors associated with different levels of consumption. Results SSB consumption was high and age-associated differences in patterns of consumption were evident. Over 77% of SSB consumed was purchased via supermarkets and 60% of all SSB was consumed in the home environment. Less than 17% of SSB was sourced from school canteens and fast food establishments. Children whose parents had lower levels of education consumed more SSB on average, while children whose parents had higher education levels were more likely to favour sweetened juices and flavoured milks. Conclusions SSB intake by Australian children remains high and warrants continued public health attention. Evidence based and age-targeted interventions, which also recognise supermarkets as the primary source of SSB, are recommended to reduce SSB consumption among children. Additionally, education of parents and children regarding the health consequences of high consumption of both carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs is required.

  18. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  19. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    DDAs in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or...... general; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio-cultural...

  20. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George; Scott, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by ...

  1. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  2. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to...... chapter provides important background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality...

  3. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam;

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  4. Touching behaviors of infants of depressed mothers during normal and perturbed interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moszkowski, Robin J; Stack, Dale M; Girouard, Nadine; Field, Tiffany M; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the touching behaviors of 4-month-old infants of depressed and non-depressed mothers during the still-face (SF; maternal emotional unavailability) and separation (SP; maternal physical unavailability) procedures. Forty-one dyads participated in the present study; dyads were from low SES backgrounds and they exhibited poor relationship qualities (e.g. poor maternal sensitivity, low infant responsiveness); thus, they were considered at-risk. Results indicated that infants exhibited more patting and pulling when mothers were unavailable during the SF and SP procedures. Moreover, depression affected infants' tactile behaviors: infants of depressed mothers used more reactive types of touch (i.e. active touching behaviors, such as grab, pat, pull) than infants of non-depressed mothers during emotional and physical unavailability, suggesting greater activity levels in infants of depressed mothers. Negative relationship indicators, such as maternal intrusiveness and hostility, predicted soothing/regulatory (i.e. nurturing) and reactive/regulatory types of touch, even after controlling for maternal depression. Taken together, these results underscore the importance of touch for infant communication and regulation during early social interactions. PMID:19232741

  5. Severe vitamin D deficiency in 6 Canadian First Nation formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Gross

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rickets was first described in the 17th century and vitamin D deficiency was recognized as the underlying cause in the early 1900s. Despite this long history, vitamin D deficiency remains a significant health concern. Currently, vitamin D supplementation is recommended in Canada for breast fed infants. There are no recommendations for supplementation in formula-fed infants. Objective. The objective of this report is to bring attention to the risk of severe vitamin D deficiency in high risk, formula fed infants. Design. A retrospective chart review was used to create this clinical case series. Results. Severe vitamin D deficiency was diagnosed in six formula-fed infants over a two-and-a-half year period. All six infants presented with seizures and they resided in First Nation communities located at latitude 54 in the province of Manitoba. While these infants had several risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, they were all receiving cow's milk based formula supplemented with 400 IU/L of vitamin D. Conclusion. This report suggests that current practice with regards to vitamin D supplementation may be inadequate, especially for high-risk infants. Health care professionals providing service to infants in a similar situation should be aware of this preventable condition. Hopefully this would contribute to its prevention, diagnosis and management.

  6. Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daar Abdallah S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world.

  7. Supporting-emotional needs of Iranian parents with premature infants admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Faranak; Kamali, Mohammad; Borimnejad, Leili; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Rasti, Mehdi; Shafaroodi, Narges; Rafii, Foroogh; Askary Kachoosangy, Reihaneh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having an infant in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a stressful and painful experience. Unlike to normal births, this birth is associated with admission and separation of infant from parents. The aim of this study was to compile the supporting-emotional needs of Iranian parents who have a premature infant admitted in (NICU). Methods: This study was performed using qualitative research approach. Twelve participants including 9 parents whose infant had been hospitalized in NICU; two nurses and one physician were also selected for sampling purposes. Data were gathered using semi-structured interview. Data were analyzed by inductive content analysis approach. Results: Four subcategories emerged from data analysis expressed supporting-emotional needs of parents of premature infants admitted in NICU. These subcategories were: Need for interaction with infant, Need to medical team’s empathy, need to exchange support with spouse, and Need to get help from others. Conclusion: In order to develop mutual bonding with infant and attain parental roles, parents need to be close their neonate, also receive empathy and support to find a way to meet their needs. Participants in this study announced that resolving these needs can help parents to feel more confidence in infant's care and reduce their negative feelings. PMID:25405119

  8. Effect of Four Approaches to Oral Feeding Progression on Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita H. Pickler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study of preterm infants was to test the effect of four approaches to the time of transition from gavage to full oral feedings, time to discharge, and weight gain during the transition. Methods. A randomized experimental design was used with four intervention groups: early start (32 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience (gradually increasing oral feedings offered per day; early start/maximum experience (oral feedings offered at every feeding opportunity; late start (34 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience; and late start/maximum experience. Results. The analysis included 86 preterm infants. Once oral feedings were initiated, infants in the late start/maximum experience group achieved full oral feeding and were discharged to home significantly sooner than infants in either early start group. Although not significantly different, these infants also achieved these outcomes sooner than infants in the late start/slow progressing experience group. There were no differences in weight gain across groups. Conclusions. Results suggest starting oral feedings later in preterm infants may result in more rapid transition to full oral feedings and discharge although not at early postnatal ages. Provision of a more consistent approach to oral feeding may support infant neurodevelopment and reduce length of hospitalization.

  9. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  10. Home apnea monitor use - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000755.htm Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  11. Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) A parent's guide for infants and babies A ... scaling, red, slightly elevated lesions typical of atopic dermatitis (eczema). Overview Eczema, formally known as atopic dermatitis, ...

  12. Infant Allergies and Food Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Infant Allergies ...

  13. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Hispanic/Latino Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  14. Parents Bereaved by Infant Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte Mølgaard; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentiallytraumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic...... posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)´symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Methods: Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study......, female sex, attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, rational coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 42% of the variance in PTSD severity. Conclusions: The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping...

  15. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Losing an infant or fetus late in pregnancy, during birth or in the first year of life is a potentially traumatic event for parents. However, little is known about the factors contributing to chronic posttraumatic stress reactions in this population. The present study examined chronic posttraumatic...... stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...... avoidance, attachment anxiety, emotion-focused coping, avoidant coping, feeling let down and social support satisfaction accounted for 44% of the variance in PTSD severity. The study highlights the long-term impact of infant loss and points to attachment, coping and social support as important contributors...

  16. Infant care following delivery (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... determine the APGAR scores. If some cyanosis (bluish skin) is present, the APGAR scores are lower and oxygen may be administered. The oxygen can often be merely blown by the newborn's face, through the mask in front of the infant.

  17. Cystic fibrosis in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, KD; Engmann, C.; Moya, F. (Francina); Muhlebach, M

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports of cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosed in premature infants. We describe the clinical course of three patients, from our neonatal intensive care units, who were diagnosed with CF, and discuss the existing literature and treatment considerations.

  18. Social Media and Mobile Apps for Health Promotion in Australian Indigenous Populations: Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Carl; McAullay, Daniel; Dowden, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion organizations are increasingly embracing social media technologies to engage end users in a more interactive way and to widely disseminate their messages with the aim of improving health outcomes. However, such technologies are still in their early stages of development and, thus, evidence of their efficacy is limited. Objective The study aimed to provide a current overview of the evidence surrounding consumer-use social media and mobile software apps for health promotion interventions, with a particular focus on the Australian context and on health promotion targeted toward an Indigenous audience. Specifically, our research questions were: (1) What is the peer-reviewed evidence of benefit for social media and mobile technologies used in health promotion, intervention, self-management, and health service delivery, with regard to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media? and (2) What social media and mobile software have been used in Indigenous-focused health promotion interventions in Australia with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, or otitis media, and what is the evidence of their effectiveness and benefit? Methods We conducted a scoping study of peer-reviewed evidence for the effectiveness of social media and mobile technologies in health promotion (globally) with respect to smoking cessation, sexual health, and otitis media. A scoping review was also conducted for Australian uses of social media to reach Indigenous Australians and mobile apps produced by Australian health bodies, again with respect to these three areas. Results The review identified 17 intervention studies and seven systematic reviews that met inclusion criteria, which showed limited evidence of benefit from these interventions. We also found five Australian projects with significant social media health components targeting the Indigenous Australian population for health promotion purposes, and four mobile software apps that met inclusion

  19. The Backgrounds Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  20. Validation of a pre-coded food record for infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Hills, Andrew; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Trolle, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: To assess the validity of a 7-day pre-coded food record (PFR) method in 9-month-old infants against metabolisable energy intake (MEDLW) measured by doubly labelled water (DLW); additionally to compare PFR with a 7-day weighed food record (WFR) in 9-month-old infants and 36-month-old children. Subjects/Methods: The study population consisted of 36 infants (age: 9.03?0.2 months) and 36 young children (age: 36.1?0.3 months) enrolled in a cross-over ...