WorldWideScience

Sample records for backcalculating layer moduli

  1. System Identification Method for Evaluating the Effect of Thickness Error on Backcalculated Pavement Layer Moduli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Yan-hui; WANG Fu-ming; ZHANG Bei; CAI Ying-chun

    2004-01-01

    Based on system identification theory and FWD testing data, the effect of thickness error on backcalculating pavement layer moduli is studied and the method of singular value decomposition (SVD) is presented to solve the morbidity problem of sensitivity matrix in this paper.The results show that the thickness error has great effects on the backcalculated pavement layer moduli. The error of backcalculated moduli can be controlled within the range of ±15% by limiting the thickness error within the range of ±5%.

  2. Backcalculation of Composite Pavement Layer Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Tensile Method GAAF Dynamic Modulus 6.483695 -0.00012 1.9798 0.047173 0.000027 by Longitudinal Method BDRS Total Resilient 7.050392 -0.00582 1.2418...Method BORS Dynamic Modulus 6.665788 -0.00227 1.3499 0.037064 0.000358 by Longitudinal Method * Curve families have the general form: LOGl 0(Ec) = A0

  3. Will Nonlinear Backcalculation Help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    2000-01-01

    demonstrates, that treating the subgrade as a nonlinear elastic material, can result in more realistic moduli and a much better agreement between measured and calculated stresses and strains.The response of nonlinear elastic materials can be calculated using the Finite Element Method (FEM). A much simpler...... approach is to use the Method of Equivalent Thicknesses (MET), modified for a nonlinear subgrade. The paper includes an example where moduli backcalculated using FEM, linear elastic theory and MET are compared. Stresses and strains predicted by the three methods are also compared to measured values...

  4. Effective elastic moduli of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polymer-layered silicate (PLS) nanocomposites exhibit some mechanical properties that are much better than conventional polymer filled composites. A relatively low content of layered silicate yields a significant enhancement of material performance. After the volume fraction of clay reaches a relatively low "critical value"; however, further increasing does not show a greater stiffening effect. This phenomenon is contrary to previous micromechanical pre-dictions and is not understood well. Based on the analysis on the microstructures of PLS nanocomposites, the present note provides an insight into the physical micromechanisms of the above unexpected phenomenon. The Mori-Tanaka scheme and a numerical method are employed to estimate the effec-tive elastic moduli of such a composite.

  5. Evaluation of Procedures for Backcalculation of Airfield Pavement Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    94/11. McLean, VA: U.S. Department of Transportation , Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). ERDC/GSL TR-15-31 143 Lytton, R.L. 1989...compared to processes utilized by other transportation agencies and those proposed by academia. Airfield deflection data were then analyzed using current...aircraft. As tire pressures and aircraft weights have increased steadily during this time, the design and evaluation software– Pavement- Transportation

  6. Determination of homeostatic elastic moduli in two layers of the esophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hans; Liao, Donghua; Fung, Yuan Cheng

    2008-01-01

    for determination of incremental moduli in circumferential, axial, and cross directions in the two layers. The experiments are inflation, axial stretching, circumferential bending, and axial bending. The analysis takes advantage of knowing the esophageal zero-stress state (an open sector with an opening angle of 59......The function of the esophagus is mechanical. To understand the function, it is necessary to know how the stress and strain in the esophagus can be computed, and how to determine the stress-strain relationship of the wall materials. The present article is devoted to the issue of determining...

  7. Dynamic considerations in pavement layers moduli evaluation using falling weight deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoukry, Samir N.; Martinelli, David R.; Selezneva, Olga I.

    1996-11-01

    Falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test is employed by many state highway agencies for the nondestructive evaluation of pavement layers moduli. The accuracy of test results changes significantly for different pavement systems and may results in misleading conclusions. In this study, explicit finite element analysis was used to investigate the behavior of pavement layers under the action of an impact load. The time dependent dynamic responses of origin and flexible pavements were compared and significant differences in behavior were observed. Analysis of the time-histories of vertical deformations propagating through the pavement depth reveals that the displacements measured on the surface layer at standard FWD sensors' positions may not be indicative of the displacements of underlying layers. Computer results are provided for the extreme cases of fully bonded and unbonded pavement layers' interfaces. The results of the analysis reveal that the dynamic displacement patterns are much more complicated than the static ones. Animation of the model results indicates that near-surface pavement layers may behave as a set of composite plates resting on an elastic foundation in absence of bonds between the layers interfaces. If there are strong bonds, the near surface layers behave as a single composite solid resting on elastic foundation.

  8. D-Moduli Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Giedt, J

    2002-01-01

    The matter sector of four-dimensional effective supergravity models obtained from the weakly coupled heterotic string contains many moduli. In particular, flat directions of the D-term part of the scalar potential in the presence of an anomalous U(1) give rise to massless chiral multiplets which have been referred to elsewhere as D-moduli. The stabilization of these moduli is necessary for the determination of the large vacuum expectation values of complex scalar fields induced by the corresponding Fayet-Illiopoulos term. This stabilization is of phenomenological importance since these background values determine the effective theory below the scale of the anomalous U(1) symmetry breaking. In some simple models we illustrate the stabilization of these moduli due to the nonperturbative dynamics associated with gaugino condensation in a hidden sector. We find that background field configurations which are stable above the condensation scale no longer represent global minima once dynamical supersymmetry breaking...

  9. Heterotic moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, M. [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Dipt. Fisica ed Astronomia; INFN, Bologna (Italy); Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); De Alwis, S. [Adbus Salam ICTP, Trieste (Italy); Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). UCB 390 Physics Dept.; Westphal, A. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2013-04-15

    We perform a systematic analysis of moduli stabilization for weakly coupled heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds. We focus on both supersymmetric and supersymmetry breaking vacua of generic (0,2) compactifications obtained by minimising the total (F+D)-term scalar potential. After reviewing how to stabilise all the geometric moduli in a supersymmetric way by including fractional fluxes, non-perturbative and threshold effects, we show that the inclusion of {alpha}' corrections leads to new de Sitter or nearly Minkowski vacua which break supersymmetry spontaneously. The minimum lies at moderately large volumes of all the geometric moduli, at perturbative values of the string coupling and at the right phenomenological value of the GUT gauge coupling. However the structure of the heterotic 3-form flux used for complex structure moduli stabilization does not contain enough freedom to tune the superpotential. This results in the generic prediction of high-scale supersymmetry breaking around the GUT scale. We finally provide a dynamical derivation of anisotropic compactifications with stabilized moduli which allow for perturbative gauge coupling unification around 10{sup 16} GeV.

  10. Moduli-induced baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Koji; Jeong, Kwang Sik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Kashiwa (Japan). Kavli IPMU, TODIAS

    2013-12-15

    We study a scenario for baryogenesis in modular cosmology and discuss its implications for the moduli stabilization mechanism and the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale. If moduli fields dominate the Universe and decay into the standard model particles through diatonic couplings, the right amount of baryon asymmetry can be generated through CP violating decay of gluino into quark and squark followed by baryon-number violating squark decay. We find that, in the KKLT-type moduli stabilization, at least two non-perturbative terms are required to obtain a sizable CP phase, and that the successful baryogenesis is possible for the soft SUSY breaking mass heavier than O(1) TeV. A part of the parameter space for successful baryogenesis can be probed at the collider experiments, dinucleon decay search experiment, and the measurements of electric dipole moments of neutron and electron. It is also shown that similar baryogenesis works in the case of the gravitino- or the saxion-dominated Universe.

  11. Moduli of Trigonal Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Stankova-Frenkel, Z E

    1997-01-01

    We study the moduli of trigonal curves. We establish the exact upper bound of ${36(g+1)}/(5g+1)$ for the slope of trigonal fibrations. Here, the slope of any fibration $X\\to B$ of stable curves with smooth general member is the ratio Hodge class $\\lambda$ on the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ to the base $B$. We associate to a trigonal family $X$ a canonical rank two vector bundle $V$, and show that for Bogomolov-semistable $V$ the slope satisfies the stronger inequality ${\\delta_B}/{\\lambda_B}\\leq 7+{6}/{g}$. We further describe the rational Picard group of the {trigonal} locus $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$ in the moduli space $\\bar{\\mathfrak{M}}_g$ of genus $g$ curves. In the even genus case, we interpret the above Bogomolov semistability condition in terms of the so-called Maroni divisor in $\\bar{\\mathfrak T}_g$.

  12. Moduli or Not

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Milton; Draper, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Supersymmetry and string theory suggest the existence of light moduli. Their presence, or absence, controls the realization of supersymmetry at low energies. If there are no such fields, or if all such fields are fixed in a supersymmetric fashion, the conventional thermal production of LSP dark matter is possible, as is an anomaly-mediated ("mini-split") spectrum. On the other hand, the axion solution to the strong CP problem is not operative, and slow roll inflation appears difficult to implement. If there are light moduli, a mini-split spectrum is less generic, WIMP dark matter appears atypical, and the supersymmetry scale is likely tens of TeV or higher.

  13. Moduli of weighted hyperplane arrangements

    CERN Document Server

    Lahoz, Martí; Macrí, Emanuele; Stellari, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on a large class of geometric objects in moduli theory and provides explicit computations to investigate their families. Concrete examples are developed that take advantage of the intricate interplay between Algebraic Geometry and Combinatorics. Compactifications of moduli spaces play a crucial role in Number Theory, String Theory, and Quantum Field Theory – to mention just a few. In particular, the notion of compactification of moduli spaces has been crucial for solving various open problems and long-standing conjectures. Further, the book reports on compactification techniques for moduli spaces in a large class where computations are possible, namely that of weighted stable hyperplane arrangements.

  14. Inflationary Predictions and Moduli Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Kumar; Maharana, Anshuman

    2015-01-01

    A generic feature of inflationary models in supergravity/string constructions is vacuum misalignment for the moduli fields. The associated production of moduli particles leads to an epoch in the post-inflationary history in which the energy density is dominated by cold moduli particles. This modification of the post-inflationary history implies that the preferred range for the number of e-foldings between horizon exit of the modes relevant for CMB observations and the end of inflation $(N_k)$ depends on moduli masses. This in turn implies that the precision CMB observables $n_s$ and $r$ are sensitive to moduli masses. We analyse this sensitivity for some representative models of inflation and find the effect to be highly relevant for confronting inflationary models with observations.

  15. Can backcalculation models unravel complex larval growth histories in a tropical freshwater fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, D; Ebner, B C; Fulton, C J

    2013-07-01

    This experimental study compared the precision and accuracy of the biological intercept (BI), modified fry (MF) and time-varying growth (TVG) backcalculation models in estimating the early growth of the tropical freshwater purple-spotted gudgeon Mogurnda adspersa. Larvae were reared up to 41 days post hatching under two temperatures and four different feeding regimes. Food and temperature treatments induced complex growth profiles among fish, and although total length (LT ) and otolith radius were related under all conditions, some uncoupling was evident in the otolith-somatic-growth (OSG) relationship of fish subjected to periods of changing food availability. Furthermore, otolith growth was found to be significantly influenced by temperature, but not by food availability. Analysis of backcalculation residuals by linear mixed effects modelling revealed that BI and TVG were equally precise in predicting somatic growth, with the highest accuracy provided by TVG. The performance of all the three models declined as the OSG relationship weakened under low-food conditions, with maximum errors estimated to be 39, 60 and 36% of observed LT for the BI, MF and TVG models, respectively. The need for careful validation of backcalculation models is emphasized when examining fishes subjected to variable environmental conditions, and when exploring the differential influence of temperature and food on fish LT and otolith growth.

  16. The heterotic superpotential and moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Hardy, Edward; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2016-01-01

    We study the four-dimensional effective theory arising from ten-dimensional heterotic supergravity compactified on manifolds with torsion. In particular, given the heterotic superpotential appropriately corrected at O(α') to account for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism, we investigate properties of four-dimensional Minkowski vacua of this theory. Considering the restrictions arising from F-terms and D-terms we identify the infinitesimal massless moduli space of the theory. We show that it agrees with the results that have recently been obtained from a ten-dimensional perspective where super-symmetric Minkowski solutions including the Bianchi identity correspond to an integrable holomorphic structure, with infinitesimal moduli calculated by its first cohomology. As has recently been noted, interplay of complex structure and bundle deformations through holomorphic and anomaly constraints can lead to fewer moduli than may have been expected. We derive a relation between the number of complex structure and bundle moduli removed from the low energy theory in this way, and give conditions for there to be no complex structure moduli or bundle moduli remaining in the low energy theory. The link between Yukawa couplings and obstruction theory is also briefly discussed.

  17. Ultransonic velocity measurements in sheared granular layers: Implications for the evolution of dynamic elastic moduli of compositionally-diverse cataclastic fault gouges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Matthew William

    The objective of this project was to investigate the mechanical and elastic evolution of laboratory fault gouge analogs during active shear. To do this, I designed, constructed, and implemented a new technique for measuring changes in the elastic properties of granular layers subjected to shear deformation. Granular layers serve as an experimental analog to gouge layers forming in cataclastic faults. The technique combines a double-direct shear configuration with a method of determining ultrasonic elastic compressional and shear wavespeed. Experimental results are divided into chapters based on application to fundamental mechanics or to field cases. The first set of experiments allowed us to develop the technique and apply it to a range of end- member materials including quartz sands, montmorillonite clays, and mixtures of sand and clay. Emphasis is placed on normal stress unload-reload cycles and the resulting behavior as clay content is varied within the layer. We observe consistent decrease in wavespeed with shear for sand, and nonlinear but increasing wavespeed for clay and the sand/clay mixture. The second set of experiments involves the application of this technique to measurements conducted under fluid saturation and controlled pressure conditions, examining the behavior of materials from the Nankai Trough Accretionary Prism under shear. I introduce the effects of variable displacement rate and hold time, with implications for fault stability and rate-and-state frictional sliding. The experiments demonstrate a consistent inverse relationship between sliding velocity and wavespeed, and an increase in wavespeed associated with holds. The third set of experiments deals with velocity through stick-slipping glass beads, which has implications for fundamental granular mechanics questions involving velocity-weakening materials. I find that wavespeed decreases in the time between events and increases at "slips", suggesting a strong control related to changes in

  18. Moduli mediation without moduli-induced gravitino problem

    CERN Document Server

    Akita, Kensuke; Oikawa, Akane; Otsuka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    We study the moduli-induced gravitino problem within the framework of the phenomenologically attractive mirage mediations. The huge amount of gravitino generated by the moduli decay can be successfully diluted by introducing an extra light modulus field which does not induce the supersymmetry breaking. Since the lifetime of extra modulus field becomes longer than usually considered modulus field, our proposed mechanism is applied to both the low- and high-scale supersymmetry breaking scenarios. We also point out that such an extra modulus field appears in the flux compactification of type II string theory.

  19. Stabilizing Moduli with String Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, S

    2005-01-01

    In this talk I will discuss the role of finite temperature quantum corrections in string cosmology and show that they can lead to a stabilization mechanism for the volume moduli. I will show that from the higher dimensional perspective this results from the effect of states of enhanced symmetry on the one-loop free energy. These states lead not only to stabilization, but also suggest an alternative model for cold dark matter. At late times, when the low energy effective field theory gives the appropriate description of the dynamics, the moduli will begin to slow-roll and stabilization will generically fail. However, stabilization can be recovered by considering cosmological particle production near the points of enhanced symmetry leading to the process known as moduli trapping.

  20. The Heterotic Superpotential and Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2015-01-01

    We study the four-dimensional effective theory arising from ten-dimensional heterotic supergravity compactified on manifolds with torsion. In particular, given the heterotic superpotential appropriately corrected at $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha')$ to account for the Green-Schwarz anomaly cancellation mechanism, we investigate properties of four-dimensional Minkowski vacua of this theory. Considering the restrictions arising from F-terms and D-terms we identify the infinitesimal massless moduli space of the theory. We show that it agrees with the results that have recently been obtained from a ten-dimensional perspective where supersymmetric Minkowski solutions including the Bianchi identity correspond to an integrable holomorphic structure, with infinitesimal moduli calculated by its first cohomology. As has recently been noted, interplay of complex structure and bundle deformations through holomorphic and anomaly constraints can lead to fewer moduli than may have been expected. We derive a relation between the number...

  1. String moduli inflation. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quevedo, Fernando [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). DAMTP/CMS; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    We present an overview of inflationary models derived from string theory focusing mostly on closed string moduli as inflatons. After a detailed discussion of the {eta}-problem and different approaches to address it, we describe possible ways to obtain a de Sitter vacuum with all closed string moduli stabilised. We then look for inflationary directions and present some of the most promising scenarios where the inflatons are either the real or the imaginary part of Kaehler moduli. We pay particular attention on extracting potential observable implications, showing how most of the scenarios predict negligible gravitational waves and could therefore be ruled out by the Planck satellite. We conclude by briefly mentioning some open challenges in string cosmology beyond deriving just inflation. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of three aging techniques and back-calculated growth for introduced Blue Catfish from Lake Oconee, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, Michael D.; Peterson, James T.; Jennings, Cecil A.

    2015-01-01

    Back-calculation of length-at-age from otoliths and spines is a common technique employed in fisheries biology, but few studies have compared the precision of data collected with this method for catfish populations. We compared precision of back-calculated lengths-at-age for an introducedIctalurus furcatus (Blue Catfish) population among 3 commonly used cross-sectioning techniques. We used gillnets to collect Blue Catfish (n = 153) from Lake Oconee, GA. We estimated ages from a basal recess, articulating process, and otolith cross-section from each fish. We employed the Frasier-Lee method to back-calculate length-at-age for each fish, and compared the precision of back-calculated lengths among techniques using hierarchical linear models. Precision in age assignments was highest for otoliths (83.5%) and lowest for basal recesses (71.4%). Back-calculated lengths were variable among fish ages 1–3 for the techniques compared; otoliths and basal recesses yielded variable lengths at age 8. We concluded that otoliths and articulating processes are adequate for age estimation of Blue Catfish.

  3. Moduli backreaction on inflationary attractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco; Werkman, Pelle

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the interplay between moduli dynamics and inflation, focusing on the Kachru-Kallosh-Linde-Trivedi scenario and cosmological α -attractors. General couplings between these sectors can induce a significant backreaction and potentially destroy the inflationary regime; however, we demonstrate that this generically does not happen for α -attractors. Depending on the details of the superpotential, the volume modulus can either be stable during the entire inflationary trajectory or become tachyonic at some point and act as a waterfall field, resulting in a sudden end of inflation. In the latter case there is a universal supersymmetric minimum where the scalars end up, preventing the decompactification scenario. The gravitino mass is independent from the inflationary scale with no fine-tuning of the parameters. The observational predictions conform to the universal value of attractors, fully compatible with the Planck data, with possibly a capped number of e -folds due to the interplay with moduli.

  4. Moduli spaces of riemannian metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Tuschmann, Wilderich

    2015-01-01

    This book studies certain spaces of Riemannian metrics on both compact and non-compact manifolds. These spaces are defined by various sign-based curvature conditions, with special attention paid to positive scalar curvature and non-negative sectional curvature, though we also consider positive Ricci and non-positive sectional curvature. If we form the quotient of such a space of metrics under the action of the diffeomorphism group (or possibly a subgroup) we obtain a moduli space. Understanding the topology of both the original space of metrics and the corresponding moduli space form the central theme of this book. For example, what can be said about the connectedness or the various homotopy groups of such spaces? We explore the major results in the area, but provide sufficient background so that a non-expert with a grounding in Riemannian geometry can access this growing area of research.

  5. Moduli Backreaction on Inflationary Attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Roest, Diederik; Werkman, Pelle

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interplay between moduli dynamics and inflation, focusing on the KKLT-scenario and cosmological $\\alpha$-attractors. General couplings between these sectors can induce a significant backreaction and potentially destroy the inflationary regime; however, we demonstrate that this generically does not happen for $\\alpha$-attractors. Depending on the details of the superpotential, the volume modulus can either be stable during the entire inflationary trajectory, or become tachyonic at some point and act as a waterfall field, resulting in a sudden end of inflation. In the latter case there is a universal supersymmetric minimum where the scalars end up, preventing the decompactification scenario. The observational predictions conform to the universal value of attractors, fully compatible with the Planck data, with possibly a capped number of e-folds due to the interplay with moduli.

  6. Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-06-15

    We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.

  7. The Moduli and Gravitino (non)-Problems in Models with Strongly Stabilized Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Jason L; Olive, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    In gravity mediated models and in particular in models with strongly stabilized moduli, there is a natural hierarchy between gaugino masses, the gravitino mass and moduli masses: $m_{1/2} \\ll m_{3/2} \\ll m_{\\phi}$. Given this hierarchy, we show that 1) moduli problems associated with excess entropy production from moduli decay and 2) problems associated with moduli/gravitino decays to neutralinos are non-existent. Placed in an inflationary context, we show that the amplitude of moduli oscillations are severely limited by strong stabilization. Moduli oscillations may then never come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, moduli decay to gravitinos and their subsequent decay to neutralinos need not overpopulate the cold dark matter density.

  8. The moduli and gravitino (non)-problems in models with strongly stabilized moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jason L.; Olive, Keith A. [William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States); Garcia, Marcos A.G., E-mail: jlevans@umn.edu, E-mail: garciagarcia@physics.umn.edu, E-mail: olive@physics.umn.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In gravity mediated models and in particular in models with strongly stabilized moduli, there is a natural hierarchy between gaugino masses, the gravitino mass and moduli masses: m{sub 1/2} << m{sub 3/2} << m{sub φ}. Given this hierarchy, we show that 1) moduli problems associated with excess entropy production from moduli decay and 2) problems associated with moduli/gravitino decays to neutralinos are non-existent. Placed in an inflationary context, we show that the amplitude of moduli oscillations are severely limited by strong stabilization. Moduli oscillations may then never come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, moduli decay to gravitinos and their subsequent decay to neutralinos need not overpopulate the cold dark matter density.

  9. Intermediate Jacobians of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arapura, D; Arapura, Donu; Sastry, Pramathanath

    1996-01-01

    Let $SU_X(n,L)$ be the moduli space of rank n semistable vector bundles with fixed determinant L on a smooth projective genus g curve X. Let $SU_X^s(n,L)$ denote the open subset parametrizing stable bundles. We show that if g>3 and n > 1, then the mixed Hodge structure on $H^3(SU_X^s(n, L))$ is pure of type ${(1,2),(2,1)}$ and it carries a natural polarization such that the associated polarized intermediate Jacobian is isomorphic J(X). This is new when deg L and n are not coprime. As a corollary, we obtain a Torelli theorem that says roughly that $SU_X^s(n,L)$ (or $SU_X(n,L)$) determines X. This complements or refines earlier results of Balaji, Kouvidakis-Pantev, Mumford-Newstead, Narasimhan-Ramanan, and Tyurin.

  10. Conformal Symmetry on the Instanton Moduli Space

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Y

    2004-01-01

    The conformal symmetry on the instanton moduli space is discussed using the ADHM construction, where a viewpoint of "homogeneous coordinates" for both the spacetime and the moduli space turns out to be useful. An interesting 5-dimensional interpretation of the SU(2) single-instanton is also mentioned.

  11. Moduli of Monopole Walls and Amoebas

    CERN Document Server

    Cherkis, Sergey A

    2012-01-01

    We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2,Z) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.

  12. Moduli Stabilization Using Open String Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alok

    2007-04-01

    In this talk we discuss how by turning on gauge fluxes which couple to the end-points of open strings one can obtain stabilization of closed string moduli. This is done by analyzing supersymmetry constraints and RR tadpole conditions. Stabilization of complex and Kahler moduli is studied in a T6/Z2 orientifold. REFID="9789812770523_0020FN001">.

  13. Moduli of monopole walls and amoebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.; Ward, Richard S.

    2012-05-01

    We study doubly-periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls, determining their spectral data and computing the dimensions of their moduli spaces. Using spectral data we identify the moduli, and compare our results with a perturbative analysis. We also identify an SL(2, {Z}) action on monopole walls, in which the S transformation corresponds to the Nahm transform.

  14. String Moduli Stabilization at the Conifold

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenhagen, Ralph; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We study moduli stabilization for type IIB orientifolds compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds in the region close to conifold singularities in the complex structure moduli space. The form of the periods implies new phenomena like exponential mass hierarchies even in the regime of negligible warping. Integrating out the heavy conic complex structure modulus leads to an effective flux induced potential for the axio-dilaton and the remaining complex structure moduli containing exponentially suppressed terms that imitate non-perturbative effects. It is shown that this scenario can be naturally combined with the large volume scenario so that all moduli are dynamically stabilized in the dilute flux regime. As an application of this moduli stabilization scheme, a string inspired model of aligned inflation is designed that features a parametrically controlled hierarchy of mass scales.

  15. When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence has recently begun to decline in Zimbabwe, a result of both high levels of AIDS mortality and a reduction in incident infections. An important component in understanding the dynamics in HIV prevalence is knowledge of past trends in incidence, such as when incidence peaked and at what level. However, empirical measurements of incidence over an extended time period are not available from Zimbabwe or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Using mortality data, we use a back-calculation technique to reconstruct historic trends in incidence. From AIDS mortality data, extracted from death registration in Harare, together with an estimate of survival post-infection, HIV incidence trends were reconstructed that would give rise to the observed patterns of AIDS mortality. Models were fitted assuming three parametric forms of the incidence curve and under nine different assumptions regarding combinations of trends in non-AIDS mortality and patterns of survival post-infection with HIV. HIV prevalence was forward-projected from the fitted incidence and mortality curves. Models that constrained the incidence pattern to a cubic spline function were flexible and produced well-fitting, realistic patterns of incidence. In models assuming constant levels of non-AIDS mortality, annual incidence peaked between 4 and 5% between 1988 and 1990. Under other assumptions the peak level ranged from 3 to 8% per annum. However, scenarios assuming increasing levels of non-AIDS mortality resulted in implausibly low estimates of peak prevalence (11%, whereas models with decreasing underlying crude mortality could be consistent with the prevalence and mortality data. HIV incidence is most likely to have peaked in Harare between 1988 and 1990, which may have preceded the peak elsewhere in Zimbabwe. This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

  16. Research on elastic modulus backcalculation of asphalt course using BP artificial neural network based on surface deflection basin of pavement%基于路表弯沉盆的BP人工神经网络反演沥青面层弹性模量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨国良; 钟雯; 黄晓韵; 梁思敏; 何慧慧; 陈家驹

    2015-01-01

    Based on layered elastic theory,the elastic modulus of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was predicted using BP artificial neural network.According to the types of pavement structure in common use,the database of surface deflections with their corresponding structural parameters of asphalt course based on layered elastic theory was established.The elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement was developed using BP artificial neural network to predict.The predictive results of asphalt course elastic modulus backcalculation using theoretical deflection basin and measured deflection basin indicate that the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course in asphalt pavement is of good predictive accuracy and reliability.It would provide the references with the elastic modulus backcalculation model of asphalt course to accurately and quickly estimate the conditions of asphalt course in asphalt pavement.%基于层状弹性体系理论,建立BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量预测模型,利用BP人工神经网络预测沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量.理论弯沉盆和实测弯沉盆反演沥青面层弹性模量的结果表明,建立的BP人工神经网络反演沥青路面沥青面层弹性模量模型具有良好的预测精度和可靠性,为评价沥青路面的沥青面层性能状况提供了参考.

  17. Multi-Skyrmions with orientational moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Canfora, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the mechanism of condensation of orientational moduli (as introduced in [25]) on multi-Skyrmionic configurations of the four-dimensional Skyrme model. The present analysis reveals interesting novel features. First of all, the orientational moduli tend to decrease the repulsive interactions between Skyrmions, the effect decreasing with the increase of the Baryon number. Moreover, in the case of a single Skyrmion, the appearance of moduli is energetically favorable if finite volume effects are present. Otherwise, in the usual flat topologically trivial case, it is not. In the low energy theory these solutions can be interpreted as Skyrmions with additional isospin degrees of freedom.

  18. Measuring Moduli Of Elasticity At High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Shorter, squatter specimens and higher frequencies used in ultrasonic measurement technique. Improved version of piezo-electric ultrasonic composite oscillator technique used to measure moduli of elasticity of solid materials at high temperatures.

  19. Vertex Operators and Moduli Spaces of Sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The Nekrasov partition function in supersymmetric quantum gauge theory is mathematically formulated as an equivariant integral over certain moduli spaces of sheaves on a complex surface. In ``Seiberg-Witten Theory and Random Partitions'', Nekrasov and Okounkov studied these integrals using the representation theory of ``vertex operators'' and the infinite wedge representation. Many of these operators arise naturally from correspondences on the moduli spaces, such as Nakajima's Heisenberg operators, and Grojnowski's vertex operators. In this paper, we build a new vertex operator out of the Chern class of a vector bundle on a pair of moduli spaces. This operator has the advantage that it connects to the partition function by definition. It also incorporates the canonical class of the surface, whereas many other studies assume that the class vanishes. When the moduli space is the Hilbert scheme, we present an explicit expression in the Nakajima operators, and the resulting combinatorial identities. We then apply...

  20. Generalized Kaehler geometry of instanton moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bursztyn, Henrique; Gualtieri, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We prove that Hitchin's generalized Kaehler structure on the moduli space of instantons over a compact, even generalized Kaehler four-manifold may be obtained by generalized Kaehler reduction, in analogy with the usual Kaehler case.

  1. Moduli Corrections to D-term Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, P; Davis, S C; De van Bruck, C; Jeannerot, R; Postma, M; Brax, Ph.; Davis, Stephen C.

    2007-01-01

    We present a D-term hybrid inflation model, embedded in supergravity with moduli stabilisation. Its novel features allow us to overcome the serious challenges of combining D-term inflation and moduli fields within the same string-motivated theory. One salient point of the model is the positive definite uplifting D-term arising from the moduli stabilisation sector. By coupling this D-term to the inflationary sector, we generate an effective Fayet-Iliopoulos term. Moduli corrections to the inflationary dynamics are also obtained. Successful inflation is achieved for a range of parameter values with spectral index compatible with the WMAP3 data. Cosmic D-term strings are also formed at the end of inflation; these are no longer BPS objects. The properties of the strings are studied.

  2. K3 surfaces and their moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Gavril; Geer, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like “The Moduli Space of Curves” and “Moduli of Abelian Varieties,” which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics. K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irred...

  3. Universal moduli spaces of Riemann surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lizhen; Jost, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    We construct a moduli space for Riemann surfaces that is universal in the sense that it represents compact Riemann surfaces of any finite genus. This moduli space is a connected complex subspace of an infinite dimensional complex space, and is stratified according to genus such that each stratum has a compact closure, and it carries a metric and a measure that induce a Riemannian metric and a finite volume measure on each stratum. Applications to the Plateau-Douglas problem for minimal surfaces of varying genus and to the partition function of Bosonic string theory are outlined. The construction starts with a universal moduli space of Abelian varieties. This space carries a structure of an infinite dimensional locally symmetric space which is of interest in its own right. The key to our construction of the universal moduli space then is the Torelli map that assigns to every Riemann surface its Jacobian and its extension to the Satake-Baily-Borel compactifications.

  4. Geometry and quantization of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen; Riera, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on four advanced courses held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona. It presents both background information and recent developments on selected topics that are experiencing extraordinary growth within the broad research area of geometry and quantization of moduli spaces. The lectures focus on the geometry of moduli spaces which are mostly associated to compact Riemann surfaces, and are presented from both classical and quantum perspectives.

  5. Moduli stabilization in stringy ISS models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Yu; Nakayama, Yu; Yamazaki, Masahito; Yanagida, T.T.

    2007-09-28

    We present a stringy realization of the ISS metastable SUSY breaking model with moduli stabilization. The mass moduli of the ISS model is stabilized by gauging of a U(1) symmetry and its D-term potential. The SUSY is broken both by F-terms and D-terms. It is possible to obtain de Sitter vacua with a vanishingly small cosmological constant by an appropriate fine-tuning of flux parameters.

  6. Moduli stabilization in type IIB orientifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulgin, W.

    2007-06-04

    This thesis deals with the stabilization of the moduli fields in the compactifications of the type IIB string theory on orientifolds. A concrete procedure for the construction of solutions, in which all moduli fields are fixed, yields the KKLT scenario. We study, on which models the scenario can be applied, if approximations of the original KKLT work are abandoned. We find that in a series of models, namely such without complex-structure moduli the construction of the consistent solutions in the framework of the KKLT scenario is not possible. The nonperturbative effects, like D3 instantons and gaugino condensates are a further component of the KKLT scenario. They lead to the stabilization of the Kaehler moduli. We present criteria for the generation of the superpotential due to the D3 instantons at a Calaby-Yau manifold in presence of fluxes. Furthermore we show that although the presence of the nonperturbative superpotential in the equations of motions is correlated with the switching on of all ISD and IASD fluxes, the deciding criterium for the generation of the nonperturbative superpotential depends only on the fluxes of the type (2,1). Thereafter we discuss two models, in which we stabilize all moduli fields. Thereby it deals with Calabi-Yau orientifolds which have been obtained by a blow-up procedure from the Z{sub 6-II} and Z{sub 2} x Z{sub 4} orientifolds.

  7. Higgs-otic Inflation and Moduli Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Bielleman, Sjoerd; Pedro, Francisco G; Valenzuela, Irene; Wieck, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    We study closed-string moduli stabilization in Higgs-otic inflation in Type IIB orientifold backgrounds with fluxes. In this setup large-field inflation is driven by the vacuum energy of mobile D7-branes. Imaginary selfdual (ISD) three-form fluxes in the background source a $\\mu$-term and the necessary monodromy for large field excursions while imaginary anti-selfdual (IASD) three-form fluxes are sourced by non-perturbative contributions to the superpotential necessary for moduli stabilization. We analyze K\\"ahler moduli stabilization and backreaction on the inflaton potential in detail. Confirming results in the recent literature, we find that integrating out heavy K\\"ahler moduli leads to a controlled flattening of the inflaton potential. We quantify the flux tuning necessary for stability even during large-field inflation. Moreover, we study the backreaction of supersymmetrically stabilized complex structure moduli and the axio-dilaton in the K\\"ahler metric of the inflaton. Contrary to previous findings, ...

  8. Backcalculation of the disease-age specific frequency of sec-ondary transmission of primary pneumonic plague

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to assess the frequency of secondary transmissions of primary pneumonic plague relative to the onset of fever.A simple backcalculation method was employed to estimate the frequency of sec-ondary transmissions relative to disease-age.A likelihood-based procedure was taken using observed distribu-tions of the serial interval (n = 177)and incubation period (n = 126).Furthermore,an extended model was developed to account for the survival probability of cases.The simple backcalculation suggested that 31. 0% (95% confidence intervals (CI):11.6,50.4)and 28.0 % (95% CI:10.2,45.8)of the total number of secondary transmissions had occurred at second and third days of the disease,respectively,and more than four-fifths of the secondary transmission occurred before the end of third day of disease.The survivorship-ad-justed frequency of secondary transmissions was obtained,demonstrating that the infectiousness in later stages of illness was not insignificant and indicates that the obtained frequencies were likely biased on underlying fac-tors including isolation measures.In conclusion,the simple exercise suggests a need to implement countermeas-ures during pre-clinical stage or immediately after onset.Further information is needed to elucidate the finer details of the disease-age specific infectiousness.

  9. Black Holes, Holography and Moduli Space Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Sen-Gupta, K; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2007-01-01

    String theory can accommodate black holes with the black hole parameters related to string moduli. It is a well known but remarkable feature that the near horizon geometry of a large class of black holes arising from string theory contains a BTZ part. A mathematical theorem (Sullivan's Theorem) relates the three dimensional geometry of the BTZ metric to the conformal structures of a two dimensional space, thus providing a precise kinematic statement of holography. Using this theorem it is possible to argue that the string moduli space in this region has to have negative curvature from the BTZ part of the associated spacetime. This is consistent with a recent conjecture of Ooguri and Vafa on string moduli space.

  10. Moduli fixing in semirealistic string compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos-Sanchez, Saul

    2011-01-01

    Heterotic orbifold compactifications yield a myriad of models that reproduce many properties of the supersymmetric extension of the standard model and provide potential solutions to persisting problems of high energy physics, such as the origin of the neutrino masses and the strong CP problem. However, the details of the phenomenology in these scenarios rely on the assumption of a stable vacuum, characterized by moduli fields. In this note, we drop this assumption and address the problem of moduli stabilization in realistic orbifold models. We study their qualities and their 4D effective action, and discuss how nonperturbative effects indeed lift all bulk moduli directions. The resulting vacua, although still unstable, are typically de Sitter and there are generically some quasi-flat directions which can help to deal with cosmological challenges, such as inflation.

  11. Inflation on Moduli Space and Cosmic Perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Kadota, K; Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-01-01

    We show that a moduli space of the form predicted by string theory, lifted by supersymmetry breaking, gives rise to successful inflation for large regions of parameter space without any modification. This natural realization of inflation relies crucially on the complex nature of the moduli fields and the multiple points of enhanced symmetry, which are generic features of moduli space but not usually considered in inflationary model building. Our scenario predicts cosmic perturbations with an almost exactly flat spectrum for a wide range of scales with running on smaller, possibly observable, scales. The running takes the form of either an increasingly steep drop off of the spectrum, or a rise to a bump in the spectrum before an increasingly steep drop off.

  12. Tau function and moduli of differentials

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The tau function on the moduli space of generic holomorphic 1-differentials on complex algebraic curves is interpreted as a section of a line bundle on the projectivized Hodge bundle over the moduli space of stable curves. The asymptotics of the tau function near the boundary of the moduli space of 1-differentials is computed, and an explicit expression for the pullback of the Hodge class on the projectivized Hodge bundle in terms of the tautological class and the classes of boundary divisors is derived. This expression is used to clarify the geometric meaning of the Kontsevich-Zorich formula for the sum of the Lyapunov exponents associated with the Teichm\\"uller flow on the Hodge bundle.

  13. Elastic moduli of pyrope rich garnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, B. K.; Pandey, A. K.; Singh, C. K.

    2013-06-01

    The elastic properties of minerals depend on its composition, crystal structure, temperature and level of defects. The elastic parameters are important for the interpretation of the structure and composition of the garnet rich family. In present work we have calculated the elastic moduli such as isothermal bulk modulus, Young's modulus and Shear modulus over a wide range of temperature from 300 K to 1000 K by using Birch EOS and Poirrier Tarantola equation of state. The obtained results are compared with the experimental results obtained by measuring the elastic moduli of single crystal. The calculated results show that the logarithmic isothermal EOS does not cooperate well with experimental results.

  14. Accidental K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Maharana, Anshuman; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small K\\"ahler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  15. String instantons, fluxes and moduli stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Camara, P G; Maillard, T; Pradisi, G

    2007-01-01

    We analyze a class of dual pairs of heterotic and type I models based on freely-acting $\\mathbb{Z}_2 \\times \\mathbb{Z}_2$ orbifolds in four dimensions. Using the adiabatic argument, it is possible to calculate non-perturbative contributions to the gauge coupling threshold corrections on the type I side by exploiting perturbative calculations on the heterotic side, without the drawbacks due to twisted moduli. The instanton effects can then be combined with closed-string fluxes to stabilize most of the moduli fields of the internal manifold, and also the dilaton, in a racetrack realization of the type I model.

  16. Accidental Kähler moduli inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad, UP 211019 (India); Rummel, Markus [Rudolph Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Sumitomo, Yoske [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-09-14

    We study a model of accidental inflation in type IIB string theory where inflation occurs near the inflection point of a small Kähler modulus. A racetrack structure helps to alleviate the known concern that string-loop corrections may spoil Kähler Moduli Inflation unless having a significant suppression via the string coupling or a special brane setup. Also, the hierarchy of gauge group ranks required for the separation between moduli stabilization and inflationary dynamics is relaxed. The relaxation becomes more significant when we use the recently proposed D-term generated racetrack model.

  17. String loop corrected hypermultiplet moduli spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robles-Llana, D.; Saueressig, Frank; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Using constraints from supersymmetry and string perturbation theory, we determine the string loop corrections to the hypermultiplet moduli space of type II strings compactified on a generic Calabi-Yau threefold. The corresponding quaternion-Kähler manifolds are completely encoded in terms of a singl

  18. Moduli Space of Integrable Dirac Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Milani, Vida

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of integrable Dirac structures on Hermitian modules. The moduli space of the space of integrable Dirac structures is studied. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for the integrability of a Dirac structure is obtained as the solution of a certain partial differential equation.

  19. The moduli space of regular stable maps

    CERN Document Server

    Robbin, Joel; Salamon, Dietmar; 10.1007/s00209-007-0237-x

    2012-01-01

    The moduli space of regular stable maps with values in a complex manifold admits naturally the structure of a complex orbifold. Our proof uses the methods of differential geometry rather than algebraic geometry. It is based on Hardy decompositions and Fredholm intersection theory in the loop space of the target manifold.

  20. Counting lattice points in compactified moduli spaces of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Do, Norman

    2010-01-01

    We define and count lattice points in the moduli space of stable genus g curves with n labeled points. This extends a construction of the second author for the uncompactified moduli space. The enumeration produces polynomials with top degree coefficients tautological intersection numbers on the compactified moduli space and constant term the orbifold Euler characteristic of the compactified moduli space. We also prove a recursive formula which can be used to effectively calculate these polynomials.

  1. Determination of tensile and compressive moduli of laminae in unidirectionally reinforced laminate by flexural tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklinski, Mariusz

    2017-03-01

    The Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is widely used in engineering despite of various simplifications. One of which, that do matters in this article, is neglecting the difference between tensile and compressive moduli. Experimental tests reveal that for fibre reinforced composites tensile moduli are generally greater than compressive ones. This paper presents the results of testing the laminate composed of four unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae separated by layers of glass mat. The specimens were subjected to flexural, tensile and compressive loading in order to calculate corresponding moduli of elasticity. The results were compared using equations of Classical Beam Theory. Knowing the tensile and compressive moduli of glass mat reinforced laminae and performing flexural tests of laminate it is possible to calculate the tensile and compressive moduli of unidirectionally glass reinforced laminae. The experimental data taken into calculations correspond to linear normal strains of 0.0005 and 0.0025. The experimental data are consistent with results of calculations within acceptable margin of tolerance.

  2. Dimensional Reduction for D3-brane Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Cownden, Brad; Marsh, M C David; Underwood, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Warped string compactifications are central to many attempts to stabilize moduli and connect string theory with cosmology and particle phenomenology. We present a first-principles derivation of the low-energy 4D effective theory from dimensional reduction of a D3-brane in a warped Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual 3-form flux, including effects of D3-brane motion beyond the probe approximation, and find the metric on the moduli space of brane positions, the universal volume modulus, and axions descending from the 4-form potential. As D3-branes may be considered as carrying either electric or magnetic charges for the self-dual 5-form field strength, we present calculations in both duality frames. Our results are consistent with, but extend significantly, earlier results on the low-energy effective theory arising from D3-branes in string compactifications.

  3. Dimensional reduction for D3-brane moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cownden, Brad; Frey, Andrew R.; Marsh, M. C. David; Underwood, Bret

    2016-12-01

    Warped string compactifications are central to many attempts to stabilize moduli and connect string theory with cosmology and particle phenomenology. We present a first-principles derivation of the low-energy 4D effective theory from dimensional reduction of a D3-brane in a warped Calabi-Yau compactification of type IIB string theory with imaginary self-dual 3-form flux, including effects of D3-brane motion beyond the probe approximation, and find the metric on the moduli space of brane positions, the universal volume modulus, and axions descending from the 4-form potential. As D3-branes may be considered as carrying either electric or magnetic charges for the self-dual 5-form field strength, we present calculations in both duality frames. Our results are consistent with, but extend significantly, earlier results on the low-energy effective theory arising from D3-branes in string compactifications.

  4. Evaluation of Fifth Degree Elliptic Singular Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Bagis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Our main result in this article is a formula for the extraction of the solution of the fifth degree modular polynomial equation i.e. the value of $k_{25^nr_0}$, when we know only two consecutive values $k_{r_0}$ and $k_{r_0/25}$. By this way we reduce the problem of solving the depressed equation if we known two consecutive values of the Elliptic singular moduli $k_r$.

  5. BCFT moduli space in level truncation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrna, Matěj; Maccaferri, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    We propose a new non-perturbative method to search for marginal deformations in level truncated open string field theory. Instead of studying the flatness of the effective potential for the marginal field (which is not expected to give a one-to-one parametrization of the BCFT moduli space), we identify a new non-universal branch of the tachyon potential which, from known analytic examples, is expected to parametrize the marginal flow in a much larger region of the BCFT moduli space. By a level 18 computation in Siegel gauge we find an increasingly flat effective potential in the non-universal sector, connected to the perturbative vacuum and we confirm that the coefficient of the marginal field ( λ SFT) has a maximum compatible with the value where the solutions stop existing in the standard Sen-Zwiebach approach. At the maximal reachable level the effective potential still deviates from flatness for large values of the tachyon, but the Ellwood invariants stay close to the correct BCFT values on the whole branch and the full periodic moduli space of the cosine deformation is covered.

  6. Braneworld gravity: influence of the moduli fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, Carlos; Visser, Matt

    2000-10-01

    We consider the case of a generic braneworld geometry in the presence of one or more moduli fields (e.g. the dilaton) that vary throughout the bulk spacetime. Working in an arbitrary conformal frame, using the generalized junction conditions of gr-qc/0008008 and the Gauss-Codazzi equations, we derive the effective ``induced'' on-brane gravitational equations. As usual in braneworld scenarios, these equations do not form a closed system in that the bulk can exchange both information and stress-energy with the braneworld. We work with an arbitrary number of moduli fields described by an arbitrary sigma model, with arbitrary curvature couplings, arbitrary self interactions, and arbitrary dimension for the bulk. (The braneworld is always codimension one.) Among the novelties we encounter are modifications of the on-brane stress-energy conservation law, anomalous couplings between on-brane gravity and the trace of the on-brane stress-energy tensor, and additional possibilities for modifying the on-brane effective cosmological constant. After obtaining the general stress-energy ``conservation'' law and the ``induced Einstein equations'' we particularize the discussion to two particularly attractive cases: for a (n-2)-brane in ([n-1] + 1) dimensions we discuss both the effect of (1) generic variable moduli fields in the Einstein frame, and (2) the effect of a varying dilaton in the string frame.

  7. Quintessence and Varying \\alpha from Shape Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Mark; Byrne, Mark; Kolda, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    In extra-dimensional models which are compactified on an n-torus (n>1) there exist moduli associated with the torus volume (which sets the fundamental Planck scale), the ratios of the torus radii, and the angle(s) of periodicity. We consider a model with gravity in the bulk of n=2 large extra dimensions with a fixed volume, taking all Standard Model fields to be confined to a "thick" and supersymmetric 3-brane. The Casimir energy of fields in the bulk of the 2-torus accounts for the present dark energy density while the shape moduli begin rolling at late times (z ~ 1) and induce a shift in the Kaluza-Klein masses of the Standard Model fields. The low energy value of the fine-structure constant is sensitive at loop level to this shift. For reasonable cosmological initial conditions on the shape moduli we obtain a redshift dependence of the fine-structure constant similar to that reported by Webb et al., which is roughly compatible with Oklo and meteorite bounds. Constraints from coincident variation in the QCD...

  8. Supersymmetric moduli stabilization and high-scale inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfried Buchmuller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the back-reaction of moduli fields on the inflaton potential in generic models of F-term inflation. We derive the moduli corrections as a power series in the ratio of Hubble scale and modulus mass. The general result is illustrated with two examples, hybrid inflation and chaotic inflation. We find that in both cases the decoupling of moduli dynamics and inflation requires moduli masses close to the scale of grand unification. For smaller moduli masses the CMB observables are strongly affected.

  9. Note on moduli stabilization, supersymmetry breaking and axiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2011-06-15

    We study properties of moduli stabilization in the four dimensional N=1 supergravity theory with heavy moduli and would-be saxion-axion multiplets including light string-theoretic axions. We give general formulation for the scenario that heavy moduli and saxions are stabilized while axions remain light, assuming that moduli are stabilized near the supersymmetric solution. One can find stable vacuum, i.e. nontachyonic saxions, in the non-supersymmetric Minkowski vacua. We also discuss the cases, where the moduli are coupled to the supersymmetry breaking sector and/or moduli have contributions to supersymmetry breaking. Furthermore we study the models with axions originating from matter-like fields. Our analysis on moduli stabilization is applicable even if there are not light axion multiplets. (orig.)

  10. Effective elastic moduli and interface effects of nano- crystalline materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Many properties of nanocrystalline materials are associated with interface effects. Based on their microstructural features, the influence of interfaces on the effective elastic property of nanocrystalline materials is investigated. First, the Mori-Tanaka method is employed to determine the overall effective elastic moduli by considering a nanocrystalline material as a binary composite solid consisting of a crystal or inclusion phase with regular lattice connected by an amorphous-like interface or matrix phase. The effects of strain gradients are then examined on the effective elastic property by using the strain gradient theory to analyze a representative unit cell. Two interface mechanisms are elucidated that influence the effective stiffness and other mechanical properties of materials. One is the softening effect due to the distorted atomic structures and the increased atomic spacings in interface regions, and the other is the baffling effect due to the existence of boundary layers near interfaces.

  11. On the motives of moduli of chains and Higgs bundles

    CERN Document Server

    García-Prada, Oscar; Schmitt, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We take another approach to Hitchin's strategy of computing the cohomology of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles by localization with respect to the circle-action. Our computation is done in the dimensional completion of the Grothendieck ring of varieties and starts by describing the classes of moduli stacks of chains rather than their coarse moduli spaces. As an application we show that the n-torsion of the Jacobian acts trivially on the middle dimensional cohomology of the moduli space of twisted SL_n-Higgs-bundles of degree coprime to n and we give an explicit formula for the motive of the moduli space of Higgs bundles of rank 4 and odd degree. This provides new evidence for a conjecture of Hausel and Rodr\\'iguez-Villegas. Along the way we find explicit recursion formulas for the motives of several types of moduli spaces of stable chains.

  12. BCFT moduli space in level truncation

    CERN Document Server

    Kudrna, Matej

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new non-perturbative method to search for marginal deformations in level truncated open string field theory. Instead of studying the flatness of the effective potential for the marginal field (which is not expected to give a one-to-one parametrization of the BCFT moduli space), we identify a new non-universal branch of the tachyon potential which, from known analytic examples, is expected to parametrize the marginal flow in a much larger region of the BCFT moduli space. By a level 18 computation in Siegel gauge, we find an increasingly flat effective potential in the non-universal sector, connected to the perturbative vacuum and we confirm that the coefficient of the marginal field (lambda_SFT) has a maximum compatible with the value where the solutions stop existing in the standard Sen-Zwiebach approach. At the maximal reachable level, the effective potential still deviates from flatness for large values of the tachyon, but the Ellwood invariants stay close to the correct BCFT values on the whol...

  13. Issues in Complex Structure Moduli Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Hirotaka; Watari, Taizan

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetric compactification with moderately large radius (${\\rm Re} \\sim {\\cal O}(10)$ or more) not only accommodates supersymmetric unification, but also provides candidates for an inflaton in the form of geometric moduli; the value of ${\\rm Re} > 1$ may be used as a parameter that brings corrections to the inflaton potential under control. Motivated by a bottom-up idea "right-handed sneutrino inflation" scenario, we study whether complex structure moduli can play some role during the slow-roll inflation and/or reheating process in this moderately large radius regime. Even when we allow a tuning introduced by Kallosh and Linde, the barrier of volume stabilization potential from gaugino condensation racetrack superpotential can hardly be as high as $(10^{16} \\; {\\rm GeV})^4$ for generic choice of parameters in this regime. It is also found that even very small deformation of complex structure during inflation/reheating distorts the volume stabilization potential, so that the volume stabilization imposes t...

  14. Braneworld gravity Influence of the moduli fields

    CERN Document Server

    Barcelo, C; Barcelo, Carlos; Visser, Matt

    2000-01-01

    We consider the case of a generic braneworld geometry in the presence of one or more moduli fields (e.g., the dilaton) that vary throughout the bulk spacetime. Working in an arbitrary conformal frame, using the generalized junction conditions of gr-qc/0008008 and the Gauss--Codazzi equations, we derive the effective ``induced'' on-brane gravitational equations. As usual in braneworld scenarios, these equations do not form a closed system in that the bulk can exchange both information and stress-energy with the braneworld. We work with an arbitrary number of moduli fields described by an arbitrary sigma model, with arbitrary curvature couplings, arbitrary self interactions, and arbitrary dimension for the bulk. (The braneworld is always codimension one.) Among the novelties we encounter are modifications of the on-brane stress-energy conservation law, anomalous couplings between on-brane gravity and the trace of the on-brane stress-energy tensor, and additional possibilities for modifying the on-brane effectiv...

  15. Explicitly Broken Supersymmetry with Exactly Massless Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Xi; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    There is an avatar of the little hierarchy problem of the MSSM in 3-dimensional supersymmetry. We propose a solution to this problem in AdS$_3$ based on the AdS/CFT correspondence. The bulk theory is a supergravity theory in which U(1) $\\times$ U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. Since the R-charges of scalar and spinor differ, this generates a SUSY breaking shift of their masses. The Ward identity facilitates the calculation of these mass shifts to any desired order in the strength of the deformation. Moduli fields are massless $R$-neutral bulk scalars with vanishing potential in the undeformed theory. These properties are maintained to all orders in the deformation despite the fact that moduli couple in the bulk to loops of R-char...

  16. On moduli spaces in AdS{sub 4} supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwis, Senarath de [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 12 - Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik; McAllister, Liam [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Triendl, Hagen [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Division, Physics Dept.; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie

    2013-12-15

    We study the structure of the supersymmetric moduli spaces of N=1 and N=2 supergravity theories in AdS{sub 4} backgrounds. In the N=1 case, the moduli space cannot be a complex submanifold of the Kaehler field space, but is instead real with respect to the inherited complex structure. In N=2 supergravity the same result holds for the vector multiplet moduli space, while the hypermultiplet moduli space is a Kaehler submanifold of the quaternionic-Kaehler field space. These findings are in agreement with AdS/CFT considerations.

  17. Experimental Relationships between Moduli For Soil Layers Beneath Concrete Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    Young’s Modulus with Overburden and Void Ratio for a Granular Soil ........... ...... .. ... 45 24 Measured Versus Calculated Deflections for Sand...values, to evaluate the validity of the material characteri,ations. By making comparisions between the "ideal" granular subgrade section and the...components C are dependent on the current total level of stress and strain. The variable modulus models represent materials of the so-called " hypoelastic

  18. Moduli stabilisation for chiral global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mayrhofer, Christoph [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Valandro, Roberto [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2011-10-15

    We combine moduli stabilisation and (chiral) model building in a fully consistent global set-up in Type IIB/F-theory. We consider compactifications on Calabi-Yau orientifolds which admit an explicit description in terms of toric geometry. We build globally consistent compactifications with tadpole and Freed-Witten anomaly cancellation by choosing appropriate brane set-ups and world-volume fluxes which also give rise to SU(5)- or MSSM-like chiral models. We fix all the Kaehler moduli within the Kaehler cone and the regime of validity of the 4D effective field theory. This is achieved in a way compatible with the local presence of chirality. The hidden sector generating the non-perturbative effects is placed on a del Pezzo divisor that does not have any chiral intersections with any other brane. In general, the vanishing D-term condition implies the shrinking of the rigid divisor supporting the visible sector. However, we avoid this problem by generating rmoduli, that is an hypersurface in a toric ambient space and admits a simple F-theory up-lift. We present explicit choices of brane set-ups and fluxes which lead to three different phenomenological scenarios: the first with GUT-scale strings and TeV-scale SUSY by fine-tuning the background fluxes; the second with an exponentially large value of the volume and TeV-scale SUSY without fine-tuning the background fluxes; and the third with a very anisotropic configuration that leads to TeV-scale strings and two micron-sized extra dimensions. The K3 fibration structure of the Calabi-Yau three-fold is also particularly suitable for cosmological purposes. (orig.)

  19. Illicit and pharmaceutical drug consumption estimated via wastewater analysis. Part B: Placing back-calculations in a formal statistical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hayley E.; Hickman, Matthew; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Welton, Nicky J.; Baker, David R.; Ades, A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of metabolites of illicit drugs in sewage water can be measured with great accuracy and precision, thanks to the development of sensitive and robust analytical methods. Based on assumptions about factors including the excretion profile of the parent drug, routes of administration and the number of individuals using the wastewater system, the level of consumption of a drug can be estimated from such measured concentrations. When presenting results from these ‘back-calculations’, the multiple sources of uncertainty are often discussed, but are not usually explicitly taken into account in the estimation process. In this paper we demonstrate how these calculations can be placed in a more formal statistical framework by assuming a distribution for each parameter involved, based on a review of the evidence underpinning it. Using a Monte Carlo simulations approach, it is then straightforward to propagate uncertainty in each parameter through the back-calculations, producing a distribution for instead of a single estimate of daily or average consumption. This can be summarised for example by a median and credible interval. To demonstrate this approach, we estimate cocaine consumption in a large urban UK population, using measured concentrations of two of its metabolites, benzoylecgonine and norbenzoylecgonine. We also demonstrate a more sophisticated analysis, implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Our model allows the two metabolites to simultaneously inform estimates of daily cocaine consumption and explicitly allows for variability between days. After accounting for this variability, the resulting credible interval for average daily consumption is appropriately wider, representing additional uncertainty. We discuss possibilities for extensions to the model, and whether analysis of wastewater samples has potential to contribute to a prevalence model for illicit drug use. PMID:24636801

  20. Matrix Models, Monopoles and Modified Moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Erlich, J; Unsal, M; Erlich, Joshua; Hong, Sungho; Unsal, Mithat

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by the Dijkgraaf-Vafa correspondence, we consider the matrix model duals of N=1 supersymmetric SU(Nc) gauge theories with Nf flavors. We demonstrate via the matrix model solutions a relation between vacua of theories with different numbers of colors and flavors. This relation is due to an N=2 nonrenormalization theorem which is inherited by these N=1 theories. Specializing to the case Nf=Nc, the simplest theory containing baryons, we demonstrate that the explicit matrix model predictions for the locations on the Coulomb branch at which monopoles condense are consistent with the quantum modified constraints on the moduli in the theory. The matrix model solutions include the case that baryons obtain vacuum expectation values. In specific cases we check explicitly that these results are also consistent with the factorization of corresponding Seiberg-Witten curves. Certain results are easily understood in terms of M5-brane constructions of these gauge theories.

  1. Matrix Models, Monopoles and Modified Moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Joshua; Hong, Sungho; Unsal, Mithat

    2004-09-01

    Motivated by the Dijkgraaf-Vafa correspondence, we consider the matrix model duals of Script N = 1 supersymmetric SU(Nc) gauge theories with Nf flavors. We demonstrate via the matrix model solutions a relation between vacua of theories with different numbers of colors and flavors. This relation is due to an Script N = 2 nonrenormalization theorem which is inherited by these Script N = 1 theories. Specializing to the case Nf = Nc, the simplest theory containing baryons, we demonstrate that the explicit matrix model predictions for the locations on the Coulomb branch at which monopoles condense are consistent with the quantum modified constraints on the moduli in the theory. The matrix model solutions include the case that baryons obtain vacuum expectation values. In specific cases we check explicitly that these results are also consistent with the factorization of corresponding Seiberg-Witten curves. Certain results are easily understood in terms of M5-brane constructions of these gauge theories.

  2. Construction of the moduli space of Spin (7)-instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    We construct the moduli space of Spin(7)-instantons on a hermitian complex vector bundle over a closed 8-dimensional manifold endowed with a (possibly non-integrable) Spin(7)-structure. We find suitable perturbations that achieve regularity of the moduli space, so that it is smooth and of the expected dimension over the irreducible locus.

  3. The stable moduli space of Riemann surfaces: Mumford's conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, I.; Weiss, Michael

    2007-01-01

    D. Mumford conjectured in "Towards an enumerative geometry of the moduli space of curves" that the rational cohomology of the stable moduli space of Riemann surfaces is a polynomial algebra generated by certain classes $\\kappa_i$ of dimension $2i$. For the purpose of calculating rational cohomolo...

  4. Moduli of Parabolic Higgs Bundles and Atiyah Algebroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logares, Marina; Martens, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometry of the moduli space of (non-strongly) parabolic Higgs bundles over a Riemann surface with marked points. We show that this space possesses a Poisson structure, extending the one on the dual of an Atiyah algebroid over the moduli space of parabolic vector bundles...

  5. The cohomology of the moduli space of Abelian varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, G.; Farkas, G.; Morrison, I.

    2013-01-01

    [Book reviewed by Fernando Q. Gouvêa, on 08/14/2013] Algebraic geometers have been thinking about moduli spaces for a very long time, and the topic has a central role in that discipline and in various other branches of mathematics. Basically, a moduli space is some sort of geometric object whose poi

  6. Running spectral index from shooting-star moduli

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    We construct an inflationary model that is consistent with both large non-Gaussianity and a running spectral index. The scenario of modulated inflation suggests that modulated perturbation can induce the curvature perturbation with a large non-Gaussianity, even if the inflaton perturbation is negligible. Using this idea, we consider a multi-field extension of the modulated inflation scenario and examine the specific situation where different moduli are responsible for the perturbation at different scales. We suppose that the additional moduli (shooting-star moduli) is responsible for the curvature perturbation at the earlier inflationary epoch and it generates the fluctuation with n>1 spectral index at this scale. After a while, another moduli (or inflaton) takes the place and generates the perturbation with n<1. At the transition point the two fluctuations are comparable with each other. We show how the spectral index is affected by the transition induced by the shooting-star moduli.

  7. Infinitesimal moduli of G2 holonomy manifolds with instanton bundles

    CERN Document Server

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Svanes, Eirik Eik

    2016-01-01

    We describe the infinitesimal moduli space of pairs $(Y, V)$ where $Y$ is a manifold with $G_2$ holonomy, and $V$ is a vector bundle on $Y$ with an instanton connection. These structures arise in connection to the moduli space of heterotic string compactifications on compact and non-compact seven dimensional spaces, e.g. domain walls. Employing the canonical $G_2$ cohomology $H^*_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_E}(Y,E)$ developed by Reyes-Carri\\'on and Fern\\'andez and Ugarte, we show that the moduli space decomposes into the sum of the bundle moduli $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_A}(Y,{\\rm End}(V))$ plus the moduli of the $G_2$ structure preserving the instanton condition. The latter piece is contained in $H^1_{{\\check{\\rm d}}_\

  8. Moduli Spaces of Cold Holographic Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ammon, Martin; Kim, Keun-Young; Laia, João; O'Bannon, Andy

    2012-01-01

    We use holography to study (3+1)-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(Nc), in the large-Nc and large-coupling limits, coupled to a single massless (n+1)-dimensional hypermultiplet in the fundamental representation of SU(Nc), with n=3,2,1. In particular, we study zero-temperature states with a nonzero baryon number charge density, which we call holographic matter. We demonstrate that a moduli space of such states exists in these theories, specifically a Higgs branch parameterized by the expectation values of scalar operators bilinear in the hypermultiplet scalars. At a generic point on the Higgs branch, the R-symmetry and gauge group are spontaneously broken to subgroups. Our holographic calculation consists of introducing a single probe Dp-brane into AdS5 times S^5, with p=2n+1=7,5,3, introducing an electric flux of the Dp-brane worldvolume U(1) gauge field, and then obtaining explicit solutions for the worldvolume fields dual to the scalar operators that parameterize the Higgs...

  9. Explicitly broken supersymmetry with exactly massless moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xi; Freedman, Daniel Z.; Zhao, Yue

    2016-06-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence is applied to an analogue of the little hierarchy problem in three-dimensional supersymmetric theories. The bulk is governed by a super-gravity theory in which a U(1) × U(1) R-symmetry is gauged by Chern-Simons fields. The bulk theory is deformed by a boundary term quadratic in the gauge fields. It breaks SUSY completely and sources an exactly marginal operator in the dual CFT. SUSY breaking is communicated by gauge interactions to bulk scalar fields and their spinor superpartners. The bulk-to-boundary propagator of the Chern-Simons fields is a total derivative with respect to the bulk coordinates. Integration by parts and the Ward identity permit evaluation of SUSY breaking effects to all orders in the strength of the deformation. The R-charges of scalars and spinors differ so large SUSY breaking mass shifts are generated. Masses of R-neutral particles such as scalar moduli are not shifted to any order in the deformation strength, despite the fact that they may couple to R-charged fields running in loops. We also obtain a universal deformation formula for correlation functions under an exactly marginal deformation by a product of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic U(1) currents.

  10. Moduli stabilization in higher dimensional brane models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flachi, Antonino; Pujolas, Oriol [IFAE, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: pujolas@ifae.es; Garriga, Jaume [IFAE, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Fisica Fonamental and C.E.R. en Astrofisica, Fisica de Particules i Cosmologia Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Tanaka, Takahiro [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford MA 02155 (United States); Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2003-08-01

    We consider a class of warped higher dimensional brane models with topology M x {sigma} x S{sup 1}/Z{sub 2}, where {sigma} is a D2 dimensional manifold. Two branes of co-dimension one are embedded in such a bulk space-time and sit at the orbifold fixed points. We concentrate on the case where an exponential warp factor (depending on the distance along the orbifold) accompanies the Minkowski M and the internal space {sigma} line elements. We evaluate the moduli effective potential induced by bulk scalar fields in these models, and we show that generically this can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions. As an application, we consider a scenario where supersymmetry is broken not far below the cutoff scale, and the hierarchy between the electroweak and the effective Planck scales is generated by a combination of redshift and large volume effects. The latter is efficient due to the shrinking of {sigma} at the negative tension brane, where matter is placed. In this case, we find that the effective potential can stabilize the size of the extra dimensions (and the hierarchy) without fine tuning, provided that the internal space {sigma} is flat. (author)

  11. Higher-Derivative Supergravity and Moduli Stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciupke, David; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Louis, Jan [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Fachberich Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik

    2015-05-15

    We review the ghost-free four-derivative terms for chiral superfields in N=1 supersymmetry and supergravity. These terms induce cubic polynomial equations of motion for the chiral auxiliary fields and correct the scalar potential. We discuss the different solutions and argue that only one of them is consistent with the principles of effective field theory. Special attention is paid to the corrections along flat directions which can be stabilized or destabilized by the higher-derivative terms. We then compute these higher-derivative terms explicitly for the type IIB string compactified on a Calabi-Yau orientifold with fluxes via Kaluza-Klein reducing the (α'){sup 3}R{sup 4} corrections in ten dimensions for the respective N=1 Kaehler moduli sector. We prove that together with flux and the known (α'){sup 3}-corrections the higher-derivative term stabilizes all Calabi-Yau manifolds with positive Euler number, provided the sign of the new correction is negative.

  12. Higgs, moduli problem, baryogenesis and large volume compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-15

    We consider the cosmological moduli problem in the context of high-scale supersymmetry breaking suggested by the recent discovery of the standard-model like Higgs boson. In order to solve the notorious moduli-induced gravitino problem, we focus on the LARGE volume scenario, in which the modulus decay into gravitinos can be kinematically forbidden. We then consider the Affleck-Dine mechanism with or without an enhanced coupling with the inflaton, taking account of possible Q-ball formation. We show that the baryon asymmetry of the present Universe can be generated by the Affleck-Dine mechanism in LARGE volume scenario, solving the moduli and gravitino problems.

  13. Moduli inflation in five-dimensional supergravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    We propose a simple but effective mechanism to realize an inflationary early universe consistent with the observed WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data, which would be incorporated in various supersymmetric models of elementary particles constructed in the (effective) five-dimensional spacetime. In our scenario, the inflaton field is identified with one of the moduli appearing when the fifth direction is compactified, and a successful cosmological inflation without the so-called eta problem can be achieved by a very simple moduli stabilization potential. We also discuss the related particle cosmology during and (just) after the inflation, such as the (no) cosmological moduli problem.

  14. Moduli inflation in five-dimensional supergravity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hiroyuki; Otsuka, Hajime, E-mail: abe@waseda.jp, E-mail: hajime.13.gologo@akane.waseda.jp [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    We propose a simple but effective mechanism to realize an inflationary early universe consistent with the observed WMAP, Planck and/or BICEP2 data, which would be incorporated in various supersymmetric models of elementary particles constructed in the (effective) five-dimensional spacetime. In our scenario, the inflaton field is identified with one of the moduli appearing when the fifth direction is compactified, and a successful cosmological inflation without the so-called η problem can be achieved by a very simple moduli stabilization potential. We also discuss the related particle cosmology during and (just) after the inflation, such as the (no) cosmological moduli problem.

  15. Moduli spaces of cold holographic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammon, Martin; Jensen, Kristan; Kim, Keun-Young; Laia, João N.; O'Bannon, Andy

    2012-11-01

    We use holography to study (3 + 1)-dimensional {N}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU( N c ), in the large- N c and large-coupling limits, coupled to a single massless ( n + 1)-dimensional hypermultiplet in the fundamental representation of SU( N c ), with n = 3, 2, 1. In particular, we study zero-temperature states with a nonzero baryon number charge density, which we call holographic matter. We demonstrate that a moduli space of such states exists in these theories, specifically a Higgs branch parameterized by the expectation values of scalar operators bilinear in the hypermultiplet scalars. At a generic point on the Higgs branch, the R-symmetry and gauge group are spontaneously broken to subgroups. Our holographic calculation consists of introducing a single probe D p-brane into AdS 5 × {{{S}}^5} , with p = 2 n + 1 = 7, 5, 3, introducing an electric flux of the D p-brane worldvolume U(1) gauge field, and then obtaining explicit solutions for the worldvolume fields dual to the scalar operators that parameterize the Higgs branch. In all three cases, we can express these solutions as non-singular self-dual U(1) instantons in a four-dimensional space with a metric determined by the electric flux. We speculate on the possibility that the existence of Higgs branches may point the way to a counting of the microstates producing a nonzero entropy in holographic matter. Additionally, we speculate on the possible classification of zero-temperature, nonzero-density states described holographically by probe D-branes with worldvolume electric flux.

  16. Aspects of Moduli Stabilization in Type IIB String Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS. We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: m0=m1/2=-A0=m3/2, which may account for Higgs mass limit if m3/2~O(1.5 TeV. However, in this case, the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino cannot be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and Kähler inflation are analyzed. Finally, the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.

  17. Bounds on scalar masses in theories of moduli stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bobby Samir; Kane, Gordon; Kuflik, Eric

    2014-04-01

    In recent years it has been realized that pre-BBN decays of moduli can be a significant source of dark matter production, giving a "nonthermal WIMP miracle" and substantially reduced fine-tuning in cosmological axion physics. We study moduli masses and sharpen the claim that moduli dominated the pre-BBN universe. We conjecture that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order (or less than) the gravitino mass. Cosmology then generically requires the gravitino mass not be less than about 30 TeV and the cosmological history of the universe is nonthermal prior to BBN. Stable LSP's produced in these decays can account for the observed dark matter if they are "wino-like." We briefly consider implications for the LHC, rare decays, and dark matter direct detection and point out that these results could prove challenging for models attempting to realize gauge mediation in string theory.

  18. Supersymmetry Breaking due to Moduli Stabilization in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the phenomenological consequences of fixing compactification moduli. In the simplest KKLT constructions, stabilization of internal dimensions is rather soft: weak scale masses for moduli are generated, and are of order m_\\sigma ~ m_{3/2}. As a consequence one obtains a pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses found in gravity and/or anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) models. These models may lead to destabilization of internal dimensions in the early universe, unless the Hubble constant during inflation is very small. Fortunately, strong stabilization of compactified dimensions can be achieved by a proper choice of the superpotential (e.g in the KL model with a racetrack superpotential). This allows for a solution of the cosmological moduli problem and for a successful implementation of inflation in supergravity. We show that strong moduli stabilization leads a very distinct pattern of soft supersymmetry breaking masses. In general, we find that soft scalar masses remain of order ...

  19. Aspects of moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Khalil, Shaaban; Nassar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We review moduli stabilization in type IIB string theory compactification with fluxes. We focus on the KKLT and Large Volume Scenario (LVS). We show that the predicted soft SUSY breaking terms in KKLT model are not phenomenological viable. In LVS, the following result for scalar mass, gaugino mass, and trilinear term is obtained: $m_0 =m_{1/2}= - A_0=m_{3/2}$, which may account for Higgs mass limit if $m_{3/2} \\sim {\\cal O}(1.5)$ TeV. However, in this case the relic abundance of the lightest neutralino can not be consistent with the measured limits. We also study the cosmological consequences of moduli stabilization in both models. In particular, the associated inflation models such as racetrack inflation and K\\"ahler inflation are analyzed. Finally the problem of moduli destabilization and the effect of string moduli backreaction on the inflation models are discussed.

  20. Quantum Moduli Spaces of Linear and Ring Mooses

    CERN Document Server

    Hailu, G

    2003-01-01

    Quantum moduli spaces of four dimensional $SU(2)^{r}$ linear and ring mooses with $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetry and link chiral superfields in the fundamental representation are produced starting from simple pure gauge theories of disconnected nodes.

  1. Challenges for large-field inflation and moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Westphal, Alexander; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian; Heurtier, Lucien [CPhT, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Winkler, Martin Wolfgang [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.

    2015-01-15

    We analyze the interplay between Kaehler moduli stabilization and chaotic inflation in supergravity. While heavy moduli decouple from inflation in the supersymmetric limit, supersymmetry breaking generically introduces non-decoupling effects. These lead to inflation driven by a soft mass term, m{sup 2}{sub φ}∝mm{sub 3/2}, where m is a supersymmetric mass parameter. This scenario needs no stabilizer field, but the stability of moduli during inflation imposes a large supersymmetry breaking scale, m{sub 3/2}>>H, and a careful choice of initial conditions. This is illustrated in three prominent examples of moduli stabilization: KKLT stabilization, Kaehler Uplifting, and the Large Volume Scenario. Remarkably, all models have a universal effective inflaton potential which is flattened compared to quadratic inflation. Hence, they share universal predictions for the CMB observables, in particular a lower bound on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r>or similar 0.05.

  2. Moduli Spaces of Transverse Deformations of Near-Horizon Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Fontanella, A

    2016-01-01

    We investigate deformations of extremal near-horizon geometries in Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory, including various topological terms, and also in D=11 supergravity. By linearizing the field equations and Bianchi identities over the compact spatial cross-sections of the near-horizon geometry, we prove that the moduli associated with such deformations are constrained by elliptic systems of PDEs. The moduli space of deformations of near-horizon geometries in these theories is therefore shown to be finite dimensional.

  3. Moduli Spaces of Abelian Vortices on Kahler Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Baptista, J M

    2012-01-01

    We consider the self-dual vortex equations on a positive line bundle L --> M over a compact Kaehler manifold of arbitrary dimension. When M is simply connected, the moduli space of vortex solutions is a projective space. When M is an abelian variety, the moduli space is the projectivization of the Fourier-Mukai transform of L. We extend this description of the moduli space to general abelian GLSM, i.e. to vortex equations with a torus gauge group acting linearly on a complex vector space. In this case the vortex moduli space becomes a toric orbifold and a toric fibration over a cartesian product of Pic^0(M)'s, respectively. In all these examples we compute the Kaehler class of the natural L^2-metric on the moduli space. In the simplest examples we compute the volume and total scalar curvature of the muduli space. Finally, in the case of abelian GLSM, we note that the vortex moduli space is a compactification of the space of holomorphic maps from M to toric targets, just as in the usual case of M being a Riema...

  4. Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cicoli, Michele [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN sezione di Bologna,viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dutta, Koushik [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,1/AF Salt Lake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Maharana, Anshuman [Harish Chandra Research Intitute,Chattnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Quevedo, Fernando [Abdus Salam ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-03

    The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

  5. Moduli vacuum misalignment and precise predictions in string inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Koushik; Maharana, Anshuman; Quevedo, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    The predictions for all the cosmological observables of any inflationary model depend on the number of e-foldings which is sensitive to the post-inflationary history of the universe. In string models the generic presence of light moduli leads to a late-time period of matter domination which lowers the required number of e-foldings and, in turn, modifies the exact predictions of any inflationary model. In this paper we compute exactly the shift of the number of e-foldings in Kähler moduli inflation which is determined by the magnitude of the moduli initial displacement caused by vacuum misalignment and the moduli decay rates. We find that the preferred number of e-foldings gets reduced from 50 to 45, causing a modification of the spectral index at the percent level. Our results illustrate the importance of understanding the full post-inflationary evolution of the universe in order to derive precise predictions in string inflation. To perform this task it is crucial to work in a setting where there is good control over moduli stabilisation.

  6. Static and Dynamic Moduli of Malm Carbonate: A Poroelastic Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadegan, Alireza; Guérizec, Romain; Reinsch, Thomas; Blöcher, Guido; Zimmermann, Günter; Milsch, Harald

    2016-08-01

    The static and poroelastic moduli of a porous rock, e.g., the drained bulk modulus, can be derived from stress-strain curves in rock mechanical tests, and the dynamic moduli, e.g., dynamic Poisson's ratio, can be determined by acoustic velocity and bulk density measurements. As static and dynamic elastic moduli are different, a correlation is often required to populate geomechanical models. A novel poroelastic approach is introduced to correlate static and dynamic bulk moduli of outcrop analogues samples, representative of Upper-Malm reservoir rock in the Molasse basin, southwestern Germany. Drained and unjacketed poroelastic experiments were performed at two different temperature levels (30 and 60°C). For correlating the static and dynamic elastic moduli, a drained acoustic velocity ratio is introduced, corresponding to the drained Poisson's ratio in poroelasticity. The strength of poroelastic coupling, i.e., the product of Biot and Skempton coefficients here, was the key parameter. The value of this parameter decreased with increasing effective pressure by about 56 ~% from 0.51 at 3 MPa to 0.22 at 73 MPa. In contrast, the maximum change in P- and S-wave velocities was only 3 % in this pressure range. This correlation approach can be used in characterizing underground reservoirs, and can be employed to relate seismicity and geomechanics (seismo-mechanics).

  7. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southwest China: mass balance analysis and consumption back-calculated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Gao, Xu; Huang, Lei; Gan, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Chen, You-Peng; Peng, Xu-Ya; Guo, Jin-Song

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and fate of twenty-one pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) were investigated in different steps of the largest wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Southwest China. Concentrations of these PhACs were determined in both wastewater and sludge phases by a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that 21 target PhACs were present in wastewater and 18 in sludge. The calculated total mass load of PhACs per capita to the influent, the receiving water and sludge were 4.95mgd(-1)person(-1), 889.94μgd(-1)person(-1) and 78.57μgd(-1)person(-1), respectively. The overall removal efficiency of the individual PhACs ranged from "negative removal" to almost complete removal. Mass balance analysis revealed that biodegradation is believed to be the predominant removal mechanism, and sorption onto sludge was a relevant removal pathway for quinolone antibiotics, azithromycin and simvastatin, accounting for 9.35-26.96% of the initial loadings. However, the sorption of the other selected PhACs was negligible. The overall pharmaceutical consumption in Chongqing, China, was back-calculated based on influent concentration by considering the pharmacokinetics of PhACs in humans. The back-estimated usage was in good agreement with usage of ofloxacin (agreement ratio: 72.5%). However, the back-estimated usage of PhACs requires further verification. Generally, the average influent mass loads and back-calculated annual per capita consumption of the selected antibiotics were comparable to or higher than those reported in developed countries, while the case of other target PhACs was opposite.

  8. Moduli Space Dynamics of Noncommutative U(2) Instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Iskauskas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We consider the low energy dynamics of charge two instantons on noncommutative $\\mathbb{R}^{2}_{NC}\\times\\mathbb{R}^{2}_{NC}$ in U(2) 5-dimensional super-Yang-Mills, using the Manton approximation for slow-moving instantons to calculate the moduli space metric. By employing the ADHM construction, we are able to understand some aspects of the geometry and topology of the system. We also consider the effect of adding a potential to the moduli space, giving scattering results for noncommutative dyonic instantons.

  9. Polycrystalline gamma plutonium's elastic moduli versus temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Betts, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mielke, C H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, J N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ramos, M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stroe, I [WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline {sup 239}Pu in the {gamma} phase. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli were measured simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth, linear, and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. They calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519 K to 0.252 at 571 K. These measurements on extremely well characterized pure Pu are in agreement with other reported results where overlap occurs.

  10. Effective moduli of particulate solids: Lubrication approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, F.; Phan-Thien, N.; X. J. Fan

    To efficiently calculate the effective properties of a composite, which consists of rigid spherical inclusions not necessarily of the same sizes in a homogeneous isotropic elastic matrix, a method based on the lubrication forces between neighbouring particles has been developed. The method is used to evaluate the effective Lamé moduli and the Poisson's ratio of the composite, for the particles in random configurations and in cubic lattices. A good agreement with experimental results given by Smith (1975) for particles in random configurations is observed, and also the numerical results on the effective moduli agree well with the results given by Nunan & Keller (1984) for particles in cubic lattices.

  11. Stabilization of moduli in spacetime with nested warping

    CERN Document Server

    Arun, Mathew Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The absence, so far, of any graviton signatures at the LHC imposes severe constraints on the Randall-Sundrum scenario. Although a generalization to higher dimensions with nested warpings has been shown to avoid these constraints, apart from incorporating several other phenomenologically interesting features, moduli stabilization in such models has been an open question. We demonstrate here how both the moduli involved can be stabilized, employing slightly different mechanisms for the two branches of the theory. This also offers a dynamical mechanism to generate and stabilize the UED scale.

  12. The curious moduli spaces of unmarked Kleinian surface groups

    CERN Document Server

    Canary, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Fixing a closed hyperbolic surface S, we define a moduli space AI(S) of unmarked hyperbolic 3-manifolds homotopy equivalent to S. This 3-dimensional analogue of the moduli space M(S) of unmarked hyperbolic surfaces homeomorphic to S has bizarre local topology, possessing many points that are not closed. There is, however, a natural embedding of M(S) into AI(S) and a compactification of AI(S) such that this embedding extends to an embedding of the Deligne-Mumford compactification of M(S) into the compactification of AI(S).

  13. Moduli inflation with large scale structure produced by topological defects

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine; Umeda, H; Freese, Katherine; Gherghetta, Tony; Umeda, Hideyuki

    1996-01-01

    It is tempting to inflate along one of the many flat directions that arise in supersymmetric theories. The required flatness of the potential to obtain sufficient inflation and to not overproduce density fluctuations occurs naturally. However, the density perturbations (in the case of a single moduli field) that arise from inflaton quantum fluctuations are too small for structure formation. Here we propose that topological defects (such as cosmic strings), which arise during a phase transition near the end of moduli inflation can provide an alternative source of structure. The strings produced will be `fat', yet have the usual evolution by the time of nucleosynthesis. Possible models are discussed.

  14. Moduli rolling to a natural MSSM with gravitino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Otsuka, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    We propose the gravitino dark matter in the gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking scenario. The mass hierarchies between the gravitino and other superparticles can be achieved by the non-trivial K\\"ahler metric of the SUSY breaking field. As a concrete model, we consider the five-dimensional supergravity model in which moduli are stabilized, and then one of the moduli induces the slow-roll inflation. It is founded that the relic abundance of gravitino and the Higgs boson mass reside in the allowed range without a severe fine-tuning.

  15. Generalized Kähler Geometry of Instanton Moduli Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bursztyn, Henrique; Gualtieri, Marco; Cavalcanti, Gil R.

    2015-01-01

    We prove that Hitchin’s generalized Kähler structure on the moduli space of instantons over a compact, even generalized Kähler four-manifold may be obtained by generalized Kähler reduction, in analogy with the usual Kähler case. The underlying reduction of Courant algebroids is a realization of Dona

  16. Bounds on Scalar Masses in Theories of Moduli Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Bobby Samir; Kuflik, Eric

    2014-01-01

    In recent years it has been realised that pre-BBN decays of moduli can be a significant source of dark matter production, giving a `non-thermal WIMP miracle' and substantially reduced fine-tuning in cosmological axion physics. We study moduli masses and sharpen the claim that moduli dominated the pre-BBN Universe. We conjecture that in any string theory with stabilized moduli there will be at least one modulus field whose mass is of order (or less than) the gravitino mass and we prove this for a large class of models based on Calabi-Yau extra dimensions. Cosmology then generically requires the gravitino mass not be less than about 30 TeV and the cosmological history of the Universe is non-thermal prior to BBN. Stable LSP's produced in these decays can account for the observed dark matter if they are `wino-like,' which is consistent with the PAMELA data for positrons and antiprotons. With WIMP dark matter, there is an upper limit on the gravitino mass of order 250 TeV. We briefly consider implications for the ...

  17. Bohr--Sommerfeld Lagrangians of moduli spaces of Higgs bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Logares, Marina

    Let $X$ be a compact connected Riemann surface of genus at least two. Let $M_H(r,d)$ denote the moduli space of semistable Higgs bundles on $X$ of rank $r$ and degree $d$. We prove that the compact complex Bohr-Sommerfeld Lagrangians of $M_H(r,d)$ are precisely the irreducible components of the n...

  18. The Moduli Space in the Gauged Linear Sigma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Huijun; Ruan, Yongbin

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey article for the mathematical theory of Witten's Gauged Linear Sigma Model, as developed recently by the authors. Instead of developing the theory in the most general setting, in this paper we focus on the description of the moduli.

  19. Micromechanical study of elastic moduli of loose granular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.; Agnolin, I.; Luding, S.; Rothenburg, L.

    2010-01-01

    In micromechanics of the elastic behaviour of granular materials, the macro-scale continuum elastic moduli are expressed in terms of micro-scale parameters, such as coordination number (the average number of contacts per particle) and interparticle contact stiffnesses in normal and tangential direct

  20. On the possibility of large axion moduli spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudelius, Tom [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    We study the diameters of axion moduli spaces, focusing primarily on type IIB compactifications on Calabi-Yau three-folds. In this case, we derive a stringent bound on the diameter in the large volume region of parameter space for Calabi-Yaus with simplicial Kähler cone. This bound can be violated by Calabi-Yaus with non-simplicial Kähler cones, but additional contributions are introduced to the effective action which can restrict the field range accessible to the axions. We perform a statistical analysis of simulated moduli spaces, finding in all cases that these additional contributions restrict the diameter so that these moduli spaces are no more likely to yield successful inflation than those with simplicial Kähler cone or with far fewer axions. Further heuristic arguments for axions in other corners of the duality web suggest that the difficulty observed in http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1475-7516/2003/06/001 of finding an axion decay constant parametrically larger than M{sub p} applies not only to individual axions, but to the diagonals of axion moduli space as well. This observation is shown to follow from the weak gravity conjecture of http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2007/06/060, so it likely applies not only to axions in string theory, but also to axions in any consistent theory of quantum gravity.

  1. Moduli and (un)attractor black hole thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astefanesei, D.; Goldstein, K.D.; Mahapatra, S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate four-dimensional spherically symmetric black hole solutions in gravity theories with massless, neutral scalars non-minimally coupled to gauge fields. In the non-extremal case, we explicitly show that, under the variation of the moduli, the scalar charges appear in the first law of bla

  2. Infinitesimal moduli of G2 holonomy manifolds with instanton bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Larfors, Magdalena; Svanes, Eirik E.

    2016-11-01

    We describe the infinitesimal moduli space of pairs ( Y, V) where Y is a manifold with G 2 holonomy, and V is a vector bundle on Y with an instanton connection. These structures arise in connection to the moduli space of heterotic string compactifications on compact and non-compact seven dimensional spaces, e.g. domain walls. Employing the canonical G 2 cohomology developed by Reyes-Carrión and Fernández and Ugarte, we show that the moduli space decomposes into the sum of the bundle moduli {H}_{{overset{ěe }{d}}_A}^1(Y,End(V)) plus the moduli of the G 2 structure preserving the instanton condition. The latter piece is contained in {H}_{overset{ěe }{d}θ}^1(Y,TY) , and is given by the kernel of a map overset{ěe }{F} which generalises the concept of the Atiyah map for holomorphic bundles on complex manifolds to the case at hand. In fact, the map overset{ěe }{F} is given in terms of the curvature of the bundle and maps {H}_{overset{ěe }{d}θ}^1(Y,TY) into {H}_{{overset{ěe }{d}}_A}^2(Y,End(V)) , and moreover can be used to define a cohomology on an extension bundle of TY by End( V). We comment further on the resemblance with the holomorphic Atiyah algebroid and connect the story to physics, in particular to heterotic compactifications on ( Y, V) when α' = 0.

  3. Dislocations in inhomogeneous media via a moduli perturbation approach: General formulation and two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijun; Segall, Paul; Gao, Huajian

    1994-07-01

    Quasi-static elastic dislocations in a homogeneous elastic half-space are commonly used to model earthquake faulting processes. Recent studies of the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, and Loma Prieta, California, earthquakes suggest that spatial variations in elastic properties are necessary to reconcile geodetic and seismic results. In this paper, we use a moduli perturbation approach to investigate the effect of lateral and vertical variations in elastic properties on the elastic fields produced by dislocations. The method is simple, efficient, and in some cases leads to closed form solutions. The zero-order solution is simply the solution for a homogeneous body. The first-order correction for elastic heterogeneity is given by a volume integral involving the spatial variations in moduli, the displacements due to a dislocation in a homogeneous half-space, and the half-space Green's function. The same representation can be also used to obtain higher-order solutions. If there are only piecewise constant variations in shear modulus, the volume integral can be reduced to a surface integral (or line integral in two-dimensions). Comparisons with the analytical solutions for a screw dislocation in a layered medium suggest that the perturbation solutions are valid for nearly an order of magnitude variation in modulus. It is shown that a simple two-dimensional model with both vertical and lateral variations in the elastic properties may explain a large part of the discrepancy between seismic and geodetically inferred fault depths for the 1989 Kalapana, Hawaii, earthquake.

  4. Measurements of elastic moduli of silicone gel substrates with a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Edgar; Groisman, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the device to gels with elastic moduli in a range from 0.4 to 300 kPa that are all prepared by mixing two components of a transparent commercial silicone Sylgard 184. The elastic modulus is measured by tracking beads on the gel surface under a wide-field fluorescence microscope without any other specialized equipment. The measurements have small and simple to estimate errors and their results are confirmed by conventional tensile tests. A master curve is obtained relating the mixing ratios of the two components of Sylgard 184 with the resulting elastic moduli of the gels. The rigidity of the silicone gels is less susceptible to effects from drying, swelling, and aging than polyacrylamide gels and can be easily coated with fluorescent tracer particles and with molecules promoting cellular adhesion. This work can lead to broader use of silicone gels in the cell biology laboratory and to improved repeatability and accuracy of cell traction force microscopy and rigidity sensing experiments.

  5. Measurements of elastic moduli of silicone gel substrates with a microfluidic device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM. Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the device to gels with elastic moduli in a range from 0.4 to 300 kPa that are all prepared by mixing two components of a transparent commercial silicone Sylgard 184. The elastic modulus is measured by tracking beads on the gel surface under a wide-field fluorescence microscope without any other specialized equipment. The measurements have small and simple to estimate errors and their results are confirmed by conventional tensile tests. A master curve is obtained relating the mixing ratios of the two components of Sylgard 184 with the resulting elastic moduli of the gels. The rigidity of the silicone gels is less susceptible to effects from drying, swelling, and aging than polyacrylamide gels and can be easily coated with fluorescent tracer particles and with molecules promoting cellular adhesion. This work can lead to broader use of silicone gels in the cell biology laboratory and to improved repeatability and accuracy of cell traction force microscopy and rigidity sensing experiments.

  6. Probing the moduli dependence of refined topological amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Antoniadis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of providing a worldsheet description of the refined topological string, we continue the study of a particular class of higher derivative couplings Fg,n in the type II string effective action compactified on a Calabi–Yau threefold. We analyse first order differential equations in the anti-holomorphic moduli of the theory, which relate the Fg,n to other component couplings. From the point of view of the topological theory, these equations describe the contribution of non-physical states to twisted correlation functions and encode an obstruction for interpreting the Fg,n as the free energy of the refined topological string theory. We investigate possibilities of lifting this obstruction by formulating conditions on the moduli dependence under which the differential equations simplify and take the form of generalised holomorphic anomaly equations. We further test this approach against explicit calculations in the dual heterotic theory.

  7. No-scale D-term inflation with stabilized moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmüller, Wilfried, E-mail: wilfried.buchmueller@desy.de; Domcke, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de; Wieck, Clemens, E-mail: clemens.wieck@desy.de

    2014-03-07

    We study the consistency of hybrid inflation and moduli stabilization, using the Kallosh–Linde model as an example for the latter. We find that F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since inflationary trajectories are destabilized by tachyonic modes. On the other hand, D-term hybrid inflation is naturally compatible with moduli stabilization due to the absence of a large superpotential term during the inflationary phase. Our model turns out to be equivalent to superconformal D-term inflation and it therefore successfully accounts for the CMB data in the large-field regime. Supersymmetry breaking can be incorporated via an O'Raifeartaigh model. For GUT-scale inflation one obtains stringent bounds on the gravitino mass. A rough estimate yields 10{sup 5} GeV≲m{sub 3/2}≲10{sup 10} GeV, contrary to naive expectation.

  8. No-scale D-term inflation with stabilized moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Domcke, Valerie; Wieck, Clemens

    2013-09-15

    We study the consistency of hybrid inflation and moduli stabilization, using the Kallosh- Linde model as an example for the latter. We find that F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since inflationary trajectories are destabilized by tachyonic modes. On the other hand, D-term hybrid inflation is naturally compatible with moduli stabilization due to the absence of a large superpotential term during the inflationary phase. Our model turns out to be equivalent to superconformal D-term inflation and it therefore successfully accounts for the CMB data in the large-field regime. Supersymmetry breaking can be incorporated via an O'Raifeartaigh model. For GUT-scale inflation one obtains a stringent bound on the gravitino mass. A rough estimate yields m{sub 3/2}>or similar 10{sup 5} GeV, contrary to naive expectation.

  9. The Coulomb Branch Formula for Quiver Moduli Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manschot, Jan; Sen, Ashoke

    2014-01-01

    In recent series of works, by translating properties of multi-centered supersymmetric black holes into the language of quiver representations, we proposed a formula that expresses the Hodge numbers of the moduli space of semi-stable representations of quivers with generic superpotential in terms of a set of invariants associated to `single-centered' or `pure-Higgs' states. The distinguishing feature of these invariants is that they are independent of the choice of stability condition. Furthermore they are uniquely determined by the $\\chi_y$-genus of the moduli space. Here, we provide a self-contained summary of the Coulomb branch formula, spelling out mathematical details but leaving out proofs and physical motivations.

  10. M-theory moduli spaces and torsion-free structures

    CERN Document Server

    Graña, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the description of $\\mathcal{N}=1$ M-theory compactifications to four-dimensions given by Exceptional Generalized Geometry, we propose a way to geometrize the M-theory fluxes by appropriately relating the compactification space to a higher-dimensional manifold equipped with a torsion-free structure. As a non-trivial example of this proposal, we construct a bijection from the set of $Spin(7)$-structures on an eight-dimensional $S^{1}$-bundle to the set of $G_{2}$-structures on the base space, fully characterizing the $G_{2}$-torsion clases when the total space is equipped with a torsion-free $Spin(7)$-structure. Finally, we elaborate on how the higher-dimensional manifold and its moduli space of torsion-free structures can be used to obtain information about the moduli space of M-theory compactifications.

  11. M-theory moduli spaces and torsion-free structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, Mariana; Shahbazi, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the description of M-theory compactifications to four-dimensions given by Exceptional Generalized Geometry, we propose a way to geometrize the M-theory fluxes by appropriately relating the compactification space to a higher-dimensional manifold equipped with a torsion-free structure. As a non-trivial example of this proposal, we construct a bijection from the set of Spin(7)-structures on an eight-dimensional S 1-bundle to the set of G 2-structures on the base space, fully characterizing the G 2-torsion clases when the total space is equipped with a torsion-free Spin(7)-structure. Finally, we elaborate on how the higher-dimensional manifold and its moduli space of torsion-free structures can be used to obtain information about the moduli space of M-theory compactifications.

  12. Quiver Theories for Moduli Spaces of Classical Group Nilpotent Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay

    2016-01-01

    We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of their moduli spaces, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKahler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for ...

  13. Moduli of Decorated Swamps on a Smooth Projective Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Nikolai

    2014-01-01

    In order to unify the construction of the moduli space of vector bundles with different types of global decorations, such as Higgs bundles, framed vector bundles and conic bundles, A. Schmitt introduced the concept of a swamp. In this work, we consider vector bundles with both a global and a local decoration over a fixed point of the base. This generalizes the notion of parabolic vector bundles, vector bundles with a level structure and parabolic Higgs bundles. We introduce a notion of stabil...

  14. Moduli spaces of Dirac operators for finite spectral triples

    CERN Document Server

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2009-01-01

    The structure theory of finite real spectral triples developed by Krajewski and by Paschke and Sitarz is generalised to allow for arbitrary KO-dimension and the failure of orientability and Poincare duality, and moduli spaces of Dirac operators for such spectral triples are defined and studied. This theory is then applied to recent work by Chamseddine and Connes towards deriving the finite spectral triple of the noncommutative-geometric Standard Model.

  15. Flavor structure with multi moduli in 5D SUGRA

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    We investigate 5-dimensional supergravity on S^1/Z_2 with a physical Z_2-odd vector multiplet, which yields an additional modulus other than the radion. We find additional terms in the 4-dimensional effective theory that are peculiar to the multi moduli case. Such terms can make the soft masses are non-tachyonic and almost flavor-universal at tree-level, in contrast to the single modulus case. This provides a new possibility to solve the SUSY flavor problem.

  16. Cohomology of mapping class groups and the abelian moduli space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Villemoes, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    We consider a surface Σ of genus g≥3 , either closed or with exactly one puncture. The mapping class group Γ of Σ acts symplectically on the abelian moduli space M=Hom(π 1 (Σ),U(1))=Hom(H 1 (Σ),U(1)) , and hence both L 2 (M) and C ∞ (M) are modules over Γ . In this paper, we prove that both...

  17. Bending elastic moduli of lipid bilayers : modulation by solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Duwe, H.P.; Kaes, J.; Sackmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    We present high precision measurements of the bending elastic moduli for bilayers of a variety of different lipids and of modifications of the flexural rigidity by solutes. The measurements are based on the Fourier analysis of thermally excited membrane undulations (vesicle shape fluctuations) using a recently developed dynamic image processing method. Measurements of the bending modulus as a function of the undulation wave vector provide information on the limitation of the excitations by th...

  18. From stringy particle physics to moduli stabilisation and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honecker, Gabriele [Institute for Physics (WA THEP) and Cluster of Excellence PRISMA, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Intersecting D6-branes provide a geometrically intuitive road to stringy particle physics models, where D6-branes stuck at orbifold singularities can lead to the stabilisation of deformation moduli, and the QCD axion can arise from the open string sector in a very constrained way compared to pure field theory. We demonstrate this interplay of different physical features here through an explicit model. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Picard Groups of the Moduli Spaces of Semistable Sheaves I

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle

    2004-05-01

    We compute the Picard group of the moduli space ′ of semistable vector bundles of rank and degree on an irreducible nodal curve and show that ′ is locally factorial. We determine the canonical line bundles of ′ and ′L, the subvariety consisting of vector bundles with a fixed determinant. For rank 2, we compute the Picard group of other strata in the compactification of ′.

  20. Elastic moduli and crosslinking of some tellurite glass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Mallawany, R., E-mail: raoufelmallawany@Yahoo.com [Physics Dept., Science College, Northern Boarders University (Saudi Arabia); Afifi, H. [National Institute for Standards, Giza (Egypt)

    2013-12-16

    Tellurite glass systems in the form 80(TeO{sub 2})–5(TiO{sub 2})–(15 − x)(WO{sub 3})–(x)A{sub n}O{sub m} have been prepared by the melt quenching technique. The A{sub n}O{sub m} oxide was Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} or Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and x ≤ 5 mol%. Density and Molar volume have been determined for the prepared glasses. Both longitudinal and shear ultrasonic velocities were measured in different compositions of the glass system by using the pulse-echo method at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature. Ultrasonic velocity and density data have been used to calculate elastic moduli (longitudinal modulus L, shear modulus G, Young's modulus E, Bulk modulus K), Poisson's ratio σ, and Debye temperature θ{sub D}. Quantitative analysis of elastic moduli based on the number of bonds per unit volume, average crosslinks and number of vibrating atoms per unit volume has been achieved. - Highlights: • Tellurite glasses. • Elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, Debye temperature, microhardness. • Number of bonds per unit volume, average crosslinks, number of vibrating atoms per unit volume.

  1. Back-calculation method shows that within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H7N7) virus in the Netherlands is not influenced by housing risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Marian E H; Nielen, Mirjam; Koch, Guus; Bouma, Annemarie; De Jong, Mart C M; Stegeman, Arjan

    2009-04-01

    To optimize control of an avian influenza outbreak knowledge of within-flock transmission is needed. This study used field data to estimate the transmission rate parameter (beta) and the influence of risk factors on within-flock transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H7N7 virus in the 2003 epidemic in The Netherlands. The estimation is based on back-calculation of daily mortality data to fit a susceptible-infectious-dead format, and these data were analysed with a generalized linear model. This back-calculation method took into account the uncertainty of the length of the latent period, the survival of an infection by some birds and the influence of farm characteristics. After analysing the fit of the different databases created by back-calculation, it could be concluded that an absence of the latency period provided the best fit. The transmission rate parameter (beta) from these field data was estimated at 4.50 per infectious chicken per day (95% CI: 2.68-7.57), which was lower than what was reported from experimental data. In contrast to general belief, none of the studied risk factors (housing system, flock size, species, age of the birds in weeks and date of depopulation) had significant influence on the estimated beta.

  2. Geometry of moduli stacks of (k , l) -stable vector bundles over algebraic curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Gutiérrez, O.; Neumann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    We study the geometry of the moduli stack of vector bundles of fixed rank and degree over an algebraic curve by introducing a filtration made of open substacks build from (k , l) -stable vector bundles. The concept of (k , l) -stability was introduced by Narasimhan and Ramanan to study the geometry of the coarse moduli space of stable bundles. We will exhibit the stacky picture and analyse the geometric and cohomological properties of the moduli stacks of (k , l) -stable vector bundles. For particular pairs (k , l) of integers we also show that these moduli stacks admit coarse moduli spaces and we discuss their interplay.

  3. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Zhimin; Li, Sean

    2011-03-22

    The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T) and thickness (h)-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h) is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS) thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h) decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*), at which thickness Ef(T,h) deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  4. Ultrasonic velocity and elastic moduli of heavy metal tellurite glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, Hesham; Marzouk, Samier

    2003-05-26

    Longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic waves velocities in lead tungsten tellurite glasses have been measured using the pulse-echo method at 5 MHz frequency and at room temperature (300 K). The elastic properties; longitudinal modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio together with the microhardness, softening temperature, and Debye temperature are found to be rather sensitive to the glass composition. Information about the structure of the glass can be deduced after calculating the average stretching force constant and the average ring size. A comparison between the experimental elastic moduli data obtained in this study and those calculated theoretically by other models has been discussed.

  5. Using Ultrasonic Lamb Waves To Measure Moduli Of Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements of broad-band ultrasonic Lamb waves in plate specimens of ceramic-matrix/fiber and metal-matrix/fiber composite materials used to determine moduli of elasticity of materials. In one class of potential applications of concept, Lamb-wave responses of specimens measured and analyzed at various stages of thermal and/or mechanical processing to determine effects of processing, without having to dissect specimens. In another class, structural components having shapes supporting propagation of Lamb waves monitored ultrasonically to identify signs of deterioration and impending failure.

  6. Veronese geometry and the electroweak vacuum moduli space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui, E-mail: hey@maths.ox.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University, London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Jejjala, Vishnu, E-mail: vishnu@neo.phys.wits.ac.za [Centre for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Matti, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.Matti.1@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University, London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Nelson, Brent D., E-mail: b.nelson@neu.edu [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); ICTP, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)

    2014-09-07

    We explain the origin of the Veronese surface in the vacuum moduli space geometry of the MSSM electroweak sector. While this result appeared many years ago using techniques of computational algebraic geometry, it has never been demonstrated analytically. Here, we present an analytical derivation of the vacuum geometry of the electroweak theory by understanding how the F- and D-term relations lead to the Veronese surface. We moreover give a detailed description of this geometry, realising an extra branch as a zero-dimensional point when quadratic Higgs lifting deformations are incorporated into the superpotential.

  7. Electroweak Vacuum Stabilized by Moduli during/after Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the present electroweak vacuum is likely to be metastable and it may lead to a serious instability during/after inflation. We propose a simple solution to the problem of vacuum instability during/after inflation. If there is a moduli field which has Planck-suppressed interactions with the standard model fields, the Higgs quartic coupling in the early universe naturally takes a different value from the present one. A slight change of the quartic coupling in the early universe makes the Higgs potential absolutely stable and hence we are free from the vacuum instability during/after inflation.

  8. Electroweak vacuum stabilized by moduli during/after inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Yohei; Mukaida, Kyohei; Nakayama, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    It is known that the present electroweak vacuum is likely to be metastable and it may lead to a serious instability during/after inflation. We propose a simple solution to the problem of vacuum instability during/after inflation. If there is a moduli field which has Planck-suppressed interactions with the standard model fields, the Higgs quartic coupling in the early universe naturally takes a different value from the present one. A slight change of the quartic coupling in the early universe makes the Higgs potential absolutely stable and hence we are free from the vacuum instability during/after inflation.

  9. On some lattice computations related to moduli problems

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, A

    2010-01-01

    We show how to solve computationally a combinatorial problem about the possible number of roots orthogonal to a vector of given length in $E_8$. We show that the moduli space of K3 surfaces with polarisation of degree 2d is also of general type for d=52. This case was omitted from the earlier work of Gritsenko, Hulek and the second author. We also apply this method to some related problems. In Appendix A, V. Gritsenko shows how to arrive at the case d=52 and some others directly.

  10. Normal Functions and the Geometry of Moduli Spaces of Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Hain, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In this paper normal functions (in the sense of Griffiths) are used to solve and refine geometric questions about moduli spaces of curves. The first application is to a problem posed by Eliashberg: compute the class in the cohomology of M_{g,n}^c of the pullback of the zero section of the universal jacobian along the section that takes [C;x_1,...,x_n] to Sum d_j x_j in Jac (C), where d_1 + ... + d_n = 0. The second application is to slope inequalities of the type discovered by Moriwaki. There is also a discussion of height jumping and its relevance to slope inequalilties.

  11. Non-minimal gauge mediation and moduli stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelinski, T.; Lalak, Z. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Pawelczyk, J., E-mail: jacek.pawelczyk@fuw.edu.p [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-05-31

    In this Letter we consider U(1){sub A}-gauged Polonyi model with two spurions coupled to a twisted closed string modulus. This offers a consistent setup for metastable SUSY breakdown which allows for moduli stabilization and naturally leads to gauge or hybrid gauge/gravitational mediation mechanism. Due to the presence of the second spurion one can arrange for a solution of the {mu} and B{sub {mu}}problems in a version of modified Giudice-Masiero mechanism, which works both in the limit of pure gauge mediation and in the mixed regime of hybrid mediation.

  12. An Efficient Reverse Converter for The New High Dynamic Range 5-Moduli Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Lv

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient residue to binary converter design for the new high dynamic range moduli set {2n-1,2n+1,22n,22n+1,22n-1-1} is presented. The reverse conversion in the four-moduli set {22n, 22n+1, 2n+1, 2n-1} has been proposed in literature. Hence, the converters are based on the new moduli set {22n-1-1, (2n-1(2n+1(22n+122n} and propose its residue to binary converter using New Chinese Remainder Theorem 2 ( New CRT 2. The new moduli set is proposed with a dynamic range 8n-1 bits and has the same features of the popular one. When compared to the common five moduli reverse converters, this enhanced moduli set has more dynamic range, and it useful for high performance computing.

  13. A Novel Three-Moduli Set and its Associated Arithmetic Residue to Binary Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Lotfinejad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Residue number system (RNS is a non-weighted and carry-free number system which is suitable for high speed and parallel arithmetic operations. The complexity and efficiency of RNS arithmetic hardware design are highly influenced by two critical issues including ithe selected moduli set and iithe residue to binary conversion algorithm. In this paper we propose a new three-moduli set {22n-1, 2n+1, 2n-1} and then introduce a cost-efficient and a speed-efficient residue to binary converters for the proposed moduli set. The proposed moduli set consists of pair wise relatively prime and balanced moduli, which can offer fast internal RNS processing and efficient implementation of the residue to binary converter. The proposed residue to binary converters are memory less and consist of adders. In comparison with other residue to binary converters for a three-moduli set, the proposed converters have better area-time complexity.

  14. On the consistency of complex moduli for transversely-isotropic viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesieutre, George A.

    The ability of advanced composite materials and structures to damp vibration is important in many applications. Use of the complex modulus approach to represent the dissipative properties of transversely-isotropic materials, such as unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites, requires the definition of a set of 5 (imaginary) loss moduli in addition to the 5 (real) storage moduli needed to describe the elastic behavior. In practice, designers of composite materials rarely have experimental data for all 5 loss moduli, and must assume values for the remaining moduli in their analyses. If values for these unknown loss moduli are specified arbitrarily, physically unreasonable behavior can result. This paper develops the conditions necessary for physical consistency of the complex moduli of transversely isotropic materials.

  15. Dilaton and Moduli Fields in D-term inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, T; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Seto, Osamu

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of $D$-term inflation within the framework of type I string-inspired models. Although $D$-term inflation model has the excellent property that it is free from the so-called $\\eta$- problem, two serious problems appear when we embed $D$-term inflation in string theory, the magnitude of FI term and the rolling motion of the dilation. In the present paper, we analyze the potential of $D$-term inflation in type I inspired models and study the behavior of dilaton and twisted moduli fields. Adopting the non-perturbative superpotential induced by gaugino condensation, the twisted moduli can be stabilized. If the dilaton is in a certain range, it evolves very slowly and does not run away to infinity. Thus $D$-term dominated vacuum energy becomes available for driving inflation. By studying the density perturbation generated by the inflation model, we derive the constraints on model parameters and give some implications on $D$-term inflation in type I inspired models.

  16. Moduli Stabilisation with Nilpotent Goldstino: Vacuum Structure and SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Luis; Valandro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    We study the effective field theory of KKLT and LVS moduli stabilisation scenarios coupled to an anti-D3-brane at the tip of a warped throat. We describe the presence of the anti-brane in terms of a nilpotent goldstino superfield in a supersymmetric effective field theory. The introduction of this superfield produces a term that can lead to a de Sitter minimum. We fix the Kaehler moduli dependence of the nilpotent field couplings by matching this term with the anti-D3-brane uplifting contribution. The main result of this paper is the computation, within this EFT, of the soft supersymmetry breaking terms in both KKLT and LVS for matter living on D3-brane (leaving the D7-brane analysis to an appendix). A handful of distinct phenomenological scenarios emerge that could have low energy implications, most of them having a split spectrum of soft masses. Some cosmological and phenomenological properties of these models are discussed. We also check that the attraction between the D3-brane and the anti-D3-brane does n...

  17. On Natural Inflation and Moduli Stabilisation in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palti, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Natural inflation relies on the existence of an axion decay constant which is super-Planckian. In string theory only sub-Planckian axion decay constants have been found in any controlled regime. However in field theory it is possible to generate an enhanced super-Planckian decay constant by an appropriate aligned mixing between axions with individual sub-Planckian decay constants. We study the possibility of such a mechanism in string theory. In particular we construct a new realisation of an alignment scenario in type IIA string theory compactifications on a Calabi-Yau where the alignment is induced through fluxes. Within field theory the original decay constants are taken to be independent of the parameters which induce the alignment. In string theory however they are moduli dependent quantities and so interact gravitationally with the physics responsible for the mixing. We show that this gravitational effect of the fluxes on the moduli can precisely cancel any enhancement of the effective decay constant. T...

  18. Moduli instability in warped compactification - 4D effective theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    Arroja, F; Arroja, Frederico; Koyama, Kazuya

    2006-01-01

    We consider a 5D BPS dilatonic two brane model which reduces to the Randall-Sundrum model or the Horava-Witten theory for a particular choice of parameters. Recently new dynamical solutions were found by Chen et al., which describe a moduli instability of the warped geometry. Using a 4D effective theory derived by solving the 5D equations of motion, based on the gradient expansion method, we show that the exact solution of Chen et. al. can be reproduced within the 4D effective theory and we identify the origin of the moduli instability. We revisit the gradient expansion method with a new metric ansatz to clarify why the 4D effective theory solution can be lifted back to an exact 5D solution. Finally we argue against a recent claim that the 4D effective theory allows a much wider class of solutions than the 5D theory and provide a way to lift solutions in the 4D effective theory to 5D solutions perturbatively in terms of small velocities of the branes.

  19. Moduli of K3 Surfaces and Irreducible Symplectic Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V; Sankaran, G K

    2010-01-01

    The name "K3 surfaces" was coined by A. Weil in 1957 when he formulated a research programme for these surfaces and their moduli. Since then, irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds have been introduced as a higher dimensional analogue of K3 surfaces. In this paper we present a review of this theory starting from the definition of K3 surfaces and going as far as the global Torelli theorem for irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds as recently proved by M. Verbitsky. For many years the last open question of Weil's programme was that of the geometric type of the moduli spaces of polarised K3 surfaces. We explain how this problem has been solved. Our method uses algebraic geometry, modular forms and Borcherds automorphic products. We collect and discuss the relevant facts from the theory of modular forms with respect to the orthogonal group O(2,n). We also give a detailed description of quasi pull-back of automorphic Borcherds products. This part contains previously unpublished results. We apply our g...

  20. Quiver theories for moduli spaces of classical group nilpotent orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanany, Amihay; Kalveks, Rudolph

    2016-06-01

    We approach the topic of Classical group nilpotent orbits from the perspective of the moduli spaces of quivers, described in terms of Hilbert series and generating functions. We review the established Higgs and Coulomb branch quiver theory constructions for A series nilpotent orbits. We present systematic constructions for BCD series nilpotent orbits on the Higgs branches of quiver theories defined by canonical partitions; this paper collects earlier work into a systematic framework, filling in gaps and providing a complete treatment. We find new Coulomb branch constructions for above minimal nilpotent orbits, including some based upon twisted affine Dynkin diagrams. We also discuss aspects of 3 d mirror symmetry between these Higgs and Coulomb branch constructions and explore dualities and other relationships, such as HyperKähler quotients, between quivers. We analyse all Classical group nilpotent orbit moduli spaces up to rank 4 by giving their unrefined Hilbert series and the Highest Weight Generating functions for their decompositions into characters of irreducible representations and/or Hall Littlewood polynomials.

  1. On the permutation combinatorics of worldsheet moduli space

    CERN Document Server

    Freidel, Laurent; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2014-01-01

    Light-cone string diagrams have been used to reproduce the orbifold Euler characteristic of moduli spaces of punctured Riemann surfaces at low genus and with few punctures. Nakamura studied the meromorphic differential introduced by Giddings and Wolpert to characterise light-cone diagrams and introduced a class of graphs related to this differential. These Nakamura graphs were used to parametrise the cells in a light-cone cell decomposition of moduli space. We develop links between Nakamura graphs and realisations of the worldsheet as branched covers. This leads to a development of the combinatorics of Nakamura graphs in terms of permutation tuples. For certain classes of cells, including those of top dimension, there is a simple relation to Belyi maps, which allows us to use results from Hermitian and complex matrix models to give analytic formulae for the counting of cells at arbitrarily high genus. For the most general cells, we develop a new equivalence relation on Hurwitz classes which organises the cell...

  2. The Lie group of automorphisms of a Courant algebroid and the moduli space of generalized metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Roberto; Tipler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    We endow the group of automorphisms of an exact Courant algebroid over a compact manifold with an infinite dimensional Lie group structure modelled on the inverse limit of Hilbert spaces (ILH). We prove a slice theorem for the action of this Lie group on the space of generalized metrics. As an application, we show that the moduli space of generalized metrics is stratified by ILH submanifolds. Finally, we relate the moduli space of generalized metrics to the moduli space of usual metrics.

  3. Reheating constraints on K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kabir, R; Lohiya, D

    2016-01-01

    The end of inflation is connected to the standard cosmological scenario through reheating. During reheating, the inflaton oscillates around the minimum of the potential and thus decays into the daughter particles that populate the Universe at later times. Using cosmological evolution for observable CMB scales from the time of Hubble crossing to the present time, we translate the constraint on the spectral index $n_s$ from Planck data to the constraint on the reheating scenario in the context of K\\"ahler Moduli Inflation. In addition, we extend the de-facto analysis generally done only for the pivot scale to all the observable scales which crossed the Hubble radius during inflation. We study how the maximum number of e-folds varies for different scales, and the effect of the equation of state and potential parameters.

  4. Dynamics of moduli and gaugino condensates in an expanding universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papineau, C.; Ramos-Sanchez, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, M. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    We study dynamical moduli stabilization driven by gaugino condensation in supergravity. In the presence of background radiation, there exists a region of initial conditions leading to successful stabilization. We point out that most of the allowed region corresponds to initial Hubble rate H close to the scale of condensation {lambda}, which is the natural cutoff of the effective theory. We first show that including the condensate dynamics sets a strong bound on the initial conditions. We then find that (complete) decoupling of the condensate happens at H about two orders of magnitude below {lambda}. This bound implies that in the usual scenario with the condensate integrated out, only the vicinity of the minimum leads to stabilization. Finally, we discuss the effects of thermal corrections. (orig.)

  5. Heavy Tails in Calabi-Yau Moduli Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cody; McGuirk, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We study the statistics of the metric on K\\"ahler moduli space in compactifications of string theory on Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties. We find striking hierarchies in the eigenvalues of the metric and of the Riemann curvature contribution to the Hessian matrix: both spectra display heavy tails. The curvature contribution to the Hessian is non-positive, suggesting a reduced probability of metastability compared to cases in which the derivatives of the K\\"ahler potential are uncorrelated. To facilitate our analysis, we have developed a novel triangulation algorithm that allows efficient study of hypersurfaces with $h^{1,1}$ as large as 25, which is difficult using algorithms internal to packages such as Sage. Our results serve as input for statistical studies of the vacuum structure in flux compactifications, and of the distribution of axion decay constants in string theory.

  6. Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kounnas, Costas [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: costas.kounnas@lpt.ens.fr; Partouche, Herve [Centre de Physique Theorique, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau cedex (France)], E-mail: herve.partouche@cpht.polytechnique.fr

    2008-04-11

    We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a 'creation from nothing', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase.

  7. Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounnas, Costas; Partouche, Hervé

    2008-04-01

    We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. Depending on the parameters, either a first or second-order phase transition can occur. In the first case, an instanton allows a double analytic continuation. It induces a probability to enter the inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a “creation from nothing”, due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter may be viable in some range of the deformation parameter. In the second case, there is a smooth evolution from a big bang to the inflationary phase.

  8. Instanton transition in thermal and moduli deformed de Sitter cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kounnas, Costas

    2007-01-01

    We consider the de Sitter cosmology deformed by the presence of a thermal bath of radiation and/or time-dependent moduli fields. We find that an instanton allowing a double analytic continuation induces a probability to enter this inflationary evolution by tunnel effect from another cosmological solution. The latter starts with a big bang and, in the case the transition does not occur, ends with a big crunch. A temperature duality exchanges the two cosmological branches. In the limit where the pure de Sitter universe is recovered, the tunnel effect reduces to a ''creation from nothing'', due to the vanishing of the big bang branch. However, the latter happens to be viable in some range of the deformation parameters.

  9. Traces of Singular Moduli and Moonshine for the Thompson Group

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We describe a relationship between the representation theory of the Thompson sporadic group and a weakly holomorphic modular form of weight one-half that appears in work of Borcherds and Zagier on Borcherds products and traces of singular moduli. We conjecture the existence of an infinite dimensional graded module for the Thompson group and provide evidence for our conjecture by constructing McKay--Thompson series for each conjugacy class of the Thompson group that coincide with weight one-half modular forms of higher level. We also observe a discriminant property in this moonshine for the Thompson group that is closely related to the discriminant property conjectured to exist in Umbral Moonshine.

  10. Morphology and linear-elastic moduli of random network solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtrab, Susan; Kapfer, Sebastian C; Arns, Christoph H; Madadi, Mahyar; Mecke, Klaus; Schröder-Turk, Gerd E

    2011-06-17

    The effective linear-elastic moduli of disordered network solids are analyzed by voxel-based finite element calculations. We analyze network solids given by Poisson-Voronoi processes and by the structure of collagen fiber networks imaged by confocal microscopy. The solid volume fraction ϕ is varied by adjusting the fiber radius, while keeping the structural mesh or pore size of the underlying network fixed. For intermediate ϕ, the bulk and shear modulus are approximated by empirical power-laws K(phi)proptophin and G(phi)proptophim with n≈1.4 and m≈1.7. The exponents for the collagen and the Poisson-Voronoi network solids are similar, and are close to the values n=1.22 and m=2.11 found in a previous voxel-based finite element study of Poisson-Voronoi systems with different boundary conditions. However, the exponents of these empirical power-laws are at odds with the analytic values of n=1 and m=2, valid for low-density cellular structures in the limit of thin beams. We propose a functional form for K(ϕ) that models the cross-over from a power-law at low densities to a porous solid at high densities; a fit of the data to this functional form yields the asymptotic exponent n≈1.00, as expected. Further, both the intensity of the Poisson-Voronoi process and the collagen concentration in the samples, both of which alter the typical pore or mesh size, affect the effective moduli only by the resulting change of the solid volume fraction. These findings suggest that a network solid with the structure of the collagen networks can be modeled in quantitative agreement by a Poisson-Voronoi process.

  11. The Motive of the Moduli Stack of -Bundles over the Universal Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donu Arapura; Ajneet Dhillon

    2008-08-01

    We define relative motives in the sense of André. After associating a complex in the derived category of motives to an algebraic stack we study this complex in the case of the moduli of -bundles varying over the moduli of curves.

  12. Bagger-Witten line bundles on moduli spaces of elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, W

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss Bagger-Witten line bundles over moduli spaces of SCFTs. We review how in general they are `fractional' line bundles, not honest line bundles, twisted on triple overlaps. We discuss the special case of moduli spaces of elliptic curves in detail. There, the Bagger-Witten line bundles does not exist as an ordinary line bundle, but rather is necessarily fractional. As a fractional line bundle, it is nontrivial (though torsion) over the uncompactified moduli stack, and its restriction to the interior, excising corners with enhanced stabilizers, is also fractional. We review and compare to results of recent work arguing that well-definedness of the worldsheet metric implies that the Bagger-Witten line bundle is torsion, and give general arguments on the existence of universal structures on moduli spaces of SCFTs, in which superconformal deformation parameters are promoted to nondynamical fields ranging over the SCFT moduli space.

  13. Moduli of unramified irregular singular parabolic connections on a smooth projective curve

    CERN Document Server

    Inaba, Michi-aki

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we construct a coarse moduli scheme of stable unramified irregular singular parabolic connections on a smooth projective curve and prove that the constructed moduli space is smooth and has a symplectic structure. Moreover we will construct the moduli space of generalized monodromy data coming from topological monodromies, formal monodromies, links and Stokes data associated to the generic irregular connections. We will prove that for a generic choice of generalized local exponents, the generalized Riemann-Hilbert correspondence from the moduli space of the connections to the moduli space of the associated generalized monodromy data gives an analytic isomorphism. This shows that differential systems arising from (generalized) isomonodromic deformations of corresponding unramified irregular singular parabolic connections admit geometric Painlev\\'e property as in the regular singular cases proved generally in \\cite{Inaba-1}.

  14. Magnetic charge lattices, moduli spaces and fusion rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampmeijer, L. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: leo.kampmeijer@uva.nl; Slingerland, J.K. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, School for Theoretical Physics, 10 Burlington Rd, Dublin (Ireland)], E-mail: slingerland@stp.dias.ie; Schroers, B.J. [Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bernd@ma.hw.ac.uk; Bais, F.A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: bais@science.uva.nl

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the labelling and fusion properties of magnetic charge sectors consisting of smooth BPS monopoles in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with arbitrary gauge group G spontaneously broken to a subgroup H. The magnetic charges are restricted by a generalized Dirac quantization condition and by an inequality due to Murray. Geometrically, the set of allowed charges is a solid cone in the coroot lattice of G, which we call the Murray cone. We argue that magnetic charge sectors correspond to points in this cone divided by the Weyl group of H so that magnetic charge sectors are labelled by dominant integral weights of the dual group H*. We define generators of the Murray cone modulo Weyl group, and interpret the monopoles in the associated magnetic charge sectors as basic; monopoles in sectors with decomposable charges are interpreted as composite configurations. This interpretation is supported by the dimensionality of the moduli spaces associated to the magnetic charges and by classical fusion properties for smooth monopoles in particular cases. Throughout the paper we compare our findings with corresponding results for singular monopoles recently obtained by Kapustin and Witten.

  15. Roulette Inflation with K\\"ahler Moduli and their Axions

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, J R; Prokushkin, S F; Vaudrevange, P M

    2006-01-01

    We study 2-field inflation models based on the ``large-volume'' flux compactification of type IIB string theory. The role of the inflaton is played by a K\\"ahler modulus \\tau corresponding to a 4-cycle volume and its axionic partner \\theta. The freedom associated with the choice of Calabi Yau manifold and the non-perturbative effects defining the potential V(\\tau, \\theta) and kinetic parameters of the moduli bring an unavoidable statistical element to theory prior probabilities within the low energy landscape. The further randomness of (\\tau, \\theta) initial conditions allows for a large ensemble of trajectories. Features in the ensemble of histories include ``roulette tractories'', with long-lasting inflations in the direction of the rolling axion, enhanced in number of e-foldings over those restricted to lie in the \\tau-trough. Asymptotic flatness of the potential makes possible an eternal stochastic self-reproducing inflation. A wide variety of potentials and inflaton trajectories agree with the cosmic mic...

  16. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  17. An in situ estimation of anisotropic elastic moduli for a submarine shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas E.; Leaney, Scott; Borland, William H.

    1994-11-01

    Direct arrival times and slownesses from wide-aperture walkaway vertical seismic profile data acquired in a layered anisotropic medium can be processed to give direct estimate of the phase slowness surface associated with the medium at the depth of the receivers. This slowness surface can, in turn, be fit by an estimated transversely isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (a 'TIV' medium). While the method requires that the medium between the receivers and the surface be horizontally stratified, no further measurement or knowledge of that medium is required. When applied to data acquired in a compacting shale sequence (here termed the 'Petronas shale') encountered by a well in the South China Sea, the method yields an estimated TIV medium that fits the data extremely well over 180 deg of propagation angles sampled by 201 source positions. The medium is strongly anisotropic. The anisotropy is significantly anelliptic and implies that the quasi-shear mode should be triplicated for off-axis propagation. Estimated density-normalized moduli (in units of sq km/sq s) for the Petronas shale are A(sub 11) = 6.99 +/- 0.21, A(sub 33) = 5.53 +/- 0.17, A(sub 55) = 0.91 +/- 0.05, and A(sub 13) = 2.64 +/- 0.26. Densities in the logged zone just below the survey lie in the range between 2200 and 2400 kg/cu m with an average value close to 2300 kg/cu m.

  18. A Large Deformation Model for the Elastic Moduli of Two-dimensional Cellular Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guoming; WAN Hui; ZHANG Youlin; BAO Wujun

    2006-01-01

    We developed a large deformation model for predicting the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials. This large deformation model was based on the large deflection of the inclined members of the cells of cellular materials. The deflection of the inclined member, the strain of the representative structure and the elastic moduli of two-dimensional cellular materials were expressed using incomplete elliptic integrals. The experimental results show that these elastic moduli are no longer constant at large deformation, but vary significantly with the strain. A comparison was made between this large deformation model and the small deformation model proposed by Gibson and Ashby.

  19. On the Moduli Space of non-BPS Attractors for N=2 Symmetric Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    We study the ``flat'' directions of non-BPS extremal black hole attractors for N=2, d=4 supergravities whose vector multiplets' scalar manifold is endowed with homogeneous symmetric special Kahler geometry. The non-BPS attractors with non-vanishing central charge have a moduli space described by real special geometry (and thus related to the d=5 parent theory), whereas the moduli spaces of non-BPS attractors with vanishing central charge are certain Kahler homogeneous symmetric manifolds. The moduli spaces of the non-BPS attractors of the corresponding N=2, d=5 theories are also indicated, and shown to be rank-1 homogeneous symmetric manifolds.

  20. Shear moduli in bcc-fcc structure transition of colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongwei; Xu, Shenghua; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruzeng

    2015-10-14

    Shear moduli variation in the metastable-stable structure transition of charged colloidal crystals was investigated by the combination techniques of torsional resonance spectroscopy and reflection spectrometer. Modulus of the system increases with the proceeding of the transition process and it finally reaches the maximum value at the end of the transition. For colloidal crystals in stable state, the experimental moduli show good consistence with theoretical expectations. However, in the transition process, the moduli are much smaller than theoretical ones and this can be chalked up to crystalline imperfection in the transition state.

  1. Shear moduli in bcc-fcc structure transition of colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongwei; Xu, Shenghua; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruzeng

    2015-10-01

    Shear moduli variation in the metastable-stable structure transition of charged colloidal crystals was investigated by the combination techniques of torsional resonance spectroscopy and reflection spectrometer. Modulus of the system increases with the proceeding of the transition process and it finally reaches the maximum value at the end of the transition. For colloidal crystals in stable state, the experimental moduli show good consistence with theoretical expectations. However, in the transition process, the moduli are much smaller than theoretical ones and this can be chalked up to crystalline imperfection in the transition state.

  2. Elastic moduli and vibrational modes in jammed particulate packings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Silbert, Leonardo E.

    2016-06-01

    When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, nonaffine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus M , it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus MA, but also the nonaffine modulus MN that arises from the nonaffine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M =K ) and shear (M =G ) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ . The affine MA is determined essentially by the static structural arrangement of particles, whereas the nonaffine MN is related to the vibrational eigenmodes. We elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the nonaffine MN through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition φc, the vibrational density of states g (ω ) shows a plateau in the intermediate-frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω*. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g (ω ) is reflected in the behavior of MN: As φ →φc , where ω*→0 , those modes for ω ω* approach a constant value which results in MN to approach a critical value MN c, as MN-MN c˜ω* . At φc itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value Kc=KA c-KN c>0 , such that KN c has a value that remains below KA c. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus Gc, GN c and GA c approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, Gc=GA c-GN c=0 . We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such a distinction between K and G , allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values.

  3. Moduli for Decorated Tuples of Sheaves and Representation Spaces for Quivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexander Schmitt

    2005-02-01

    We extend the scope of a former paper to vector bundle problems involving more than one vector bundle. As the main application, we obtain the solution of the well-known moduli problems of vector bundles associated with general quivers.

  4. On Fluxed Instantons and Moduli Stabilisation in IIB Orientifolds and F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Thomas W; Palti, Eran; Weigand, Timo

    2011-01-01

    We study the superpotential induced by Euclidean D3-brane instantons carrying instanton flux, with special emphasis on its significance for the stabilisation of Kahler moduli and Neveu-Schwarz axions in Type IIB orientifolds. Quite generally, once a chiral observable sector is included in the compactification, arising on intersecting D7-branes with world-volume flux, resulting charged instanton zero modes prevent a class of instantons from participating in moduli stabilisation. We show that instanton flux on Euclidean D3-branes can remove these extra zero modes and helps in reinstating full moduli stabilisation within a geometric regime. We comment also on the F-theoretic description of this effect of alleviating the general tension between moduli stabilisation and chirality. In addition we propose an alternative solution to this problem based on dressing the instantons with charged matter fields which is unique to F-theory and cannot be realised in the weak coupling limit.

  5. A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenhagen, Ralph [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Font, Anamaría [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany); Fuchs, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Herschmann, Daniela, E-mail: herschma@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Plauschinn, Erik [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Sekiguchi, Yuta; Wolf, Florian [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.

  6. A flux-scaling scenario for high-scale moduli stabilization in string theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Blumenhagen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tree-level moduli stabilization via geometric and non-geometric fluxes in type IIB orientifolds on Calabi–Yau manifolds is investigated. The focus is on stable non-supersymmetric minima, where all moduli are fixed except for some massless axions. The scenario includes the purely axionic orientifold-odd moduli. A set of vacua allowing for parametric control over the moduli vacuum expectation values and their masses is presented, featuring a specific scaling with the fluxes. Uplift mechanisms and supersymmetry breaking soft masses on MSSM-like D7-branes are discussed as well. This scenario provides a complete effective framework for realizing the idea of F-term axion monodromy inflation in string theory. It is argued that, with all masses close to the Planck and GUT scales, one is confronted with working at the threshold of controlling all mass hierarchies.

  7. The tautological ring of the moduli space M_{2,n}^rt

    CERN Document Server

    Tavakol, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    We study the tautological ring of the moduli space of stable n-pointed curves of genus two with rational tails. The algebra is described in terms of explicit generators and relations. It is proven that this algebra is Gorenstein.

  8. Symplectic geometry of the moduli space of projective structures in homological coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Bertola, Marco; Norton, Chaya

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a natural symplectic structure on the moduli space of quadratic differentials with simple zeros and describe its Darboux coordinate systems in terms of so-called homological coordinates. We then show that this structure coincides with the canonical Poisson structure on the cotangent bundle of the moduli space of Riemann surfaces, and therefore the homological coordinates provide a new system of Darboux coordinates. We define a natural family of commuting "homological flows" on the moduli space of quadratic differentials and find the corresponding action-angle variables. The space of projective structures over the moduli space can be identified with the cotangent bundle upon selection of a reference projective connection that varies holomorphically and thus can be naturally endowed with a symplectic structure. Different choices of projective connections of this kind (Bergman, Schottky, Wirtinger) give rise to equivalent symplectic structures on the space of projective connections but different sym...

  9. BACK-CALCULATION OF ROCK SOCKET FRICTION FOR CONCRETE SHAFTS IN KARST%喀斯特地区嵌岩混凝土摩擦桩的反算(摘要)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅世龙; E.C. Drumm; 黄宝山; 何文斌; 左刚

    2005-01-01

    A 2.5 meter diameter 49 m long concrete shaft foundation socketed into rock was load tested with a system of balanced internal jacks similar to the O-cell test. This internal loading provided an examination of the skin friction response both above and below the load jack. Based on the observed response, the properties for the interface between the concrete and rock-socket were back-calculated. Since the observed side resistance at the interface was greater than the resistance due solely to friction, an apparent interface cohesion term was included by idealizing small asperities along the rock socket. The use of idealized asperities appears to be an effective way to model cohesion at the rock-concrete contact.

  10. Moduli spaces of polarised symplectic O'Grady varieties and Borcherds products

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsenko, V; Sankaran, G K

    2010-01-01

    We study moduli spaces of O'Grady's ten-dimensional irreducible symplectic manifolds. These moduli spaces are covers of modular varieties of dimension 21, namely quotients of hermitian symmetric domains by a suitable arithmetic group. The interesting and new aspect of this case is that the group in question is strictly bigger than the stable orthogonal group. This makes it different from both the K3 and the K3^[n] case, which are of dimension 19 and 20 respectively.

  11. Aligned Natural Inflation and Moduli Stabilization from Anomalous $U(1)$ Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tianjun; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V

    2014-01-01

    To obtain natural inflation with large tensor-to-scalar ratio in string framework, we need a special moduli stabilization mechanism which can separate the masses of real and imaginary components of K\\"ahler moduli at different scales, and achieve a trans-Planckian axion decay constant from sub-Planckian axion decay constants. In this work, we stabilize the matter fields by F-terms and the real components of K\\"ahler moduli by D-terms of two anomalous $U(1)_X\\times U(1)_A$ symmetries strongly at high scales, while the corresponding axions remain light due to their independence on the Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) term in moduli stabilization. The racetrack-type axion superpotential is obtained from gaugino condensations of the hidden gauge symmetries $SU(n)\\times SU(m)$ with massive matter fields in the bi-fundamental respresentations. The axion alignment via Kim-Nilles-Pelroso (KNP) mechanism corresponds to an approximate $S_2$ exchange symmetry of two K\\"ahler moduli in our model, and a slightly $S_2$ symmetry break...

  12. Experimentally-based multiscale model of the elastic moduli of bovine trabecular bone and its constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamed, Elham [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Novitskaya, Ekaterina, E-mail: eevdokim@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Li, Jun; Jasiuk, Iwona [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); McKittrick, Joanna [University of California, San Diego, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Program, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The elastic moduli of trabecular bone were modeled using an analytical multiscale approach. Trabecular bone was represented as a porous nanocomposite material with a hierarchical structure spanning from the collagen–mineral level to the trabecular architecture level. In parallel, compression testing was done on bovine femoral trabecular bone samples in two anatomical directions, parallel to the femoral neck axis and perpendicular to it, and the measured elastic moduli were compared with the corresponding theoretical results. To gain insights on the interaction of collagen and minerals at the nanoscale, bone samples were deproteinized or demineralized. After such processing, the treated samples remained as self-standing structures and were tested in compression. Micro-computed tomography was used to characterize the hierarchical structure of these three bone types and to quantify the amount of bone porosity. The obtained experimental data served as inputs to the multiscale model and guided us to represent bone as an interpenetrating composite material. Good agreement was found between the theory and experiments for the elastic moduli of the untreated, deproteinized, and demineralized trabecular bone. - Highlights: • A multiscale model was used to predict the elastic moduli of trabecular bone. • Samples included demineralized, deproteinized and untreated bone. • The model portrays bone as a porous, interpenetrating two phase composite. • The experimental elastic moduli for trabecular bone fell between theoretical bounds.

  13. Moduli Dark Matter and the Search for Its Decay Line using Suzaku X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    Light scalar fields called moduli arise from a variety of different models involving supersymmetry and/or string theory; thus their existence is a generic prediction of leading theories for physics beyond the standard model. They also present a formidable, long-standing problem for cosmology. We argue that an anthropic solution to the moduli problem exists in the case of small moduli masses and that it automatically leads to dark matter in the form of moduli. The recent discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson implies a lower bound on the moduli mass of about a keV. This form of dark matter is consistent with the observed properties of structure formation, and it is amenable to detection with the help of x-ray telescopes. We present the results of a search for such dark matter particles using spectra extracted from the first deep x-ray observations of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are darkmatter- dominated systems with extreme mass-to-light ratios and low intrinsic backgrounds. No emission line is positively detected, and we set new constraints on the relevant new physics.

  14. Measurements of Young's and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yuanye; Zhang, Haifeng; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Karim, Md Afzalul; Felix Wu, H

    2014-03-01

    The design and modelling of the buckling effect of Continuous Welded Rail (CWR) requires accurate material constants, especially at elevated temperatures. However, such material constants have rarely been found in literature. In this article, the Young's moduli and shear moduli of rail steel at elevated temperatures are determined by a new sonic resonance method developed in our group. A network analyser is used to excite a sample hanged inside a furnace through a simple tweeter type speaker. The vibration signal is picked up by a Polytec OFV-5000 Laser Vibrometer and then transferred back to the network analyser. Resonance frequencies in both the flexural and torsional modes are measured, and the Young's moduli and shear moduli are determined through the measured resonant frequencies. To validate the measured elastic constants, the measurements have been repeated by using the classic sonic resonance method. The comparisons of obtained moduli from the two methods show an excellent consistency of the results. In addition, the material elastic constants measured are validated by an ultrasound test based on a pulse-echo method and compared with previous published results at room temperature. The measured material data provides an invaluable reference for the design of CWR to avoid detrimental buckling failure.

  15. Neutrino Dark Energy and Moduli Stabilization in a BPS Braneworld Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Zanzi, A

    2006-01-01

    A braneworld model for neutrino Dark Energy (DE) is presented. We consider a five dimensional two-branes set up with a bulk scalar field motivated by supergravity. Its low-energy effective theory is derived with a moduli space approximation (MSA). The position of the two branes are parametrized by two scalar degrees of freedom (moduli). After detuning the brane tensions a classical potential for the moduli is generated. This potential is unstable for dS branes and we suggest to consider as a stabilizing contribution the Casimir energy of bulk fields. In particular we add a massive spinor (neutrino) field in the bulk and then evaluate the Casimir contribution of the bulk neutrino with the help of zeta function regularization techniques. We construct an explicit form of the 4D neutrino mass as function of the two moduli. To recover the correct DE scale for the moduli potential the usual cosmological constant fine-tuning is necessary, but, once accepted, this model suggests a stronger connection between DE and n...

  16. On Moduli Stabilisation and de Sitter Vacua in MSSM Heterotic Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Parameswaran, Susha L; Zavala, Ivonne

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of moduli stabilisation in explicit heterotic orbifold compactifications, whose spectra contain the MSSM plus some vector-like exotics that can be decoupled. Considering all the bulk moduli, we obtain the 4D low energy effective action for the compactification, which has contributions from various, computable, perturbative and non-perturbative effects. Hidden sector gaugino condensation and string worldsheet instantons result in a combination of racetrack, KKLT and cusp-form contributions to the superpotential, which lift all the bulk moduli directions. We point out the properties observed in our concrete models, which tend to be missed when only "generic" features of a model are assumed. We search for interesting vacua and find several de Sitter solutions, but -- so far -- they all turn out to be unstable.

  17. The moduli space of N=1 superspheres with tubes and the sewing operation

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Katrina

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of complex supergeometry and motivated by two-dimensional genus-zero holomorphic N=1 superconformal field theory, we define the moduli space of N=1 genus-zero super-Riemann surfaces with oriented and ordered half-infinite tubes, modulo superconformal equivalence. We define a sewing operation on this moduli space which gives rise to the sewing equation and normalization and boundary conditions. To solve this equation, we develop a formal theory of infinitesimal N=1 superconformal transformations based on a representation of the N=1 Neveu-Schwarz algebra in terms of superderivations. We solve a formal version of the sewing equation by proving an identity for certain exponentials of superderivations involving infinitely many formal variables. We use these formal results to give a reformulation of the moduli space, a more detailed description of the sewing operation, and an explicit formula for obtaining a canonical supersphere with tubes from the sewing together of two canonical superspheres...

  18. On moduli stabilisation and de Sitter vacua in MSSM heterotic orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameswaran, Susha L. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zavala, Ivonne [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Inst.

    2010-09-15

    We study the problem of moduli stabilisation in explicit heterotic orbifold compactifications, whose spectra contain the MSSM plus some vector-like exotics that can be decoupled. Considering all the bulk moduli, we obtain the 4D low energy effective action for the compactification, which has contributions from various, computable, perturbative and non-perturbative effects. Hidden sector gaugino condensation and string worldsheet instantons result in a combination of racetrack, KKLT and cusp-form contributions to the superpotential, which lift all the bulk moduli directions. We point out the properties observed in our concrete models, which tend to be missed when only ''generic'' features of a model are assumed. We search for interesting vacua and find several de Sitter solutions, but so far, they all turn out to be unstable. (orig.)

  19. Structural analyses of a rigid pavement overlaying a sub-surface void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fatih Alperen

    Pavement failures are very hazardous for public safety and serviceability. These failures in pavements are mainly caused by subsurface voids, cracks, and undulation at the slab-base interface. On the other hand, current structural analysis procedures for rigid pavement assume that the slab-base interface is perfectly planar and no imperfections exist in the sub-surface soil. This assumption would be violated if severe erosion were to occur due to inadequate drainage, thermal movements, and/or mechanical loading. Until now, the effect of erosion was only considered in the faulting performance model, but not with regards to transverse cracking at the mid-slab edge. In this research, the bottom up fatigue cracking potential, caused by the combined effects of wheel loading and a localized imperfection in the form of a void below the mid-slab edge, is studied. A robust stress and surface deflection analysis was also conducted to evaluate the influence of a sub-surface void on layer moduli back-calculation. Rehabilitative measures were considered, which included a study on overlay and fill remediation. A series regression of equations was proposed that provides a relationship between void size, layer moduli stiffness, and the overlay thickness required to reduce the stress to its original pre-void level. The effect of the void on 3D pavement crack propagation was also studied under a single axle load. The amplifications to the stress intensity was shown to be high but could be mitigated substantially if stiff material is used to fill the void and impede crack growth. The pavement system was modeled using the commercial finite element modeling program Abaqus RTM. More than 10,000 runs were executed to do the following analysis: stress analysis of subsurface voids, E-moduli back-calculation of base layer, pavement damage calculations of Beaumont, TX, overlay thickness estimations, and mode I crack analysis. The results indicate that the stress and stress intensity are, on

  20. Reciprocity between Moduli and Phases in Time-Dependent Wave-Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Englman, R; Bär, M

    1999-01-01

    For time (t) dependent wave functions we derive rigorous conjugate relations between analytic decompositions (in the complex t-plane) of the phases and of the log moduli. We then show that reciprocity, taking the form of Kramers-Kronig integral relations (but in the time domain), holds between observable phases and moduli in several physically important instances. These include the nearly adiabatic (slowly varying) case, a class of cyclic wave-functions, wave packets and non-cyclic states in an "expanding potential". The results exhibit the interdependence of geometric-phases and related decay probabilities. Several known quantum mechanical theories possess the reciprocity property obtained in the paper.

  1. Pressure derivatives of elastic moduli of fused quartz to 10 kb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.; Wilson, W.H.

    1967-01-01

    Measurements of the longitudinal and shear moduli were made on fused quartz to 10 kb at 24??5??C. The anomalous behavior of the bulk modulus K at low pressure, ???K ???P 0, at higher pressures. The pressure derivative of the rigidity modulus ???G ???P remains constant and negative for the pressure range covered. A 15-kb hydrostatic pressure vessel is described for use with ultrasonic pulse instrumentation for precise measurements of elastic moduli and density changes with pressure. The placing of the transducer outside the pressure medium, and the use of C-ring pressure seals result in ease of operation and simplicity of design. ?? 1967.

  2. Poincaré Polynomial of the Moduli Spaces of Parabolic Bundles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yogish I Holla

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we use Weil conjectures (Deligne's theorem) to calculate the Betti numbers of the moduli spaces of semi-stable parabolic bundles on a curve. The quasi parabolic analogue of the Siegel formula, together with the method of Harder-Narasimhan filtration gives us a recursive formula for the Poincaré polynomials of the moduli. We solve the recursive formula by the method of Zagier, to give the Poincaré polynomial in a closed form. We also give explicit tables of Betti numbers in small rank, and genera.

  3. The Determinant Bundle on the Moduli Space of Stable Triples over a Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; N Raghavendra

    2002-08-01

    We construct a holomorphic Hermitian line bundle over the moduli space of stable triples of the form (1, 2, ), where 1 and 2 are holomorphic vector bundles over a fixed compact Riemann surface , and : 2 → 1 is a holomorphic vector bundle homomorphism. The curvature of the Chern connection of this holomorphic Hermitian line bundle is computed. The curvature is shown to coincide with a constant scalar multiple of the natural Kähler form on the moduli space. The construction is based on a result of Quillen on the determinant line bundle over the space of Dolbeault operators on a fixed ∞ Hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemann surface.

  4. A Duality for Yang-Mills Moduli Spaces on Noncommutative Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Takai, H

    2004-01-01

    Studied are the moduli spaces of Yang-Mills connections on finitely generated projective modules associated with noncommutative flows. It is actually shown that they are homeomorphic to those on the dual modules associated with the dual noncommutative flows. Moreover the result is also affirmative in the case of multiflows. As an important application, computed are the moduli spaces of the instanton bundles over the noncommutative Euclidean 4-space with respect to the canonical action of space translations without using the ADHM-construction.

  5. Moduli Spaces of $J$-holomorphic Curves with General Jet Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the tagent map of the holomorphic $k$- jet evaluation $j^k_{hol}$ from the mapping space to holomorphic $k$-jet bundle, when restricted on the universal moduli space of simple J-holomorphic curves with one marked point, is surjective. From this we derive that for generic $J$, the moduli space of simple $J$-holomorphic curves in class $\\beta\\in H_2(M)$ with general jet constraints at marked points is a smooth manifold of expected dimension.

  6. Dimension of the moduli space and Hamiltonian analysis of BF field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R; Berra-Montiel, J

    2011-01-01

    By using the Atiyah-Singer theorem through some similarities with the instanton and the anti-instanton moduli spaces, the dimension of the moduli space for two and four-dimensional BF theories valued in different background manifolds and gauge groups scenarios is determined. Additionally, we develop Dirac's canonical analysis for a four-dimensional modified BF theory, which reproduces the topological YM theory. This framework will allow us to understand the local symmetries, the constraints, the extended Hamiltonian and the extended action of the theory.

  7. The information metric on the moduli space of instantons with global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Malek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we revisit Hitchin's prescription [1] of the Fisher metric as a natural measure on the moduli space of instantons that encodes the space–time symmetries of a classical field theory. Motivated by the idea of the moduli space of supersymmetric instantons as an emergent space in the sense of the gauge/gravity duality, we extend the prescription to encode also global symmetries of the underlying theory. We exemplify our construction with the instanton solution of the CPN sigma model on R2.

  8. Self-dual quiver moduli and orientifold Donaldson-Thomas invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the counting of BPS states in string theory with orientifolds, we study moduli spaces of self-dual representations of a quiver with contravariant involution. We develop Hall module techniques to compute the number of points over finite fields in moduli stacks of semistable self-dual representations. Wall-crossing formulas relate these counts for different choices of stability conditions. In particular cases, these formulas model the primitive wall-crossing of orientifold Donaldson-Thomas/BPS invariants suggested in the physics literature. In finite type examples, the wall-crossing can be understood as identities for quantum dilogarithms acting in representations of quantum tori.

  9. Moduli Evolution in the Presence of Matter Fields and Flux Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    van de Bruck, Carsten; Hall, Lisa M H

    2007-01-01

    We provide a detailed analysis of the dynamics of moduli fields in the KKLT scenario coupled to a Polonyi field, which plays the role of a hidden matter sector field. It was previously shown that such matter fields can uplift AdS vacua to Minkowski or de Sitter vacua. Additionally, we take a background fluid into account (which can be either matter or radiation), which aids moduli stabilisation. Our analysis shows that the presence of the matter field further aids stabilisation, due to a new scaling regime. We study the system both analytically and numerically.

  10. Lectures and notes: Mirzakhani's volume recursion and approach for the Witten-Kontsevich theorem on moduli tautological intersection numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    The materials accompany a lecture short course presented at the 2011 Park City Mathematics Institute, Graduate Summer School on Moduli Spaces of Riemann Surfaces. The lectures were part of/coordinated with an overall program, including lectures by Ursula Hamenstadt on Teichmueller Theory, Andy Putman on Mapping Class and Torelli Groups, and Carel Faber on Tautological algebras of Moduli Spaces.

  11. Hilbert series for moduli spaces of instantons on ℂ{sup 2}/ℤ{sub n}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Anindya [Theory Group and Texas Cosmology Center, Department of Physics,University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Mekareeya, Noppadol [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego [Department of Physics, Universidad de Oviedo,Avda. Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain); Seong, Rak-Kyeong [Theoretical Physics Group, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,85 Hoegi-ro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-31

    We study chiral gauge-invariant operators on moduli spaces of G instantons for any classical group G on A-type ALE spaces using Hilbert Series (HS). Moduli spaces of instantons on an ALE space can be realized as Higgs branches of certain quiver gauge theories which appear as world-volume theories on Dp branes in a Dp-D(p+4) system with the D(p+4) branes (with or without O(p+4) planes) wrapping the ALE space. We study in detail a list of quiver gauge theories which are related to G-instantons of arbitrary ranks and instanton numbers on a generic A{sub n−1} ALE space and discuss the corresponding brane configurations. For a large class of theories, we explicitly compute the Higgs branch HS which reveals various algebraic/geometric aspects of the moduli space such as the dimension of the space, generators of the moduli space and relations connecting them. In a large number of examples involving lower rank instantons, we demonstrate that HS for equivalent instantons of isomorphic gauge groups but very different quiver descriptions do indeed agree, as expected.

  12. Hilbert Series for Moduli Spaces of Instantons on C^2/Z_n

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Anindya; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Rodríguez-Gómez, Diego; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    We study chiral gauge-invariant operators on moduli spaces of G instantons for any classical group G on A-type ALE spaces using Hilbert Series (HS). Moduli spaces of instantons on an ALE space can be realized as Higgs branches of certain quiver gauge theories which appear as world-volume theories on Dp branes in a Dp-D(p+4) system with the D(p+4) branes (with or without O(p+4) planes) wrapping the ALE space. We study in detail a list of quiver gauge theories which are related to G-instantons of arbitrary ranks and instanton numbers on a generic A_{n-1} ALE space and discuss the corresponding brane configurations. For a large class of theories, we explicitly compute the Higgs branch HS which reveals various algebraic/geometric aspects of the moduli space such as the dimension of the space, generators of the moduli space and relations connecting them. In a large number of examples involving lower rank instantons, we demonstrate that HS for equivalent instantons of isomorphic gauge groups but very different quiv...

  13. On Rationality of Moduli Spaces of Vector Bundles on Real Hirzebruch Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; Ronnie Sebastian

    2013-05-01

    Let be a real form of a Hirzebruch surface. Let $M_H(r,c_1,c_2)$ be the moduli space of vector bundles on . Under some numerical conditions on $r,c_1$ and $c_2$, we identify those $M_H(r,c_1,c_2)$ that are rational.

  14. BPS/CFT correspondence II: Instantons at crossroads, Moduli and Compactness Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Nekrasov, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Gieseker-Nakajima moduli spaces $M_{k}(n)$ parametrize the charge $k$ noncommutative $U(n)$ instantons on ${\\bf R}^{4}$ and framed rank $n$ torsion free sheaves $\\mathcal{E}$ on ${\\bf C\\bf P}^{2}$ with ${\\rm ch}_{2}({\\mathcal{E}}) = k$. They also serve as local models of the moduli spaces of instantons on general four-manifolds. We study the generalization of gauge theory in which the four dimensional spacetime is a stratified space $X$ immersed into a Calabi-Yau fourfold $Z$. The local model ${\\bf M}_{k}({\\vec n})$ of the corresponding instanton moduli space is the moduli space of charge $k$ (noncommutative) instantons on origami spacetimes. There, $X$ is modelled on a union of (up to six) coordinate complex planes ${\\bf C}^{2}$ intersecting in $Z$ modelled on ${\\bf C}^{4}$. The instantons are shared by the collection of four dimensional gauge theories sewn along two dimensional defect surfaces and defect points. We also define several quiver versions ${\\bf M}_{\\bf k}^{\\gamma}({\\vec{\\bf n}})$ of ${\\bf M}_{k}...

  15. Moduli spaces for linear differential equations and the Painlev'e equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der; Saito, Masa-Hiko

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give a systematic construction of ten isomonodromic families of connections of rank two on P1 inducing Painlev´e equations. The classification of ten families is given by considering the Riemann-Hilbert morphism from a moduli space of connections with certain type of regular and ir

  16. On special geometry of the moduli space of string vacua with fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Boyu; Yang, Yanhong

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we construct a special geometry over the moduli space of type II string vacua with both NS and RR fluxes turning on. Depending on what fluxes are turning on we divide into three cases of moduli space of generalized structures. They are respectively generalized Calabi-Yau structures, generalized Calabi-Yau metric structures and ${\\cal N} =1$ generalized string vacua. It is found that the $d d^{\\cal J}$ lemma can be established for all three cases. With the help of the $d d^{\\cal J}$ lemma we identify the moduli space locally as a subspace of $d_{H}$ cohomologies. This leads naturally to the special geometry of the moduli space. It has a flat symplectic structure and a K$\\ddot{\\rm a}$hler metric with the Hitchin functional (modified if RR fluxes are included) the K$\\ddot{\\rm a}$hler potential. Our work is based on previous works of Hitchin and recent works of Gra$\\tilde{\\rm n}$a-Louis-Waldram, Goto, Gualtieri, Yi Li and Tomasiello. The special geometry is useful in flux compactifications of type I...

  17. The moduli space of sheaves and a generalization of MacMahon's formula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buryak, A.Y.

    2013-01-01

    M. Vuletic has recently found a two-parameter generalization of MacMahon’s formula. In this paper we show that the coefficients in her formula are the Betti numbers of certain subvarieties in the moduli space of sheaves on the projective plane.

  18. Moduli spaces of polarized irreducible symplectic manifolds are not necessarily connected

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolov, Apostol

    2011-01-01

    We show that the moduli space of polarized irreducible symplectic manifolds of $K3^{[n]}$-type, of fixed polarization type, is not always connected. This can be derived as a consequence of Eyal Markman's characterization of polarized parallel-transport operators of $K3^{[n]}$-type.

  19. Evolution of the effective moduli of an anisotropic, dense, granular material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Ragione, L.; Magnanimo, V.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of a dense granular aggregate made by identical, elastic spheres, uni-axially compressed at constant pressure. Our goal is to predict the evolution of the effective moduli along the loading path when small perturbations are applied to stressed states. The analytical model is

  20. Expansion of spherical cavity of strain-softening materials with different elastic moduli of tension and compression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An expansion theory of spherical cavities in strain-softening materials with different moduli of tension and compression was presented. For geomaterials, two controlling parameters were introduced to take into account the different moduli and strain-softening properties. By means of elastic theory with different moduli and stress-softening models, g. eneral solutions calculating Tresca and Mohr-Coulomb materials' stress and displacement fields of expansion of spherical cavity were derived. The effects caused by different elastic moduli in tensile and compression and strain-softening rates on stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone of expansion of cavity were analyzed. The results show that the ultimate expansion pressure,stress and displacement fields and development of plastic zone vary with the different elastic moduli and strain-softening properties. If classical elastic theory is adopted and strain-softening properties are neglected, rather large errors may be the result.

  1. Proposed moduli of dry rock and their application to predicting elastic velocities of sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    2005-01-01

    Velocities of water-saturated isotropic sandstones under low frequency can be modeled using the Biot-Gassmann theory if the moduli of dry rocks are known. On the basis of effective medium theory by Kuster and Toksoz, bulk and shear moduli of dry sandstone are proposed. These moduli are related to each other through a consolidation parameter and provide a new way to calculate elastic velocities. Because this parameter depends on differential pressure and the degree of consolidation, the proposed moduli can be used to calculate elastic velocities of sedimentary rocks under different in-place conditions by varying the consolidation parameter. This theory predicts that the ratio of P-wave to S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) of a dry rock decreases as differential pressure increases and porosity decreases. This pattern of behavior is similar to that of water-saturated sedimentary rocks. If microcracks are present in sandstones, the velocity ratio usually increases as differential pressure increases. This implies that this theory is optimal for sandstones having intergranular porosities. Even though the accurate behavior of the consolidation parameter with respect to differential pressure or the degree of consolidation is not known, this theory presents a new way to predict S-wave velocity from P-wave velocity and porosity and to calculate elastic velocities of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. For given properties of sandstones such as bulk and shear moduli of matrix, only the consolidation parameter affects velocities, and this parameter can be estimated directly from the measurements; thus, the prediction of S-wave velocity is accurate, reflecting in-place conditions.

  2. Metric of the SU(N) caloron moduli space and its relation to instantons

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, D; Diakonov, Dmitri; Gromov, Nikolay

    2005-01-01

    Calorons of the SU(N) gauge group with non-trivial holonomy, i.e. periodic instantons with arbitrary eigenvalues of the Polyakov line at spatial infinity, can be viewed as composed of N Bogomolnyi--Prasad--Sommerfeld (BPS) monopoles or dyons. We find the metric of the moduli space of the SU(N) calorons in terms of the constituent monopole positions and their U(1) phases. In the small temperature limit calorons reduce locally to the standard instantons with trivial holonomy, whose moduli space is usually written in terms of the instanton center, size and orientation in the color space. We show that these collective coordinates can be explicitly written through dyons positions and phases. We also check that the standard instanton measure coincides exactly with that of N dyons.

  3. Cosmological Moduli and the Post-Inflationary Universe: A Critical Review

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Gordon; Watson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    We critically review the role of cosmological moduli in determining the post-inflationary history of the universe. Moduli are ubiquitous in string and M-theory constructions of beyond the Standard Model physics, where they parametrize the geometry of the compactification manifold. For those with masses determined by supersymmetry breaking this leads to their eventual decay slightly before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (without spoiling its predictions). This results in a matter dominated phase shortly after inflation ends, which can influence baryon and dark matter genesis, as well as observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the growth of large-scale structure. Given progress within fundamental theory, and guidance from dark matter and collider experiments, non-thermal histories have emerged as a robust and theoretically well-motivated alternative to a strictly thermal one. We review this approach to the early universe and discuss both the theoretical challenges and the observational implications.

  4. N = 2 gauge theories, instanton moduli spaces and geometric representation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Richard J.

    2016-11-01

    We survey some of the AGT relations between N = 2 gauge theories in four dimensions and geometric representations of symmetry algebras of two-dimensional conformal field theory on the equivariant cohomology of their instanton moduli spaces. We treat the cases of gauge theories on both flat space and ALE spaces in some detail, and with emphasis on the implications arising from embedding them into supersymmetric theories in six dimensions. Along the way we construct new toric noncommutative ALE spaces using the general theory of complex algebraic deformations of toric varieties, and indicate how to generalize the construction of instanton moduli spaces. We also compute the equivariant partition functions of topologically twisted six-dimensional Yang-Mills theory with maximal supersymmetry in a general Ω-background, and use the construction to obtain novel reductions to theories in four dimensions.

  5. Intersection theory on moduli of disks, open KdV and Virasoro

    CERN Document Server

    Pandharipande, Rahul; Tessler, Ran J

    2014-01-01

    We define a theory of descendent integration on the moduli spaces of stable pointed disks. The descendent integrals are proved to be coefficients of the $\\tau$-function of an open KdV heirarchy. A relation between the integrals and a representation of half the Virasoro algebra is also proved. The construction of the theory requires an in depth study of homotopy classes of multivalued boundary conditions. Geometric recursions based on the combined structure of the boundary conditions and the moduli space are used to compute the integrals. We also provide a detailed analysis of orientations. Our open KdV and Virasoro constraints uniquely specify a theory of higher genus open descendent integrals. As a result, we obtain an open analog (governing all genera) of Witten's conjectures concerning descendent integrals on the Deligne-Mumford space of stable curves.

  6. Moduli dynamics as a predictive tool for thermal maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills at large N

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Takeshi; Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Maximally supersymmetric (p+1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory at large N and finite temperature, with possibly compact spatial directions, has a rich phase structure. Strongly coupled phases may have holographic descriptions as black branes in various string duality frames, or there may be no gravity dual. In this paper we provide tools in the gauge theory which give a simple and unified picture of the various strongly coupled phases, and transitions between them. Building on our previous work we consider the effective theory describing the moduli of the gauge theory, which can be computed precisely when it is weakly coupled far out on the Coulomb branch. Whilst for perturbation theory naive extrapolation from weak coupling to strong gives little information, for this moduli theory naive extrapolation from its weakly to its strongly coupled regime appears to encode a surprising amount of information about the various strongly coupled phases. We argue it encodes not only the parametric form of thermodynamic qua...

  7. Foliations on the moduli space of curves, vanishing in cohomology, and Calogero-Moser curves

    CERN Document Server

    Grushevsky, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Using meromorphic differentials with real periods, we show that a certain tautological homology class on the moduli space of smooth algebraic curves of genus g vanishes. The vanishing of the entire tautological ring for degree g-1 and higher, part of Faber's conjecture, is known in both homology and Chow --- it was proven by Looijenga, Ionel, and Graber-Vakil, and the class that we show vanishes is just one such tautological class. However, our approach, motivated by the Whitham perturbation theory of soliton equations, is completely new, elementary in the sense that no techniques beyond elementary complex analysis are used, and also leads to a natural non-speciality conjecture, which would imply many more vanishing results and relations among tautological classes. In the course of the proof we define and study foliations of the moduli space of curves constructed using periods of meromorphic differentials, in a way providing for meromorphic differentials a theory similar to that developed for abelian differen...

  8. $K$-theory of moduli spaces of sheaves and large Grassmannians

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We prove a theorem classifying the equivariant $K$-theoretic pushforwards of the product of arbitrary Schur functors applied to the tautological bundle on the moduli space of framed rank $r$ torsion-free sheaves on $\\mathbb{P}^2$, and its dual. This is done by deriving a formula for similar coefficients on Grassmannian varieties, and by thinking of the moduli space as a class in the $K$-theory of the Grassmannian, in analogy with the construction of the Hilbert scheme when the rank is one. Our motivations stem from some vertex operator calculus studied recently by Nekrasov, Okounkov, and the author when the rank is one, with applications to four-dimensional gauge theory.

  9. Tumbling through a landscape: Evidence of instabilities in high-dimensional moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian; Masoumi, Ali; Weinberg, Erick J; Xiao, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    We argue that a generic instability afflicts vacua that arise in theories whose moduli space has large dimension. Specifically, by studying theories with multiple scalar fields we provide numerical evidence that for a generic local minimum of the potential the usual semiclassical bubble nucleation rate, Gamma = A exp(-B), increases rapidly as function of the number of fields in the theory. As a consequence, the fraction of vacua with tunneling rates low enough to maintain metastability appears to fall as a double exponential of the moduli space dimension. We discuss possible implications for the landscape of string theory. Notably, if our results prove applicable to string theory, the landscape of metastable vacua would not contain sufficient diversity to offer a natural explanation of dark energy.

  10. Note on sufficient symmetry conditions for isotropy of the elastic moduli tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresselhaus, M.S.; Dresselhaus, G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-08-29

    Group theoretical methods are used to obtain the form of the elastic moduli matrices and the number of independent parameters for various symmetries. Particular attention is given to symmetry groups for which 3D and 2D isotropy is found for the stress-strain tensor relation. The number of independent parameters is given by the number of times the fully symmetric representation is contained in the direct product of the irreducible representations for two symmetrical second rank tensors. The basis functions for the lower symmetry groups are found from the compatibility relations and are explicitly related to the elastic moduli. These types of symmetry arguments should be generally useful in treating the elastic properties of solids and composites.

  11. Realistic D-Brane Models on Warped Throats: Fluxes, Hierarchies and Moduli Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Cascales, J F G; Quevedo, Fernando; Uranga, Angel M

    2004-01-01

    We describe the construction of string theory models with semirealistic spectrum in a sector of (anti) D3-branes located at an orbifold singularity at the bottom of a highly warped throat geometry, which is a generalisation of the Klebanov-Strassler deformed conifold. These models realise the Randall-Sundrum proposal to naturally generate the Planck/electroweak hierarchy in a concrete string theory embedding, and yielding interesting chiral open string spectra. We describe examples with Standard Model gauge group (or left-right symmetric extensions) and three families of SM fermions, with correct quantum numbers including hypercharge. The dilaton and complex structure moduli of the geometry are stabilised by the 3-form fluxes required to build the throat. We describe diverse issues concerning the stabilisation of geometric Kahler moduli, like blow-up modes of the orbifold singularities, via D term potentials and gauge theory non-perturbative effects, like gaugino condensation. This local geometry, once embedd...

  12. In Vivo Determination of the Complex Elastic Moduli of Cetacean Head Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Cetacean Head Tissue Peter H. Rogers & Michael D. Gray G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta...demonstrate a system for non-invasive in vivo measurement of the complex elastic moduli (stiffnesses and loss factors) of cetacean head soft tissues. This...objective of this project is to develop an ultrasound-based system for non-invasive determination of in vivo shear and bulk properties of cetacean soft

  13. A triangulation of a homotopy-Deligne-Mumford compactification of the Moduli of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Gadgil, Siddhartha

    2010-01-01

    We construct a triangulation of a compactification of the Moduli space of a surface with at least one puncture that is closely related to the Deligne-Mumford compactification. Specifically, there is a surjective map from the compactification we construct to the Deligne-Mumford compactification so that the inverse image of each point is contractible. In particular our compactification is homotopy equivalent to the Deligne-Mumford compactification.

  14. Global D-brane models with stabilised moduli and light axions

    CERN Document Server

    Cicoli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    We review recent attempts to try to combine global issues of string compactifications, like moduli stabilisation, with local issues, like semi-realistic D-brane constructions. We list the main problems encountered, and outline a possible solution which allows globally consistent embeddings of chiral models. We also argue that this stabilisation mechanism leads to an axiverse. We finally illustrate our general claims in a concrete example where the Calabi-Yau manifold is explicitly described by toric geometry.

  15. ON THE MODULI NUMBER OF PLANE CURVE SINGULARITIES WITH ONE CHARACTERISTIC PAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENHAO

    1999-01-01

    The author gives another linear-algebraic proof of the famous vesult of Zariski+ Delorme,Briancon-Granger-Maisonobe about the moduli number of plane curve mingularities with theswme topological type as Xa +Yb = 0 (i.e.,with one characteristic pair), Since the originalproof depends very much on the division theorem of Brinneon, it cannot be generallzed tohigher dimensions. It is hopeful that the pvcoof here will be applied to the higher dimensional

  16. R-symmetric axion/natural inflation in supergravity via deformed moduli dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Harigaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We construct a natural inflation model in supergravity where the inflaton is identified with a modulus field possessing a shift symmetry. The superpotential for the inflaton is generated by meson condensation due to strong dynamics with deformed moduli constraints. In contrast to models based on gaugino condensation, the inflaton potential is generated without R-symmetry breaking and hence does not depend on the gravitino mass. Thus, our model is compatible with low scale supersymmetry.

  17. Tautological and non-tautological cohomology of the moduli space of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Faber, C

    2011-01-01

    After a short exposition of the basic properties of the tautological ring of the moduli space of genus g Deligne-Mumford stable curves with n markings, we explain three methods of detecting non-tautological classes in cohomology. The first is via curve counting over finite fields. The second is by obtaining length bounds on the action of the symmetric group S_n on tautological classes. The third is via classical boundary geometry. Several new non-tautological classes are found.

  18. Quasi-residual strain and moduli measurements in materials using embedded acoustic waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Ronald T.; Sanjana, Zal N.; Raju, Basavaraju B.

    1996-11-01

    Following the processing and manufacture of resin and composite parts and during their lifetime, the distribution of internal residual strain and any variations in moduli are generally unknown. Real-time information on these parameters would be valuable for improving material performance and reliability. It is believed that measurements related to material residual stresses or strain and moduli can be obtained by measuring the longitudinal wave velocities within acoustic waveguides (AWG) embedded within a material. The concept is that the wave velocities within embedded AWG are related to the material bulk modulus, density and Poisson's Ratio which are all in some degree related to the material state of cure, and finally the internal residual stresses. Based on this concept it is shown that the AWG of different diameters embedded within the same resin part of uniform internal stress distribution, the AWG wave velocities should vary in relation to the square root of the AWG diameter. Experimental results using AWG of 5, 10, 16, 20, 40 and 62 mil diameter Nichrome embedded within Shell 815 clear resin with optically measured uniform strain, demonstrate a direct relationship between AWG velocities and the square root of the AWG diameter. Consequently, it is reasoned that for a part with several embedded AWG, each of the same diameter, then differences in the AWG velocities would yield information on differences in the residual strain and moduli within the part.

  19. Moduli Space of IIB Superstring and SUYM in AdS5 × S5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper consists of two parts. In part Ⅰ, we interpret the hidden symmetry of the moduli space of IIB superstring on AdS5 × S5 in terms of the chiral embedding in AdS5, which turns out to be the CP3 conformal affine Toda model. We review how the position μ of poles in the Riemann-Hilbert formulation of dressing transformation and the value of loop parameter μ in the vertex operator of affine algebra determine the moduli space of the soliton solutions, which describes the moduli space of the Green-Schwarz superstring. We show also how this affine SU(4) symmetry affinizes the con formal symmetry in the twistor space, and how a soliton string corresponds to a Robinson congruence with twist and dilation spin coefficients μ of twistor. In part H, by extending the dressing symmetric action of IIB string in AdS5 × S5 to the Da brane, we find a gauged WZW action of Higgs Yang-Mills field including the 2-cocycle of axially anomaly. The left and right twistor structures of left and right α-planes glue into an ambitwistor. The symmetry group of Nahm equations is centrally extended to an affine group, thus we explain why the spectral curve is given by affine Toda.

  20. Simultaneous moduli measurement of elastic materials at elevated temperatures using an ultrasonic waveguide method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan, Suresh; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    A novel technique for simultaneously measuring the moduli of elastic isotropic material, as a function of temperature, using two ultrasonic guided wave modes that are co-generated using a single probe is presented here. This technique can be used for simultaneously measuring Young's modulus (E) and shear modulus (G) of different materials over a wide range of temperatures (35 °C-1200 °C). The specimens used in the experiments have special embodiments (for instance, a bend) at one end of the waveguide and an ultrasonic guided wave generator/detector (transducer) at the other end for obtaining reflected signals in a pulse-echo mode. The orientation of the transducer can be used for simultaneously generating/receiving the L(0,1) and/or T(0,1) using a single transducer in a waveguide on one end. The far end of the waveguides with the embodiment is kept inside a heating device such as a temperature-controlled furnace. The time of flight difference, as a function of uniform temperature distribution region (horizontal portion) of bend waveguides was measured and used to determine the material properties. Several materials were tested and the comparison between values reported in the literature and measured values were found to be in agreement, for both elastic moduli (E and G) measurements, as a function of temperature. This technique provides significant reduction in time and effort over conventional means of measurement of temperature dependence of elastic moduli.

  1. D7-Brane Moduli Space in Axion Monodromy and Fluxbrane Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Arends, Maximilian; Heimpel, Konrad; Kraus, Sebastian C; Lust, Dieter; Mayrhofer, Christoph; Schick, Christoph; Weigand, Timo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the quantum-corrected moduli space of D7-brane position moduli with special emphasis on inflationary model building. D7-brane deformation moduli are key players in two recently proposed inflationary scenarios: The first, D7-brane chaotic inflation, is a variant of axion monodromy inflation which allows for an effective 4d supergravity description. The second, fluxbrane inflation, is a stringy version of D-term hybrid inflation. Both proposals rely on the fact that D7-brane coordinates enjoy a shift-symmetric Kahler potential at large complex structure of the Calabi-Yau threefold, making them naturally lighter than other fields. This shift symmetry is inherited from the mirror-dual Type IIA Wilson line on a D6-brane at large volume. The inflaton mass can be provided by a tree-level term in the flux superpotential. It induces a monodromy and, if tuned to a sufficiently small value, can give rise to a large-field model of inflation. Alternatively, by a judicious flux choice one can completely avoid a ...

  2. Stability of Picard Bundle Over Moduli Space of Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two Over a Curve

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas; Tomás L Gómez

    2001-08-01

    Answering a question of [BV] it is proved that the Picard bundle on the moduli space of stable vector bundles of rank two, on a Riemann surface of genus at least three, with fixed determinant of odd degree is stable.

  3. The Average Widths and Non-linear Widths of the Classes of Multivariate Functions with Bounded Moduli of Smoothness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-ping Liu; Gui-qiao Xu

    2002-01-01

    The classes of the multivariate functions with bounded moduli on Rd and Td are given and their average a-widths and non-linear n-widths are discussed. The weak asymptotic behaviors are established for the corresponding quantities.

  4. Almost-isometry between Teichm\\"{u}ller metric and length-spectra metric on moduli space

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    We prove an analogue of Farb-Masur's theorem that the length-spectra metric on moduli space is "almost isometric" to a simple model $\\mathcal {V}(S)$ which is induced by the cone metric over the complex of curves. As an application, we know that the Teichm\\"{u}ller metric and the length-spectra metric are "almost isometric" on moduli space, while they are not even quasi-isometric on Teichm\\"{u}ller space.

  5. Estimating elastic moduli of rocks from thin sections: Digital rock study of 3D properties from 2D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Nishank; Mavko, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Estimation of elastic rock moduli using 2D plane strain computations from thin sections has several numerical and analytical advantages over using 3D rock images, including faster computation, smaller memory requirements, and the availability of cheap thin sections. These advantages, however, must be weighed against the estimation accuracy of 3D rock properties from thin sections. We present a new method for predicting elastic properties of natural rocks using thin sections. Our method is based on a simple power-law transform that correlates computed 2D thin section moduli and the corresponding 3D rock moduli. The validity of this transform is established using a dataset comprised of FEM-computed elastic moduli of rock samples from various geologic formations, including Fontainebleau sandstone, Berea sandstone, Bituminous sand, and Grossmont carbonate. We note that using the power-law transform with a power-law coefficient between 0.4-0.6 contains 2D moduli to 3D moduli transformations for all rocks that are considered in this study. We also find that reliable estimates of P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocity (Vs) trends can be obtained using 2D thin sections.

  6. GUT scale extra dimensions and light moduli in supergravity and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Jan

    2010-05-15

    We study the dynamical properties of geometric moduli in five- and six-dimensional supergravity compactified on flat orbifolds, focusing on the impact of the Kaehler potential. In both cases, the Kaehler potential exhibits no-scale structure at tree level. In five dimensions, the volume modulus (radion) can be stabilized by means of perturbative Kaehler corrections. In six dimensions, the same holds for size and shape of the extra dimensions, only if the dilaton can be stabilized in a Minkowski vacuum by nonperturbative effects. We develop a systematic description of almost no-scale models and derive a model independent formula for the radion mass. The radion mass is suppressed compared to the gravitino mass. The supression factor reflects the hierarchy between the Planck and the compactification scale. We analyze a specific example, where the compactification scale is determined by Fayet-Iliopoulos terms of a locally anomalous Abelian gauge group, which are O(M{sub GUT}). In a scenario with gravitino dark matter, this leads to a radion mass of 1-10 MeV. In this mass range, the radion is cosmologically stable and contributes to the dark matter density. Based on galactic gamma ray data, we derive a tight bound on the initial displacement of the field value from its low energy vacuum. We also investigate implications of typical moduli Kaehler potentials on the cosmological evolution of the scalar fields. In particular, we discuss a class of models with steep exponential potentials and non-canonical kinetic terms, motivated by our radion example. We consider the overshooting problem of cosmological moduli dynamics, and the possibility of slow-roll solutions despite the steepness of the scalar potential. (orig.)

  7. In vitro behaviors of rat mesenchymal stem cells on bacterial celluloses with different moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taokaew, Siriporn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3906 (United States); Phisalaphong, Muenduen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Zhang Newby, Bi-min, E-mail: bimin@uakron.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, The University of Akron, Akron, OH 44325-3906 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Compressive moduli of bacteria-synthesized cellulose (BC) were altered by two drying techniques: ambient-air drying and freeze drying. While no significant differences in dry weight were found, their cross-sectional structures and thickness varied greatly. Freeze dried BCs had loose cross-sectional structures and a thickness of ∼ 4.7 mm, whereas air dried BCs had more compacted cross-sectional structures and a thickness of ∼ 0.1 mm. The compressive moduli of the rehydrated freeze dried and rehydrated air dried BCs were measured to be 21.06 ± 0.22 kPa and 90.09 ± 21.07 kPa, respectively. When rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) were seeded on these BCs, they maintained a round morphology in the first 3 days of cultivation. More spread-out morphology and considerable proliferation on freeze dried BCs were observed in 7 days, but not on air-dried BCs. The cells were further grown for 3 weeks in the absence and presence of differentiation agents. Without using any differentiation agents, no detectable differentiation was noticed for rMSCs further cultivated on both types of BC. With differentiation inducing agents, chondrogenic differentiation, visualized by histological staining, was observed in some area of the rehydrated freeze dried BCs; while osteogenic differentiation was noticed on the stiffer rehydrated air dried BCs. - Graphical abstract: In the presence of induction agents, rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) preferentially differentiated into osteocytes on stiffer air dried BC films. - Highlights: • Bacterial cellulose (BC) sheets with different moduli generated by drying differently • Air-dried BC exhibited a modulus similar to that of bone. • Freeze-dried BC showed a modulus in the range of that of muscle. • Air-dried BC promoted the differentiation of rMSCs into osteocytes. • Freeze-dried BC promoted the differentiation of rMSCs into chondrocytes.

  8. Simultaneous measurement of field dependence of elastic moduli by laser interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bayon, A; Salazar, F

    2000-01-01

    A methodology is applied which allows the simultaneous determination of Young's modulus and the shear modulus to evaluate elastic moduli variations with the magnetic field (DELTA E and DELTA G). The method employed is based on the simultaneous detection of the transverse and torsional natural frequencies of a slender magnetic bar located within a solenoid. The resultant vibration is detected via a heterodyne interferometric optical system with a broad bandwidth. The vibration detection and excitation systems do not interact with the sample. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by characterizing 10-mm-diameter nickel bars. The results are compared with those obtained from longitudinal vibrations.

  9. Application of a modified method of ultrasonic measurements for determination of elastic moduli of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zel, I. Yu.; Ivankina, T. I., E-mail: ivangreat2009@gmail.com [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Levin, D. M. [Tula State University (Russian Federation); Lokajicek, T. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Geology (Czech Republic)

    2015-07-15

    The velocities of elastic waves with quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse polarizations in a spherical rock sample have been measured. The experimental values of velocities are used to calculate 21 elastic moduli of the sample. For comparison, the effective elastic properties of the sample are simulated based on the data on the crystallographic textures of rock-forming minerals obtained by neutron diffraction. It is shown that the largest discrepancy between the model predictions and experimental velocity values is observed for transversely polarized waves.

  10. Sugar does not affect the bending and tilt moduli of simple lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, John F; Jablin, Michael S; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie

    2016-03-01

    The diffuse X-ray scattering method has been applied to samples composed of SOPC, DOPC, DMPC, and POPC with added sugar, either sucrose, glucose, fructose, maltose, or trehalose. Several sugar concentrations in the range 200-500 mM were investigated for each of the lipid/sugar samples. We observed no systematic change in the bending modulus KC or in the tilt modulus Kθ with increasing sugar concentration. The average values of both these moduli were the same as those of the respective pure lipid controls within statistical uncertainty of 2%. These results are inconsistent with previous reports of sugar concentration dependent values of KC.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of field dependence of elastic moduli by laser interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayon, A. E-mail: abayon@dfarn.upm.es; Chicharro, J.M.; Salazar, F

    2000-09-01

    A methodology is applied which allows the simultaneous determination of Young's modulus and the shear modulus to evaluate elastic moduli variations with the magnetic field ({delta}E and {delta}G). The method employed is based on the simultaneous detection of the transverse and torsional natural frequencies of a slender magnetic bar located within a solenoid. The resultant vibration is detected via a heterodyne interferometric optical system with a broad bandwidth. The vibration detection and excitation systems do not interact with the sample. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by characterizing 10-mm-diameter nickel bars. The results are compared with those obtained from longitudinal vibrations.

  12. Moduli Structures, Separability of the Kinematic Hilbert Space and Frames in Loop Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    We reassess the problem of separability of the kinematic Hilbert space in loop quantum gravity under a new mathematical point of view. We use the formalism of frames, a tool used in signal analysis, in order to remove the redundancy of the moduli structures in high valence graphs, without resorting to set extension of diffeomorphism group. For this, we introduce a local redundancy which encodes the concentration of frame vectors on the tangent spaces $T_pM$ around points of intersections $p$ of smooth loops $\\alpha$ in $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$.

  13. Quantum hypermultiplet moduli spaces in N=2 string vacua: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Persson, Daniel; Pioline, Boris

    2013-01-01

    The hypermultiplet moduli space M_H in type II string theories compactified on a Calabi-Yau threefold X is largely constrained by supersymmetry (which demands quaternion-K\\"ahlerity), S-duality (which requires an isometric action of SL(2, Z)) and regularity. Mathematically, M_H ought to encode all generalized Donaldson-Thomas invariants on X consistently with wall-crossing, modularity and homological mirror symmetry. We review recent progress towards computing the exact metric on M_H, or rather the exact complex contact structure on its twistor space.

  14. Feeding strategies as revealed by the section moduli of the humerus bones in bipedal theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott; Richards, Zachary

    2015-03-01

    The section modulus of a bone is a measure of its ability to resist bending torques. Carnivorous dinosaurs presumably had strong arm bones to hold struggling prey during hunting. Some theropods are believed to have become herbivorous and such animals would not have needed such strong arms. In this work, the section moduli of the humerus bones of bipedal theropod dinosaurs (from Microvenator celer to Tyrannosaurus rex) are studied to determine the maximum bending loads their arms could withstand. The results show that bending strength is not of uniform importance to these magnificent animals. The predatory theropods had strong arms for use in hunting. In contrast, the herbivorous dinosaurs had weaker arms.

  15. Moduli of $G_2$ structures and the Strominger system in dimension 7

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Andrew; Tipler, Carl

    2016-01-01

    We consider $G_2$ structures with torsion coupled with $G_2$-instantons, on a compact $7$-dimensional manifold. The coupling is via an equation for $4$-forms which appears in supergravity and generalized geometry, known as the Bianchi identity. The resulting system of partial differential equations can be regarded as an analogue of the Strominger system in $7$-dimensions. We initiate the study of the moduli space of solutions and show that it is finite dimensional using elliptic operator theory. We also relate the associated geometric structures to generalized geometry.

  16. Variation of moduli spaces and Donaldson invariants under change of polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsrud, G; Ellingsrud, Geir; G\\"ottsche, Lothar

    1994-01-01

    The paper determines the change of moduli spaces of rank $2$ sheaves on surfaces with $p_g=0$ under change of polarization and the corresponding change of the Donaldson invariants. In this revised version we have made some minor stylistic changes in the previous text. In addition we have added a final chapter of about 20 pages (announced in the previous version), in which the six lowest order terms (three of them non-zero) of the change are computed explicitely using computations in the cohomology of Hilbert schemes of points.

  17. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals with tetragonal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, R.; Peselnick, L.

    1966-01-01

    Variational principles have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having tetragonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a substantial improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be a good approximation in most cases when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals: (A) hexagonal symmetry, (B) trigonal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.

    1965-01-01

    Variational principles of anisotropic elasticity have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having hexagonal symmetry and trigonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a considerable improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be in most cases a good approximation when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  19. Euler number of Instanton Moduli space and Seiberg-Witten invariants

    CERN Document Server

    Sako, A; Sako, Akifumi; Sasaki, Toru

    2001-01-01

    We show that a partition function of topological twisted N=4 Yang-Mills theory is given by Seiberg-Witten invariants on a Riemannian four manifolds under the condition that the sum of Euler number and signature of the four manifolds vanish. The partition function is the sum of Euler number of instanton moduli space when it is possible to apply the vanishing theorem. And we get a relation of Euler number labeled by the instanton number $k$ with Seiberg-Witten invariants, too. All calculation in this paper is done without assuming duality.

  20. On the number and location of short geodesics in moduli space

    CERN Document Server

    Leininger, Christopher J

    2011-01-01

    A closed Teichmuller geodesic in the moduli space M_g of Riemann surfaces of genus g is called L-short if it has length at most L/g. We show that, for any L > 0, there exist e_2 > e_1 > 0, independent of g, so that the L-short geodesics in M_g all lie in the intersection of the e_1-thick part and the e_2-thin part. We also estimate the number of L-short geodesics in M_g, bounding this from above and below by polynomials in g whose degrees depend on L and tend to infinity as L does.

  1. Towards large genus asymtotics of intersection numbers on moduli spaces of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Mirzakhani, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    We explicitly compute the diverging factor in the large genus asymptotics of the Weil-Petersson volumes of the moduli spaces of $n$-pointed complex algebraic curves. Modulo a universal multiplicative constant we prove the existence of a complete asymptotic expansion of the Weil-Petersson volumes in the inverse powers of the genus with coefficients that are polynomials in $n$. This is done by analyzing various recursions for the more general intersection numbers of tautological classes, whose large genus asymptotic behavior is also extensively studied.

  2. Foliations on the moduli space of rank two connections on the projective line minus four points

    CERN Document Server

    Loray, Frank; Simpson, Carlos T

    2010-01-01

    We look at natural foliations on the Painlev\\'e VI moduli space of regular connections of rank 2 on $\\pp ^1 -\\{t_1,t_2,t_3,t_4\\}$. These foliations are fibrations, and are interpreted in terms of the nonabelian Hodge filtration, giving a proof of the nonabelian Hodge foliation conjecture in this case. Two basic kinds of fibrations arise: from apparent singularities, and from quasiparabolic bundles. We show that these are transverse. Okamoto's additional symmetry, which may be seen as Katz's middle convolution, exchanges the quasiparabolic and apparent-singularity foliations.

  3. Massless D-strings and moduli stabilization in type I cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Estes, John; Partouche, Herve

    2011-01-01

    We consider the cosmological evolution induced by the free energy F of a gas of maximally supersymmetric heterotic strings at finite temperature and weak coupling in dimension D>=4. We show that F, which plays the role of an effective potential, has minima associated to enhanced gauge symmetries, where all internal moduli can be attracted and dynamically stabilized. Using the fact that the heterotic/type I S-duality remains valid at finite temperature and can be applied at each instant of a quasi-static evolution, we find in the dual type I cosmology that all internal NS-NS and RR moduli in the closed string sector and the Wilson lines in the open string sector can be stabilized. For the special case of D=6, the internal volume modulus remains a flat direction, while the dilaton is stabilized. An essential role is played by light D-string modes wrapping the internal manifold and whose contribution to the free energy cannot be omitted, even when the type I string is at weak coupling. As a result, the order of ...

  4. Dual generators of the fundamental group and the moduli space of flat connections

    CERN Document Server

    Meusburger, C

    2006-01-01

    We define the dual of a set of generators of the fundamental group of an oriented two-surface $S_{g,n}$ of genus $g$ with $n$ punctures and the associated surface $S_{g,n}\\setminus D$ with a disc $D$ removed. This dual is another set of generators related to the original generators via an involution and has the properties of a dual graph. In particular, it provides an algebraic prescription for determining the intersection points of a curve representing a general element of the fundamental group $\\pi_1(S_{g,n}\\setminus D)$ with the representatives of the generators and the order in which these intersection points occur on the generators.We apply this dual to the moduli space of flat connections on $S_{g,n}$ and show that when expressed in terms both, the holonomies along a set of generators and their duals, the Poisson structure on the moduli space takes a particularly simple form. Using this description of the Poisson structure, we derive explicit expressions for the Poisson brackets of general Wilson loop o...

  5. Models of discretized moduli spaces, cohomological field theories, and Gaussian means

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Norbury, Paul; Penner, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    We prove combinatorially the explicit relation between genus filtrated $s$-loop means of the Gaussian matrix model and terms of the genus expansion of the Kontsevich--Penner matrix model (KPMM). The latter is the generating function for volumes of discretized (open) moduli spaces $M_{g,s}^{\\mathrm{disc}}$ given by $N_{g,s}(P_1,\\dots,P_s)$ for $(P_1,\\dots,P_s)\\in{\\mathbb Z}_+^s$. This generating function therefore enjoys the topological recursion, and we prove that it is simultaneously the generating function for ancestor invariants of a cohomological field theory thus enjoying the Givental decomposition. We use another Givental-type decomposition obtained for this model by the second authors in 1995 in terms of special times related to the discretisation of moduli spaces thus representing its asymptotic expansion terms (and therefore those of the Gaussian means) as finite sums over graphs weighted by lower-order monomials in times thus giving another proof of (quasi)polynomiality of the discrete volumes. As a...

  6. Ph. D. Thesis: Pre-quantization of the moduli space of flat G-bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Krepski, Derek

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies the pre-quantization of quasi-Hamiltonian group actions from a cohomological viewpoint. The compatibility of pre-quantization with symplectic reduction and the fusion product are established, and are used to understand the sufficient conditions for the pre-quantization of $M_G(\\Sigma)$, the moduli space of flat $G$-bundles over a closed surface $\\Sigma$. For a simply connected, compact, simple Lie group $G$, $M_G(\\Sigma)$ is known to be pre-quantizable at integer levels. For non-simply connected $G$, however, integrality of the level is not sufficient for pre-quantization, and this thesis determines the obstruction---namely a certain cohomology class in $H^3(G\\times G;\\Z)$---that places further restrictions on the underlying level. The levels that admit a pre-quantization of the moduli space are determined explicitly for all non-simply connected, compact, simple Lie groups $G$. Partial results are obtained for the case of a surface $\\Sigma$ with marked points. Also, it is shown that via th...

  7. Moduli stabilization in type II Calabi-Yau compactifications at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lihui

    2011-01-01

    We consider the type II superstring compactified on Calabi-Yau threefolds at finite temperature. The latter is implemented at the string level by a free action on the Euclidean time circle. We show that all Kahler and complex structure moduli involved in the gauge theories geometrically engineered in the vicinity of singular loci are lifted by the stringy thermal effective potential. The analysis is based on the effective gauged supergravity at low energy, without integrating out the BPS states becoming massless at the singular loci. The universal form of the action in the weak coupling regime at low enough temperature is determined in two cases. Namely the conifold locus, as well as a locus where the internal space develops a genus-g curve of A{N-1} singularities, realizing an SU(N) gauge theory coupled to g hypermultiplets in the adjoint. In general, the favored points of stabilization sit at the intersection of several singular loci. Thus the entire vector multiplet moduli space can be lifted, together wit...

  8. Beauty is more attractive: particle production and moduli trapping with higher dimensional interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Seishi [Kobayashi Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics,University of Warsaw, Hoa 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Iida, Satoshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Maekawa, Nobuhiro [Kobayashi Maskawa Institute, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Matsuda, Tomohiro [Laboratory of Physics, Saitama Institute of Technology,Saitama 369-0293 (Japan)

    2014-01-24

    We study quantum effects on moduli dynamics arising from particle production near the enhanced symmetry point (ESP). We focus on non-renormalizable couplings between the moduli field and the field that becomes light at the ESP. Considering higher dimensional interaction, we find that particle production is significant in a large area, which is even larger than the area that is expected from a renormalizable interaction. It is possible to find this possibility from a trivial adiabatic condition; however the quantitative estimation of particle production and trapping of the field in motion are far from trivial. In this paper we study particle production and trapping in detail, using both the analytical and numerical calculations, to find a clear and intuitive result that supports trapping in a vast variety of theories. Our study shows that trapping driven by a non-renormalizable interaction is possible. This possibility has not been considered in previous works. Some phenomenological models of particle physics will be mentioned to complement discussion.

  9. Moduli dynamics as a predictive tool for thermal maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills at large N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro; Wiseman, Toby; Withers, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    Maximally supersymmetric ( p + 1)-dimensional Yang-Mills theory at large N and finite temperature, with possibly compact spatial directions, has a rich phase structure. Strongly coupled phases may have holographic descriptions as black branes in various string duality frames, or there may be no gravity dual. In this paper we provide tools in the gauge theory which give a simple and unified picture of the various strongly coupled phases, and transitions between them. Building on our previous work we consider the effective theory describing the moduli of the gauge theory, which can be computed precisely when it is weakly coupled far out on the Coulomb branch. Whilst for perturbation theory naive extrapolation from weak coupling to strong gives little information, for this moduli theory naive extrapolation from its weakly to its strongly coupled regime appears to encode a surprising amount of information about the various strongly coupled phases. We argue it encodes not only the parametric form of thermodynamic quantities for these strongly coupled phases, but also certain transcendental factors with a geometric origin, and allows one to deduce transitions between the phases. We emphasise it also gives predictions for the behaviour of other observables in these phases.

  10. The Moduli Space of Heterotic Line Bundle Models: a Case Study for the Tetra-Quadric

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, Evgeny I; Lukas, Andre

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been realised that polystable, holomorphic sums of line bundles over smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds provide a fertile ground for heterotic model building. Large numbers of phenomenologically promising such models have been constructed for various classes of Calabi-Yau manifolds. In this paper we focus on a case study for the tetra-quadric - a Calabi-Yau hypersurface embedded in a product of four CP1 spaces. We address the question of finiteness of the class of consistent and physically viable line bundle models constructed on this manifold. Further, for a specific semi-realistic example, we explore the embedding of the line bundle sum into the larger moduli space of non-Abelian bundles, both by means of constructing specific polystable non-Abelian bundles and by turning on VEVs in the associated low-energy theory. In this context, we explore the fate of the Higgs doublets as we move in bundle moduli space. The non-Abelian compactifications thus constructed lead to SU(5) GUT models with an addit...

  11. Effect of TeO{sub 2} on the elastic moduli of sodium borate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saddeek, Y.B.; Abd El Latif, Lamia

    2004-05-01

    Sodium borate glass containing tellurite as Te{sub x}Na{sub 2-2x}B{sub 4-4x}O{sub 7-5x} with x=0, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 have been prepared by rapid quenching. Ultrasonic velocity (both longitudinal and shear) measurements have been made using a transducer operated at the fundamental frequency of 4 MHz at room temperature. The density was measured by the conventional Archimedes method. The elastic moduli, the Debye temperature, Poisson's ratio, and the parameters derived from the Makishima-Mackenzie model and the bond compression model have been obtained as a function of TeO{sub 2} content. The monotonic decrease in the velocities and the elastic moduli, and the increase in the ring diameter and the ratio K{sub bc}/K{sub e} as a function of TeO{sub 2} modifier content reveals the loose packing structure, which is attributed to the increase in the molar volume and the reduction in the vibrations of the borate lattice. The observed results confirm that the addition of TeO{sub 2} changes the rigid character of Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} to a matrix of ionic behaviour bonds (NBOs). This is due to the creation of more and more discontinuities and defects in the glasses, thus breaking down the borax structure.

  12. Reduction theory for mapping class groups and applications to moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leuziger, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Let $S=S_{g,p}$ be a compact, orientable surface of genus $g$ with $p$ punctures and such that $d(S):=3g-3+p>0$. The mapping class group $\\textup{Mod}_S$ acts properly discontinuously on the Teichm\\"uller space $\\mathcal T(S)$ of marked hyperbolic structures on $S$. The resulting quotient $\\mathcal M(S)$ is the moduli space of isometry classes of hyperbolic surfaces. We provide a version of precise reduction theory for finite index subgroups of $\\textup{Mod}_S$, i.e., a description of exact fundamental domains. As an application we show that the asymptotic cone of the moduli space $\\mathcal M(S)$ endowed with the Teichm\\"uller metric is bi-Lipschitz equivalent to the Euclidean cone over the finite simplicial (orbi-) complex $ \\textup{Mod}_S\\backslash\\mathcal C(S)$, where $\\mathcal C(S)$ of $S$ is the complex of curves of $S$. We also show that if $d(S)\\geq 2$, then $\\mathcal M(S)$ does \\emph{not} admit a finite volume Riemannian metric of (uniformly bounded) positive scalar curvature in the bi-Lipschitz class...

  13. Variability of Fiber Elastic Moduli in Composite Random Fiber Networks Makes the Network Softer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Ehsan; Picu, Catalin

    2015-03-01

    Athermal fiber networks are assemblies of beams or trusses. They have been used to model mechanics of fibrous materials such as biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Elasticity of these networks has been studied in terms of various microstructural parameters such as the stiffness of their constituent fibers. In this work we investigate the elasticity of composite fiber networks made from fibers with moduli sampled from a distribution function. We use finite elements simulations to study networks made by 3D Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The resulting data collapse to power laws showing that variability in fiber stiffness makes fiber networks softer. We also support the findings by analytical arguments. Finally, we apply these results to a network with curved fibers to explain the dependence of the network's modulus on the variation of its structural parameters.

  14. Twisted rings and moduli stacks of "fat" point modules in non-commutative projective geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The Hilbert scheme of point modules was introduced by Artin-Tate-Van den Bergh to study non-commutative graded algebras. The key tool is the construction of a map from the algebra to a twisted ring on this Hilbert scheme. In this paper, we study moduli stacks of more general "fat" point modules, and show that there is a similar map to a twisted ring associated to the stack. This is used to provide a sufficient criterion for a non-commutative projective surface to be birationally PI. It is hoped that such a criterion will be useful in understanding Mike Artin's conjecture on the birational classification of non-commutative surfaces.

  15. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep P. Jatkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D>4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern–Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  16. Exploring Lovelock theory moduli space for Schrödinger solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Kundu, Nilay

    2016-09-01

    We look for Schrödinger solutions in Lovelock gravity in D > 4. We span the entire parameter space and determine parametric relations under which the Schrödinger solution exists. We find that in arbitrary dimensions pure Lovelock theories have Schrödinger solutions of arbitrary radius, on a co-dimension one locus in the Lovelock parameter space. This co-dimension one locus contains the subspace over which the Lovelock gravity can be written in the Chern-Simons form. Schrödinger solutions do not exist outside this locus and on this locus they exist for arbitrary dynamical exponent z. This freedom in z is due to the degeneracy in the configuration space. We show that this degeneracy survives certain deformation away from the Lovelock moduli space.

  17. Fields of moduli of three-point G-covers with cyclic p-Sylow, I

    CERN Document Server

    Obus, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We examine in detail the stable reduction of Galois covers of the projective line over a complete discrete valuation field of mixed characteristic (0, p), where G has a cyclic p-Sylow subgroup of order p^n. If G is further assumed to be p-solvable (i.e., G has no nonabelian simple composition factors with order divisible by p), we obtain the following consequence: Suppose f: Y --> P^1 is a three-point G-Galois cover defined over the complex numbers. Then the nth higher ramification groups above p for the upper numbering of the (Galois closure of the) extension K/Q vanish, where K is the field of moduli of f. This extends work of Beckmann and Wewers. Additionally, we completely describe the stable model of a general three-point Z/p^n-cover, where p > 2.

  18. Topological recursion for chord diagrams, RNA complexes, and cells in moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen E; Penner, R C; Reidys, Christian M; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We introduce and study the Hermitian matrix model with potential V(x)=x^2/2-stx/(1-tx), which enumerates the number of linear chord diagrams of fixed genus with specified numbers of backbones generated by s and chords generated by t. For the one-cut solution, the partition function, correlators and free energies are convergent for small t and all s as a perturbation of the Gaussian potential, which arises for st=0. This perturbation is computed using the formalism of the topological recursion. The corresponding enumeration of chord diagrams gives at once the number of RNA complexes of a given topology as well as the number of cells in Riemann's moduli spaces for bordered surfaces. The free energies are computed here in principle for all genera and explicitly for genera less than four.

  19. Special Issue on "Instanton Counting: Moduli Spaces, Representation Theory, and Integrable Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Ugo; Sala, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Geometry and Physics collects some papers that were presented during the workshop "Instanton Counting: Moduli Spaces, Representation Theory, and Integrable Systems" that took place at the Lorentz Center in Leiden, The Netherlands, from 16 to 20 June 2014. The workshop was supported by the Lorentz Center, the "Geometry and Quantum Theory" Cluster, Centre Européen pour les Mathématiques, la Physique et leurs Interactions (Lille, France), Laboratoire Angevin de Recherche en Mathématiques (Angers, France), SISSA (Trieste, Italy), and Foundation Compositio (Amsterdam, the Netherlands). We deeply thank all these institutions for making the workshop possible. We also thank the other organizers of the workshop, Professors Dimitri Markushevich, Vladimir Rubtsov and Sergey Shadrin, for their efforts and great collaboration.

  20. Quantum-induced interactions in the moduli space of degenerate BPS domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A. [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca,c/ del Parque 2, 37008-Salamanca (Spain); Guilarte, J. Mateos [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca,Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008-Salamanca (Spain)

    2014-01-23

    In this paper quantum effects are investigated in a very special two-scalar field model having a moduli space of BPS topological defects. In a (1+1)-dimensional space-time the defects are classically degenerate in mass kinks, but in (3+1) dimensions the kinks become BPS domain walls, all of them sharing the same surface tension at the classical level. The heat kernel/zeta function regularization method will be used to control the divergences induced by the quantum kink and domain wall fluctuations. A generalization of the Gilkey-DeWitt-Avramidi heat kernel expansion will be developed in order to accommodate the infrared divergences due to zero modes in the spectra of the second-order kink and domain wall fluctuation operators, which are respectively N=2×N=2 matrix ordinary or partial differential operators. Use of these tools in the spectral zeta function associated with the Hessian operators paves the way to obtain general formulas for the one-loop kink mass and domain wall tension shifts in any (1+1)- or (3+1)-dimensional N-component scalar field theory model. Application of these formulae to the BPS kinks or domain walls of the N=2 model mentioned above reveals the breaking of the classical mass or surface tension degeneracy at the quantum level. Because the main parameter distinguishing each member in the BPS kink or domain wall moduli space is essentially the distance between the centers of two basic kinks or walls, the breaking of the degeneracy amounts to the surge in quantum-induced forces between the two constituent topological defects. The differences in surface tension induced by one-loop fluctuations of BPS walls give rise mainly to attractive forces between the constituent walls except if the two basic walls are very far apart. Repulsive forces between two close walls only arise if the coupling approaches the critical value from below.

  1. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode $Z$ associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian $\\sqrt{1 - (\\partial_0 Z)^2}$ detecting the speed of light ($|\\partial_0 Z|=1$) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli $\\epsilon$ to all order in $(\\partial \\epsilon)$. The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: $L = g(\\sqrt{1 + (\\partial_\\mu \\epsilon)^2})$. This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on $\\partial_0 \\epsilon$, i.e. a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit...

  2. Speed limit in internal space of domain walls via all-order effective action of moduli motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Minoru; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-03-01

    We find that motion in internal moduli spaces of generic domain walls has an upper bound for its velocity. Our finding is based on our generic formula for all-order effective actions of internal moduli parameter of domain wall solitons. It is known that the Nambu-Goldstone mode Z associated with spontaneous breaking of translation symmetry obeys a Nambu-Goto effective Lagrangian √{1 -(∂0Z )2 } detecting the speed of light (|∂0Z |=1 ) in the target spacetime. Solitons can have internal moduli parameters as well, associated with a breaking of internal symmetries such as a phase rotation acting on a field. We obtain, for generic domain walls, an effective Lagrangian of the internal moduli ɛ to all orders in (∂ɛ ). The Lagrangian is given by a function of the Nambu-Goto Lagrangian: L =g (√{1 +(∂μɛ )2 }). This shows generically the existence of an upper bound on ∂0ɛ , i.e., a speed limit in the internal space. The speed limit exists even for solitons in some nonrelativistic field theories, where we find that ɛ is a type I Nambu-Goldstone mode that also obeys a nonlinear dispersion to reach the speed limit. This offers a possibility of detecting the speed limit in condensed matter experiments.

  3. PREDICTION OF THE VISCOELASTIC PROPERTIES OF THE EQUIVALENT PARTICLE FOR THE INTERCALATED MULTI-LAYER STACK OF NANOPLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weimin Zhang; Ping Zhang; Xuhui Deng; Chunyuan Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply the asymptotic homogenization method to determining analytically and numerically the transversely isotropic viscoelastic relaxation moduli of the equivalent particle for the intercalated multi-layer stack of intercalated type nanoplastics. A two-phase multilayered material containing n layers is considered. The matrix is assumed to be an isotropic viscoelastic standard linear body and the reinforcement is assumed to be an isotropic elastic body. Final explicit analytical formulae for the effective elastic moduli of the multilayered material are derived first; and then the correspondence principle is employed to obtain the homogenized relaxation moduli of the equivalent intercalated particle. A numerical example is given. Final explicit analytical formulae in the time domain derived here make it convenient to estimate the influence of all the particle parameters of micro-structural details on the effective properties of the equivalent intercalated particle. The results of this paper can also be applied to multi-layer composites.

  4. Area Expansivity Moduli of Regenerating Plant Protoplast Cell Walls Exposed to Shear Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Yuu; Iino, Masaaki; Watanabe, Ugai

    2005-05-01

    To control the elasticity of the plant cell wall, protoplasts isolated from cultured Catharanthus roseus cells were regenerated in shear flows of 115 s-1 (high shear) and 19.2 s-1 (low shear, as a control). The surface area expansivity modulus and the surface breaking strength of these regenerating protoplasts were measured by a micropipette aspiration technique. Cell wall synthesis was also measured using a cell wall-specific fluorescent dye. High shear exposure for 3 h doubled both the surface area modulus and breaking strength observed under low shear, significantly decreased cell wall synthesis, and roughly quadrupled the moduli of the cell wall. Based on the cell wall synthesis data, we estimated the three-dimensional modulus of the cell wall to be 4.1± 1.2 GPa for the high shear, and 0.35± 0.2 GPa for the low shear condition, using the surface area expansivity modulus divided by the cell wall thickness, which is identical with the Young’s modulus divided by 2(1-σ), where σ is Poisson's ratio. We concluded that high shear exposure considerably strengthens the newly synthesized cell wall.

  5. On the origins of anomalous elastic moduli and failure strains of GaP nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashinski, M. S.; Gutiérrez, H. R.; Muhlstein, C. L.

    2017-02-01

    Previous reports suggest that Raman peaks in uniaxially loaded nanowires with diamond cubic and zinc blende crystal structures shift at rates that are significantly different from bulk specimens. We have investigated the first order Raman scattering from individual, free-standing, [111] oriented GaP nanowires ranging from 75 to 180 nm in diameter at uniaxial tensile stresses up to 5 GPa. All of the phonon modes were shifted to frequencies lower than previously reported for bulk GaP, and significant splitting of the degenerate transverse optical mode was observed. A general analysis method using single and double Lorentzian fits of the Raman peaks is presented and used to report more accurate values of the phonon deformation potentials (PDPs) that relate uniaxial strains to Raman peak shifts in GaP. A new set of PDPs determined from the nanowires revealed that the they have elastic moduli and failure strains that are consistent with bulk GaP. The analysis method eliminated the anomalous, inconsistent deformation behavior commonly reported in Raman-based strain measurements of nanowires, and can be extended to other materials systems with degenerate phonons.

  6. Static and dynamic moduli of posterior dental resin composites under compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Nishiwaki, Tsuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Dental resin composites are commonly used as restorative materials for dental treatment. To comprehend the static and dynamic moduli of dental resin composites, we investigated the mechanical behaviors of resin composites under static and dynamic loading conditions. Four commercially available resin composites for posterior restorations were evaluated. The percentages, by weight, of inorganic fillers of resin composites were examined by the ashing technique. The static compressive tests were undertaken with a constant loading speed of 1.0 mm/min using a computer-controlled INSTRON testing machine. The dynamic properties of composites were determined using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique. When inorganic filler content was increased, a remarkable increase in the static modulus and dynamic modulus were observed. Furthermore, there was a strong relationship between the static modulus and dynamic modulus (r(2) = 0.947). The SHPB technique clearly demonstrated the dynamic properties of composites, and was a useful technique for determining the mechanical behavior of composites under dynamic compressive loading.

  7. Preparation and Elastic Moduli of Germanate Glass Containing Lead and Bismuth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan M. M. Yunus

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG systems in the form of (GeO260–(PbO40−x–(½Bi2O3x where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi2O3 concentration were determined using Archimedes’ method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B2O320–(PbO80−x–(Bi2O3x. The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi2O3 content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young’s also increase linearly with addition of Bi2O3 but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson’s ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi2O3 concentration.

  8. Preparation and elastic moduli of germanate glass containing lead and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, Hj A A; Bahari, Hamid R; Halimah, Mohamed K; Yunus, Wan M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the rapid melt quenching technique preparation for the new family of bismuth-lead germanate glass (BPG) systems in the form of (GeO(2))(60)-(PbO)(40-) (x)-(½Bi(2)O(3))(x) where x = 0 to 40 mol%. Their densities with respect of Bi(2)O(3) concentration were determined using Archimedes' method with acetone as a floatation medium. The current experimental data are compared with those of bismuth lead borate (B(2)O(3))(20)-(PbO)(80-) (x)-(Bi(2)O(3))(x). The elastic properties of BPG were studied using the ultrasonic pulse-echo technique where both longitudinal and transverse sound wave velocities have been measured in each glass samples at a frequency of 15 MHz and at room temperature. Experimental data shows that all the physical parameters of BPG including density and molar volume, both longitudinal and transverse velocities increase linearly with increasing of Bi(2)O(3) content in the germanate glass network. Their elastic moduli such as longitudinal, shear and Young's also increase linearly with addition of Bi(2)O(3) but the bulk modulus did not. The Poisson's ratio and fractal dimensionality are also found to vary linearly with the Bi(2)O(3) concentration.

  9. Biomedical titanium alloys with Young’s moduli close to that of cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Liu, Yi; Nakai, Masaki; Liu, Huihong; Li, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical titanium alloys with Young’s moduli close to that of cortical bone, i.e., low Young’s modulus titanium alloys, are receiving extensive attentions because of their potential in preventing stress shielding, which usually leads to bone resorption and poor bone remodeling, when implants made of their alloys are used. They are generally β-type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic and allergy-free elements such as Ti–29Nb–13Ta–4.6Zr referred to as TNTZ, which is highly expected to be used as a biomaterial for implants replacing failed hard tissue. Furthermore, to satisfy the demands from both patients and surgeons, i.e., a low Young’s modulus of the whole implant and a high Young’s modulus of the deformed part of implant, titanium alloys with changeable Young’s modulus, which are also β-type titanium alloys, for instance Ti–12Cr, have been developed. In this review article, by focusing on TNTZ and Ti–12Cr, the biological and mechanical properties of the titanium alloys with low Young’s modulus and changeable Young’s modulus are described. In addition, the titanium alloys with shape memory and superelastic properties were briefly addressed. Surface modifications for tailoring the biological and anti-wear/corrosion performances of the alloys have also been briefly introduced. PMID:27252887

  10. Biomedical titanium alloys with Young's moduli close to that of cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Mitsuo; Liu, Yi; Nakai, Masaki; Liu, Huihong; Li, Hua

    2016-09-01

    Biomedical titanium alloys with Young's moduli close to that of cortical bone, i.e., low Young's modulus titanium alloys, are receiving extensive attentions because of their potential in preventing stress shielding, which usually leads to bone resorption and poor bone remodeling, when implants made of their alloys are used. They are generally β-type titanium alloys composed of non-toxic and allergy-free elements such as Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr referred to as TNTZ, which is highly expected to be used as a biomaterial for implants replacing failed hard tissue. Furthermore, to satisfy the demands from both patients and surgeons, i.e., a low Young's modulus of the whole implant and a high Young's modulus of the deformed part of implant, titanium alloys with changeable Young's modulus, which are also β-type titanium alloys, for instance Ti-12Cr, have been developed. In this review article, by focusing on TNTZ and Ti-12Cr, the biological and mechanical properties of the titanium alloys with low Young's modulus and changeable Young's modulus are described. In addition, the titanium alloys with shape memory and superelastic properties were briefly addressed. Surface modifications for tailoring the biological and anti-wear/corrosion performances of the alloys have also been briefly introduced.

  11. Electric Field Generated Stress Moduli in Polythiophene/Polyisoprene Elastomer Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puvanatvattana, Toemphong; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2006-03-01

    The effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength on the rheological properties of polyisoprene and polythiophene/polyisoprene (Pth/PI) blendss were investigated as potential electroactive actuator. Electrorheological properties of polyisoprene and blends were measured under the oscillatory shear mode with the applied electric filed strength varying from 0 to 2 kV/mm. The dynamic moduli, G' and G'', of the pure polyisoprene depend on the crosslinking ratio and the electric filed strength; the storage modulus (G') increases but the loss modulus (G'') decreases with increasing crosslinking ratio. The storage modulus (G') and the loss modulus (G'') of the pure polyisoprene fluid exhibit no change with increasing electric field strength. For PI with the crosslinking ratios of 2, 3, 5 and 7 (PI&_slash;02, 03, 05 and 07), the storage modulus sensitivity, Δ G'/G'o, increases with electric field strength and attains maximum values of 10&%slash;, 60&%slash;, 25&%slash;, and 30&%slash; at the electric field strength of 2 kV/mm, respectively. The loss modulus (G'') of the PI with the crosslinking ratios of 2 and 3 increases with the electric field, but for the blends of the crosslinking ratios of 5 and 7, it decreases. For the blends of polythiophene with PI at concentrations of 5&%slash;, 10&%slash; and 20&%slash; by vol, G' and G'' are generally higher than those of pure polyisoprene.

  12. Multi-Regge kinematics and the moduli space of Riemann spheres with marked points

    CERN Document Server

    Del Duca, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes in planar N = 4 Super Yang-Mills in multi-Regge kinematics can naturally be expressed in terms of single-valued iterated integrals on the moduli space of Riemann spheres with marked points. As a consequence, scattering amplitudes in this limit can be expressed as convolutions that can easily be computed using Stokes' theorem. We apply this framework to MHV amplitudes to leading-logarithmic accuracy (LLA), and we prove that at L loops all MHV amplitudes are determined by amplitudes with up to L + 4 external legs. We also investigate non-MHV amplitudes, and we show that they can be obtained by convoluting the MHV results with a certain helicity flip kernel. We classify all leading singularities that appear at LLA in the Regge limit for arbitrary helicity configurations and any number of external legs. Finally, we use our new framework to obtain explicit analytic results at LLA for all MHV amplitudes up to five loops and all non-MHV amplitudes with up to eight external legs and...

  13. Vibrations of Three-Layered Cylindrical Shells with FGM Middle Layer Resting on Winkler and Pasternak Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafar Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations of a cylindrical shell composed of three layers of different materials resting on elastic foundations are studied out. This configuration is formed by three layers of material in thickness direction where the inner and outer layers are of isotropic materials and the middle is of functionally graded material. Love shell dynamical equations are considered to describe the vibration problem. The expressions for moduli of the Winkler and Pasternak foundations are combined with the shell dynamical equations. The wave propagation approach is used to solve the present shell problem. A number of comparisons of numerical results are performed to check the validity and accuracy of the present approach.

  14. Comparison of slowness profiles of lamb wave with elastic moduli and crystal structure in single crystalline silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Young Jae; Yun, Gyeong Won; Kim, Kyung Min; Roh, Yuji; Kim, Young H. [Applied Acoustics Lab, Korea Science Academy of KAIST, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Single crystalline silicon wafers having (100), (110), and (111) directions are employed as specimens for obtaining slowness profiles. Leaky Lamb waves (LLW) from immersed wafers were detected by varying the incident angles of the specimens and rotating the specimens. From an analysis of LLW signals for different propagation directions and phase velocities of each specimen, slowness profiles were obtained, which showed a unique symmetry with different symmetric axes. Slowness profiles were compared with elastic moduli of each wafer. They showed the same symmetries as crystal structures. In addition, slowness profiles showed expected patterns and values that can be inferred from elastic moduli. This implies that slowness profiles can be used to examine crystal structures of anisotropic solids.

  15. Quantum moduli space of Chern-Simons quivers, wrapped D6-branes and AdS4/CFT3

    CERN Document Server

    Benini, Francesco; Cremonesi, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum moduli space of N=2 Chern-Simons quivers with generic ranks and CS levels, proving along the way exact formulas for the charges of bare monopole operators. We then derive N=2 Chern-Simons quiver theories dual to AdS_4 x Y^{p,q}(CP2) M-theory backgrounds, for the whole family of Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds and for any value of the torsion G_4 flux. The derivation of the gauge theories relies on the reduction to type IIA string theory, in which M2-branes become D2-branes while the conical geometry maps to RR flux and D6-branes wrapped on compact four-cycles. M5-branes on torsion cycles map to flux and wrapped D4-branes. The moduli space of the quiver is shown to contain the corresponding CY_4 cone and all its crepant resolutions.

  16. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.

  17. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials. PMID:27694824

  18. Clarification of the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the effective elastic moduli of polycrystals with hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, J.P.; Peselnick, L.

    1980-01-01

    Bounds on the effective elastic moduli of randomly oriented aggregates of hexagonal, trigonal, and tetragonal crystals are derived using the variational principles of Hashin and Shtrikman. The bounds are considerably narrower than the widely used Voigt and Reuss bounds. The Voigt-Reuss-Hill average lies within the Hashin-Shtrikman bounds in nearly all cases. Previous bounds of Peselnick and Meister are shown to be special cases of the present results.

  19. MPL-A program for computations with iterated integrals on moduli spaces of curves of genus zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the Maple program MPL for computations with multiple polylogarithms. The program is based on homotopy invariant iterated integrals on moduli spaces M0,n of curves of genus 0 with n ordered marked points. It includes the symbol map and procedures for the analytic computation of period integrals on M0,n. It supports the automated computation of a certain class of Feynman integrals.

  20. Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....

  1. The Young’s moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite element models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young’s modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young’s moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be acceptable to predict the Young’s moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforcement.

  2. The Young's moduli prediction of random distributed short-fiber-reinforced polypropylene foams using finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bo; WANG RongXiu; WU Yong

    2009-01-01

    The elastic moduli of short-fiber-reinforced foams depend critically on the fiber content and fiber length, as well as on the fiber orientation distribution. Based on periodic tetrakaidecahedrons, the finite ele-ment models with short-fiber reinforcement were proposed in this paper to examine the effects of the fiber content and fiber length on Young's modulus. The fiber length distribution and fiber orientation distribution were also considered. The proposed models featured in a three-dimensional diorama with random short-fiber distribution within or on the surfaces of the walls and edges of the closed-cells of polypropylene (PP) foams. The fiber length/orientation distributions were modeled by Gaussian prob-ability density functions. Different fiber volume fractions, different lengths, and different distributions were investigated. The predicted Young's moduli of the PP foams with short-glass-fiber or short-carbon-fiber reinforcement were compared with other theoretic and experimental results, and the agreement was found to be satisfactory. The proposed finite element models were proved to be ac-ceptable to predict the Young's moduli of the grafted closed-cell PP foams with short-fiber reinforce-ment.

  3. Determining elastic and shear moduli of cold-formed steel at elevated temperatures using a new sonic resonance method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Zhang, Haifeng; Yu, Cheng; Wahrmund, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the mechanical properties of cold-formed steel (CFS) at elevated temperatures is critical for the design of CFS structures and analysis of these structures under fire; however, not much literature exists on mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. We report the measurements of elastic and shear moduli for CFS (ASTM-A1003) at elevated temperatures up to 350°C using a novel sonic resonance method. A Bode 100 network analyser was used to excite the CFS samples hanging inside a high-temperature furnace via a simple tweeter-type speaker, and for each the response signal was then detected by a Polytec OFV-5000 Laser Vibrometer Controller (Polytec Inc. Irvine, CA 92618). The resonance frequencies in both flexural and torsional modes are measured by the network analyser as a function of temperature, which allowed us to determine the elastic and the shear moduli. Both the elastic and the shear moduli decrease as the temperature increases. The results reported can be used in the CFS structure design and modelling at elevated temperatures. The new experimental methodology has been validated by a classical coupon test.

  4. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  5. Pavement thickness and stabilised foundation layer assessment using ground-coupled GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhui; Vennapusa, Pavana K. R.; White, David J.; Beresnev, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Experimental results from field and laboratory investigations using a ground-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), dielectric measurement, magnetic imaging tomography (MIT) and dynamic cone penetrometer (DCP) tests are presented. Dielectric properties of asphalt pavement and stabilised and unstabilised pavement foundation materials were evaluated in the laboratory in frozen and unfrozen conditions. Laboratory test results showed that dielectric properties of materials back-calculated from GPR in comparison to dielectric gauge measurements are strongly correlated and repeatable. For chemically stabilised materials, curing time affected the dielectric properties of the materials. Field tests were conducted on asphalt pavement test sections with different foundation materials (stabilised and unstabilised layers), drainage conditions and layer thicknesses. GPR and MIT results were used to determine asphalt layer thicknesses and were compared with measured core thicknesses, while GPR and DCP were used to assess foundation layer profiles. Asphalt thicknesses estimated from GPR showed an average error of about 11% using the dielectric gauge values as input. The average error reduced to about 4% when calibrated with cores thicknesses. MIT results showed thicknesses that are about 9% higher than estimated using GPR. Foundation layer thicknesses could not be measured using GPR due to variations in moisture conditions between the test sections, which is partly attributed to variations in gradation and drainage characteristics of the subbase layer.

  6. Evaluation of accelerated deterioration in NAPTF flexible test pavements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kasthurirangan GOPALAKRISHNAN

    2008-01-01

    Previous research studies have successfully demonstrated the use of artificial neural network(ANN)models for predicting critical structural responses and layer moduli of highway flexible pavements.The primary objective of this study was to develop an ANN-based approach for backcalculation of pavement moduli based on heavy weight deflectometer(HWD)test data,especially in the analysis of airport flexible pavements subjected to new generation aircraft(NGA).Two medium-strength subgrade flexible test sections,at the National Airport Pavement Test Facility(NAPTF),were modeled using a finite element(FE) based pavement analysis program,which can consider the non-linear stress-dependent behavior of pavement geomaterials.A multi-layer,feed-forward network which uses an error-backpropagation algorithm was trained to approximate the HWD backcalculation function using the FE program generated synthetic database.At the NAPTF,test sections were subjected to Boeing 777 (B777)trafficking on one lane and Boeing 747(B747)trafficking on the other lane using a test machine.To monitor the effect of traffic and climatic variations on pavement structural responses.HWD tests were conducted on the traffieked lanes and on the untraffieked centerline of test sections as trafficking progressed.The trained ANN models were successfully applied on the actual HWD test data acquired at the NAPTF to predict the asphalt concrete moduli and non-1inear subgrade moduli of the medium-strength subgrade flexible test sections.

  7. A diffraction correction for storage and loss moduli imaging using radiation force based elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelli, Eliana; Brum, Javier; Bernal, Miguel; Deffieux, Thomas; Tanter, Mickaël; Lema, Patricia; Negreira, Carlos; Gennisson, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive evaluation of the rheological behavior of soft tissues may provide an important diagnosis tool. Nowadays, available commercial ultrasound systems only provide shear elasticity estimation by shear wave speed assessment under the hypothesis of a purely elastic model. However, to fully characterize the rheological behavior of tissues, given by its storage (G‧) and loss (G″) moduli, it is necessary to estimate both: shear wave speed and shear wave attenuation. Most elastography techniques use the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For this type of source the shear waves are not plane and a diffraction correction is needed to properly estimate the shear wave attenuation. The use of a cylindrical wave approximation to evaluate diffraction has been proposed by other authors before. Here the validity of such approximation is numerically and experimentally revisited. Then, it is used to generate images of G‧ and G″ in heterogeneous viscoelastic mediums. A simulation algorithm based on the anisotropic and viscoelastic Green’s function was used to establish the validity of the cylindrical approximation. Moreover, two experiments were carried out: a transient elastography experiment where plane shear waves were generated using a vibrating plate and a SSI experiment that uses the acoustic radiation force to generate shear waves. For both experiments the shear wave propagation was followed with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner. Then, the shear wave velocity and shear wave attenuation were recovered from the phase and amplitude decay versus distance respectively. In the SSI experiment the cylindrical approximation was applied to correct attenuation due to diffraction effects. The numerical and experimental results validate the use of a cylindrical correction to assess shear wave attenuation. Finally, by applying the cylindrical correction G‧ and G″ images were generated in heterogeneous phantoms and a preliminary in vivo feasibility study

  8. Landslide characterization using P- and S-wave seismic refraction tomography - The importance of elastic moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlemann, S.; Hagedorn, S.; Dashwood, B.; Maurer, H.; Gunn, D.; Dijkstra, T.; Chambers, J.

    2016-11-01

    In the broad spectrum of natural hazards, landslides in particular are capable of changing the landscape and causing significant human and economic losses. Detailed site investigations form an important component in the landslide risk mitigation and disaster risk reduction process. These investigations usually rely on surface observations, discrete sampling of the subsurface, and laboratory testing to examine properties that are deemed representative of entire slopes. Often this requires extensive interpolations and results in large uncertainties. To compliment and extend these approaches, we present a study from an active landslide in a Lias Group clay slope, North Yorkshire, UK, examining combined P- and S-wave seismic refraction tomography (SRT) as a means of providing subsurface volumetric imaging of geotechnical proxies. The distributions of seismic wave velocities determined from SRT at the study site indicated zones with higher porosity and fissure density that are interpreted to represent the extent and depth of mass movements and weathered bedrock zones. Distinguishing the lithological units was facilitated by deriving the Poisson's ratio from the SRT data as saturated clay and partially saturated sandy silts showed distinctively different Poisson's ratios. Shear and Young's moduli derived from the SRT data revealed the weak nature of the materials in active parts of the landslide (i.e. 25 kPa and 100 kPa respectively). The SRT results are consistent with intrusive (i.e. cone penetration tests), laboratory, and additional geoelectrical data from this site. This study shows that SRT forms a cost-effective method that can significantly reduce uncertainties in the conceptual ground model of geotechnical and hydrological conditions that govern landslide dynamics.

  9. The effect of fracture density and stress state on the static and dynamic bulk moduli of Westerly granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, O. O.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Elastic properties are key parameters during the deformation of rocks. They can be measured statically or dynamically, but the two measurements are often different. In this study, the static and dynamic bulk moduli (Kstatic and Kdynamic) were measured at varying effective stress for dry and fluid-saturated Westerly granite with controlled fracture densities under isotropic and differential stress states. Isotropic fracturing of different densities was induced in samples by thermal treatment to 250, 450, 650, and 850°C. Results show that fluid saturation does not greatly affect static moduli but increases dynamic moduli. Under isotropic loading, high fracture density and/or low effective pressure results in a low Kstatic/Kdynamic ratio. For dry conditions Kstatic/Kdynamic approaches 1 at low fracture densities when the effective pressure is high, consistent with previous studies. Stress-induced anisotropy exists under differential stress state that greatly affects Kstatic compared to Kdynamic. As a result, the Kstatic/Kdynamic ratio is higher than that for the isotropic stress state and approaches 1 with increasing axial loading. The effect of stress-induced anisotropy increases with increasing fracture density. A key omission in previous studies comparing static and dynamic properties is that anisotropy has not been considered. The standard methods for measuring static elastic properties, such as Poisson's ratio, Young's and shear modulus, involve subjecting the sample to a differential stress state that promotes anisotropy. Our results show that stress-induced anisotropy resulting from differential stress state is a major contributor to the difference between static and dynamic elasticity and is dominant with high fracture density.

  10. NASA/University JOint VEnture (JOVE) Program: Transverse Shear Moduli Using the Torsional Responses of Rectangular Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Sam

    2001-01-01

    The first year included a study of the non-visible damage of composite overwrapped pressure vessels with B. Poe of the Materials Branch of Nasa-Langley. Early determinations showed a clear reduction in non-visible damage for thin COPVs when partially pressurized rather than unpressurized. Literature searches on Thicker-wall COPVs revealed surface damage but clearly visible. Analysis of current Analytic modeling indicated that that current COPV models lacked sufficient thickness corrections to predict impact damage. After a comprehensive study of available published data and numerous numerical studies based on observed data from Langley, the analytic framework for modeling the behavior was determined lacking and both Poe and Bogan suggested any short term (3yr) result for Jove would be overly ambitious and emphasis should be placed on transverse shear moduli studies. Transverse shear moduli determination is relevant to the study of fatigue, fracture and aging effects in composite structures. Based on the techniques developed by Daniel & Tsai, Bogan and Gates determined to verify the results for K3B and 8320. A detailed analytic and experimental plan was established and carried out that included variations in layup, width, thickness, and length. As well as loading rate variations to determine effects and relaxation moduli. The additional axial loads during the torsion testing were studied as was the placement of gages along the composite specimen. Of the proposed tasks, all of tasks I and 2 were completed with presentations given at Langley, SEM conferences and ASME/AIAA conferences. Sensitivity issues with the technique associated with the use of servohydraulic test systems for applying the torsional load to the composite specimen limited the torsion range for predictable and repeatable transverse shear properties. Bogan and Gates determined to diverge on research efforts with Gates continuing the experimental testing at Langley and Bogan modeling the apparent non

  11. Scattering reduction of an acoustically hard cylinder covered with layered pentamode metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Jeffrey E; Scandrett, Clyde L; Howarth, Thomas R

    2016-06-01

    Transformational acoustics offers the theoretical possibility of cloaking obstacles within fluids, provided metamaterials having continuously varying bulk moduli and densities can be found or constructed. Realistically, materials with the proper, continuously varying anisotropies do not presently exist. However, discretely layered cloaks having constant material parameters within each layer may be a viable alternative in practice. The present work considers a range of cloaks, from those comprised of fluid layers that are isotropic in bulk moduli with anisotropic density (inertial cloaks) to those having anisotropic bulk moduli and isotropic density (pentamode cloaks). In this paper an analytical solution is obtained for the case of plane wave scattering from a submerged rigid cylinder covered with a multilayered cylindrical cloak composed of discrete anisotropic fluid layers. An investigation of the parameter space defining such cloaks is undertaken with the goal of minimizing the far-field scattered pressure, using layer constituent anisotropic properties (density and bulk modulus) constrained to lie within reasonable ranges relative to those of water.

  12. Measurements of Elastic Moduli of Silicone Gel Substrates with a Microfluidic Device

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Gutierrez; Alex Groisman

    2011-01-01

    Thin layers of gels with mechanical properties mimicking animal tissues are widely used to study the rigidity sensing of adherent animal cells and to measure forces applied by cells to their substrate with traction force microscopy. The gels are usually based on polyacrylamide and their elastic modulus is measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Here we present a simple microfluidic device that generates high shear stresses in a laminar flow above a gel-coated substrate and apply the d...

  13. Origin of the multiple configurations that drive the response of δ-plutonium's elastic moduli to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Söderlind, Per; Landa, Alexander; Freibert, Franz J.; Maiorov, Boris; Ramshaw, B. J.; Betts, Jon B.

    2016-10-01

    The electronic and thermodynamic complexity of plutonium has resisted a fundamental understanding for this important elemental metal. A critical test of any theory is the unusual softening of the bulk modulus with increasing temperature, a result that is counterintuitive because no or very little change in the atomic volume is observed upon heating. This unexpected behavior has in the past been attributed to competing but never-observed electronic states with different bonding properties similar to the scenario with magnetic states in Invar alloys. Using the recent observation of plutonium dynamic magnetism, we construct a theory for plutonium that agrees with relevant measurements by using density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations with no free parameters to compute the effect of longitudinal spin fluctuations on the temperature dependence of the bulk moduli in δ-Pu. We show that the softening with temperature can be understood in terms of a continuous distribution of thermally activated spin fluctuations.

  14. Origin of the multiple configurations that drive the response of δ-plutonium’s elastic moduli to temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Söderlind, Per; Landa, Alexander; Freibert, Franz J.; Maiorov, Boris; Ramshaw, B. J.; Betts, Jon B.

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and thermodynamic complexity of plutonium has resisted a fundamental understanding for this important elemental metal. A critical test of any theory is the unusual softening of the bulk modulus with increasing temperature, a result that is counterintuitive because no or very little change in the atomic volume is observed upon heating. This unexpected behavior has in the past been attributed to competing but never-observed electronic states with different bonding properties similar to the scenario with magnetic states in Invar alloys. Using the recent observation of plutonium dynamic magnetism, we construct a theory for plutonium that agrees with relevant measurements by using density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations with no free parameters to compute the effect of longitudinal spin fluctuations on the temperature dependence of the bulk moduli in δ-Pu. We show that the softening with temperature can be understood in terms of a continuous distribution of thermally activated spin fluctuations. PMID:27647904

  15. On a stratification of the Kontsevich moduli space ¯M0,n(G(2,4),d)  and enumerative geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    ‾We consider a particular stratification of the moduli space of stable maps to G(2,4) . As an application we compute the degree of the variety parametrizing rational ruled surfaces with a minimal directrix of degree by studying divisors in this moduli space of stable maps. For example, there are ...

  16. An Estimation Method of Pore Structure and Mineral Moduli Based on Kuster-Toksöz (KT) Model and Biot's Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Da; Yin, Cheng; Zhao, Hu; Liu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Pore structure and mineral matrix elastic moduli are indispensable in rock physics models. We propose an estimation method of pore structure and mineral moduli based on Kuster-Toksöz model and Biot's coefficient. In this technique, pore aspect ratios of five different scales from 100 to 10-4 are considered, Biot's coefficient is used to determine bounds of mineral moduli, and an estimation procedure combined with simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to handle real logs or laboratory measurements is developed. The proposed method is applied to parameter estimations on 28 sandstone samples, the properties of which have been measured in lab. The water saturated data are used for estimating pore structure and mineral moduli, and the oil saturated data are used for testing these estimated parameters through fluid substitution in Kuster-Toksöz model. We then compare fluid substitution results with lab measurements and find that relative errors of P-wave and S-wave velocities are all less than 5%, which indicates that the estimation results are accurate.

  17. A model for the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhre, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The notion of relatedness loci in the parabolic slices Per1(e2πip/q) in moduli space of quadratic rational maps is introduced. They are counterparts of the disconnectedness or escape locus in the slice of quadratic polynomials. A model for these loci is presented, and a strategy of proof of the f...

  18. The first cohomology of the mapping class group with coefficients in algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Villemoes, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Consider a compact surface of genus at least two. We prove that the first cohomology group of the mapping class group with coefficients in the space of algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space vanishes. In the genus one case, this cohomology group is infinite dimensional....

  19. Nonmixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Pierre; Giovangigli, Vincent; Matuszewski, Lionel

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the impact of nonideal diffusion on the structure of supercritical cryogenic binary mixing layers. This situation is typical of liquid fuel injection in high-pressure rocket engines. Nonideal diffusion has a dramatic impact in the neighborhood of chemical thermodynamic stability limits where the components become quasi-immiscible and ultimately form a nonmixing layer. Numerical simulations are performed for mixing layers of H2 and N2 at a pressure of 100 atm and temperature around 120-150 K near chemical thermodynamic stability limits.

  20. Moduli spaces of framed symplectic and orthogonal bundles on P2 and the K-theoretic Nekrasov partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Jaeyoo

    2016-08-01

    Let K be the compact Lie group USp(N / 2) or SO(N , R) . Let MnK be the moduli space of framed K-instantons over S4 with the instanton number n. By Donaldson (1984), MnK is endowed with a natural scheme structure. It is a Zariski open subset of a GIT quotient of μ-1(0) , where μ is a holomorphic moment map such that μ-1(0) consists of the ADHM data. The purpose of the paper is to study the geometric properties of μ-1(0) and its GIT quotient, such as complete intersection, irreducibility, reducedness and normality. If K = USp(N / 2) then μ is flat and μ-1(0) is an irreducible normal variety for any n and even N. If K = SO(N , R) the similar results are proven for low n and N. As an application one can obtain a mathematical interpretation of the K-theoretic Nekrasov partition function of Nekrasov and Shadchin (2004).

  1. Hydrogen bonds, interfacial stiffness moduli, and the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Cantrell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes KN of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The KN calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67 ×1017 N m−3. The average ratio KN/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043 × 1010 m−1 for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of KN via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.

  2. Hydrogen bonds, interfacial stiffness moduli, and the interlaminar shear strength of carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, John H., E-mail: john.h.cantrell@nasa.gov [Research Directorate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The chemical treatment of carbon fibers used in carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites greatly affects the fraction of hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) formed at the fiber-matrix interface. The H-bonds are major contributors to the fiber-matrix interfacial shear strength and play a direct role in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composite. The H-bond contributions τ to the ILSS and magnitudes K{sub N} of the fiber-matrix interfacial stiffness moduli of seven carbon fiber-epoxy matrix composites, subjected to different fiber surface treatments, are calculated from the Morse potential for the interactions of hydroxyl and carboxyl acid groups formed on the carbon fiber surfaces with epoxy receptors. The τ calculations range from 7.7 MPa to 18.4 MPa in magnitude, depending on fiber treatment. The K{sub N} calculations fall in the range (2.01 – 4.67) ×10{sup 17} N m{sup −3}. The average ratio K{sub N}/|τ| is calculated to be (2.59 ± 0.043) × 10{sup 10} m{sup −1} for the seven composites, suggesting a nearly linear connection between ILSS and H-bonding at the fiber-matrix interfaces. The linear connection indicates that τ may be assessable nondestructively from measurements of K{sub N} via a technique such as angle beam ultrasonic spectroscopy.

  3. Temperature-dependent mechanical properties of single-layer molybdenum disulphide: Molecular dynamics nanoindentation simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Junhua, E-mail: junhua.zhao@uni-weimar.de [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Advanced Manufacturing Equipment and Technology of Food, Jiangnan University, 214122 Wuxi (China); Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Jiang, Jin-Wu, E-mail: jwjiang5918@hotmail.com [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); Rabczuk, Timon, E-mail: timon.rabczuk@uni-weimar.de [Institute of Structural Mechanics, Bauhaus-University Weimar, 99423 Weimar (Germany); School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 136-701 Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-02

    The temperature-dependent mechanical properties of single-layer molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) are obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) nanoindentation simulations. The Young's moduli, maximum load stress, and maximum loading strain decrease with increasing temperature from 4.2 K to 500 K. The obtained Young's moduli are in good agreement with those using our MD uniaxial tension simulations and the available experimental results. The tendency of maximum loading strain with different temperature is opposite with that of metal materials due to the short range Stillinger-Weber potentials in MoS{sub 2}. Furthermore, the indenter tip radius and fitting strain effect on the mechanical properties are also discussed.

  4. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe3C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, G.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe3C) and its alloyed counterparts (M3C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr2FeC and CrFe2C) having the crystal structure of Fe3C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, Cij, of above M3Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young's and shear moduli, and Poisson's ratio based on calculated Cijs, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratio) of M3Cs by homogenization of calculated Cijs; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θD, of M3Cs based on calculated Cijs. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  5. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe3C and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghosh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe3C and its alloyed counterparts (M3C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr2FeC and CrFe2C having the crystal structure of Fe3C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT, all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA. Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i single-crystal elastic constants, Cij, of above M3Cs; (ii anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated Cijs, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii isotropic (polycrystalline elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio of M3Cs by homogenization of calculated Cijs; and (iv acoustic Debye temperature, θD, of M3Cs based on calculated Cijs. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  6. Component-/structure-dependent elasticity of solid electrolyte interphase layer in Li-ion batteries: Experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hosop; Park, Jonghyun; Han, Sangwoo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Lu, Wei

    2015-03-01

    The mechanical instability of the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) layer in lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries causes significant side reactions resulting in Li-ion consumption and cell impedance rise by forming further SEI layers, which eventually leads to battery capacity fade and power fade. In this paper, the composition-/structure-dependent elasticity of the SEI layer is investigated via Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements coupled with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and atomistic calculations. It is observed that the inner layer is stiffer than the outer layer. The measured Young's moduli are mostly in the range of 0.2-4.5 GPa, while some values above 80 GPa are also observed. This wide variation of the observed elastic modulus is elucidated by atomistic calculations with a focus on chemical and structural analysis. The numerical analysis shows the Young's moduli range from 2.4 GPa to 58.1 GPa in the order of the polymeric, organic, and amorphous inorganic components. The crystalline inorganic component (LiF) shows the highest value (135.3 GPa) among the SEI species. This quantitative observation on the elasticity of individual components of the SEI layer must be essential to analyzing the mechanical behavior of the SEI layer and to optimizing and controlling it.

  7. Dynamic bulk and shear moduli due to grain-scale local fluid flow in fluid-saturated cracked poroelastic rocks: Theoretical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.

    2016-07-01

    Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.

  8. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, G., E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts (M{sub 3}C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr{sub 2}FeC and CrFe{sub 2}C) having the crystal structure of Fe{sub 3}C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, C{sub ij}, of above M{sub 3}Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated C{sub ij}s, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio) of M{sub 3}Cs by homogenization of calculated C{sub ij}s; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θ{sub D}, of M{sub 3}Cs based on calculated C{sub ij}s. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  9. N=2 Moduli Spaces and N=1 Dualities for $SO(n_c)$ and $USp(2n_c)$ SuperQCD

    CERN Document Server

    Argyres, Philip C; Shapere, A D; Argyres, Philip C.; Shapere, Alfred D.

    1996-01-01

    We determine the exact global structure of the moduli space of $N{=}2$ supersymmetric $SO(n)$ and $\\USp(2n)$ gauge theories with matter hypermultiplets in the fundamental representations, using the non-renormalization theorem for the Higgs branches and the exact solutions for the Coulomb branches. By adding an $(N{=}2)$--breaking mass term for the adjoint chiral field and varying the mass, the $N{=}2$ theories can be made to flow to either an ``electric'' $N{=}1$ supersymmetric QCD or its $N{=}1$ dual ``magnetic'' version. We thus obtain a derivation of the $N{=}1$ dualities of Seiberg.

  10. An efficient RNS parity checker for moduli set {2n-1,2n+1,22n+1} and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shang; HU JianHao; ZHANG Lin; LING Xiang

    2008-01-01

    Residue number system (RNS) has received considerable attention since decades before,because it has inherent carry-free and parallel properties in addition,subtraction,and multiplication operations.For an odd moduli set,the fundamental problems in RNS,such as number comparison,sign determination,and overflow detection,can be solved based on parity checking.The paper proposes a parity checking algorithm along with related propositions and the certification based on the celebrated Chinese remainder theory (CRT) and mixed radix conversion (MRC) for the moduli set {2n-1,2n+1,22n+1}.The parity checker consists of two modular adders and a carry-look-ahead chain.The hardware implementation requires less area and path delay.Besides,the implementations of number comparison,sign determination,and overflow detection,which are based on this parity checker,are also performed in this paper.And this kind of parity checker can be used as a basic element to design ALUs and DSP module in RNS.

  11. Abel-Jacobi isomorphism for one cycles on Kirwan's resolution of the moduli space SU_C(2,O_C)

    CERN Document Server

    Iyer, Jaya NN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the moduli space $\\cSU_C(r,\\cO_C)$ of rank $r$ semistable vector bundles with trivial determinant on a smooth projective curve $C$ of genus $g$. When the rank $r=2$, F. Kirwan constructed a smooth log resolution $\\ov{X}\\rar \\cSU_C(2,\\cO_C)$. Based on earlier work of M. Kerr and J. Lewis, Lewis explains in the Appendix the notion of a relative Chow group (w.r.to the normal crossing divisor), and a subsequent Abel-Jacobi map on the relative Chow group of null-homologous one cycles (tensored with $\\Q$). This map takes values in the intermediate Jacobian of the compactly supported cohomology of the stable locus. We show that this is an isomorphism and since the intermediate Jacobian is identified with the Jacobian $Jac(C)\\otimes \\Q$, this can be thought of as a weak-representability result for open smooth varieties. A Hard Lefschetz theorem is also proved for the odd degree bottom weight cohomology of the moduli space $\\cSU_C^s(2,\\cO_C)$. When the rank $r\\geq 2$, we compute the codimens...

  12. Elasticity Modulus and Flexural Strength Assessment of Foam Concrete Layer of Poroflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Matej; Decky, Martin; Drusa, Marian; Orininová, Lucia; Scherfel, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, it is necessary to develop new building materials, which are in accordance to the principles of the following provisions of the Roads Act: The design of road is a subject that follows national technical standards, technical regulations and objectively established results of research and development for road infrastructure. Foam concrete, as a type of lightweight concrete, offers advantages such as low bulk density, thermal insulation and disadvantages that will be reduced by future development. The contribution focuses on identifying the major material characteristics of foam concrete named Poroflow 17-5, in order to replace cement-bound granular mixtures. The experimental measurements performed on test specimens were the subject of diploma thesis in 2015 and continuously of the dissertation thesis and grant research project. At the beginning of the contribution, an overview of the current use of foam concrete abroad is elaborated. Moreover, it aims to determine the flexural strength of test specimens Poroflow 17-5 in combination with various basis weights of the underlying geotextile. Another part of the article is devoted to back-calculation of indicative design modulus of Poroflow based layers based on the results of static plate load tests provided at in situ experimental stand of Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Žilina (FCE Uniza). Testing stand has been created in order to solve problems related to research of road and railway structures. Concern to building construction presents a physical homomorphic model that is identical with the corresponding theory in all structural features. Based on the achieved material characteristics, the tensile strength in bending of previously used road construction materials was compared with innovative alternative of foam concrete and the suitability for the base layers of pavement roads was determined.

  13. Numerical study of adhesion enhancement by composite fibrils with soft tip layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Ram Gopal; Fischer, Sarah C. L.; Hensel, René; McMeeking, Robert M.; Arzt, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    Bio-inspired fibrillar surfaces with reversible adhesion to stiff substrates have been thoroughly investigated over the last decade. In this paper we propose a novel composite fibril consisting of a soft tip layer and stiffer stalk with differently shaped interfaces (flat vs. curved) between them. A tensile stress is applied remotely on the free end of the fibril whose other end adheres to a rigid substrate. The stress distributions and the resulting adhesion of such structures were numerically investigated under plane strain (2 D) and axisymmetric (3 D) conditions. The stress intensities were evaluated for different combinations of layer thickness and Young's moduli. The adhesion strength values were found to increase for thinner layers and larger modulus ratio; these trends are also reflected in selected experimental results. The results of this paper provide a new strategy for optimizing adhesion strength of fibrillar surfaces.

  14. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change random access memory (PCRAM devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM and the encapsulating layer material (YELM according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  15. Role of an encapsulating layer for reducing resistance drift in phase change random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Kim, Jungsik; Pi, Dong-Hai; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2014-12-01

    Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) devices exhibit a steady increase in resistance in the amorphous phase upon aging and this resistance drift phenomenon directly affects the device reliability. A stress relaxation model is used here to study the effect of a device encapsulating layer material in addressing the resistance drift phenomenon in PCRAM. The resistance drift can be increased or decreased depending on the biaxial moduli of the phase change material (YPCM) and the encapsulating layer material (YELM) according to the stress relationship between them in the drift regime. The proposed model suggests that the resistance drift can be effectively reduced by selecting a proper material as an encapsulating layer. Moreover, our model explains that reducing the size of the phase change material (PCM) while fully reset and reducing the amorphous/crystalline ratio in PCM help to improve the resistance drift, and thus opens an avenue for highly reliable multilevel PCRAM applications.

  16. Acoustically-induced slip in sheared granular layers: application to dynamic earthquake triggering

    CERN Document Server

    Ferdowsi, Behrooz; Guyer, Robert A; Johnson, Paul A; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental mystery in earthquake physics is "how can an earthquake be triggered by distant seismic sources?" A possible explanation is suggested by results found in discrete element method simulations of a granular layer, during stick-slip, that is subject to transient vibrational excitation. We find that at a critical vibrational amplitude (strain) there is an abrupt transition from negligible time-advanced slip (clock advance) to full clock advance, i.e., transient vibration and earthquake are simultaneous. The critical strain is of order 10^{-6}, similar to observations in the laboratory and in Earth. The transition is related to frictional weakening of the granular layer due to a dramatic increase in the number of slipping contacts and decrease in the coordination number. Associated with this frictional weakening is a pronounced decrease in the elastic moduli of the layer.

  17. On the Moduli Space of Non-Primary Hopf Surfaces%关于非主Hopf曲面的模空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆忠; 张锦豪

    2000-01-01

    The authorsconstructed in this paper the fine moduli space ofall complex structures on S3 / H-bundle over S1 whose transitionfunction u : S3/H→S3/H is an involution of S3/H, where H U(2) is a finite gronp whose action is properly discontinuousand free on S3.%构造了S1上S3 / H-丛的所有复结构的模空间, 其中丛的转换函数u: S3/H→S3/H是S3/H的一个对合, H U(2), H为有限群且在S3 / H上的作用是自由的.真不连续的.

  18. Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. I. Low-frequency bulk and shear moduli of DC704 and 5-PPE measured by piezoceramic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Nelson, Keith Adam;

    2013-01-01

    We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation...... time, and the spectral shape parameters. We conclude that TTS is obeyed to a good approximation for both the bulk and shear moduli. The loss-peak shapes are nearly identical, while the shear modulus relaxes faster than the bulk modulus. The temperature dependence of this decoupling of time scales...... is constant over the temperature range explored here. In addition, we demonstrate how one can measure reliably the DC shear viscosity over ten orders of magnitude by using the two measuring techniques in combination....

  19. Estimation of elastic moduli in a compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Miller, R.D.; Chen, C.

    2006-01-01

    A Gibson half-space model (a non-layered Earth model) has the shear modulus varying linearly with depth in an inhomogeneous elastic half-space. In a half-space of sedimentary granular soil under a geostatic state of initial stress, the density and the Poisson's ratio do not vary considerably with depth. In such an Earth body, the dynamic shear modulus is the parameter that mainly affects the dispersion of propagating waves. We have estimated shear-wave velocities in the compressible Gibson half-space by inverting Rayleigh-wave phase velocities. An analytical dispersion law of Rayleigh-type waves in a compressible Gibson half-space is given in an algebraic form, which makes our inversion process extremely simple and fast. The convergence of the weighted damping solution is guaranteed through selection of the damping factor using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. Calculation efficiency is achieved by reconstructing a weighted damping solution using singular value decomposition techniques. The main advantage of this algorithm is that only three parameters define the compressible Gibson half-space model. Theoretically, to determine the model by the inversion, only three Rayleigh-wave phase velocities at different frequencies are required. This is useful in practice where Rayleigh-wave energy is only developed in a limited frequency range or at certain frequencies as data acquired at manmade structures such as dams and levees. Two real examples are presented and verified by borehole S-wave velocity measurements. The results of these real examples are also compared with the results of the layered-Earth model. ?? Springer 2006.

  20. Innovation in Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Cui, Jiwei; Björnmalm, Mattias; Braunger, Julia A; Ejima, Hirotaka; Caruso, Frank

    2016-12-14

    Methods for depositing thin films are important in generating functional materials for diverse applications in a wide variety of fields. Over the last half-century, the layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has received intense and growing interest. This has been fueled by innovation in the available materials and assembly technologies, as well as the film-characterization techniques. In this Review, we explore, discuss, and detail innovation in layer-by-layer assembly in terms of past and present developments, and we highlight how these might guide future advances. A particular focus is on conventional and early developments that have only recently regained interest in the layer-by-layer assembly field. We then review unconventional assemblies and approaches that have been gaining popularity, which include inorganic/organic hybrid materials, cells and tissues, and the use of stereocomplexation, patterning, and dip-pen lithography, to name a few. A relatively recent development is the use of layer-by-layer assembly materials and techniques to assemble films in a single continuous step. We name this "quasi"-layer-by-layer assembly and discuss the impacts and innovations surrounding this approach. Finally, the application of characterization methods to monitor and evaluate layer-by-layer assembly is discussed, as innovation in this area is often overlooked but is essential for development of the field. While we intend for this Review to be easily accessible and act as a guide to researchers new to layer-by-layer assembly, we also believe it will provide insight to current researchers in the field and help guide future developments and innovation.

  1. Stochastic multi-scale prediction on the apparent elastic moduli of trabecular bone considering uncertainties of biological apatite (BAp) crystallite orientation and image-based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaruddin, Khairul Salleh; Takano, Naoki; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    An assessment of the mechanical properties of trabecular bone is important in determining the fracture risk of human bones. Many uncertainty factors contribute to the dispersion of the estimated mechanical properties of trabecular bone. This study was undertaken in order to propose a computational scheme that will be able to predict the effective apparent elastic moduli of trabecular bone considering the uncertainties that are primarily caused by image-based modelling and trabecular stiffness orientation. The effect of image-based modelling which focused on the connectivity was also investigated. A stochastic multi-scale method using a first-order perturbation-based and asymptotic homogenisation theory was applied to formulate the stochastically apparent elastic properties of trabecular bone. The effective apparent elastic modulus was predicted with the introduction of a coefficient factor to represent the variation of bone characteristics due to inter-individual differences. The mean value of the predicted effective apparent Young's modulus in principal axis was found at approximately 460 MPa for respective 15.24% of bone volume fraction, and this is in good agreement with other experimental results. The proposed method may provide a reference for the reliable evaluation of the prediction of the apparent elastic properties of trabecular bone.

  2. Compressive elastic moduli and polishing performance of non-rigid core/shell structured PS/SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives evaluated by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ailian [College of Mechanical and Energy Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213016 (China); Mu, Weibin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Chen, Yang, E-mail: cy.jpu@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164 (China)

    2014-01-30

    The core/shell structured polystyrene (PS)/SiO{sub 2} composite microspheres with different silica shell morphology were synthesized by a modified Stöber method. As confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the rough discontinuous shell consisted of separate SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles for composite-A, while the smooth continuous one was composed of amorphous silica network for composite-B. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to probe the compressive Young's moduli (E) and chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) performances of the as-prepared PS/SiO{sub 2} composite microspheres. On the basis of the Hertzian contact mechanics, the calculated E values of the PS microspheres, composite-A and composite-B were 2.9 ± 0.4, 5.1 ± 1.2 and 6.0 ± 1.2 GPa, respectively. Compared to traditional abrasives, thermally grown silicon oxide wafers after polished by the core/shell PS/SiO{sub 2} composite abrasives obtained a lower root mean square roughness and a higher material removal rate value. In addition, there is an obvious effect of shell morphology of the composites on oxide CMP performance and structural stability during polishing process. This approach would provide a basis for understanding the actual role of organic/inorganic core/shell composite abrasives in the material removal process of CMP.

  3. Elastic moduli of untreated, demineralized and deproteinized cortical bone: validation of a theoretical model of bone as an interpenetrating composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, E; Novitskaya, E; Li, J; Chen, P-Y; Jasiuk, I; McKittrick, J

    2012-03-01

    A theoretical experimentally based multi-scale model of the elastic response of cortical bone is presented. It portrays the hierarchical structure of bone as a composite with interpenetrating biopolymers (collagen and non-collagenous proteins) and minerals (hydroxyapatite), together with void spaces (porosity). The model involves a bottom-up approach and employs micromechanics and classical lamination theories of composite materials. Experiments on cortical bone samples from bovine femur include completely demineralized and deproteinized bones as well as untreated bone samples. Porosity and microstructure are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and micro-computed tomography. Compression testing is used to measure longitudinal and transverse elastic moduli of all three bone types. The characterization of structure and properties of these three bone states provides a deeper understanding of the contributions of the individual components of bone to its elastic response and allows fine tuning of modeling assumptions. Very good agreement is found between theoretical modeling and compression testing results, confirming the validity of the interpretation of bone as an interpenetrating composite material.

  4. On moduli space of symmetric orthogonal matrices and exclusive Racah matrix S bar for representation R = [3,1] with multiplicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.

    2017-03-01

    Racah matrices and higher j-symbols are used in description of braiding properties of conformal blocks and in construction of knot polynomials. However, in complicated cases the logic is actually inverted: they are much better deduced from these applications than from the basic representation theory. Following the recent proposal of [1] we obtain the exclusive Racah matrix S bar for the currently-front-line case of representation R = [ 3 , 1 ] with non-trivial multiplicities, where it is actually operator-valued, i.e. depends on the choice of bases in the intertwiner spaces. Effective field theory for arborescent knots in this case possesses gauge invariance, which is not yet properly described and understood. Because of this lack of knowledge a big part (about a half) of S bar needs to be reconstructed from orthogonality conditions. Therefore we discuss the abundance of symmetric orthogonal matrices, to which S bar belongs, and explain that dimension of their moduli space is also about a half of that for the ordinary orthogonal matrices. Thus the knowledge approximately matches the freedom and this explains why the method can work - with some limited addition of educated guesses. A similar calculation for R = [ r , 1 ] for r > 3 should also be doable.

  5. Bio-inspired dental multilayers: effects of layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Niu, X; Rahbar, N; Soboyejo, W

    2013-02-01

    The ceramic crown structures under occlusal contact are idealized as flat multilayered structures that are deformed under Hertzian contact loading. Those multilayers consist of a crown-like ceramic top layer, an adhesive layer and the dentin-like substrate. Bio-inspired design of the adhesive layer proposed functionally graded multilayers (FGM) that mimic the dentin-enamel junction in natural teeth. This paper examines the effects of FGM layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation of bio-inspired dental multilayers. Finite element modeling was used to explore the effects of thickness and architecture on the contact-induced stresses that are induced in bio-inspired dental multilayers. A layered nanocomposite structure was then fabricated by the sequential rolling of micro-scale nanocomposite materials with local moduli that increase from the side near the soft dentin-like polymer composite foundation to the side near the top ceramic layer. The loading rate dependence of the critical failure loads is shown to be well predicted by a slow crack growth model, which integrates the actual mechanical properties that are obtained from nanoindentation experiments.

  6. Ozone Layer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Ozone Layer Protection Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Ozone Layer Protection Welcome to ... Managing Refrigerant Emissions Stationary Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Car and Other Mobile Air Conditioning GreenChill Partnership Responsible ...

  7. Basic Ozone Layer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the ozone layer and how human activities deplete it. This page provides information on the chemical processes that lead to ozone layer depletion, and scientists' efforts to understand them.

  8. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  9. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  10. First-principles calculations of typical anisotropic cubic and hexagonal structures and homogenized moduli estimation based on the Y-parameter: Application to CaO, MgO, CH and Calcite CaCO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jia; Bernard, Fabrice; Kamali-Bernard, Siham

    2017-02-01

    X-ray method to test the material properties and to obtain elastic constants is commonly based on the Reuss model and Kroner model. Y parameter has been turned out to be an effective method to estimate elastic properties of polycrystalline material. Since Y-parameters of cubic polycrystalline material based on the certain uniform stress (Reuss model) has not been given, our work aims to complete this part of the theoretical analysis, which can effectively compare elastic constants measured by the X-ray diffraction method. The structural and the elastic properties of cubic structures (CaO and MgO) and hexagonal structures (CH and Calcite CaCO3) are investigated by the density functional theory method. And then the credibility of Y parameters for determing elastic moduli of cubic structures is proved and elastic properties in typical crystallographic planes of [100], [110] and [111] are also calculated. Meanwhile, Young's moduli of CH and Calcite structure are 58.08 GPa and 84.549 GPa, which are all close to references. Elastic properties of cubic and hexagonal structures under various pressures are calculated and the surface constructions of elastic moduli are drawn, showing the anisotropy at various directions. The crystal structure investigated in this work are typical of some primary or secondary components of Hardened Cements Pastes and their homogenized elastic properties are needed in a hierarchical multi-scale modeling, such as the one developed by some of the authors of this paper.

  11. First-principles modeling of metal (ii) ferrocyanide: electronic property, magnetism, bulk moduli, and the role of C  ≡  N‑ defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung M.; Pham, Tan-Tien; Duy Dat, Vo; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    The ferrocyanide structures of transition metals (M) Ti2+, Cr2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ are investigated using a first-principles modeling approach. The crystal structure of cobalt ferrocyanide is found to resemble previous experimental data with good accuracy (~1% error). The considered porous structures possess magnetic moments of 8.00 µ B/cell, 8.00 µ B/cell, 4.00 µ B/cell, and 4.00 µ B/cell given by the [TiFe(CN)6]2‑, [CrFe(CN)6]2‑, [MnFe(CN)6]2‑, and [CoFe(CN)6]2‑ frameworks, respectively. There is only one spin-state occupation at the Fermi level, which leads to the conclusion of semi-metallicity of the four structures. To verify the reliability of the electronic and magnetic properties, linear-response DFT  +  U calculations are performed and establish excellent agreement with the conventional DFT calculations. Then, the mechanical strength is evaluated by estimating the bulk moduli of the four structures, which fall in the range of 114 GPa–133 GPa. Upon the consideration of one C  ≡  N‑ linker defect, the magnetic moments of cobalt ferrocyanide and manganese ferrocyanide rise dramatically to 8 µ B/cell, while that of the titanium structure drops to 6 µ B/cell. In light of the electronic structure evidence, we believe that the low-spin Fe cation nearby the C  ≡  N‑ defect has an indirect effect on spin polarization of the four Co cations in the unit cell.

  12. Decoupling solution moduli of bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik

    2016-12-01

    A complete classification of exact solutions of ghost-free, massive bigravity is derived which enables the dynamical decoupling of the background, and the foreground metrics. The general decoupling solution space of the two metrics is constructed. Within this branch of the solution space the foreground metric theory becomes general relativity (GR) with an additional effective cosmological constant, and the background metric dynamics is governed by plain GR.

  13. Cosmological solution moduli of bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yılmaz, Nejat Tevfik [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Yaşar University,Selçuk Yaşar Kampüsü, Üniversite Caddesi,No. 35-37, AğaçlıYol, 35100, Bornova, İzmir (Turkey)

    2015-09-29

    We construct the complete set of metric-configuration solutions of the ghost-free massive bigravity for the scenario in which the g−metric is the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) one, and the interaction Lagrangian between the two metrics contributes an effective ideal fluid energy-momentum tensor to the g-metric equations. This set corresponds to the exact background cosmological solution space of the theory.

  14. Piezoelectric Resonator with Two Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Philip J. (Inventor); Black, Justin P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric resonator device includes: a top electrode layer with a patterned structure, a top piezoelectric layer adjacent to the top layer, a middle metal layer adjacent to the top piezoelectric layer opposite the top layer, a bottom piezoelectric layer adjacent to the middle layer opposite the top piezoelectric layer, and a bottom electrode layer with a patterned structure and adjacent to the bottom piezoelectric layer opposite the middle layer. The top layer includes a first plurality of electrodes inter-digitated with a second plurality of electrodes. A first one of the electrodes in the top layer and a first one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a first contact, and a second one of the electrodes in the top layer and a second one of the electrodes in the bottom layer are coupled to a second contact.

  15. Building biomedical materials layer-by-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula T. Hammond

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this materials perspective, the promise of water based layer-by-layer (LbL assembly as a means of generating drug-releasing surfaces for biomedical applications, from small molecule therapeutics to biologic drugs and nucleic acids, is examined. Specific advantages of the use of LbL assembly versus traditional polymeric blend encapsulation are discussed. Examples are provided to present potential new directions. Translational opportunities are discussed to examine the impact and potential for true biomedical translation using rapid assembly methods, and applications are discussed with high need and medical return.

  16. Multi-layers castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper is presented the possibility of making of multi-layers cast steel castings in result of connection of casting and welding coating technologies. First layer was composite surface layer on the basis of Fe-Cr-C alloy, which was put directly in founding process of cast carbon steel 200–450 with use of preparation of mould cavity method. Second layer were padding welds, which were put with use of TIG – Tungsten Inert Gas surfacing by welding technology with filler on Ni matrix, Ni and Co matrix with wolfram carbides WC and on the basis on Fe-Cr-C alloy, which has the same chemical composition with alloy, which was used for making of composite surface layer. Usability for industrial applications of surface layers of castings were estimated by criterion of hardness and abrasive wear resistance of type metal-mineral.

  17. Accuracy of Young's Modulus of Thermal Barrier Coating Layer Determined by Bending Resonance of a Multilayered Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Hiroyuki; Takizawa, Kensuke; Kato, Masahiko; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    The Young's modulus of individual layer in thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is an important mechanical property because it allows determining the parameters of materials mechanics in the TBC system. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of the evaluation method for the Young's modulus of a TBC layer according to the first bending resonance of a multilayered specimen comprising a substrate, bond coating, and TBC. First, we derived a closed-form solution for the Young's modulus of the TBC layer using the equation of motion for the bending vibration of a composite beam. The solution for the three-layered model provided the Young's modulus of the TBC layer according to the measured resonance frequency and the known values for the dimensions, mass, and Young's moduli of all the other layers. Next, we analyzed the sensitivity of these input errors to the evaluated Young's modulus and revealed the important inputs for accurate evaluation. Finally, we experimentally confirmed that the Young's modulus of the TBC layer was obtained accurately by the developed method.

  18. Mechanics of circadian pulvini movements in Phaseolus coccineus L. : Shape and arrangement of motor cells, micellation of motor cell walls, and bulk moduli of extensibility ([Formula: see text]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, W E; Flach, D; Raju, M V; Starrach, N; Wiech, E

    1985-03-01

    The circadian movement of the lamina of primary leaves of Phaseolus coccineus L. is mediated by antagonistic changes in the length of the extensor and flexor cells of the laminar pulvinus. The cortex of the pulvinus is a concentric structure composed of hexagonal disc-like cells, arranged in longitudinal rows around the central stele. Observations with polarization optics indicate that the cellulose microfibrils are oriented in a hoop-like fashion in the longitudinal walls of the motor cells. This micellation is the structural basis of the anisotropic properties of the cells: tangential sections of the extensor and flexor placed in hypotonic mannitol solutions showed changes only in length. As a consequence a linear correlation between length and volume was found in these sections. Based on the relationship between the water potential (which is changed by different concentrations of mannitol) and the relative volume of the sections and on the osmotic pressure at 50% incipient plasmolysis, osmotic diagrams were constructed for extensor and flexor tissues (cut during night position of the pulvinus). The bulk moduli of extensibility, [Formula: see text], were estimated from these diagrams. Under physiological conditions the [Formula: see text] values were rather low (in extensor tissue below 10 bar, in flexor tissue between 10 to 15 bar), indicating a high extensibility of the longitudinal walls of the motor cells. They are strongly dependent on the turgor pressure at the limits of the physiological pressure range.In well-watered plants, the water potentials of the extensor and flexor tissues were surprisingly low,-12 bar and-8 bar, respectively. This means that the cells in situ are by no means fully turgid. On the contrary, the cell volume in situ is similar to the volume at the point of incipient plasmolysis: the cell volumes of extensor and flexor cells in situ were only 1.01 times and 1.1 times larger, respectively, than at the point of incipient plasmolysis

  19. Non-contact evaluation of mechanical properties of electroplated wear resistant Ni-P layer from the velocity dispersion of laser SAW; Laser reiki Rayleigh ha no sokudo bunsan wo mochiita taimamo Ni-P mekkiso tokusei no hisesshoku hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-11-01

    We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  1. Corrigendum and addendum to "Moduli spaces of framed symplectic and orthogonal bundles on P2 and the K-theoretic Nekrasov partition functions" [J. Geom. Phys. 106 (2016) 284-304

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Jaeyoo

    2016-12-01

    We give a scheme-theoretic description of μ-1(0) and μ-1(0) / / Sp(2) , where μ is the moment map defining the space of ADHM data associated to framed SO(3 , R) -instantons with instanton number 1. The irreducible component in μ-1(0) / / Sp(2) , other than the Zariski closure of the instanton moduli space, is non-reduced, which is a corrigendum to [Choy (2016), Theorem 4.3]. We further describe this component using the factorization property Braverman et al. (2006).

  2. The Equatorial Ekman Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Marcotte, Florence; Soward, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The steady incompressible viscous flow in the wide gap between spheres rotating about a common axis at slightly different rates (small Ekman number E) has a long and celebrated history. The problem is relevant to the dynamics of geophysical and planetary core flows, for which, in the case of electrically conducting fluids, the possible operation of a dynamo is of considerable interest. A comprehensive asymptotic study, in the limit E<<1, was undertaken by Stewartson (J. Fluid Mech. 1966, vol. 26, pp. 131-144). The mainstream flow, exterior to the E^{1/2} Ekman layers on the inner/outer boundaries and the shear layer on the inner sphere tangent cylinder C, is geostrophic. Stewartson identified a complicated nested layer structure on C, which comprises relatively thick quasi-geostrophic E^{2/7} (inside C) and E^{1/4} (outside C) layers. They embed a thinner E^{1/3} ageostrophic shear layer (on C), which merges with the inner sphere Ekman layer to form the E^{2/5} Equatorial Ekman layer of axial length E^{...

  3. The Application of Layer Theory to Design: The Control Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Andrew S.; Langton, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    A theory of design layers proposed by Gibbons ("An Architectural Approach to Instructional Design." Routledge, New York, 2014) asserts that each layer of an instructional design is related to a body of theory closely associated with the concerns of that particular layer. This study focuses on one layer, the control layer, examining…

  4. Multi-layer coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghsoodi, Sina; Brophy, Brenor L.; Abrams, Ze' ev R.; Gonsalves, Peter R.

    2016-06-28

    Disclosed herein are coating materials and methods for applying a top-layer coating that is durable, abrasion resistant, highly transparent, hydrophobic, low-friction, moisture-sealing, anti-soiling, and self-cleaning to an existing conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating. The top coat imparts superior durability performance and new properties to the under-laying conventional high temperature anti-reflective coating without reducing the anti-reflectiveness of the coating. Methods and data for optimizing the relative thickness of the under-layer high temperature anti-reflective coating and the top-layer thickness for optimizing optical performance are also disclosed.

  5. Interaction of angiogenically stimulated intermediate CD163+ monocytes/macrophages with soft hydrophobic poly(n-butyl acrylate) networks with elastic moduli matched to that of human arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Anke; Kratz, Karl; Hiebl, Bernhard; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2012-03-01

    the mRNA level measured (P < 0.01). Tests with recombinant VEGF-A(165) then demonstrated that significantly more VEGF-A(165) was adhered on cPnBA0250 than on cPnBA1100 (P < 0.01). Seeded on cPnBA, aMO2-unaffected by the elastic moduli of both substrates-seemed to remain in their subset status and secreted VEGF-A(165) without release of proinflammatory cytokines. These in vitro results might indicate that this MO subset can be used as cellular delivery system for proangiogenic and noninflammatory mediators to support the endothelialization of cPnBA.

  6. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  7. Layered circle packings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a bounded sequence of integers {d0,d1,d2,…}, 6≤dn≤M, there is an associated abstract triangulation created by building up layers of vertices so that vertices on the nth layer have degree dn. This triangulation can be realized via a circle packing which fills either the Euclidean or the hyperbolic plane. We give necessary and sufficient conditions to determine the type of the packing given the defining sequence {dn}.

  8. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets.

  9. Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi–Yau’s

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, A

    2008-01-01

    We consider two sets of issues in this paper. The first has to do with moduli stabilization, existence of “area codes” [A. Giryavets, New attractors and area codes, JHEP 0603 (2006) 020, hep-th/0511215] and the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of -branes as in KKLT for type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the “inverse problem” [K. Saraikin, C. Vafa, Non-supersymmetric black holes and topological strings, hep-th/0703214] and “fake superpotentials” [A. Ceresole, G. Dall'Agata, Flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes, JHEP 0703 (2007) 110, hep-th/0702088] for extremal (non-)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a “Swiss cheese” Calabi–Yau [J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, K. Suruliz, Large-volume flux compactifications: Moduli spectrum and D3/D7 soft supersymmetry breaking, JHEP 0508 (2005) 007, hep-th/0505076] expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP4[1,1,1,6,9] in the “large-volume...

  10. Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without D3{sup -bar} -branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, Uttaranchal (India); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: aalokfph@iitr.ernet.in; Shukla, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, Uttaranchal (India)], E-mail: pmathdph@iitr.ernet.in

    2008-08-11

    We consider two sets of issues in this paper. The first has to do with moduli stabilization, existence of 'area codes' [A. Giryavets, New attractors and area codes, JHEP 0603 (2006) 020, (hep-th/0511215)] and the possibility of getting a non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of D3-bar-branes as in KKLT for type II flux compactifications. The second has to do with the 'inverse problem' [K. Saraikin, C. Vafa, Non-supersymmetric black holes and topological strings, (hep-th/0703214)] and 'fake superpotentials' [A. Ceresole, G. Dall'Agata, Flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes, JHEP 0703 (2007) 110, (hep-th/0702088)] for extremal (non-)supersymmetric black holes in type II compactifications. We use (orientifold of) a 'Swiss cheese' Calabi-Yau [J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, K. Suruliz, Large-volume flux compactifications: Moduli spectrum and D3/D7 soft supersymmetry breaking, JHEP 0508 (2005) 007, (hep-th/0505076)] expressed as a degree-18 hypersurface in WCP{sup 4}[1,1,1,6,9] in the 'large-volume-scenario' limit [V. Balasubramanian, P. Berglund, J.P. Conlon, F. Quevedo, Systematics of moduli stabilisation in Calabi-Yau flux compactifications, JHEP 0503 (2005) 007, (hep-th/0502058)]. The main result of our paper is that we show that by including non-perturbative {alpha}{sup '} and instanton corrections in the Kaehler potential and superpotential [T.W. Grimm, Non-perturbative corrections and modularity in N=1 type IIB compactifications, (arXiv: 0705.3253 [hep-th])], it may be possible to obtain a large-volume non-supersymmetric dS minimum without the addition of anti-D3 branes a la KKLT. The chosen Calabi-Yau has been of relevance also from the point of other studies of Kaehler moduli stabilization via non-perturbative instanton contributions [F. Denef, M.R. Douglas, B. Florea, Building a better racetrack, JHEP 0406 (2004) 034, (hep-th/0404257)] and non-supersymmetric AdS vacua (and their

  11. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  12. Ideal strength and phonon instability in single-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianshu

    2012-06-01

    Ideal tensile stress strain relations for single-layer MoS2 are investigated based on first-principle calculation, for biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along zigzag and armchair directions. The predicted ideal tensile strengths and elastic moduli are in excellent agreement with the very recent experimental measurements of Bertolazzi [ACS Nano1936-085110.1021/nn203879f 5, 9703 (2011)] and Castellanos-Gomez [Adv. Mater.ADVMEW0935-964810.1002/adma.201103965 24, 772 (2012)]. It is identified that the tensile strength of single-layer MoS2 are dictated by out-of-plane soft-mode phonon instability under biaxial tension and uniaxial tension along the armchair direction. This failure mechanism, different from that of the truly two-dimensional material graphene, is attributed to the out-of-plane atomic relaxation upon tensile strain. Investigation of the electronic structures of single-layer MoS2 under tensile strain shows the material becomes an indirect semiconductor at small tensile strain (<2%) and turns into metallic before reaching the ideal tensile strength.

  13. Surface properties of solids and surface acoustic waves: Application to chemical sensors and layer characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, V. V.

    1995-09-01

    A general phenomenological approach is given for the description of mechanical surface properties of solids and their influence on surface acoustic wave propogation. Surface properties under consideration may be changes of the stress distribution in subsurface atomic layers, the presence of adsorbed gas molecules, surface degradation as a result of impacts from an aggressive environment, damage due to mechanical manufacturing or polishing, deposition of thin films or liquid layers, surface corrugations, etc. If the characteristic thickness of the affected layers is much less than the wavelengths of the propagating surface waves, then the effects of all these irregularities can be described by means of non-classical boundary conditions incorporating the integral surface parameters such as surface tension, surface moduli of elasticity and surface mass density. The effect of surface properties on the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves is analysed in comparison with the results of traditional approaches, in particular with Auld's energy perturbation method. One of the important implications of the above-mentioned boudnary conditions is that they are adequate for the description of the effect of rarely distributed adsorbed atoms or molecules. This allows, in particular, to obtain a rigorous theoretical description of chemical sensors using surface acoustic waves and to derive analytical expressions for their sensitivity.

  14. Sensitivity comparisons of layered Rayleigh wave and Love wave acoustic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick, Michael K.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.

    2007-04-01

    Due to their high sensitivity, layered Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices are ideal for various film characterization and sensor applications. Two prominent wave types realized in these devices are Rayleigh waves consisting of coupled Shear Vertical and Longitudinal displacements and Love waves consisting of Shear Horizontal displacements. Theoretical calculations of sensitivity of SAW devices to pertubations in wave propagation are limited to idealized scenarios. Derivations of sensitivity to mass change in an overlayer are often based on the effect of rigid body motion of the overlayer on the propagation of one of the aforementioned wave types. These devices often utilize polymer overlayers for enhanced sensitivity. The low moduli of such overlayers are not sufficiently stiff to accommodate the rigid body motion assumption. This work presents device modeling based on the Finite Element Method. A coupled-field model allows for a complete description of device operation including displacement profiles, frequency, wave velocity, and insertion loss through the inclusion of transmitting and receiving IDTs. Geometric rotations and coordinate transformations allow for the modeling of different crystal orientations in piezoelectric substrates. The generation of Rayleigh and Love Wave propagation was realized with this model by examining propagation in ST Quartz both normal to and in the direction of the X axis known to support Love Waves and Rayleigh Waves, respectively. Sensitivities of layered SAW devices to pertubations in mass, layer thickness, and mechanical property changes of a Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and SU-8 overlayers were characterized and compared. Experimental validation of these models is presented.

  15. A method to measure mechanical properties of pulmonary epithelial cell layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassow, Constanze; Armbruster, Caroline; Friedrich, Christian; Smudde, Eva; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The lung has a huge inner alveolar surface composed of epithelial cell layers. The knowledge about mechanical properties of lung epithelia is helpful to understand the complex lung mechanics and biomechanical interactions. Methods have been developed to determine mechanical indices (e.g., tissue elasticity) which are both very complex and in need of costly equipment. Therefore, in this study, a mechanostimulator is presented to dynamically stimulate lung epithelial cell monolayers in order to determine their mechanical properties based on a simple mathematical model. First, the method was evaluated by comparison to classical tensile testing using silicone membranes as substitute for biological tissue. Second, human pulmonary epithelial cells (A549 cell line) were grown on flexible silicone membranes and stretched at a defined magnitude. Equal secant moduli were determined in the mechanostimulator and in a conventional tension testing machine (0.49 ± 0.05 MPa and 0.51 ± 0.03 MPa, respectively). The elasticity of the cell monolayer could be calculated by the volume-pressure relationship resulting from inflation of the membrane-cell construct. The secant modulus of the A549 cell layer was calculated as 0.04 ± 0.008 MPa. These findings suggest that the mechanostimulator may represent an adequate device to determine mechanical properties of cell layers.

  16. Reinforcing the mineral layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pishchulin, V.V.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Seryy, A.M.; Shirokov, A.P.

    1980-05-15

    A way of reinforcing the mineral layer includes drilling holes and putting in anchors that are longer than the width of the layer strip being extracted. It also includes shortening the anchors as the strip is mined and reinforcing the remaining part of the anchor in the mouth of the hole. To increase the productivity and safety of the work, the anchors are shortened by cutting them as the strip is mined and are reinforced through wedging. The device for doing this has auxilliary lengthwise grooves in the shaft located along its length at an interval equal to the width of the band being extracted.

  17. Physical layer network coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Popovski, Petar; Yomo, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has been proposed to improve throughput of the two-way relay channel, where two nodes communicate with each other, being assisted by a relay node. Most of the works related to PLNC are focused on a simple three-node model and they do not take into account...

  18. Layer-Cake Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  19. EHD lubricating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvarts, I.A.

    1978-01-01

    The simplest model of an EHD lubricating layer consists of a unipolarly charged nonconducting viscous fluid between two parallel or slightly inclined nonconducting plates. The performance of such a layer is analyzed here on the basis of the fundamental EHD equations, with a plane-parallel approximation of the flow of a thin layer under a variable upper boundary. The results of the solution indicate that the bearing capacity of such a layer between parallel plates does not depend on the viscosity of the fluid, but is proportional to the energy density of the electric field in vacuum. With the plates not parallel, the bearing capacity depends on the mobility and the diffusion of the charged fluid particles. In either case the energy of the electric field can be made to compensate for the energy dissipation due to viscous friction, and in this case or with overcompensation such as EHD bearing becomes an EHD generator. Most valuable for practical applications are fluids with a high dielectric permittivity, such as ammonia and hydrogen chloride at cryogenic temperatures. 5 references, 1 figure.

  20. MITRE sensor layer prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Francis; McGarry, Donald; Zasada, David; Foote, Scott

    2009-05-01

    The MITRE Sensor Layer Prototype is an initial design effort to enable every sensor to help create new capabilities through collaborative data sharing. By making both upstream (raw) and downstream (processed) sensor data visible, users can access the specific level, type, and quantities of data needed to create new data products that were never anticipated by the original designers of the individual sensors. The major characteristic that sets sensor data services apart from typical enterprise services is the volume (on the order of multiple terabytes) of raw data that can be generated by most sensors. Traditional tightly coupled processing approaches extract pre-determined information from the incoming raw sensor data, format it, and send it to predetermined users. The community is rapidly reaching the conclusion that tightly coupled sensor processing loses too much potentially critical information.1 Hence upstream (raw and partially processed) data must be extracted, rapidly archived, and advertised to the enterprise for unanticipated uses. The authors believe layered sensing net-centric integration can be achieved through a standardize-encapsulate-syndicateaggregate- manipulate-process paradigm. The Sensor Layer Prototype's technical approach focuses on implementing this proof of concept framework to make sensor data visible, accessible and useful to the enterprise. To achieve this, a "raw" data tap between physical transducers associated with sensor arrays and the embedded sensor signal processing hardware and software has been exploited. Second, we encapsulate and expose both raw and partially processed data to the enterprise within the context of a service-oriented architecture. Third, we advertise the presence of multiple types, and multiple layers of data through geographic-enabled Really Simple Syndication (GeoRSS) services. These GeoRSS feeds are aggregated, manipulated, and filtered by a feed aggregator. After filtering these feeds to bring just the type

  1. Thermal stress in a bi-material assembly with a 'piecewise-continuous' bonding layer: theorem of three axial forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    2009-02-01

    We consider a bi-material assembly with a 'piecewise-continuous' bonding layer. The layer is characterized by different elastic constants of its 'pieces' (segments) and is assumed to be thin. Young's moduli of all the 'pieces' of the bonding layer are significantly lower than the moduli of the adherend materials. In such a situation the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the bonding material need not be accounted for. Only the interfacial compliance of the bonding layer is important. This is indeed the case for the majority of electronic, opto-electronic or photonic assemblies. We consider the situation when the assembly is manufactured at an elevated temperature and is subsequently cooled down to a low (say, room) temperature. The objective of the analysis is to develop a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical ('mathematical') predictive model for the evaluation of the interfacial shearing stresses that arise at the boundaries of the 'pieces' (segments) of the bonding layer and at the assembly edge. The basic equation is obtained for the thermally induced forces acting in the adherends' cross-sections that correspond to the boundaries between the dissimilar portions of the bonding layer. This equation has the form of the theorem of three (bending) moments in the theory of multi-span beams lying on separate simple supports and could therefore be called the 'theorem of three axial forces'. We show, as an illustration, how this equation could be employed to design a bi-material assembly with an inhomogeneous bonding layer and with low interfacial shearing stresses. Low shearing stresses will certainly result in lower peeling stresses as well. The numerical example is carried out for an assembly with a relatively high-modulus bonding material in its mid-portion (aimed primarily at providing good adhesion and, if necessary, good heat transfer as well) and a low-modulus material in its peripheral portions (aimed primarily at bringing down the

  2. Boundary layer transition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Jonathan H.

    1995-02-01

    A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

  3. Optical properties and weakening of elastic moduli with increasing glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) in (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-xBaO-20ZnO glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, Muliana; Supardan, Siti Nurbaya; Yahya, Ahmad Kamal [Univ. Teknologi Mara (Malaysia). School of Physics and Materials Studies; Abd-Shukor, Roslan [Univ. Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia). School of Applied Physics

    2015-08-15

    BaO addition to ternary (80-x)TeO{sub 2}-20ZnO-xBaO (x = 0-20 mol.%) glasses resulted in a decrease in ultrasonic velocities and independent elastic moduli; this result indicated that the rigidity of the glass network weakened possibly because non-bridging oxygen increased. Thermal analysis results showed that glass transition temperature increased as BaO content increased because of the stabilizing effect of Ba{sup 2+} on the glass network. Additional analyses using bulk compression and ring deformation models revealed that the ratio between theoretical bulk modulus and experimental bulk modulus increased; this result indicated that the compression mechanism mainly involved isotropic ring compression. Furthermore, the increase in non-bridging oxygen formation with BaO addition caused a decrease in optical energy gap and an increase in refractive index. An increase in Urbach energy indicated that the degree of disorder in the glass system also increased.

  4. Helfrich model of membrane bending: from Gibbs theory of liquid interfaces to membranes as thick anisotropic elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campelo, Felix; Arnarez, Clement; Marrink, Siewert J; Kozlov, Michael M

    2014-06-01

    Helfrich model of membrane bending elasticity has been most influential in establishment and development of Soft-Matter Physics of lipid bilayers and biological membranes. Recently, Helfrich theory has been extensively used in Cell Biology to understand the phenomena of shaping, fusion and fission of cellular membranes. The general background of Helfrich theory on the one hand, and the ways of specifying the model parameters on the other, are important for quantitative treatment of particular biologically relevant membrane phenomena. Here we present the origin of Helfrich model within the context of the general Gibbs theory of capillary interfaces, and review the strategies of computing the membrane elastic moduli based on considering a lipid monolayer as a three-dimensional thick layer characterized by trans-monolayer profiles of elastic parameters. We present the results of original computations of these profiles by a state-of-the-art numerical approach.

  5. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  6. Toward a self-consistent pressure scale: elastic moduli and equation of state of MgO by simultaneous x-ray density and Brillouin sound velocity measurements at high-pressure high-temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinogeikin, S. V.; Lakshtanov, D. L.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Wang, J.; Chen, B.; Shen, G.; Bass, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate phase diagrams and PVT equations of state (EOS) of materials strongly depend on the PVT calibrations of standard materials (e.g. MgO, NaCl, Au, Pt), which currently do not predict identical pressures at the same experimental conditions. MgO is commonly used as a pressure standard in a variety of high pressure and high- temperature experiments. Despite being one of the simplest and most studied materials, its accurate EOS is still uncertain, especially at high PT. The direct way of obtaining a self consistent pressure scale is by measuring acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) and density simultaneously. Such P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements allow one to determine the pressure directly, without resort to a separate calibration standard. Recently, as part of a major COMPRES initiative, we have constructed a Brillouin spectrometer at GSECARS, APS (13-BM-D) which allows accurate simultaneous sound velocity and lattice parameter measurements at high pressures and high temperatures. Such measurements were performed on single crystal MgO at simultaneously high pressures (up to 30 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 873K) in diamond cells with Ne or Ar as pressure medium. At each PT point we measured the unit cell parameters and the acoustic velocities of MgO in several crystallographic directions, and directly obtained all three single crystal elastic moduli, as well as isotropic adiabatic bulk (KS) and shear (μ) moduli. Unit cell parameters of pressure medium (Ne, Ar) and additional pressure calibrants (Au, Pt, NaCl) were measured at each PT for cross calibration. The results of these experiments and implications for a self consistent P-V-T(-Vp-Vs) pressure scale will be presented and discussed.

  7. Toward a self-consistent pressure scale: elastic moduli and equation of state of MgO and Ringwoodite by simultaneous x-ray density and Brillouin sound velocity measurements at high-pressure high-temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinogeikin, S.; Lakshtanov, D.; Prakapenka, V.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Wang, J.; Shen, G.; Bass, J.

    2009-05-01

    Accurate phase diagrams and PVT equations of state (EOS) of materials strongly depend on the PVT calibrations of standard materials (e.g. MgO, NaCl, Au, Pt), which currently do not predict identical pressures at the same experimental conditions. MgO is commonly used as a pressure standard in a variety of high pressure and high-temperature experiments. Despite being one of the simplest and most studied materials, its accurate EOS is still uncertain, especially at high PT. The direct way of obtaining a self consistent pressure scale is by measuring acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) and density simultaneously. Such P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements allow one to determine the pressure directly, without resort to a separate calibration standard. Recently, as part of a major COMPRES initiative, we have constructed a Brillouin spectrometer at GSECARS, APS (13-BM-D) which allows accurate simultaneous sound velocity and lattice parameter measurements at high pressures and high temperatures. Such measurements were performed on single crystal MgO at simultaneously high pressures (up to 30 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 873K) in diamond cells. At each PT point we measured the unit cell parameters and the acoustic velocities of MgO in several crystallographic directions, and directly obtained all three single crystal elastic moduli, as well as isotropic adiabatic bulk (Ks) and shear (μ) moduli. Unit cell parameters of pressure medium (Ne, Ar) and additional pressure calibrants (Au, Pt, NaCl) were measured at each PT for cross calibration. In addition we demonstrate that successful P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements can be performed on certain polycrystalline materials, e.g. Ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4). The results of these experiments and implications for a self consistent P-V-T(-Vp-Vs) pressure scale will be presented and discussed.

  8. Crack layer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.

    1984-01-01

    A damage parameter is introduced in addition to conventional parameters of continuum mechanics and consider a crack surrounded by an array of microdefects within the continuum mechanics framework. A system consisting of the main crack and surrounding damage is called crack layer (CL). Crack layer propagation is an irreversible process. The general framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes are employed to identify the driving forces (causes) and to derive the constitutive equation of CL propagation, that is, the relationship between the rates of the crack growth and damage dissemination from one side and the conjugated thermodynamic forces from another. The proposed law of CL propagation is in good agreement with the experimental data on fatigue CL propagation in various materials. The theory also elaborates material toughness characterization.

  9. Layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipyan, V.G.; Savchenko, L.M.; Elbakyan, V.L.; Avakyan, P.B.

    1987-08-01

    The authors synthesize new layered bismuth vanadate ferroelectrics. The x-ray diffraction characteristics of Bi/sub 2/VO/sub 5.5/ are shown. Thermal expansion of ceramics with various compositions are presented, as are the temperature dependences of the dielectric constant of the ceramic with various compositions. Unit-cell parameters, Curie temperature, electrical conductivity and the dielectric characteristics of the compositions studied are shown.

  10. Boundary-layer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

    2017-01-01

    This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

  11. Multifunctional layered magnetic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siglreitmeier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A fabrication method of a multifunctional hybrid material is achieved by using the insoluble organic nacre matrix of the Haliotis laevigata shell infiltrated with gelatin as a confined reaction environment. Inside this organic scaffold magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs are synthesized. The amount of MNPs can be controlled through the synthesis protocol therefore mineral loadings starting from 15 wt % up to 65 wt % can be realized. The demineralized organic nacre matrix is characterized by small-angle and very-small-angle neutron scattering (SANS and VSANS showing an unchanged organic matrix structure after demineralization compared to the original mineralized nacre reference. Light microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy studies of stained samples show the presence of insoluble proteins at the chitin surface but not between the chitin layers. Successful and homogeneous gelatin infiltration in between the chitin layers can be shown. The hybrid material is characterized by TEM and shows a layered structure filled with MNPs with a size of around 10 nm. Magnetic analysis of the material demonstrates superparamagnetic behavior as characteristic for the particle size. Simulation studies show the potential of collagen and chitin to act as nucleators, where there is a slight preference of chitin over collagen as a nucleator for magnetite. Colloidal-probe AFM measurements demonstrate that introduction of a ferrogel into the chitin matrix leads to a certain increase in the stiffness of the composite material.

  12. Physical Layer Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukui, Hironori; Yomo, Hironori; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause/receive inter......Physical layer network coding (PLNC) has the potential to improve throughput of multi-hop networks. However, most of the works are focused on the simple, three-node model with two-way relaying, not taking into account the fact that there can be other neighboring nodes that can cause....../receive interference. The way to deal with this problem in distributed wireless networks is usage of MAC-layer mechanisms that make a spatial reservation of the shared wireless medium, similar to the well-known RTS/CTS in IEEE 802.11 wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate two-way relaying in presence...

  13. Diversity in S-layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaohua; Guo, Gang; Ma, Qiqi; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ma, Funing; Liu, Jianping; Xiao, Dao; Yang, Xiaolin; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Surface layers, referred simply as S-layers, are the two-dimensional crystalline arrays of protein or glycoprotein subunits on cell surface. They are one of the most common outermost envelope components observed in prokaryotic organisms (Archaea and Bacteria). Over the past decades, S-layers have become an issue of increasing interest due to their ubiquitousness, special features and functions. Substantial work in this field provides evidences of an enormous diversity in S-layers. This paper reviews and illustrates the diversity from several different aspects, involving the S-layer-carrying strains, the structure of S-layers, the S-layer proteins and genes, as well as the functions of S-layers.

  14. Modern Thin-Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F.; Poole, Salwa K.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the important modern developments of thin-layer chromatography are introduced. Discussed are the theory and instrumentation of thin-layer chromatography including multidimensional and multimodal techniques. Lists 53 references. (CW)

  15. Protecting the ozone layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munasinghe, M; King, K

    1992-06-01

    Stratospheric ozone layer depletion has been recognized as a problem by the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the 1987 Montreal Protocol (MP). The ozone layer shields the earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B), which is more pronounced at the poles and around the equator. Industrialized countries have contributed significantly to the problem by releasing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons into the atmosphere. The effect of these chemicals, which were known for their inertness, nonflammability, and nontoxicity, was discovered in 1874. Action to deal with the effects of CFCs and halons was initiated in 1985 in a 49-nation UN meeting. 21 nations signed a protocol limiting ozone depleting substances (ODS): CFCs and halons. Schedules were set based on each country's use in 1986; the target phaseout was set for the year 2000. The MP restricts trade in ODSs and weights the impact of substances to reflect the extent of damage; i.e., halons are 10 times more damaging than CFCs. ODS requirements for developing countries were eased to accommodate scarce resources and the small fraction of ODS emissions. An Interim Multilateral Fund under the Montreal Protocol (IMFMP) was established to provide loans to finance the costs to developing countries in meeting global environmental requirements. The IMFMP is administered by the World Bank, the UN Environmental Program, and the UN Development Program. Financing is available to eligible countries who use .3 kg of ODS/person/year. Rapid phaseout in developed countries has occurred due to strong support from industry and a lower than expected cost. Although there are clear advantages to rapid phaseout, there were no incentives included in the MP for rapid phaseout. Some of the difficulties occur because the schedules set minimum targets at the lowest possible cost. Also, costs cannot be minimized by a country-specific and ODS-specific process. The ways to improve implementation in scheduling and

  16. A low-frequency asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a high-permeability layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, Dmitriy; Goloshubin, Gennady

    2009-03-01

    Analysis of compression wave propagation through a high-permeability layer in a homogeneous poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of the Biot's model of poroelasticity. A new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity is a result of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and the Darcy's law. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The latter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility, an imaginary unit, and the frequency of the signal. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). The practical implications of the theory developed here are seismic modeling, inversion, and attribute analysis.

  17. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torreão Dassen, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    We develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. We present algorithms to compute both Gram-Schmidt and reduced bases in this generalized setting. A layered lattice can be seen as lattices where certain directions have infinite weight. It can also be interpre

  18. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVetter, Brent M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bernacki, Bruce E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Bennett, Wendy D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States; Alvine, Kyle J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, United States

    2017-01-01

    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical response ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.

  19. The Boundary Layer Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.

    2010-10-01

    The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.

  20. Layered kagome spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, James; Dutton, Sian; Mourigal, Martin; Mukherjee, Paromita; Paddison, Joseph; Ong, Harapan; Castelnovo, Claudio

    Spin ice materials provide a rare instance of emergent gauge symmetry and fractionalisation in three dimensions: the effective degrees of freedom of the system are emergent magnetic monopoles, and the extensively many `ice rule' ground states are those devoid of monopole excitations. Two-dimensional (kagome) analogues of spin ice have also been shown to display a similarly rich behaviour. In kagome ice however the ground-state `ice rule' condition implies the presence everywhere of magnetic charges. As temperature is lowered, an Ising transition occurs to a charge-ordered state, which can be mapped to a dimer covering of the dual honeycomb lattice. A second transition, of Kosterlitz-Thouless or three-state Potts type, occurs to a spin-ordered state at yet lower temperatures, due to small residual energy differences between charge-ordered states. Inspired by recent experimental capabilities in growing spin ice samples with selective (layered) substitution of non-magnetic ions, in this work we investigate the fate of the two ordering transitions when individual kagome layers are brought together to form a three-dimensional pyrochlore structure coupled by long range dipolar interactions. We also consider the response to substitutional disorder and applied magnetic fields.

  1. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  2. The Adobe Photoshop layers book

    CERN Document Server

    Lynch, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Layers are the building blocks for working in Photoshop. With the correct use of the Layers Tool, you can edit individual components of your images nondestructively to ensure that your end result is a combination of the best parts of your work. Despite how important it is for successful Photoshop work, the Layers Tool is one of the most often misused and misunderstood features within this powerful software program. This book will show you absolutely everything you need to know to work with layers, including how to use masks, blending, modes and layer management. You'll learn professional tech

  3. Metal deposition using seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  4. The multiple layer solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenna, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for obtaining numerical solutions for differential equations describing the performance of separate layers in a multiple layer solar collector. The configurations comprises heat transfer fluid entering at the top of the collector and travelling down through several layers. A black absorber plate prevents reemission of thermal radiation. The overall performance is shown to depend on the number of layers, the heat transfer coefficient across each layer, and the absorption properties of the working fluid. It is found that the multiple layer system has a performance inferior to that of flat plate selective surface collectors. Air gaps insulating adjacent layers do not raise the efficiency enough to overcome the relative deficiency.

  5. Transparent layer constancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faul, Franz; Ekroll, Vebjørn

    2012-11-14

    In transparency perception the visual system assigns transmission-related attributes to transparent layers. Based on a filter model of perceptual transparency we investigate to what extent these attributes remain constant across changes of background and illumination. On a computational level, we used computer simulations to test how constant the parameters of the filter model remain under realistic changes in background reflectances and illumination and found almost complete constancy. This contrasts with systematic deviations from constancy found in cross-context matches of transparent filters. We show that these deviations are of a very regular nature and can be understood as a compromise between a proximal match of the mean stimulus color and complete constancy as predicted by the filter model.

  6. Templated quasicrystalline molecular layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdon, Joe; Young, Kirsty; Lowe, Michael; Hars, Sanger; Yadav, Thakur; Hesp, David; Dhanak, Vinod; Tsai, An-Pang; Sharma, Hem Raj; McGrath, Ronan

    2014-03-01

    Quasicrystals are materials with long range ordering but no periodicity. We report scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) observations of quasicrystalline molecular layers on five-fold quasicrystal surfaces. The molecules adopt positions and orientations on the surface consistent with the quasicrystalline ordering of the substrate. Carbon-60 adsorbs atop sufficiently-separated Fe atoms on icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe to form a unique quasicrystalline lattice whereas further C60 molecules decorate remaining surface Fe atoms in a quasi-degenerate fashion. Pentacene (Pn) adsorbs at tenfold-symmetric points around surface-bisected rhombic triacontahedral clusters in icosahedral Ag-In-Yb. These systems constitute the first demonstrations of quasicrystalline molecular ordering on a template. EPSRC EP/D05253X/1, EP/D071828/1, UK BIS.

  7. Ferroelectrics based absorbing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jianping; Sadaune, Véronique; Burgnies, Ludovic; Lippens, Didier

    2014-07-01

    We show that ferroelectrics-based periodic structure made of BaSrTiO3 (BST) cubes, arrayed onto a metal plate with a thin dielectric spacer film exhibit a dramatic enhancement of absorbance with value close to unity. The enhancement is found around the Mie magnetic resonance of the Ferroelectrics cubes with the backside metal layer stopping any transmitted waves. It also involves quasi-perfect impedance matching resulting in reflection suppression via simultaneous magnetic and electrical activities. In addition, it was shown numerically the existence of a periodicity optimum, which is explained from surface waves analysis along with trade-off between the resonance damping and the intrinsic loss of ferroelectrics cubes. An experimental verification in a hollow waveguide configuration with a good comparison with full-wave numerical modelling is at last reported by measuring the scattering parameters of single and dual BST cubes schemes pointing out coupling effects for densely packed structures.

  8. Wireless physical layer security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, H. Vincent; Schaefer, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    Security in wireless networks has traditionally been considered to be an issue to be addressed separately from the physical radio transmission aspects of wireless systems. However, with the emergence of new networking architectures that are not amenable to traditional methods of secure communication such as data encryption, there has been an increase in interest in the potential of the physical properties of the radio channel itself to provide communications security. Information theory provides a natural framework for the study of this issue, and there has been considerable recent research devoted to using this framework to develop a greater understanding of the fundamental ability of the so-called physical layer to provide security in wireless networks. Moreover, this approach is also suggestive in many cases of coding techniques that can approach fundamental limits in practice and of techniques for other security tasks such as authentication. This paper provides an overview of these developments.

  9. The layers of subtitling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Di Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of subtitling, although widely practiced over the past 20 years, has generally been confined to comparative studies focusing on the product of subtitle translation, with little or no consideration of the conditions of creation and reception. Focusing on the process of subtitle production, occasional studies have touched upon the cognitive processes accompanying it, but no study so far has related these processes, and the resulting products, to various degrees of translators’ competence. This is precisely what this essay does, focusing on the different layers of subtitle translation provided for two different films and in two different contexts. By analysing the first and second versions of subtitle translations, we shall reflect on the acquisition, and application, of different subtitling competences.

  10. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Carpenter

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

  11. Ozone Layer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, Richard; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been monitoring the ozone layer from space using optical remote sensing techniques since 1970. With concern over catalytic destruction of ozone (mid-1970s) and the development of the Antarctic ozone hole (mid-1980s), long term ozone monitoring has become the primary focus of NASA's series of ozone measuring instruments. A series of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and SBUV (Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet) instruments has produced a nearly continuous record of global ozone from 1979 to the present. These instruments infer ozone by measuring sunlight backscattered from the atmosphere in the ultraviolet through differential absorption. These measurements have documented a 15 Dobson Unit drop in global average ozone since 1980, and the declines in ozone in the antarctic each October have been far more dramatic. Instruments that measure the ozone vertical distribution, the SBUV and SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) instruments for example, show that the largest changes are occurring in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere. The goal of ozone measurement in the next decades will be to document the predicted recovery of the ozone layer as CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) levels decline. This will require a continuation of global measurements of total column ozone on a global basis, but using data from successor instruments to TOMS. Hyperspectral instruments capable of measuring in the UV will be needed for this purpose. Establishing the relative roles of chemistry and dynamics will require instruments to measure ozone in the troposphere and in the stratosphere with good vertical resolution. Instruments that can measure other chemicals important to ozone formation and destruction will also be needed.

  12. 非等模数非等压力角行星齿轮系的动力学均载特性%Dynamic Load-Sharing Behaviors of Planetary Gear Train System with Unequal Moduli and Pressure Angles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶福民; 朱如鹏; 鲍和云; 靳广虎

    2011-01-01

    考虑由各齿轮的偏心误差和齿频误差引起的内部激励,建立了非等模数非等压力角NGW型行星齿轮系的动力学微分方程,应用Fourier级数法求解方程,并给出了动载系数的表达式.在此基础上,将其与等模数等压力角齿轮系的均载效果进行比较,并讨论了太阳轮分度圆压力角、齿轮误差、太阳轮转速对该系统均载特性的影响.计算结果表明:设计非等模数非等压力角行星齿轮系时,通过确定合适的齿轮压力角,能够使系统具有较好的均载特性;太阳轮浮动支承机构可以改善系统的均载性能;转速对系统的均载有较大的影响,相同转速下的非等模数非等压力角设计有着较好的均载效果.%In this paper, first, a dynamic differential equation of the NGW planetary gear train system with unequal moduli and pressure angles is established by taking into consideration the internal excitation caused by the eccentric error and tooth-frequency error of each gear. Next, the equation is solved by means of Fourier series method.Then, the dynamic load coefficients are formulated and are compared with those of the normal gear train. Finally,the load-sharing behaviors of the gear train, which are affected by the sun-gear pressure angles in pitch circle, the gear error and the rotating speed of the sun gear, are analyzed. Calculated results indicate that the planetary gear train with suitable pressure angles is of excellent load-sharing behaviors, that the floating sun gear improves the load-sharing behaviors and the rotating speed also greatly influences the load-sharing, and that, at the same rotating speed, the loading-sharing effect of the planetary gear train with unequal moduli and pressure angles is better than that of the normal one.

  13. Processes for multi-layer devices utilizing layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Kim, Bongsang; Cederberg, Jeffrey; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2015-02-03

    A method includes forming a release layer over a donor substrate. A plurality of devices made of a first semiconductor material are formed over the release layer. A first dielectric layer is formed over the plurality of devices such that all exposed surfaces of the plurality of devices are covered by the first dielectric layer. The plurality of devices are chemically attached to a receiving device made of a second semiconductor material different than the first semiconductor material, the receiving device having a receiving substrate attached to a surface of the receiving device opposite the plurality of devices. The release layer is etched to release the donor substrate from the plurality of devices. A second dielectric layer is applied over the plurality of devices and the receiving device to mechanically attach the plurality of devices to the receiving device.

  14. Magnetism in layered Ruthenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffens, Paul C.

    2008-07-01

    In this thesis, the magnetism of the layered Ruthenates has been studied by means of different neutron scattering techniques. Magnetic correlations in the single-layer Ruthenates of the series Ca{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}RuO{sub 4} have been investigated as function of Sr-concentration (x=0.2 and 0.62), temperature and magnetic field. These inelastic neutron scattering studies demonstrate the coexistence of ferromagnetic paramagnon scattering with antiferromagnetic fluctuations at incommensurate wave vectors. The temperature dependence of the amplitudes and energies of both types of excitations indicate the proximity to magnetic instabilities; their competition seems to determine the complex behavior of these materials. In Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4}, which shows a metamagnetic transition, the ferromagnetic fluctuations are strongly suppressed at low temperature, but appear at higher temperature or application of a magnetic field. In the high-field phase of Ca{sub 1.8}Sr{sub 0.2}RuO{sub 4} above the metamagnetic transition, a ferromagnetic magnon dominates the excitation spectrum. Polarized neutron scattering revealed the existence of a very broad signal around the zone centre, in addition to the well-known incommensurate excitations at Q=(0.3,0.3,0) in the unconventional superconductor Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}. With this additional contribution, it is possible to set up a general model for the Q-dependent magnetic susceptibility, which is well consistent with the results of other measurement methods that do not resolve the Q-dependence. Upon doping with Ti, the incommensurate fluctuations are enhanced, in particular near the critical concentration for the onset of magnetic order, but no divergence down to very low temperature is observed. In the bilayer Ti-doped Ca{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}O{sub 7}, the existence of magnetic order with a propagation vector of about ((1)/(4),(1)/(4),0) has been discovered and characterized in detail. Above and below T{sub N}, excitations at this

  15. Boundary-Layer & health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigliola, V.

    2010-09-01

    It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

  16. Nanostructure Neutron Converter Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol (Inventor); Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kang, Jin Ho (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor); Thibeault, Sheila A. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods for making a neutron converter layer are provided. The various embodiment methods enable the formation of a single layer neutron converter material. The single layer neutron converter material formed according to the various embodiments may have a high neutron absorption cross section, tailored resistivity providing a good electric field penetration with submicron particles, and a high secondary electron emission coefficient. In an embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by sequential supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In another embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by simultaneous supercritical fluid metallization of a porous nanostructure aerogel or polyimide film. In a further embodiment method a neutron converter layer may be formed by in-situ metalized aerogel nanostructure development.

  17. Neocortical layer 6, a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex M Thomson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This review attempts to summarise some of the major areas of neocortical research as it pertains to layer 6. After a brief summary of the development of this intriguing layer, the major pyramidal cell classes to be found in layer 6 are described and compared. The connections made and received by these different classes of neurones are then discussed and the possible functions of these connections, with particular reference to the shaping of responses in visual cortex and thalamus. Inhibition in layer 6 is discussed where appropriate, but not in great detail. Many types of interneurones are to be found in each cortical layer and layer 6 is no exception, but the functions of each type remain to be elucidated.

  18. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Dennis P. (Maplewood, MN); Schmoeckel, Alison K. (Stillwater, MN); Vernstrom, George D. (Cottage Grove, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Wood, Thomas E. (Stillwater, MN); Yang, Ruizhi (Halifax, CA); Easton, E. Bradley (Halifax, CA); Dahn, Jeffrey R. (Hubley, CA); O' Neill, David G. (Lake Elmo, MN)

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  19. Polymer-Layer Silicate Nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potarniche, Catalina-Gabriela

    Nowadays, some of the material challenges arise from a performance point of view as well as from recycling and biodegradability. Concerning these aspects, the development of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites can provide possible solutions. This study investigates how to obtain polymer layered...... silicate nanocomposites and their structure-properties relationship. In the first part of the thesis, thermoplastic layered silicates were obtained by extrusion. Different modification methods were tested to observe the intercalation treatment effect on the silicate-modifier interactions. The silicate...

  20. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

  1. A tribo-mechanical analysis of PVA-based building-blocks for implementation in a 2-layered skin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hurtado, M; de Vries, E G; Zeng, X; van der Heide, E

    2016-09-01

    Poly(vinyl) alcohol hydrogel (PVA) is a well-known polymer widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility properties and easy manufacturing. In this work, the tribo-mechanical properties of PVA-based blocks are studied to evaluate their suitability as a part of a structure simulating the length scale dependence of human skin. Thus, blocks of pure PVA and PVA mixed with Cellulose (PVA-Cel) were synthesised via freezing/thawing cycles and their mechanical properties were determined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and creep tests. The dynamic tests addressed to elastic moduli between 38 and 50kPa for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. The fitting of the creep compliance tests in the SLS model confirmed the viscoelastic behaviour of the samples with retardation times of 23 and 16 seconds for the PVA and PVA-Cel, respectively. Micro indentation tests were also achieved and the results indicated elastic moduli in the same range of the dynamic tests. Specifically, values between 45-55 and 56-81kPa were obtained for the PVA and PVA-Cel samples, respectively. The tribological results indicated values of 0.55 at low forces for the PVA decreasing to 0.13 at higher forces. The PVA-Cel blocks showed lower friction even at low forces with values between 0.2 and 0.07. The implementation of these building blocks in the design of a 2-layered skin model (2LSM) is also presented in this work. The 2LSM was stamped with four different textures and their surface properties were evaluated. The hydration of the 2LSM was also evaluated with a corneometer and the results indicated a gradient of hydration comparable to the human skin.

  2. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  3. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    Full Text Available Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Liao, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Xing; Bao, Lin-Fei; Fan, Mei-Hua; Li, Xiao-Min; Wu, Chang-Wen; Xia, Shu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment.

  5. Layer-by-Layer Proteomic Analysis of Mytilus galloprovincialis Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-xing; Bao, Lin-fei; Fan, Mei-hua; Li, Xiao-min; Wu, Chang-wen; Xia, Shu-wei

    2015-01-01

    Bivalve shell is a biomineralized tissue with various layers/microstructures and excellent mechanical properties. Shell matrix proteins (SMPs) pervade and envelop the mineral crystals and play essential roles in biomineralization. Despite that Mytilus is an economically important bivalve, only few proteomic studies have been performed for the shell, and current knowledge of the SMP set responsible for different shell layers of Mytilus remains largely patchy. In this study, we observed that Mytilus galloprovincialis shell contained three layers, including nacre, fibrous prism, and myostracum that is involved in shell-muscle attachment. A parallel proteomic analysis was performed for these three layers. By combining LC-MS/MS analysis with Mytilus EST database interrogations, a whole set of 113 proteins was identified, and the distribution of these proteins in different shell layers followed a mosaic pattern. For each layer, about a half of identified proteins are unique and the others are shared by two or all of three layers. This is the first description of the protein set exclusive to nacre, myostracum, and fibrous prism in Mytilus shell. Moreover, most of identified proteins in the present study are novel SMPs, which greatly extended biomineralization-related protein data of Mytilus. These results are useful, on one hand, for understanding the roles of SMPs in the deposition of different shell layers. On the other hand, the identified protein set of myostracum provides candidates for further exploring the mechanism of adductor muscle-shell attachment. PMID:26218932

  6. CHARGE-TRANSFER BETWEEN LAYERS IN MISFIT LAYER COMPOUNDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIEGERS, GA

    1995-01-01

    Electron donation from MX double layers to TX(2) sandwiches, the interlayer bonding and the localization of conduction electrons in misfit layer compounds (MX)(p)(TX(2))(n) (M=Sn, Pb, Sb, Bi, rare earth metals; T=Ti, V, Cr, Nb, Ta; X=S, Se; 1.08

  7. Layer-layer competition in multiplex complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Gerardo; Arenas, Alex; Gómez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple types of interactions within social, technological and biological networks has moved the focus of the physics of complex systems towards a multiplex description of the interactions between their constituents. This novel approach has unveiled that the multiplex nature of complex systems has strong influence in the emergence of collective states and their critical properties. Here we address an important issue that is intrinsic to the coexistence of multiple means of interactions within a network: their competition. To this aim, we study a two-layer multiplex in which the activity of users can be localized in each of the layer or shared between them, favoring that neighboring nodes within a layer focus their activity on the same layer. This framework mimics the coexistence and competition of multiple communication channels, in a way that the prevalence of a particular communication platform emerges as a result of the localization of users activity in one single interaction layer. Our...

  8. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Enzymes on Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-06-01

    The use of Layer-by-layer techniques for immobilizing several types of enzymes, e.g. glucose oxidase (GOx), horse radish oxidases(HRP), and choline oxidase(CHO) on carbon nanotubes and their applications for biosenseing are presented. The enzyme is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic polydiallyldimethyl-ammonium chloride (PDDA) layer and a enzyme layer. The sandwich-like layer structure (PDDA/enzyme/PDDA/CNT) formed by electrostatic assembling provides a favorable microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of enzyme and to prevent enzyme molecule leakage. The morphologies and electrocatalytic acitivity of the resulted enzyme film were characterized using TEM and electrochemical techniques, respectively. It was found that these enzyme-based biosensors are very sensitive, selective for detection of biomolecules, e.g. glucose, choline.

  9. The layer by layer selective laser synthesis of ruby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work, features of the layer-by-layer selective laser synthesis (SLS of ruby from an Al2O3-Cr2O3 mixture are considered depending on the irradiation power, the laser beam traverse speed, the height and amount of the backfill of powder layers. It has been established that, under irradiation, a track consisting of polycrystalline textured ruby forms. The morphology of the surface of the track and its crystalline structure are determined by the irradiation conditions.

  10. Nanoarchitectured materials composed of fullerene-like spheroids and disordered graphene layers with tunable mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhisheng; Wang, Erik F.; Yan, Hongping; Kono, Yoshio; Wen, Bin; Bai, Ligang; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Junfeng; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Park, Changyong; Wang, Yanbin; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-02-01

    Type-II glass-like carbon is a widely used material with a unique combination of properties including low density, high strength, extreme impermeability to gas and liquid and resistance to chemical corrosion. It can be considered as a carbon-based nanoarchitectured material, consisting of a disordered multilayer graphene matrix encasing numerous randomly distributed nanosized fullerene-like spheroids. Here we show that under both hydrostatic compression and triaxial deformation, this high-strength material is highly compressible and exhibits a superelastic ability to recover from large strains. Under hydrostatic compression, bulk, shear and Young’s moduli decrease anomalously with pressure, reaching minima around 1-2 GPa, where Poisson’s ratio approaches zero, and then revert to normal behaviour with positive pressure dependences. Controlling the concentration, size and shape of fullerene-like spheroids with tailored topological connectivity to graphene layers is expected to yield exceptional and tunable mechanical properties, similar to mechanical metamaterials, with potentially wide applications.

  11. Large-scale simulations of layered double hydroxide nanocomposite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyveetil, Mary-Ann

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have the ability to intercalate a multitude of anionic species. Atomistic simulation techniques such as molecular dynamics have provided considerable insight into the behaviour of these materials. We review these techniques and recent algorithmic advances which considerably improve the performance of MD applications. In particular, we discuss how the advent of high performance computing and computational grids has allowed us to explore large scale models with considerable ease. Our simulations have been heavily reliant on computational resources on the UK's NGS (National Grid Service), the US TeraGrid and the Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Applications (DEISA). In order to utilise computational grids we rely on grid middleware to launch, computationally steer and visualise our simulations. We have integrated the RealityGrid steering library into the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) 1 . which has enabled us to perform re mote computational steering and visualisation of molecular dynamics simulations on grid infrastruc tures. We also use the Application Hosting Environment (AHE) 2 in order to launch simulations on remote supercomputing resources and we show that data transfer rates between local clusters and super- computing resources can be considerably enhanced by using optically switched networks. We perform large scale molecular dynamics simulations of MgiAl-LDHs intercalated with either chloride ions or a mixture of DNA and chloride ions. The systems exhibit undulatory modes, which are suppressed in smaller scale simulations, caused by the collective thermal motion of atoms in the LDH layers. Thermal undulations provide elastic properties of the system including the bending modulus, Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios. To explore the interaction between LDHs and DNA. we use molecular dynamics techniques to per form simulations of double stranded, linear and plasmid DNA up

  12. D0 layer 0 innermost layer of silicon microstrip tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanagaki, K.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    A new inner layer silicon strip detector has been built and will be installed in the existing silicon microstrip tracker in D0. They report on the motivation, design, and performance of this new detector.

  13. Boundary layers in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2012-02-01

    We study the problem of optimizing released heat or dissipated work in stochastic thermodynamics. In the overdamped limit these functionals have singular solutions, previously interpreted as protocol jumps. We show that a regularization, penalizing a properly defined acceleration, changes the jumps into boundary layers of finite width. We show that in the limit of vanishing boundary layer width no heat is dissipated in the boundary layer, while work can be done. We further give an alternative interpretation of the fact that the optimal protocols in the overdamped limit are given by optimal deterministic transport (Burgers equation).

  14. Design and Analysis for the Carbon Fiber Composite Support Structure for Layer 0 of the D0 Silicon Micro Tracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C.H.; Tuttle, Mark E.; Kuykendall, William; /Washington U., Seattle

    2009-01-01

    The support structures for the new Layer 0 (Figures 1, 2, 3) of the Run 2b silicon tracker in D0 were designed and fabricated at the University of Washington. These structures were required to have minimum mass, yet be very rigid so as to meet the high precision requirements placed on the position of the silicon detector chips. They also have to provide for cooling to remove the heat generated by the sensors and signal processing electronics and to keep the sensors at the desired operating temperature (below -5 C). All of these requirements were best met by carbon fiber/epoxy composite technology. State of the art carbon fiber materials have extremely high Young's moduli and high thermal conductivity. Appropriate fiber lay-ups and fabrication methods have been developed and used successfully to produce both various prototype structures and the structures used in the production Layer 0. The geometry of these structures was determined mainly by the geometry of the sensors themselves. The structures incorporated a complete cooling system consisting of extruded PEEK coolant tubes and distribution manifolds made from carbon fiber composites. In order to determine the mechanical and thermal performance of the structures, detailed FEA analyses of L0 have been carried out and are described.

  15. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm−2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer. PMID:28220816

  16. Layer-by-Layer Insight into Electrostatic Charge Distribution of Few-Layer Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, Hossein; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In few-layer graphene (FLG) systems on a dielectric substrate such as SiO2, the addition of each extra layer of graphene can drastically alter their electronic and structural properties. Here, we map the charge distribution among the individual layers of finite-size FLG systems using a novel spatial discrete model that describes both electrostatic interlayer screening and fringe field effects. Our results reveal that the charge density in the region very close to the edges is screened out an order of magnitude more weakly than that across the central region of the layers. Our discrete model suggests that the interlayer charge screening length in 1–8 layer thick graphene systems depends mostly on the overall gate/molecular doping level rather than on temperature, in particular at an induced charge density >5 × 1012 cm‑2, and can reliably be determined to be larger than half the interlayer spacing but shorter than the bilayer thickness. Our model can be used for designing FLG-based devices, and offers a simple rule regarding the charge distribution in FLG: approximately 70%, 20%, 6% and 3% (99% overall) of the total induced charge density reside within the four innermost layers, implying that the gate-induced electric field is not definitely felt by >4th layer.

  17. Magnetic microscopy of layered structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kuch, Wolfgang; Fischer, Peter; Hillebrecht, Franz Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the important analytical technique of magnetic microscopy. This method is applied to analyze layered structures with high resolution. This book presents a number of layer-resolving magnetic imaging techniques that have evolved recently. Many exciting new developments in magnetism rely on the ability to independently control the magnetization in two or more magnetic layers in micro- or nanostructures. This in turn requires techniques with the appropriate spatial resolution and magnetic sensitivity. The book begins with an introductory overview, explains then the principles of the various techniques and gives guidance to their use. Selected examples demonstrate the specific strengths of each method. Thus the book is a valuable resource for all scientists and practitioners investigating and applying magnetic layered structures.

  18. National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) is a compilation of GIS data that comprises a nationwide digital Flood Insurance Rate Map. The GIS data and services are...

  19. Hurricane Boundary-Layer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2501. Kundu PK. 1990. Fluid Mechanics . Academic Press: San Diego, USA. Kuo HL. 1982. Vortex boundary layer under quadratic surface stress. Boundary...identification of two mechanisms for the spin-up of the mean tangential circulation of a hurricane. The first involves convergence of absolute angular...momentum above the boundary layer, where this quantity is approximately conserved. This mechanism acts to spin up the outer circulation at radii

  20. Photocurrent generation in organic photodetectors with tailor-made active layers fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhoeren, Benjamin; Dalgleish, Simon; Hu, Laigui; Matsushita, Michio M; Awaga, Kunio; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2015-04-08

    Photodetectors supply an electric response when illuminated. The detectors in this study consist of an active layer and a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) blocking layer, which are sandwiched by an aluminum and an indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode. The active layer was prepared of Zn porphyrins and assembled by covalent layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. Layer growth was monitored by UV-vis absorbance, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Upon exposure to chopped light, the detectors show an alternating transient photocurrent, which is limited by the accumulation of space charges at the blocking layer/active layer interface. We could show that the number of photoactive layers has a significant impact on device performance. The fastest response was achieved with fewer layers. The highest photocurrents were measured for detectors with an intermediate number of layers, beyond which, more layers did not lead to an increase in the photocurrent despite containing more active material.

  1. Moduli spaces of cold holographic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ammon, M.; Jensen, K.; Kim, K.Y.; Laia, J.N.; O'Bannon, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use holography to study (3 + 1)-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with gauge group SU(N c ), in the large-N c and large-coupling limits, coupled to a single massless (n + 1)-dimensional hypermultiplet in the fundamental representation of SU(N c ), with n = 3, 2, 1. In particular, w

  2. Inflating Kahler moduli and primordial magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Aparicio

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual “strong coupling problem” for primordial magnetogenesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale; this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  3. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    OpenAIRE

    M. Laine

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, furthermore, as a platform on whic...

  4. On bulk viscosity and moduli decay

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2010-01-01

    This pedagogically intended lecture, one of four under the header "Basics of thermal QCD", reviews an interesting relationship, originally pointed out by Bodeker, that exists between the bulk viscosity of Yang-Mills theory (of possible relevance to the hydrodynamics of heavy ion collision experiments) and the decay rate of scalar fields coupled very weakly to a heat bath (appearing in some particle physics inspired cosmological scenarios). This topic serves, futhermore, as a platform on which a number of generic thermal field theory concepts are illustrated. The other three lectures (on the QCD equation of state and the rates of elastic as well as inelastic processes experienced by heavy quarks) are recapitulated in brief encyclopedic form.

  5. Del Pezzo Moduli via Root Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colombo, E.; van Geemen, B.; Looijenga, E.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Coble defined in his 1929 treatise invariants for cubic surfaces and quartic curves. We reinterpret these in terms of the root systems of type E6 and E7 that are naturally associated to these varieties, thereby giving some of his results a more intrinsic treatment. Our discussion is uniform for all

  6. Monoids of moduli spaces of manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galatius, Søren; Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    with generalised orientations specified by a map ¿: X ¿ BO(d). The main result of [Acta Math. 202 (2009) 195–239] is a determination of the homotopy type of the classifying space BC¿. The goal of the present paper is a systematic investigation of subcategories D¿C¿ with the property that BD¿ BC¿, the smaller...

  7. Inflating Kahler Moduli and Primordial Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Aparicio, Luis

    2016-01-01

    We study the production of primordial magnetic fields in inflationary models in type IIB string theory where the role of the inflaton is played by a Kahler modulus. We consider various possibilities to realise the Standard Model degrees of freedom in this setting and explicitly determine the time dependence of the inflaton coupling to the Maxwell term in the models. Using this we determine the strength and scale dependence of the magnetic fields generated during inflation. The usual "strong coupling problem" for primordial magnetogesis manifests itself by cycle sizes approaching the string scale, this appears in a certain class of fibre inflation models where the standard model is realised by wrapping D7-branes on cycles in the geometric regime.

  8. Moduli Stabilization: Mathematical Aspects And Cosmological Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prokushkin, S F

    2005-01-01

    We study the superpotential for the heterotic string compactified on non-Kähler complex manifolds. We show that many of the geometrical properties of these manifolds can be understood from the proposed superpotential. In particular we give an estimate of the radial modulus of these manifolds. We also show how the torsional constraints can be obtained from this superpotential. For a given complex n-fold M we present an explicit construction of all complex (n + 1)-folds which are principal holomorphic T2- fibrations over M. For physical applications we consider the case of M being a Calabi-Yau 2-fold. We show that for such M, there is a subclass of the 3-folds that we construct, which has natural families of non- Kähler SU(3)-structures satisfying the conditions for N = 1 supersymmetry in the heterotic string theory compactified on the 3-folds. We present examples in the aforementioned subclass with M being a K3-surface and a 4-torus. The distance between BPS branes in string theory corre...

  9. Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2012-01-01

    A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....

  10. Hybrid window layer for photovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xunming

    2010-02-23

    A novel photovoltaic solar cell and method of making the same are disclosed. The solar cell includes: at least one absorber layer which could either be a lightly doped layer or an undoped layer, and at least a doped window-layers which comprise at least two sub-window-layers. The first sub-window-layer, which is next to the absorber-layer, is deposited to form desirable junction with the absorber-layer. The second sub-window-layer, which is next to the first sub-window-layer, but not in direct contact with the absorber-layer, is deposited in order to have transmission higher than the first-sub-window-layer.

  11. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  12. DAR Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Aromatic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜思光; 陈晓东; 张莉; 刘鸣华

    2003-01-01

    A facile DAR (diphenylamine-4-diazonium-formaldehyde resin)assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of uitrathin organic film of aromatic compounds has been investigated. The muitilayer of pyrene or anthracene was fabricated through simple dipping of the glass slide into the mixed solution of DAR with the target compounds. In this method, DAR acted as an assistant compound to help the assembling of the aromatic compounds. Such a convenient deposition method not only reserves the advantages of the traditional LbL technique but also simplifies the technique and extends the effectiveness of LbL technique to small molecules without any charge.

  13. Supermolecular layered dou- ble hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Research progresses in the layered double hydroxides ·mH2O intercalated with metal coordinate ions or oxometalates in the last ten years are reviewed. These layered double hydroxides are mainly intercalated with polyoxometalate (POM) ions, a LiAl-LDH photochemical assembly containing TiO2 and CH3(CH2)12COO- anions, together with Zn(TPPC) (porphy-rin derivate) and macrocyclic ligand-containing porphyrin derivate anions. Emphasis is put on the synthesis methods for intercalation of the anions into the interlayer regions, the characterization techniques and structures for the layered compounds and the newest research progress in the fields such as catalysis. The review also forecasts the prospects of the field.

  14. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cousteix, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

  15. Catalysts, Protection Layers, and Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen is the simplest solar fuel to produce and in this presentation we shall give a short overview of the pros and cons of various tandem devices [1]. The large band gap semiconductor needs to be in front, but apart from that we can chose to have either the anode in front or back using either...... acid or alkaline conditions. Since most relevant semiconductors are very prone to corrosion the advantage of using buried junctions and using protection layers offering shall be discussed [2-4]. Next we shall discuss the availability of various catalysts for being coupled to these protections layers...... and how their stability may be evaluated [5, 6]. Examples of half-cell reaction using protection layers for both cathode and anode will be discussed though some of recent examples under both alkaline and acidic conditions. Si is a very good low band gap semiconductor and by using TiO2 as a protection...

  16. Nonparallel stability of boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Ali H.

    1987-01-01

    The asymptotic formulations of the nonparallel linear stability of incompressible growing boundary layers are critically reviewed. These formulations can be divided into two approaches. The first approach combines a numerical method with either the method of multiple scales, or the method of averaging, of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation; all these methods yield the same result. The second approach combined a multi-structure theory with the method of multiple scales. The first approach yields results that are in excellent agreement with all available experimental data, including the growth rates as well as the neutral stability curve. The derivation of the linear stability of the incompressible growing boundary layers is explained.

  17. Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchik, Nicholas J.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the concept of the Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL) and its benefits. The OSAL is A small layer of software that allows programs to run on many different operating systems and hardware platforms It runs independent of the underlying OS & hardware and it is self-contained. The benefits of OSAL are that it removes dependencies from any one operating system, promotes portable, reusable flight software. It allows for Core Flight software (FSW) to be built for multiple processors and operating systems. The presentation discusses the functionality, the various OSAL releases, and describes the specifications.

  18. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2011-01-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...

  19. Stability of Boundary Layer Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    and Teske (1975). We can conclude (as in the case of ducting) that theoretical models of boundary layer structure and associated radar structure...FI33 (Secret). Hitney, (1978) "Surface Duct Effects," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif., Report No. TD144. Lewellen, W. S., and M. E. Teske

  20. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria;

    2013-01-01

    signaling. The priority adjustment is based on both the Composite Available Capacity (CAC) and the radio conditions of the candidate layers. Compared to broadcast AP, the proposed scheme achieves better load balancing performance and improves network capacity, given that the User Equipment (UE) inactivity...

  1. Properties Research of Ceramic Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Żółkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the method of full mould the polystyrene model, which fills the mould cavity in the course of filling by the liquid metal is subjected tothe influence of high temperature and passes from the solid, through the liquid, to the gaseous state. During this process solid and gaseousproducts of thermal decomposition of polystyrene patterns occur. The kinetics of this process is significantly influenced by the gasificationtemperature, density and mass of the polystyrene patterns. One of the basic parameters is the amount and rate of gas from the polystyrenemodel during its thermal decomposition. Specific properties of ceramic layer used for lost foam castings are required. To ensure optimalprocess flow of metal in the form proper permeability of the ceramic layer is needed.To ensure optimal conditions for technological casting method EPS patterns are tested and determined are the technological parametersand physical-chemical process in: material properties of the pattern, properties of the ceramic layer applied to the pattern, pattern gasification kinetics pouring processIn the course of the research the characteristics of polystyrene and ceramic layer were determined.

  2. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Samuel J.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies where in the scheme of modern chromatography high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC) fits and why in some situations it is a viable alternative to gas and high performance liquid chromatography. New TLC plates, sample applications, plate development, and instrumental techniques are considered. (JN)

  3. Shockwave-boundary layer interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glepman, R.

    2014-01-01

    Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are a very common feature in both transonic and supersonic flows. They can be encountered on compressor and turbine blades, in supersonic jet inlets, on transonic wings, on the stabilization fins of missiles and in many more situations. Because of their major i

  4. Adhesion Between Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Different adhesion methods of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) layers were studied with respect to adhesional force and the resulting rheology of the two-layered PDMS films were investigated. The role of adhesion between PDMS layers on the performances of two-layer structures was studied with peel...

  5. Improving modeling with layered UML diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Layered diagrams are diagrams whose elements are organized into sets of layers. Layered diagrams are routinely used in many branches of engineering, except Software Engineering. In this paper, we propose to add layered diagrams to UML modeling tools, and elaborate the concept by exploring usage...

  6. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  7. Prediction of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, P.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of turbulent shear layers in turbomachines are compared with the turbulent boundary layers on airfoils. Seven different aspects are examined. The limits of boundary layer theory are investigated. Boundary layer prediction methods are applied to analysis of the flow in turbomachines.

  8. Organic photovoltaic cells utilizing ultrathin sensitizing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P.; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2011-05-24

    A photosensitive device includes a series of organic photoactive layers disposed between two electrodes. Each layer in the series is in direct contact with a next layer in the series. The series is arranged to form at least one donor-acceptor heterojunction, and includes a first organic photoactive layer comprising a first host material serving as a donor, a thin second organic photoactive layer comprising a second host material disposed between the first and a third organic photoactive layer, and the third organic photoactive layer comprising a third host material serving as an acceptor. The first, second, and third host materials are different. The thin second layer serves as an acceptor relative to the first layer or as a donor relative to the third layer.

  9. A computer generator for randomly layered structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jia-shun; HE Zhen-hua

    2004-01-01

    An algorithm is introduced in this paper for the synthesis of randomly layered earth models. Under the assumption that the layering and the physical parameters for a layer are random variables with truncated normal distributions, random numbers sampled from the distributions can be used to construct the layered structure and determine physical parameters for the layers. To demonstrate its application, random models were synthesized for the modelling of seismic ground motion amplification of a site with uncertainties in its model parameters.

  10. Rapid Prototyping Of Layered Composite Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Edwin D.

    1992-01-01

    Numerically controlled cutting accelerates fabrication of layers. Proposed method derived from stereoscopic lithography. CATIA or CAEDS computer program used to generate three-dimensional mathematical model of prototype part. In model, geometry of part specified in layers, as in stereoscopic lithography. Model data for each layer fed to computer-numerically-controlled ultrasonic cutting machine. Sheet of prepreg (uncured composite material) of specified layer thickness placed in machine and cut, under control of model data, to specified shape of layer.

  11. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  12. Chemical solution seed layer for rabits tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2014-06-10

    A method for making a superconducting article includes the steps of providing a biaxially textured substrate. A seed layer is then deposited. The seed layer includes a double perovskite of the formula A.sub.2B'B''O.sub.6, where A is rare earth or alkaline earth metal and B' and B'' are different rare earth or transition metal cations. A superconductor layer is grown epitaxially such that the superconductor layer is supported by the seed layer.

  13. Layer-by-layer microcapsules templated on erythrocyte ghost carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaillender, Mutukumaraswamy; Luo, Rongcong; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Neu, Björn

    2011-08-30

    This work reports the fabrication of layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules that provide a simple mean for controlling the burst and subsequent release of bioactive agents. Red blood cell (RBC) ghosts were loaded with fluorescently labeled dextran and lysozyme as model compounds via hypotonic dialysis with an encapsulation efficiency of 27-31%. It is demonstrated that these vesicles maintain their shape and integrity and that a uniform distribution of the encapsulated agents within these carriers is achieved. The loaded vesicles were then successfully coated with the biocompatible polyelectrolytes, poly-L-arginine hydrochloride and dextran sulfate. It is demonstrated that the release profiles of the encapsulated molecules can be regulated over a wide range by adjusting the number of polyelectrolyte layers. In addition, the LbL shell also protects the RBC ghost from decomposition thereby potentially preserving the bioactivity of encapsulated drugs or proteins. These microcapsules, consisting of an RBC ghost coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer, provide a simple mean for the preparation of loaded LbL microcapsules eliminating the core dissolution and post-loading of bioactive agents, which are required for conventional LbL microcapsules.

  14. Polyelectrolyte Layer-by-Layer Assembly on Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Pappa, Anna-Maria

    2017-03-06

    Oppositely charged polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were built up in a layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly on top of the conducting polymer channel of an organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), aiming to combine the advantages of well-established PEMs with a high performance electronic transducer. The multilayered film is a model system to investigate the impact of biofunctionalization on the operation of OECTs comprising a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) film as the electrically active layer. Understanding the mechanism of ion injection into the channel that is in direct contact with charged polymer films provides useful insights for novel biosensing applications such as nucleic acid sensing. Moreover, LbL is demonstrated to be a versatile electrode modification tool enabling tailored surface features in terms of thickness, softness, roughness, and charge. LbL assemblies built up on top of conducting polymers will aid the design of new bioelectronic platforms for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical diagnostics.

  15. Fluidized bed layer-by-layer microcapsule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph J; Teng, Darwin; Björnmalm, Mattias; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Guo, Junling; Cui, Jiwei; Franks, George V; Caruso, Frank

    2014-08-26

    Polymer microcapsules can be used as bioreactors and artificial cells; however, preparation methods for cell-like microcapsules are typically time-consuming, low yielding, and/or involve custom microfluidics. Here, we introduce a rapid (∼30 min per batch, eight layers), scalable (up to 500 mg of templates), and efficient (98% yield) microcapsule preparation technique utilizing a fluidized bed for the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of polymers, and we investigate the parameters that govern the formation of robust capsules. Fluidization in water was possible for particles of comparable diameter to mammalian cells (>5 μm), with the experimental flow rates necessary for fluidization matching well with the theoretical values. Important variables for polymer film deposition and capsule formation were the concentration of polymer solution and the molecular weight of the polymer, while the volume of the polymer solution had a negligible impact. In combination, increasing the polymer molecular weight and polymer solution concentration resulted in improved film deposition and the formation of robust microcapsules. The resultant polymer microcapsules had a thickness of ∼5.5 nm per bilayer, which is in close agreement with conventionally prepared (quiescent (nonflow) adsorption/centrifugation/wash) LbL capsules. The technique reported herein provides a new way to rapidly generate microcapsules (approximately 8 times quicker than the conventional means), while being also amenable to scale-up and mass production.

  16. Nonlinear Instability of Liquid Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Lori Ann

    The nonlinear instability of two superposed viscous liquid layers in planar and axisymmetric configurations is investigated. In the planar configuration, the light layer fluid is bounded below by a wall and above by a heavy semiinfinite fluid. Gravity drives the instability. In the first axisymmetric configuration, the layer is confined between a cylindrical wall and a core of another fluid. In the second, a thread is suspended in an infinite fluid. Surface tension forces drive the instability in the axisymmetric configurations. The nonlinear evolution of the fluid-fluid interface is computed for layers of arbitrary thickness when their dynamics are fully coupled to those of the second fluid. Under the assumption of creeping flow, the flow field is represented by an interfacial distribution of Green's functions. A Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the strength of the distribution is derived and then solved using an iterative technique. The Green's functions produce flow fields which are periodic in the direction parallel to the wall and have zero velocity on the wall. For small and moderate surface tension, planar layers evolve into a periodic array of viscous plumes which penetrate into the overlying fluid. The morphology of the plumes depends on the surface tension and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. As the viscosity of the layer increases, the plumes change from a well defined drop on top of a narrow stem to a compact column of rising fluid. The capillary instability of cylindrical interfaces and interfaces in which the core thickness varies in the axial direction are investigated. In both the unbounded and wall bounded configurations, the core evolves into a periodic array of elongated fluid drops connected by thin, almost cylindrical fluid links. The characteristics of the drop-link structure depend on the core thickness, the ratio of the core radius to the wall radius, and the ratio of the fluid viscosities. The factors controlling the

  17. Stability of compressible boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, Ali H.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.

  18. Smear Layer Outcome on Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-31

    diode laser on removal of smear layer. Journal of Endodontics , 39, 1589-92. 2. Barcelos R, Tannure P, Gleiser R, Luiz R, Primo L. (2012). The...canal regimens. Journal of Endodontics , 13 (4), 147-157. 4. Bystrom A, Sundqvist G. (1985). The antibacterial effect of sodium hypochlorite and EDTA...in 60 cases of endodontic therapy. International Endodontic Journal , 18 (6), 35-40. 5. Calt S, Serper A. (2002). Time-dependent effects ofEDTA on

  19. Temperature distribution of single layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuefei; Fan, Zhengxiu; Wang, ZhiJiang

    1993-03-01

    Temperature distributions of Ti02 single layer irradiated by iOns, 1. 06 m wavelength laser pulse were calculated with thermal transfer equation. Following conclusions were obtained: To improve thermal parameters of coating can reduce the peak temperature obviously; The thermal parameters of substrate have little effect on temperature response of coating; Temperature distribution of thin film depends on the electrical field distribution, The peak temperature of quarter -wavelength coatings is lower than that of half-wavelength coatings.

  20. Physical Layer Ethernet Clock Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    42 nd Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Meeting 77 PHYSICAL LAYER ETHERNET CLOCK SYNCHRONIZATION Reinhard Exel , Georg...5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Austrian Academy of Sciences Viktor Kaplan StraÃe 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING

  1. Transition in hypersonic boundary layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhong Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.

  2. RBS analysis of electrochromic layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.C.; Bell, J.M. [University of Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten oxide thin films produced by dip-coating from tungsten alkoxide solutions are of interest for their application in large area switchable windows. The application consists of a layer of electrochromic tungsten oxide (W0{sub 3}) on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass in contact with a complementary structure. Electrochromic devices are switchable between states of high and low transparency by the application of a small voltage. The mechanism relies on the dual injection of ions and electrons into the W0{sub 3} layer from adjacent layers in the device. Electrochromic tungsten oxide can be deposited using standard techniques (eg. sputtering and evaporation) but also using sol-gel deposition. Sol-gel processing has an advantage over conventional preparation techniques because of the simplicity of the equipment. The scaling up to large area coatings is also feasible. RBS and forward recoil has been used to obtain profiles for individual elements in the structure of electrochromic films. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  3. A rotated staggered grid finite-difference with the absorbing boundary condition of a perfectly matched layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hao; WANG Xiuming; ZHAO Haibo

    2006-01-01

    A rotated staggered grid finite-difference (FD) method with a perfectly matched layer (PML) method is proposed for numerically solving elastic wave equations in inhomogeneous elastic and poroe- lastic media. Compared with a standard staggered- grid FD, the former has the advantage over the latter in that its physical variables need only to be defined at two locations. In the rotated staggered grid, stress and strain components (or particle velocity and displacement components) are defined at elementary cell centers, and the velocity or displacement components (or the stress and strain components) are defined at vertexes. In this way, no elastic moduli need to be interpolated or averaged. Numerical results from the proposed method have been compared with the standard staggered FD method. The results are in good agreement with each other. Our numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can handle much stronger impedance contrast. This is especially true when simulating fractured medium filled with fluids such as water or gas without giving special treatment. On the other hand, the implemented PML absorbing boundary condition works well in efficiently reducing reflected waves from the artificial interfaces. It generates almost no reflection at artificial interfaces with a boundary of PML thickness of half a wavelength. Our theoretical analysis and numerical tests proved that the PML absorbing algorithm in the rotated staggered grid is almost identical to those in the standard staggered grid. In this paper, we also presented all of the formulations of the PML implementation and modeling examples in elastic, poroelastic, and anisotropic media.

  4. Cross-layer design in optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Demeester, Piet; Saradhi, Chava

    2013-01-01

    Optical networks have become an integral part of the communications infrastructure needed to support society’s demand for high-speed connectivity.  Cross-Layer Design in Optical Networks addresses topics in optical network design and analysis with a focus on physical-layer impairment awareness and network layer service requirements, essential for the implementation and management of robust scalable networks.  The cross-layer treatment includes bottom-up impacts of the physical and lambda layers, such as dispersion, noise, nonlinearity, crosstalk, dense wavelength packing, and wavelength line rates, as well as top-down approaches to handle physical-layer impairments and service requirements.

  5. Layers over layer-by-layer assemblies: silanization of polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Ali; Fernandes, Antony E; Wong, Diana Ramirez; Lipnik, Pascale; Poleunis, Claude; Nysten, Bernard; Glinel, Karine; Jonas, Alain M

    2014-08-26

    The functionalization of poly(allylamine hydrochloride)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAH/PAA) polyelectrolyte multilayers by silanes reacted from the gas phase is studied depending on reaction time and temperature, pH of multilayer assembly, and nature of the reacting silane group. Whereas monochlorosilanes only diffuse in the multilayer and graft in limited amount, trichloro- and triethoxysilanes form rapidly a continuous gel layer on the surface of the multilayer, with a thickness of ca. 10-20 nm. The reactivity is lower in the strongly paired regime of the multilayers (neutral assembly conditions) but otherwise is not affected by the pH of multilayer assembly. Silanization considerably broadens the range of possible functionalities for (PAH/PAA) multilayers: hydrophobicity, surface-initiated polymerization, and grafting of fluorescent probes by the formation of disulfide bridges are demonstrated. Conversely, our results also broaden the range of substrates that can be functionalized by silanes, using (PAH/PAA) multilayers as ubiquitous anchoring layers.

  6. Sparse coding for layered neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Katsuki; Sakata, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigate storage capacity of two types of fully connected layered neural networks with sparse coding when binary patterns are embedded into the networks by a Hebbian learning rule. One of them is a layered network, in which a transfer function of even layers is different from that of odd layers. The other is a layered network with intra-layer connections, in which the transfer function of inter-layer is different from that of intra-layer, and inter-layered neurons and intra-layered neurons are updated alternately. We derive recursion relations for order parameters by means of the signal-to-noise ratio method, and then apply the self-control threshold method proposed by Dominguez and Bollé to both layered networks with monotonic transfer functions. We find that a critical value αC of storage capacity is about 0.11|a ln a| -1 ( a≪1) for both layered networks, where a is a neuronal activity. It turns out that the basin of attraction is larger for both layered networks when the self-control threshold method is applied.

  7. Layer-by-layer assemblies for antibacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Jun Loh, Xian

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion and proliferation of bacteria on various artificial surfaces affects the functionality of these specific interfaces. To overcome the problems caused by bacterial growth on these surfaces, various antibacterial coatings were developed. In this review, we summarized most of the antibacterial surfaces prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly approach and classified these LbL films based on their antibacterial mechanisms. In the first group, the bactericidal LbL assemblies which incorporate various biocides including heavy metals, antibiotics, cationic molecules, antimicrobial peptides and enzymes are able to kill surrounding or contacted bacteria. In the second group, we focused on the physical aspects of film surfaces. Bacterial adhesion resistant LbL films have been fabricated to adjust the substrate surface properties such as surface free energy (or wettability), roughness, and surface charge which may affect the adhesion of bacteria. Furthermore, as an enhancement in the antibacterial efficiency, multifunctional LbL assemblies combining both bactericidal and adhesion resistant functionalities were discussed. The advantages and limitations of these antibacterial LbL assemblies were summarized and subsequently directions for future development were proposed.

  8. Dendrimers in Layer-by-Layer Assemblies: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiko Sato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We review the synthesis of dendrimer-containing layer-by-layer (LbL assemblies and their applications, including biosensing, controlled drug release, and bio-imaging. Dendrimers can be built into LbL films and microcapsules by alternating deposition of dendrimers and counter polymers on the surface of flat substrates and colloidal microparticles through electrostatic bonding, hydrogen bonding, covalent bonding, and biological affinity. Dendrimer-containing LbL assemblies have been used to construct biosensors, in which electron transfer mediators and metal nanoparticles are often coupled with dendrimers. Enzymes have been successfully immobilized on the surface of electrochemical and optical transducers by forming enzyme/dendrimer LbL multilayers. In this way, high-performance enzyme sensors are fabricated. In addition, dendrimer LbL films and microcapsules are useful for constructing drug delivery systems because dendrimers bind drugs to form inclusion complexes or the dendrimer surface is covalently modified with drugs. Magnetic resonance imaging of cancer cells by iron oxide nanoparticles coated with dendrimer LbL film is also discussed.

  9. Geodynamics: Layer cake or plum pudding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackley, Paul J.

    2008-03-01

    Whether convection in the Earth's mantle extends through its entire depth or if the mantle is layered has long been debated. Recent research suggests that spatially and temporally intermittent or partial layering is the most likely solution.

  10. Method for producing substrates for superconducting layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a method for producing a substrate (600) suitable for supporting an elongated superconducting element, wherein, e.g., a deformation process is utilized in order to form disruptive strips in a layered solid element, and where etching is used to form undercut volumes (330, 332......) between an upper layer (316) and a lower layer (303) of the layered solid element. Such relatively simple steps enable providing a substrate which may be turned into a superconducting structure, such as a superconducting tape, having reduced AC losses, since the undercut volumes (330, 332) may be useful...... for separating layers of material. In a further embodiment, there is placed a superconducting layer on top of the upper layer (316) and/or lower layer (303), so as to provide a superconducting structure with reduced AC losses....

  11. Reverse engineering of multi-layer films

    OpenAIRE

    Effendi Widjaja; Marc Garland

    2011-01-01

    This contribution introduces the combined application of Raman microscopy and band-target entropy minimization (BTEM) in order to successfully reverse-engineer a multi-layer packaging material. Three layers are identified, namely, polyethylene, a paper and talc layer (with two distinct cellulose forms), and a poly-styrene co-polymer composite containing anatase and calcite. This rapid and non-destructive approach provides a unique opportunity for the assessment of multi-layer composites, incl...

  12. Behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟伯中[1; 姚恒申[2; 罗平亚[3

    2000-01-01

    A model for describing the behavior ot macromoiecuies in aosoroea layers is developed by introducing a concept of distribution density of layer thickness U based on stochastic process and probabilistic statistics. The molecular behavior of layers adsorbed on clay particle surfaces is discussed; the random distribution and its statistics of the layer thickness are given by incorporating experimental results with an ionic polyelectrolyte with the molecular weight of 1.08×106and chain charged density of 0.254.

  13. Behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A model for describing the behavior of macromolecules in adsorbed layers is developed by introducing a concept of distribution density of layer thickness U based on stochastic process and probabilistic statistics. The molecular behavior of layers adsorbed on clay particle surfaces is discussed; the random distribution and its statistics of the layer thickness are given by incorporating experimental results with an ionic polyelectrolyte with the molecular weight of 1.08×106 and chain charged density of 0.254.

  14. Multiple-Dynode-Layer Microchannel Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Bruce E.

    1990-01-01

    Improved microchannel-plate electron image amplifier made of stack of discrete microchannel-plate layers. New plates easier to manufacture because no need to etch long, narrow holes, to draw and bundle thin glass tubes, or to shear plates to give microchannels curvatures necessary for reduction of undesired emission of ions. Discrete dynode layers stacked with slight offset from layer to layer to form microchannel plate with curved channels. Provides for relatively fast recharging of microchannel dynodes, with consequent enhancement of performance.

  15. Assembly of 1D nanofibers into a 2D bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with different functionalities at the two layers via layer-by-layer electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zijiao; Ma, Qianli; Dong, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Xi, Xue; Yu, Wensheng; Wang, Jinxian; Liu, Guixia

    2016-12-21

    A two-dimensional (2D) bi-layered composite nanofibrous film assembled by one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers with trifunctionality of electrical conduction, magnetism and photoluminescence has been successfully fabricated by layer-by-layer electrospinning. The composite film consists of a polyaniline (PANI)/Fe3O4 nanoparticle (NP)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) tuned electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer on one side and a Tb(TTA)3(TPPO)2/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) photoluminescent layer on the other side, and the two layers are tightly combined face-to-face together into the novel bi-layered composite film of trifunctionality. The brand-new film has totally different characteristics at the double layers. The electrical conductivity and magnetism of the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer can be, respectively, tunable via modulating the PANI and Fe3O4 NP contents, and the highest electrical conductivity can reach up to the order of 10(-2) S cm(-1), and predominant intense green emission at 545 nm is obviously observed in the photoluminescent layer under the excitation of 357 nm single-wavelength ultraviolet light. More importantly, the luminescence intensity of the photoluminescent layer remains almost unaffected by the electrical-magnetic bifunctional layer because the photoluminescent materials have been successfully isolated from dark-colored PANI and Fe3O4 NPs. By comparing with the counterpart single-layered composite nanofibrous film, it is found that the bi-layered composite nanofibrous film has better performance. The novel bi-layered composite nanofibrous film with trifunctionality has potential in the fields of nanodevices, molecular electronics and biomedicine. Furthermore, the design conception and fabrication technique for the bi-layered multifunctional film provide a new and facile strategy towards other films of multifunctionality.

  16. S-layer nanoglycobiology of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Messner, Paul; Steiner, Kerstin; Zarschler, Kristof; Schäffer, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Cell surface layers (S-layers) are common structures of the bacterial cell envelope with a lattice-like appearance that are formed by a self-assembly process. Frequently, the constituting S-layer proteins are modified with covalently linked glycan chains facing the extracellular environment. S-layer glycoproteins from organisms of the Bacillaceae family possess long, O-glycosidically linked glycans that are composed of a great variety of sugar constituents. The observed variations already exc...

  17. Computer Program Re-layers Engineering Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Dewey C., III

    1990-01-01

    RULCHK computer program aids in structuring layers of information pertaining to part or assembly designed with software described in article "Software for Drawing Design Details Concurrently" (MFS-28444). Checks and optionally updates structure of layers for part. Enables designer to construct model and annotate its documentation without burden of manually layering part to conform to standards at design time.

  18. The Hole in the Ozone Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Jeanne S.; Jacob, Anthony T.

    This document contains information on the hole in the ozone layer. Topics discussed include properties of ozone, ozone in the atmosphere, chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone depletion, effects of ozone depletion on life, regulation of substances that deplete the ozone layer, alternatives to CFCs and Halons, and the future of the ozone layer.…

  19. An Electromagnetic GL Double Layered Cloak

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ganquan; Xie, Feng; Xie, Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new electromagnetic (EM) GL double layered cloak. The GL double layered cloak is consist of two sphere annular layers, $R_1 \\le r \\le R_2$ and $R_2 \\le r \\le R_3$. Two type cloak materials are proposed and installed in the each layer, respectively. The outer layer cloak of the GL double layered cloak has the invisible function, the inner layer cloak has fully absorption function. The GL double layered metamaterials are weak degenerative and weak dispersive. When the source is located outside of the GL double layered cloak, the excited EM wave field propagation outside of the double layered cloak is as same as in free space and never be disturbed by the cloak; also, the exterior EM wave can not penetrate into the inner layer and concealment. When local sources are located inside of the GL double cloaked concealment with the normal EM materials, the excited EM wave is propagating under Maxwell equation governing, it is complete absorbed by the inner layer cloak of GL double cloak and...

  20. Dispersal, settling and layer formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, James R; Hughes, Barry D; Landman, Kerry A

    2011-07-01

    Motivated by examples in developmental biology and ecology, we develop a model for convection-dominated invasion of a spatial region by initially motile agents which are able to settle permanently. The motion of the motile agents and their rate of settling are affected by the local concentration of settled agents. The model can be formulated as a nonlinear partial differential equation for the time-integrated local concentration of the motile agents, from which the instantaneous density of settled agents and its long-time limit can be extracted. In the limit of zero diffusivity, the partial differential equation is of first order; for application-relevant initial and boundary-value problems, shocks arise in the time-integrated motile agent density, leading to delta-function components in the motile agent density. Furthermore, there are simple solutions for a model of successive layer formation. In addition some analytic results for a one-dimensional system with non-zero diffusivity can also be obtained. A case study, both with and without diffusion, is examined numerically. Some important predictions of the model are insensitive to the specific settling law used and the model offers insight into biological processes involving layered growth or overlapping generations of colonization.