Moment of inertia, backbending, and molecular bifurcation.
Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E
2007-07-28
We predict an anomaly in highly excited bending spectra of acetylene with high vibrational angular momentum. We interpret this in terms of a vibrational shape effect with moment of inertia backbending, induced by a sequence of bifurcations with a transition from "local" to "orthogonal" modes.
Quasi-dynamical symmetries in the backbending of chromium isotopes
Herrera, Raul A
2016-01-01
We examine the well-known backbending, or abrupt change in the moment of inertia along the yrast line, in $^{48,49,50}$Cr by decomposing configuration-interaction shell-model wavefunctions into group irreps, using the subgroups $L$ (total orbital angular momentum) and $S$ (total spin) of SU(2), and the groups SU(3) and SU(4). We see strong signatures of quasi-dynamical symmetries--the same or similar decomposition across members of a band--below the backbending, while quasi-dynamical symmetry is weaker above the bandbending.
Quasidynamical symmetries in the backbending of chromium isotopes
Herrera, Raúl A.; Johnson, Calvin W.
2017-02-01
Background: Symmetries are a powerful way to characterize nuclear wave functions. A true dynamical symmetry, where the Hamiltonian is block-diagonal in subspaces defined by the group, is rare. More likely is a quasidynamical symmetry: states with different quantum numbers (i.e., angular momentum) nonetheless sharing similar group-theoretical decompositions. Purpose: We use group-theoretical decomposition to investigate backbending, an abrupt change in the moment of inertia along the yrast line, in 48,49,50Cr: prior mean-field calculations of these nuclides suggest a change from strongly prolate to more spherical configurations as one crosses the backbending and increases in angular momentum. Methods: We decompose configuration-interaction shell-model wave functions using the SU(2) groups L (total orbital angular momentum) and S (total spin), and the groups SU(3) and SU(4). We do not need a special basis but only matrix elements of Casimir operators, applied with a modified Lanczos algorithm. Results: We find quasidynamical symmetries, albeit often of a different character above and below the backbending, for each group. While the strongest evolution was in SU(3), the decompositions did not suggest a decrease in deformation. We point out with a simple example that mean-field and SU(3) configurations may give very different pictures of deformation. Conclusions: Persistent quasidynamical symmetries for several groups allow us to identify the members of a band and to characterize how they evolve with increasing angular momentum, especially before and after backbending.
Change of deformation at the backbending in the yrast superdeformed band of {sup 144}Gd
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ur, C.A.; Bolzonella, G.P.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others
1996-12-31
A mean lifetime measurement using the Doppler shift attenuation method has been performed at GASP in order to extract the quadrupole moment of the yrast SD band of {sup 144}Gd. The extracted intrinsic quadrupole moments, being Q{sub 0}=13.7 eb above the backbending and Q{sub 0}=11.8 eb below the backbending, are consistent with a change of deformation from {beta}{sub 2}=0.51 (at {beta}{sub 4} {approx} 0.050) to {beta}{sub 2}=0.45 (at {beta}{sub 4} {approx}0.035). The experimental results are in nice agreement with the theoretical predictions, which revealed that the second well in {sup 144}Gd arises essentially from the very favored shell structure at N=80 and Z=64. The occupation at higher frequency of the aligned N=6 proton orbitals drives the nucleus to a slightly more deformed shape.
Oberstrass, Florian C.; Fernandes, Louis E.; Lebel, Paul; Bryant, Zev
2013-01-01
Changes in global DNA linking number can be accommodated by localized changes in helical structure. We have used single-molecule torque measurements to investigate sequence-specific strand separation and Z-DNA formation. By controlling the boundary conditions at the edges of sequences of interest, we have confirmed theoretical predictions of distinctive boundary-dependent backbending patterns in torque-twist relationships. Abrupt torque jumps are associated with the formation and collapse of DNA bubbles, permitting direct observations of DNA breathing dynamics. PMID:23679785
Proton Orbital [541]1/2 and Backbending in 178W
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Zhi-Yuan; LIU Shu-Xin
2008-01-01
The microscopic mechanism of nine experimentally observed bands in 178W is investigated using the particle-number conserving method of the cranked shell model with monopole and quadrupole paring interactions.The experimental results,including the moments of inertia and angular momentum alignments of nine bands in 178W,are reproduced well by the particle-number conserving calculations,in which no free parameter is involved.Calculations demonstrate that occurrence of sharp backbending comes mainly from the contribution of high-j intruder orbitals vi13/2 or πh11/2 and their interference effect with orbitals near the Fermi surface.The w variation of the occupation probability of each cranked orbital and the contribution to moment of inertia from each cranked orbital are analyzed.
No anomaly of the B(E2) value around the backbend in sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Ce
Li Guang Sheng; LiuXianGan; Zhang Lan Kuan; Wen Shu Xian; Wu Xiao Guang; Yuan Guan Jun; Weng Pei Kun; Li Sheng Gang; Yang Chun Xiang; Li Hua; Yang Li Ming; Zhu Sheng Jiang
2002-01-01
The lifetime measurements of the high-spin states in the yrast band of sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Ce have been performed using the Doppler shift attenuation method in conjunction with the reaction sup 1 sup 1 sup 6 Sn( sup 1 sup 6 O, 2n) sup 1 sup 3 sup 0 Ce at a projectile energy of 73 MeV. The reduced transition probabilities B(E2) deduced from these measurements show a great reduction in the vicinity of the backbending region. The previously reported anomalously high B(E2) value was not observed in the present experiment. This result is in agreement with theoretical prediction based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction
Signature splitting inversion and backbending in 80Rb
He, Chuangye; Wen, Shuxian; Zhu, Lihua; Wu, Xiaoguang; Li, Guangsheng; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Yupeng; Bai, Zhijun; Wu, Yican; Li, Yazhou; Li, Gui; Yan, Shiwei; Oshima, M; Toh, Y; Osa, A; Koizumi, M; Hatsukawa, Y; Matsuda, M; Hagakawa, T
2012-01-01
High spin states of 80Rb are studied via the fusion-evaporation reactions 65Cu+19F, 66Zn+18O and 68Zn+16O with the beam energies of 75 MeV, 76 MeV and 80 MeV, respectively. Twenty-three new states with twenty-eight new \\gamma transitions were added to the previously proposed level scheme, where the second negative-parity band is significantly pushed up to spins of 22^{-} and 15^{-} and two new sidebands are built on the known first negative-parity band. Two successive band crossings with frequencies 0.51 MeV and 0.61 MeV in the \\alpha=0 branch as well as another one in the \\alpha=1 branch of the second negative-parity band are observed for the first time. Signature inversions occur in the positive- and first negative-parity bands at the spins of 11\\hbar and 15\\hbar, respectively. The signature splitting is seen obviously in the second negative-parity band, but the signature inversion is not observed. It is also found that the structure of the two negative-parity bands is similar to that of its isotone ^{82}Y....
Lifetimes of high-spin states in {sup 180-184}Pt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carpenter, M.P.; Ahmad, I.; Crowell, B. [and others
1995-08-01
Over the past few years, lifetimes were measured, using the recoil distance method, to investigate shape-coexistence and shape transitions in the even mass {sup 182-186}Pt isotopes. In all three cases, one observes a sharp increase in the transition quadrupole moment, Q{sub t}, at low frequencies followed by a rapid and significant decline in the backbending region. It was shown that the initial increase in the Q{sub t} can be explained in terms of the mixing at low spins of two bands of very different deformation, and the decline in the backbending region is brought about by mixing between the ground and a two-quasiparticle band. No lifetime information exists for these nuclei above the backbend, and there is some contention whether or not the backbend is due to the alignment of h{sub 9/2} protons, i{sub 13/2} neutrons or the near simultaneous alignment of both. Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations indicate very different shapes for the nuclei after the backbend, depending on which orbitals align. Thus, lifetime information on the states above the backbend should help determine which interpretation is correct. In order to determine the lifetimes of states in the even mass {sup 180-184}Pt nuclei above the backbend, we performed a recent experiment at Gammasphere using a {sup 64}Ni beam on Pb backed Sn targets in order to populate the nucleus of interest via a 4n reaction. At the time of the experiment, thirty-six Ge detectors were available for use in Gammasphere and approximately 100 x 10{sup 6} 3-fold and higher events were taken for each nucleus. Currently, angle-sorted matrices were created from the data, and spectra representing the ground bands show well developed lineshapes for transitions above the backbend. A full lineshape analysis of the data will begin shortly.
Microscopic insight in the study of yrast bands in selenium isotopes
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Parvaiz Ahmad Dar; Sonia Verma; Rani Devi; S K Khosa
2008-05-01
The yrast bands of even-even selenium isotopes with = 68-78 are studied in the framework of projected shell model, by employing quadrupole plus monopole and quadrupole pairing force in the Hamiltonian. The oblate and prolate structures of the bands have been investigated. The yrast energies, backbending plots and reduced 2 transition probabilities and -factors are calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculated results are in reasonably good agreement with the experiments.
Projected shell model study of band structure of 90Nb
Kumar, Amit; Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun
2016-05-01
A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the odd-odd 90Nb nucleus is performed using the projected shell model approach. Yrast band with some other bands have been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental. On comparing the available experimental data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.
The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model(ReCAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.
The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model study of the N=Z nucleus 52Fe
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI YanSong; LONG GuiLu
2009-01-01
The relativistic consistent angular-momentum projected shell model (RECAPS) is used in the study of the structure and electromagnetic transitions of the low-lying states in the N=Z nucleus 52Fe.The model calculations show a reasonably good agreement with the data.The backbending at 12+ is reproduced and the energy level structure suggests that neutron-proton interactions play important roles.
{Delta}I = 2 energy staggering in normal deformed dysprosium nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riley, M.A.; Brown, T.B.; Archer, D.E. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
Very high spin states (I{ge}50{Dirac_h}) have been observed in {sup 155,156,157}Dy. The long regular band sequences, free from sharp backbending effects, observed in these dysprosium nuclei offer the possibility of investigating the occurence of any {Delta}I = 2 staggering in normal deformed nuclei. Employing the same analysis techniques as used in superdeformed nuclei, certain bands do indeed demonstrate an apparent staggering and this is discussed.
Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei
Borderie, Bernard; Rivet, M F; Raduta, Ad R; Ademard, G; Bonnet, E; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Frankland, J D; Galichet, E; Gruyer, D; Guinet, D; Lautesse, P; Neindre, N Le; Lopez, O; Marini, P; Parlog, M; Pawlowski, P; Rosato, E; Roy, R; Vigilante, M
2013-01-01
Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central $^{129}$Xe + $^{nat}$Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4-12 AMeV [Nucl. Phys. A809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.
Projected shell model study of neutron-deficient 122Ce
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rani Devi; B D Sehgal; S K Khosa
2006-09-01
The observed excited states of 122Ce nucleus have been studied in the frame-work of projected shell model (PSM). The yrast band has been studied up to spin 26 ħ. The first band crossing has been predicted above a rotational frequency of 0.4 MeV/ħ that corresponds to first backbending. The calculation reproduces the experimentally observed ground state band up to spin 14ħ. The electromagnetic quantities, transition quadrupole moments and -factors are predicted and there is a need to measure these quantities experimentally.
Recent developments of the projected shell model based on many-body techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Yang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Recent developments of the projected shell model (PSM are summarized. Firstly, by using the Pfaffian algorithm, the multi-quasiparticle configuration space is expanded to include 6-quasiparticle states. The yrast band of 166Hf at very high spins is studied as an example, where the observed third back-bending in the moment of inertia is well reproduced and explained. Secondly, an angular-momentum projected generate coordinate method is developed based on PSM. The evolution of the low-lying states, including the second 0+ state, of the soft Gd, Dy, and Er isotopes to the well-deformed ones is calculated, and compared with experimental data.
Investigation of band structure of {sup 103,105}Rh using microscopic computational technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Amit, E-mail: akbcw2@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India); Singh, Suram, E-mail: suramsingh@gmail.com [Assistant Professor, Department of Physics Govt. Degree College, Kathua-184142 (India); Bharti, Arun, E-mail: arunbharti-2003@yahoo.co.in [Professor, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India)
2015-08-28
The high-spin structure in {sup 61}Cu nucleus is studied in terms of effective two body interaction. In order to take into account the deformed BCS basis, the basis states are expanded in terms of the core eigenfunctions. Yrast band with some other bands havew been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental data for {sup 61}Cu nucleus. On comparing the available experimental as well as other theoretical data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.
Study of nuclear structure of odd mass 119-127I nuclei in a phenomenological approach
Singh, Dhanvir; Gupta, Anuradha; Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Suram; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.
2016-08-01
By using the phenomenological approach of Projected Shell Model (PSM), the positive and negative-parity band structures of odd mass neutron-rich 119-127I nuclei have been studied with the deformed single-particle states generated by the standard Nilsson potential. For these isotopes, the band structures have been analyzed in terms of quasi-particles configurations. The phenomenon of backbending in moment of inertia is also studied in the present work. Besides this, the reduced transition probabilities, i.e. B (E 2) and B (M 1), are obtained from the PSM wavefunction for the first time for yrast bands of these isotopes.
Analysis of the experimental level scheme of {sup 61}Cu using computational technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, Anuradha, E-mail: annu1gupta1@gmail.com; Verma, Preeti, E-mail: preetiverma130587@gmail.com [Research Scholar, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India); Bharti, Arun, E-mail: arunbharti-2003@yahoo.co.in [Professor, Department of Physics and Electronics, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006 (India)
2015-08-28
The high-spin structure in {sup 61}Cu nucleus is studied in terms of effective two body interaction. In order to take into account the deformed BCS basis, the basis states are expanded in terms of the core eigenfunctions. Yrast band with some other bands havew been obtained and back-bending in moment of inertia has also been calculated and compared with the available experimental data for {sup 61}Cu nucleus. On comparing the available experimental as well as other theoretical data, it is found that the treatment with PSM provides a satisfactory explanation of the available data.
Effects of the quark-hadron phase transition on highly magnetized neutron stars
Franzon, B.; Gomes, R. O.; Schramm, S.
2016-11-01
The presence of quark-hadron phase transitions in neutron stars can be related to several interesting phenomena. In particular, previous calculations have shown that fast rotating neutron stars, when subjected to a quark-hadron phase transition in their interiors, could give rise to the backbending phenomenon characterized by a spin-up era. In this work, we use an equation of state composed of two phases, containing nucleons (and leptons) and quarks. The hadronic phase is described in a relativistic mean field formalism that takes many-body forces into account, and the quark phase is described by the MIT bag model with a vector interaction. Stationary and axisymmetric stellar models are obtained in a self-consistent way by solving numerically the Einstein-Maxwell equations by means of a pseudo-spectral method. As a result, we obtain the interesting backbending phenomenon for fast spinning neutron stars. More importantly, we show that a magnetic field, which is assumed to be axisymmetric and poloidal, can also be enhanced due to the phase transition from normal hadronic matter to quark matter on highly magnetized neutron stars. Therefore, in parallel to the spin-up era, classes of neutron stars endowed with strong magnetic fields may go through a `magnetic-up era' in their lives.
The Plateau of Moment of Inertia and the Energy Gap in 161-168Yb
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Li-Xun; QI Yan-Jun; LI Tao; LIU Shu-Xin
2011-01-01
The influence of the gap at Z = 70 on the alignment in 161 168Yb is studied using the particle number conserving method. If there is a gap at the Fermi surface, the occupation probability of the [523)7/2 proton orbital does not change as much as when there is no gap. The formation of the plateau of moment of inertia is sensitive to the relative position of the orbital tt[404]7/2, tt[411]1/2 and tt[523]7/2. A third backbending caused by tt[541]1/2 is predicted.%@@ The influence of the gap at Z=70 on the alignment in 161-168Yb is studied using the particle number conserving method.If there is a gap at the Fermi surface,the occupation probability of the[523]7/2 proton orbital does not change as much as when there is no gap.The formation of the plateau of moment of inertia is sensitive to the relative position of the orbital π[404]7/2,π[411]1/2 and π[523]7/2.A third backbending caused by π[541]1/2 is predicted.
Effects of the quark-hadron phase transition on highly magnetized neutron stars
Franzon, B; Schramm, S
2016-01-01
The presence of quark-hadron phase transitions in neutron stars can be related to several interesting phenomena. In particular, previous calculations have shown that fast rotating neutron stars, when subjected to a quark-hadron phase transition in their interiors, could give rise to the backbending phenomenon characterized by a spin-up era. In this work, we use an equation of state composed of two phases, containing nucleons (and leptons) and quarks. The hadronic phase is described in a relativistic mean field formalism that takes many-body forces into account, and the quark phase is described by the MIT bag model with a vector interaction. Stationary and axi-symmetric stellar models are obtained in a self-consistent way by solving numerically the Einstein-Maxwell equations by means of a pseudo-spectral method. As a result, we obtain the interesting backbending phenomenon for fast spinning neutron stars. More importantly, we show that a magnetic field, which is assumed to be axi-symmetric and poloidal, can al...
Two-quasiparticle and collective excitations in transitional {sup 108,110}Pd nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lalkovski, S. [CSNSM IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); University of Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski, 1126, Sofia (Bulgaria); Minkova, A. [CSNSM IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); University of Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski, 1126, Sofia (Bulgaria); INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1784, Sofia (Bulgaria); Porquet, M.G.; Bauchet, A.; Deloncle, I. [CSNSM IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); Astier, A.; Buforn, N.; Meyer, M.; Prevost, A.; Redon, N.; Stezowski, O. [IPNL, IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Claude Bernard, 69622, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Donadille, L. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B.P.J.; Schulz, N. [IReS, IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Louis Pasteur, 67037, Strasbourg (France); Lucas, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2003-12-01
High-spin states in {sup 108,110}Pd isotopes are studied by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of heavy-ion-induced fission. The Pd isotopes are produced in the fission channel of the {sup 31}P+{sup 176}Yb reaction at beam energy 152 MeV. The prompt {gamma}-rays are detected with the EUROBALL4 multidetector array. The yrast states of {sup 108,110}Pd have been observed above the region of the first backbend. The level scheme of {sup 108}Pd was extended with a new negative-parity band. The yrast sequence in {sup 110}Pd is observed up to spin I=14{sup +} and negative-parity bands have also been identified. The backbending in these even-mass Pd isotopes is associated with the alignment of the neutron (h{sub 11/2}){sup 2} pair. The negative-parity states arise from two neutron configurations {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}h{sub 11/2} x {nu}d{sub 5/2} and they are interpreted in the frame of two-quasiparticle+rotor model as semidecoupled bands. The observed experimental staggering in the {gamma}-bands of {sup 108,110}Pd supports the theoretical predictions for {gamma}-instability of their shapes. (orig.)
Zhang, Zhen-Hua
2016-01-01
The recently observed two high-spin rotational bands in the proton emitter $^{113}$Cs are investigated using the cranked shell model with pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the Pauli blocking effects are taken into account exactly. By using the configuration assignments of band 1 ($\\pi 3/2^+[422], \\alpha = -1/2$) and band 2 ($\\pi 1/2^+[420], \\alpha = 1/2$), the experimental moments of inertia and quasiparticle alignments can be well reproduced by the present calculations, which in turn strongly support these configuration assignments. Furthermore, by analyzing the occupation probability $n_\\mu$ of each cranked Nilsson level near the Fermi surface and the contribution of each orbital to the angular momentum alignments, the backbending mechanism of these two bands is also investigated.
Bejger, M; Haensel, P; Zdunik, J L; Fortin, M
2016-01-01
We explore the implications of a strong first-order phase transition region in the dense matter equation of state in the interiors of rotating neutron stars, and the resulting creation of two disjoint families of neutron-stars' configurations (the so-called high-mass twins). Rotating, axisymmetric and stationary stellar configurations are obtained numerically in the framework of general relativity, and their global parameters and stability are studied. The equation of state-induced instability divides stable neutron star configurations into two disjoint families: neutron stars (second family) and hybrid stars (third family), with an overlapping region in mass, the high-mass twin star region. These two regions are divided by an instability strip. Its existence has interesting astrophysical consequences for rotating neutron stars. We note that it provides a "natural" explanation for the rotational frequency cutoff in the observed distribution of neutron stars spins, and for the apparent lack of back-bending in ...
Zhang, Zhen-Hua
2016-01-01
The high-spin rotational properties of two-quasiparticle bands in the doubly-odd ${}^{166}$Ta are analyzed using the cranked shell model with pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency $\\hbar\\omega$ are reproduced very well by the particle-number conserving calculations, which provides a reliable support to the configuration assignments in previous works for these bands. The backbendings in these two-quasiparticle bands are analyzed by the calculated occupation probabilities and the contributions of each orbital to the total angular momentum alignments. The moments of inertia and alignments for the Gallagher-Moszkowski partners of these observed two-quasiparticle rotational bands are also predicted.
Shimizu, Y R; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Matsuyanagi, Kenichi
2000-01-01
Diabatic description of rotational bands provides a clear-cut picture for understanding the back-bending phenomena, where the internal structure of the yrast band changes dramatically as a function of angular momentum. A microscopic framework to obtain the diabatic bands within the mean-field approximation is presented by making use of the selfconsistent collective coordinate method. Applying the framework, both the ground state rotational bands and the Stockholm bands are studied systematically for the rare-earth deformed nuclei. An overall agreement has been achieved between the calculated and observed rotational spectra. It is also shown that the inclusion of the double-stretched quadrupole-pairing interaction is crucial to obtain an overall agreement for the even-odd mass differences and the rotational spectra simultaneously.
Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.; Fortin, M.; Zdunik, L. [Polish Academy of Sciences, N. Copernicus Astronomical Center, Warszawa (Poland)
2016-03-15
A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency (716Hz) and the maximum measured mass (2M {sub CircleDot}). The present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a first-order phase transition, both between pure phases, and into a mixed-phase state, are reviewed. The case of two disjoint families (branches) of rotating neutron stars is discussed and generic features of neutron-star families and of core-quakes triggered by the instabilities are considered. (orig.)
Rotating neutron stars with exotic cores: masses, radii, stability
Haensel, P; Fortin, M; Zdunik, J L
2016-01-01
A set of theoretical mass-radius relations for rigidly rotating neutron stars with exotic cores, obtained in various theories of dense matter, is reviewed. Two basic observational constraints are used: the largest measured rotation frequency is 716 Hz and the maximum measured mass is $2\\;{\\rm M}_\\odot$. Present status of measuring the radii of neutron stars is described. The theory of rigidly rotating stars in general relativity is reviewed and limitations of the slow rotation approximation are pointed out. Mass-radius relations for rotating neutron stars with hyperon and quark cores are illustrated using several models. Problems related to the non-uniqueness of the crust-core matching are mentioned. Limits on rigid rotation resulting from the mass-shedding instability and the instability with respect to the axisymmetric perturbations are summarized. The problem of instabilities and of the back-bending phenomenon are discussed in detail. Metastability and instability of a neutron star core in the case of a fi...
Generalized ensemble method applied to study systems with strong first order transitions
Małolepsza, E.; Kim, J.; Keyes, T.
2015-09-01
At strong first-order phase transitions, the entropy versus energy or, at constant pressure, enthalpy, exhibits convex behavior, and the statistical temperature curve correspondingly exhibits an S-loop or back-bending. In the canonical and isothermal-isobaric ensembles, with temperature as the control variable, the probability density functions become bimodal with peaks localized outside of the S-loop region. Inside, states are unstable, and as a result simulation of equilibrium phase coexistence becomes impossible. To overcome this problem, a method was proposed by Kim, Keyes and Straub [1], where optimally designed generalized ensemble sampling was combined with replica exchange, and denoted generalized replica exchange method (gREM). This new technique uses parametrized effective sampling weights that lead to a unimodal energy distribution, transforming unstable states into stable ones. In the present study, the gREM, originally developed as a Monte Carlo algorithm, was implemented to work with molecular dynamics in an isobaric ensemble and coded into LAMMPS, a highly optimized open source molecular simulation package. The method is illustrated in a study of the very strong solid/liquid transition in water.
Lifetimes of High Spin States in an Odd-Proton Nucleus 129Cs
Wang, Lie-Lin; Zhu, Li-Hua; Lu, Jing-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Guang; Li, Guang-Sheng; Hao, Xin; Zheng, Yun; He, Chuang-Ye; Wang, Lei; Li, Xue-Qin; Liu, Ying; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Yu; Ding, Huai-Bo
2010-02-01
Lifetimes of high spin states in 129Cs are measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The high spin states of 129Cs are populated following the fusion evaporation reaction 124Sn(11B, 6n)129Cs at a beam energy of 65 MeV. The reduced transition probabilities B(E2) and the transition quadrupole moments Qt in the negative- and positive-parity bands are deduced. The experimental results indicate that the Qt values of the negative parity band are smaller than those of the positive parity bands, probably due to different γ-deformation driving effects of different proton orbitals. The Qt values exhibit a considerable increase near the band crossing region in these bands. This behavior demonstrates that nuclear shape changing results from the neutron or proton alignments. The signature splitting of the πh11/2 and πg7/2 bands shows the opposite changing trend after backbending due to the h11/2 neutron and h11/2 proton alignments, respectively.
Studies of normal deformation in {sup 151}Dy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nisius, D.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Crowell, B. [and others
1995-08-01
The wealth of data collected in the study of superdeformation in {sup 151}Dy allowed for new information to be obtained on the normally deformed structures in this nucleus. At high spin several new yrast states have been identified for the first time. They were associated with single-particle excitations. Surprisingly, a sequence was identified with energy spacings characteristic of a rotational band of normal ({beta}2 {approximately} 0.2) deformation. The bandhead spin appears to be 15/2{sup -} and the levels extend up to a spin of 87/2{sup -}. A clear backbend is present at intermediate spins. While a similar band based on a bandhead of 6{sup +} is known in {sup 152}Dy, calculations suggest that this collective prolate band should not be seen in {sup 151}Dy. In the experiment described earlier in this report that is aimed at determining the deformations associated with the SD bands in this nucleus and {sup 152}Dy, the deformation associated with this band will be determined. This will provide further insight into the origin of this band.
Characteristics of collectivity along the yrast line in even-even tungsten isotopes
Yang, Qiong; Wang, Hua-Lei; Liu, Min-Liang; Xu, Fu-Rong
2016-08-01
The collective nature of high-spin yrast states in even-even W-190160 isotopes was systematically investigated by means of pairing self-consistent Woods-Saxon-Strutinsky calculations using the total Routhian surface approach in (β2,γ ,β4) deformation space. The calculated ground-state deformations are consistent with previous calculations and available experimental data. The deformation energy curves are presented to show the shape and softness evolutions, in particular in the triaxial direction. The backbending or upbending behavior in moment of inertia is attributed to band crossing. It is found that the neutron rotation alignment is preferred for most of the W isotopes (e.g., in W-180164), while in other nuclei the competition between the neutron and proton alignments may occur, even the proton alignment is favored in the very neutron-deficient nucleus 160W. In addition, the evolution and transition between vibrational and rotational collective modes along the yrast line are investigated on the basis of the new centipedelike E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves introduced by us, which to some extent explains the existing differences (e.g., in the moment of inertia) between theory and experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Theisen, C.
1995-01-01
The use of 8 {pi} and EUROGAM phase I multi-detectors for the study of high spin states of {sup 149} Gd nucleus has revealed unexpected new phenomenons about the superdeformation in this nucleus. The new excited bands confirm the omnipresence of twin bands phenomenon. A new multi-particle excitation (two protons and one neutron) has been discovered. Thanks to the second generation EUROGAM detector, unexpected discoveries such as C{sub 4} symmetry, level interactions, complete backbending were obtained for the second potential well. The knowledge of interacting levels gives informations about the nucleon-nucleon residual interaction and could allow the determination of SD bands excitation energy. The complex processing and analysis of high multiplicity events has led to the development of new computing tools. An automatic band research program has been written for the discovery of new excited bands, and an exact method for the elimination of uncorrected events has been developed. The improvements of multi-detector performances should allow the discovery of more exceptional phenomenons and new anomalies in the SD bands. (J.S.). 222 refs., 86 figs., 38 tabs.
Toward extremes of angular momentum: Application of the Pfaffian algorithm in realistic calculations
Wang, Long-Jun; Mizusaki, Takahiro; Oi, Makito; Sun, Yang
2014-01-01
In a calculation of rotated matrix elements with angular momentum projection, the generalized Wick's theorem may encounter a practical problem of combinatorial complexity when the configurations have more than four quasi-particles (qps). The problem can be solved by employing the Pfaffian algorithm generally applicable to calculations of matrix elements for Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov states with any number of qps. This breakthrough in many-body techniques enables studies of high-spin states in a shell-model framework. As the first application of the Pfaffian algorithm, the configuration space of the Projected Shell Model is expanded to include 6-qp states for both positive and negative parities. Taking $^{166}$Hf as an example, we show that 6-qp states become the main configuration of the yrast band beyond spin $I \\approx 34\\hbar$, which explains the observed third back-bending in moment of inertia. Structures of multi-qp high-$K$ isomers in $^{176}$Hf are analyzed as another example.
Yoga for Persistent Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: Results of a Pilot Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julienne E. Bower
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Approximately one-third of breast cancer survivors experiences persistent fatigue for months or years after successful treatment completion. There is a lack of evidence-based treatments for cancer-related fatigue, particularly among cancer survivors. This single-arm pilot study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a yoga intervention for fatigued breast cancer survivors based on the Iyengar tradition. Iyengar yoga prescribes specific poses for individuals with specific medical problems and conditions; this trial emphasized postures believed to be effective for reducing fatigue among breast cancer survivors, including inversions and backbends performed with the support of props. Twelve women were enrolled in the trial, and 11 completed the full 12-week course of treatment. There was a significant improvement in fatigue scores from pre- to post-intervention that was maintained at the 3-month post-intervention followup. Significant improvements were also observed in measures of physical function, depressed mood, and quality of life. These results support the acceptability of this intervention and suggest that it may have beneficial effects on persistent post-treatment fatigue. However, results require replication in a larger randomized controlled trial.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bauer, H.
1998-12-31
The scattering system {sup 162}Dy {yields} {sup 116}Sn has been examined at energies in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier using the Heidelberg-Darmstadt Crystal Ball spectrometer combined with 5 Germanium-CLUSTER detectors. In order to study pairing correlations as a function of angular momentum cold events were selected in the 2n stripping channel by identifying and suppressing the dominant hot part of the transfer with the Crystal Ball. The CLUSTER detectors with their high {gamma}-efficiency were used to identify the transfer channel and to resolve individual final states. Cross sections for the population of individual yrast states in a cold transfer reaction have been measured for the first time indicating the strong influence of higher transfer multipolarities. At small surface distances Coulomb-nuclear interferences were found to be responsible for the stronger decline of the population of higher yrast states in the transfer channel as compared to the Coulex channel. As a preparatory study for 2n transfer measurements between high spin yrast states in the backbending region of deformed nuclei the Coulomb excitation process in the crossing region of two bands in {sup 162}Dy has been analyzed. The gross properties of the measured population probabilities could be interpreted in a simple band mixing model. (orig.)
U(5) symmetry of even {sup 96,98}Ru isotopes under the framework of interacting Boson model (IBM-1)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharrad, Fadhil I.; Ahmed, A.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Kerbala University, Karbala (Iraq); Hossain, I., E-mail: mihossain@kau.edu.sa [Department of Physics, Rabigh College of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, I.M. [Department of Physics, College of Education, Mosul University, Mosul (Iraq); Abdullah, Hewa Y. [Department of Physics, College of Science Education, Salahaddin University, Erbil, KRG (Iraq); Ahmad, S.T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Koya University, Koya, KRG (Iraq)
2015-06-15
In this paper, the yrast bands of the even {sup 96,98}Ru isotopes are studied within the framework of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1), using the MATLAB computer code (IBM-1.Mat). The theoretical energy levels are obtained for the {sup 96,98}Ru isotopes, with neutron numbers 52 and 54, up to spin-parity 16{sup +} and 12{sup +}, respectively. The ratio of the excitation energies of the first 4{sup +} to the first 2{sup +} excited states (R{sub 4/2}), the backbending curves and the potential energy surfaces are also calculated. The calculated and experimental R{sub 4/2} values show that the {sup 96,98}Ru nuclei have U(5) dynamic symmetry. The calculated energies of the yrast states are compared with experimental results and they are shown to be in good agreement with the data. The contour plots of the potential energy surfaces show two interesting nuclei having a slightly oblate but almost spherical vibrator-like character. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bouguettoucha, A.
1996-06-14
A possible effects of the C{sub 4}-symmetry in the superdeformed nuclei of the A {approx}150 mass range has been studied microscopically using cranking Strutinsky method with the deformed Woods-Saxon potential and the Hartree-Fock approach with the Skyrme interaction. If the existence of such a symmetry is judged by the moments Q{sub 44}, the results of the calculation indicate a very weak effect of this kind. Four new superdeformed bands in the {sup 148}Gd nucleus have been studied in reaction to the recent experimental observations (Eurogam Phase 2): a backbending has been tentatively observed at very high rotational frequency in the third excited band. One of the other bands exhibits a J{sup (2)} moment very similar to that of the yrast band in {sup 152}Dy, and this is the first example of identical bands which differ by four mass units. Calculations with the methods mentioned above have been used to analyse the band structure in terms of the nucleonic configurations. Calculation have been performed for some nuclear configurations predicted to involve the exotic octupole deformations (Y{sub 30-}`pear shapes`; Y{sub 31-}`banana mode`; Y{sub 32-}`T{sub d}-symmetry` and Y{sub 33-}`C{sub 3}-symmetry`). While the previous calculations based on the Strutinsky method could not treat the coupling between those modes, the Hartree-Fock approach allows to see for the first time in which propositions the various modes couple. (author). 116 refs.
Measurement of lifetimes of high spin states in the N = 106 nuclei {sup 183}Ir and {sup 182}Os
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmad, I.; Blumenthal, D.; Carpenter, M.P. [and others
1995-08-01
Lifetimes of high spin states in the isotones {sup 183}Ir and {sup 182}Os were measured using the Notre Dame plunger device in conjunction with the Argonne Notre Dame {gamma}-ray facility. The aim of these measurements was to determine the deformation-driving properties of the h{sub 9/2} proton intruder orbital by comparing the values of the intrinsic quadrupole moments in the ground state bands in the odd-mass Ir nucleus and the even-even Os core. Levels in these nuclei were populated by the {sup 150}Nd ({sup 37}Cl,4n) and {sup 150}Nd ({sup 36}S,4n) reactions using a {sup 37}Cl beam of 169 MeV and 164-Mev {sup 36}S beam. The {sup 150}Nd target was 0.9-g/cm{sup 2} thick and was prepared by evaporating enriched {sup 150}Nd onto a stretched 1.5-mg/cm{sup 2} gold foil. The target was covered with a layer of a 60-{mu}g/cm{sup 2} Au to prevent its oxidation. Gamma-ray spectra were accumulated for approximately 4 hours for each target-stopper distance. Data were collected for 20 target-stopper distances ranging from 16 {mu}m to 10.4 mm. Preliminary analysis indicates that it will be possible to extract the lifetimes of the levels in the yrast bands up to and including part of the backbending region with sufficient accuracy. Detailed analysis of the data is in progress.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许名珞
2015-01-01
为了解决某初步设计的轴流吹风机出风口流量较小的问题，本文对轴流风扇了进行优化设计，最终将风扇叶片翼型由NACA4409翼型改为AH79-100C翼型，叶片安装角由30°增大为32.5°，设计叶片后弯角为8°。基于计算流体力学理论，建立了轴流吹风机流场和轴流风扇风道流场的数值计算模型，运用Fluent软件进行流场数值仿真。基于 ANSYS 软件的Workbench平台，利用流固耦合仿真分析方法对优化后的轴流风扇进行结构分析，校核了新风扇的强度。数值仿真结果表明：仿真结果与企业实验测试结果相符，优化后的轴流吹风机出口流量较优化前增加了10.59%，新风扇轴功率满足企业要求，强度也满足设计要求，总体达到了优化目标。%In order to address the small outlet flowrate issue of a preliminary designed axial flow fan, this paper optimizes the axial-flow fan, changed the airfoil of fan blades from NACA4409 to AH79-100C, increased the blades setting angle from 30 to 32.5 degrees, and designed the blade back-bending angle of 8 degrees. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics, a numerical model to compute the air-flow field and the axial-flow fan duct is set up and Fluent software is used to numerically simulate on flow field. Based on the ANSYS Workbench Platform, structural analysis for the optimized axial-flow fan using fluid-structure interaction simulation method is made, and the strength of the new fan is checked. The simulation results show that simulation results coincide with enterprise test results, the outlet flowrate of the optimized axial flow fan increased 10.59%, the shaft power of new axial-flow fan meets enterprise requirements, the strength also meets the design requirements, and the optimization goals are achieved.
Delion, D. S.; Zamfir, N. V.; Raduta, A. R.; Gulminelli, F.
2013-02-01
renowned professors and researchers in nuclear physics. This proceedings volume is organized into four chapters, which reflects the traditional chapter structure of nuclear physics textbooks, but seen from the perspective of open quantum systems: INuclear structure IIDecay processes IIINuclear reactions and astrophysics IVContributions The lectures and contributions are listed alphabetically by author within each chapter. The volume contains many comprehensive reviews related to the topics of the School. The first week of the School was focused on nuclear structure and decay phenomena, considering the nucleus as an open system. Experts in these fields lectured on cluster radioactivity, the stability of superheavy nuclei, alpha-decay fine structure, fission versus fusion, beta and double beta decay and pairing versus alpha-clustering. New experimental results related to the nuclear stability of low-lying and high spin states were also presented. Recent developments at JINR—Dubna and GSI—Darmstadt international laboratories were also reported by their current or former directors. The second week of the event was dedicated to the physics of exotic nuclei, heavy ion reactions and multi-fragmentation, symmetries and phase transitions of open quantum systems. The stability of the atomic nucleus is an important and always interesting discussion point, especially in the context of newly discovered nuclear systems close to the stability line, such as proton/neutron rich or superheavy nuclei. Several lectures and contributions were focused on nuclear structure models describing low-lying states. This includes the status of density functional theory, new developments in Bohr-Mottelsohn Hamiltonian and shell-model theory, proton-neutron correlations, shape coexistence, back-bending phenomena and the thermodynamics of open quantum systems. Open systems in astrophysics, such as supernovae and neutron stars, were presented in detail by several lecturers. Important topics connected to