WorldWideScience

Sample records for back-to-back power converters

  1. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  2. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  3. Predictive control of a back-to-back NPC converter-based wind power system

    OpenAIRE

    Calle Prado, Alejandro; Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; Bordonau Farrerons, José; Cortés, Patricio; Rodriguez, Jose

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works As wind power technology points to increase power ratings, the implementation based on a permanent-magnet synch...

  4. Predictive Current Control of a 7-level AC-DC back-to-back Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bifaretti, Steffano; Zanchetta, Pericle; Iov, Florin;

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel power conversion system for Universal and Flexible Power Management (UNIFLEX-PM) in Future Electricity Network. Its structure is based on a back-to-back three-phase AC-DC 7-level converter; each AC side is connected to a different PCC, representing the main grid and/or ...... numerous network conditions such as voltage unbalance, frequency excursions and harmonic distortion....

  5. Effect of Short-Circuit Faults in the Back-to-Back Power Electronic Converter and Rotor Terminals on the Operational Behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Giaourakis

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the operational behavior of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion System under power electronic converter and rotor terminals faulty conditions. More specifically, the effect of the short-circuit fault both in one IGBT of the back-to-back power electronic converter and in rotor phases on the overall system behavior has been investigated via simulation using a system of 2 MW. Finally, the consequences of these faults have been evaluated.

  6. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology. An...

  7. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine a...... results are compared with measurement data from the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm. The delimitations of both power converter models with referent to harmonic analysis are shown in this paper.......The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine...

  8. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    OpenAIRE

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine and assess harmonic emission in the point of common coupling. Different modelling methods of power electronic devices installed in wind turbines are presented. Harmonic load flow analysis and impedance...

  9. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  10. A Back-to-Back 2L-3L Grid Integration of a Marine Current Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Apelfröjd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a back-to-back 2L-3L grid connection topology for a marine current energy converter. A prototype marine current energy converter has been deployed by a research group at Uppsala University. The concept behind the prototype revolves around a fixed pitch vertical axis turbine directly connected to a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. The proposed grid connection system utilizes a well known and proven two level voltage source converter generator-side combined with a three-level cascaded H-bridge (CHB multilevel converter grid-side. The multilevel converter brings benefits in terms of efficiency, power quality and DC-link utilization. The system is here presented for a single marine current energy converter but can easily be scaled up for clusters of marine current energy converters. Control schemes for both grid-side and generator-side voltage source converters are presented. The start-up, steady state and dynamic performance of the marine current energy converter are investigated and simulation results are presented in this paper.

  11. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results...

  12. 基于双PWM变换器的永磁直驱风电系统控制策略研究%Control strategy study of direct-driven wind-power system with PMSG based on back-to-back PWM converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池伟; 石庆均; 陈宏伟; 马智泉

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the control of direct-driven wind-power system with permanent magnet synchronous generators(PMSG) based on back-to-back PWM converter, the control strategies of generator-side converter and grid-side converter were analyzed in detail, and a control strategy of pitch angle was presented. A simulation for direct-driven wind-power system with PMSG using Matlab/Simulink was implemented. The simulation results show that direct-driven wind-power system with PMSG can operate stably under different wind speed, while it can achieve maximum power point tracking for wind energy under rated wind speed and. Limit the output power of wind-power system to rating power by pitch angle control. The results prove that the proposed control strategy of pitch angle is correct and viable.%针对基于双PWM变换器的永磁直驱风电系统的控制问题,对该风电系统电机侧变换器、电网侧变换器的控制策略进行了详细的分析,提出了一种桨距角控制策略,并基于Matlab/Simulink对永磁直驱风电系统进行了仿真.仿真结果表明,永磁直驱风电系统能够在不同风速下稳定运行,在额定风速以下可实现风能的最大功率跟踪,在额定风速以上通过桨距角控制能将风机系统的功率输出限制在额定值附近.研究结果验证了所提出的桨距控制策略的可行性.

  13. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    instability. Conventionally, with a given switching frequency and rated voltage, the current ripple can be reduced by increasing the dc-link inductor, but it leads to bulky size, high cost and slow dynamic response. In order to solve this problem, this paper reveals that the current ripple can......Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...

  14. Self-tuning resonant control of a 7-leg back-to-back converter for interfacing variable speed generators to 4-wire loads

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, Roberto; Espina, Enrique; Clare, Jon C.; Wheeler, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the control of a 7-leg back-to-back Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) arrangement feeding a 4-wire load from a 3-phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) operating at variable speed. The PMSG is controlled using a sensorless Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) to obtain the rotor position angle. The 7-leg converter is regulated using Resonant Controllers (RCs) at the load side and self-tuning resonant controllers at the generator side. The control system is augm...

  15. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of dc-link capacitors in power electronic converters is one of the critical aspects to be considered in modern power converter design. The observation of their ageing process and the estimation of their health status have been an attractive subject for the industrial field and hence...... for the academic research field as well. The existing condition monitoring methods suffer from shortcomings such as low estimation accuracy, extra hardware, and also increased cost. Therefore, the developed methods of condition monitoring that are based on software solutions and algorithms could be the way out...

  16. A SVPWM based on fluctuate capacitor voltage in 3L-NPC back-to-back converter applied to wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Qunjing; Chen, Zhe;

    2014-01-01

    between the fluctuate voltage of upper and lower capacitors is extracted. Based on this error factor the duty-time of every active voltage vector is calculated. In order to validate the model and the control strategy proposed in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has been simulated.......' voltage, will cause variations of the voltage vector and the dwell time distribution in the synthesizing algorithm. In this paper a novel space vector PWM (SVPWM) for back-to-back 3L-NPC converter when unbalanced neutral point potential occurring is proposed. An error factor based on the difference...

  17. Investigation into the Control Methods to Reduce the DC-Link Capacitor Ripple Current in a Back-to-Back Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    Three-phase back-to-back converters have a wide range of applications (e.g. wind turbines) in which the reliability and cost-effectiveness are of great concern. Among other components and interconnections, DC-link capacitors are one of the weak links influenced by environmental stresses (e.......g. ambient temperature, humidity, etc.) and operating stresses (e.g. voltage, ripple current). This paper serves to investigate the ways of reducing ripple current stresses of DC-link capacitors in back-toback converters. The outcome could benefit to achieve either an extended lifetime for a designed DC...

  18. 多端口背靠背式直流-直流换流系统%Multiport Back-to-back dc-dc Converting Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗璐; 林卫星; 姚良忠; 孙蔚; 劲宇

    2015-01-01

    提出一种多端口背靠背式直流–直流换流系统(multiport back-to-back,MB2B)。其内部由多个电压源型换流器(voltage source converters,VSC)组成,VSC交流侧均连接到MB2B内部公共交流母线。为了使MB2B具有联接不同电压等级直流线路的功能,MB2B内部采用变压器来匹配不同电压等级的直流线路。MB2B的每个端口均可独立调节其潮流。为了减少VSC运行损耗,MB2B内部交流系统运行频率取为工频。详细设计 MB2B 的稳态控制及故障下功率自动平衡控制。为验证该拓扑的可行性和安全性,在PSCAD/EMTDC上搭建由四端口MB2B构成的实验电网系统的仿真模型,并针对该实验系统进行黑启动、潮流调节、直流故障隔离以及故障下自动功率平衡等仿真。实验系统中所有的控制策略均不需要任何通讯。%This paper proposed a multiport back-to-back dc-dc converting system (MB2B). The multiport consists of multiple voltage source converters (VSC), and an independent inner ac circuit, which is used to interconnect the ac side of multiple VSC converters. In order to enable multiport MB2B interconnecting multiple dc lines with different dc voltages, transformers are used for voltage matching of different voltage levels. Each port of the MB2B could control its power flow independently. In order to reduce the power loss of the VSC converters, the inner ac circuit is operated at the grid frequency. Controllers of each VSC converter and automatic power rebalance control of the grid were designed in this paper. A laboratory-scale four-terminal dc grid constructed by a four-port MB2B is used to test the necessity, feasibility and security of the multi MB2B. Simulations of the start-up process, power flow control, dc fault isolation and automatic power rebalance validated the feasibility and advantages of the MB2B. All of the controllers in the dc grid are achieved without requiring any telecommunication.

  19. Control of Offshore Passive Platform System Voltage and Frequency through Control of Onshore Back-to-Back Voltage Source Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Høvik, Kristin Malene

    2011-01-01

    This thesis work shows implementation and testing of existing control strategies in a novel offshore passive platform configuration. Control of the platform voltage and frequency is done through control of a shore-based B2B-VSC configuration, when the frequency on shore differs from the frequency on the platform. An 80 km HVAC-cable and transformers separates the shore-based B2B-VSCs from the platform installation. The system is modeled and simulated in MATLAB® Simulink™ SimPowerSys...

  20. Analysis of Harmonic Coupling and Stability in Back-to-Back Converter Systems for Wind Turbines using Harmonic State Space (HSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth;

    2015-01-01

    Understanding about harmonic propagation in wind turbine converter is fundamental to research the influence of these on a large network harmonic distortion. Therefore, the analysis of wind turbine converter harmonic spectrum as well as the influence of converter operating point into the network i...

  1. Nephrolithiasis in "back-to-back" kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; King, Ray S; King, Sherita A; Bates, William B; Madi, Rabii

    2013-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of left lower quadrant pain and nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography without contrast demonstrated a left 2.3-cm calculus at the ureteropelvic junction and a 6-mm lower pole calculus. The kidneys were in the pelvis and oriented "back-to-back," with the lateral portions of the kidneys fused in the midline. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this renal fusion anomaly. The patient underwent robotic pyelolithotomy of the ureteropelvic junction calculus and subsequent flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of the lower pole calculus and ureteral stent placement through the assistant working port.

  2. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  3. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  4. Analysis of Unusual State in Back-to-back Synchronous Start Process in Tongbai Pumped Storage Power Station%桐柏电厂背靠背启动过程中异常现象的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小强; 章亮; 何灵子; 潘菊芳

    2011-01-01

    背靠背拖动是抽水蓄能电站特有的一种启动方式,它需要两台机组配合,利用本电站另一台容量足够的水轮发电机作为电源,一台机组作为同步发电机由水轮机驱动零起升速,另一台则作为同步电动机被发电机驱动零起升速,直到达到同步转速后并网.通常作为变频起动装置起动的后备手段,具有启动速度快,可靠性高的优点.文章通过分析桐柏电站机组控制系统图纸,详细解释了背靠背启动抽水调相过程中一台机组状态丢失对另外一台机组的影响,并分析产生原因以及相应的解决方法.%Back-to-back synchronous starting is a particular start mode with 2 units coordinate,which takes another unit with sufficient volume as power.One acts as synchronous generator to drive to step up from zero and the other is taken as synchronous motor to drive to step up from zero,until sync-speed to merge into grid,which is usually used as the back-up means of frequency conversion set with the advantages of fast-startup and high-reliability.The article detailed explains the affection to the other unit when the state-failure of one unit occurs in the process of the pump-phase modulation based on the analysis on the control system drawing papers of Tongbai Pumped Storage Power Station,at the same time,to analyze the reasons and the solutions.

  5. 抽水蓄能机组背靠背启动中跳闸技术改造方案%Transformation on the Fault Trip during Back-to-back Starting of Pumped-storage Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常永亮; 张兵海; 王勇; 何忠华

    2011-01-01

    针对抽水蓄能机组在背靠背拖动过程中若发生电气或机械故障跳闸,当跳开拖动机组和被拖动机组的灭磁开关的时间差过大时,会在启动回路中产生很大的短路电流,引起继电保护误动作,严重时会损毁启动回路的电气设备,提出一种抽水蓄能机组背靠背跳闸技术改造方案,通过在机组保护系统中添加“跳相邻机组单元”接点,与“跳本机组”接点同时动作,达到同时跳开拖动和被拖动机组灭磁开关的目的.技术改造后的试验证明了方案的正确性和有效性.%When the trip is occurred during the back-to-back starting of pumped-storage units as electrical or mechanical faults and there is a larger time difference between the field breaking switches, the large short -circuit current will be generated in the starting circuits and leads to the malfunction of relay protection, even to damage the electrical equipments of starting circuit in a severe condition. A trip transformation was presented for the back-to-back starting of pumped-storage units, in which, the contact of "Breaking adjacent unit" was added in protection system and will be simultaneously operated with the contact of "Breaking local unit" to meet the requirements on breaking the units on the same time. The tests show that the transformation program is effective.

  6. Enhanced control of DFIG-used back-to-back PWM VSC under unbalanced grid voltage conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a unified positive- and negative-sequence dual-dq dynamic model of wind-turbine driven doublyfed induction generator (DFIG) under unbalanced grid voltage conditions. Strategies for enhanced control and operation of a DFIG-used back-to-back (BTB) PWM voltage source converter (VSC) are proposed. The modified control design for the grid-side converter in the stationary αβ frames diminishes the amplitude of DC-link voltage ripples of twice the grid frequency, and the two proposed control targets for the rotor-side converter are alternatively achieved, which, as a result, improve the fault-ride through (FRT) capability of the DFIG based wind power generation systems during unbalanced network supply. A complete unbalanced control scheme with both grid- and rotor-side converters included is designed. Finally, simulation was carried out on a 1.5 MW wind-turbine driven DFIG system and the validity of the developed unified model and the feasibility of the proposed control strategies are all confirmed by the simulated results.

  7. Motion Sensorless Bidirectional PWM Converter Control with Seamless Switching from Power Grid to Stand Alone and Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatu, Marius; Tutelea, Lucian; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents concepts and tests results on a flexible sensorless control strategy for a PMSG driven by a small wind turbine with back-to-back power converters capable to function in both stand alone and grid connection mode. A new automatic seamless transfer method, based on phase-locked-l...

  8. Control and simulation of fault and change effect in a back to back system of high voltage direct current network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The primary knowledge of human being from electrical energy was in the form of statistic electricity and the first transmission line was DC. But because of primary problems in transmitting electrical power in DC form with average and low voltage levels and because of the higher efficiency of AC machines in comparison with DC machines and presence of AC transistors in different capacitance, have caused the electrical power to be transmitted in AC form. But with the avancement of electrical engineering technology in the 20th century, the transition systems were used in HVDC form, and from that time the HDVC technology passed its improvement process so fast. In this paper in addition to discussing the advantage of HDVC systems and back to back instruction, the fault and change effect in a back to back system is discussed

  9. Gaoling Back to Back Project Thyristor Valve Electrical Design%高岭背靠背工程换流阀电气设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英洁; 李斌; 田方

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of HVDC back to back project is to unite two large AC power grid of different voltage grade or different frequency. Thyristor valve is the important equipment in the converter station. The purpose of thyristor valve is to use rectifier valve make AC power into DC power, and use inverter valve make DC power into AC power. In allusion to main parameter requirement of Gaoling +125 kV HVDC back to back thyristor valve electrical design, according to thyristor valve design technical specification, use simulate and analysis calculation,optimize the main parameter of the thyristor, and carry out calculation the number of thyristor positions and damping circuit parameters (including damping capacitance, damping resistance and DC resistance), and coordination of protective firing level. Calculation result verifies the correctness of electrical design.%高压直流背靠背工程的主要用途就是使不同电压等级和频率的两大交流系统联网,其中换流阀是换流站中的主要设备,它的作用是把交流电力变换成直流电力,或者实现逆变换.针对高岭背靠背工程±125 kV换流阀电气设计主参数要求,依据换流阀技术规范,通过模拟仿真分析计算,优化了的晶闸管参数,计算出单阀晶闸管串联数、阻尼电阻、阻尼电容、直流电阻以及晶闸管级保护触发电压值等主要电气设计数据,说明设计思路及计算方法的正确性.

  10. Cost Reduction, Competitive Balance, and the Scheduling of Back-to-Back Games in the NBA

    OpenAIRE

    Yvan J. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    The NBA league office states that the playing schedule is devised to ensure competitive balance while keeping an eye towards minimizing costs. This paper examines those claims. Three years of travel data were analyzed and the results imply that the use of back-to-back road games in the NBA schedule may assist with competitive balance and that back-to-back games indeed reduce team travel costs.

  11. Thermal behavior optimization in multi-MW wind power converter by reactive power circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, an actively controlled reactive power influence to the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. The allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is firstly mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well...... as the induction generator and power device capacity. Then the effects of reactive power circulation towards current characteristic and thermal distribution of the two-level back-to-back power converter is analyzed and compared. Finally the thermal-oriented reactive power is introduced to the system...... in the conditions of constant wind speed and during wind gust. It is concluded that the thermal performance will be improved by injecting proper reactive power circulation in the wind turbine system and thereby be able to reduce the thermal cycling and enhance the reliability....

  12. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  13. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  14. Impact of modulation strategies on power devices loading for 10 MW multilevel wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the control and modulation of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (3L-NPC) back-to-back full scale converter for a 10 MW direct-drive wind turbine, equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). Emphasis is oriented towards the investigation of the power losses...... in the semiconductor devices of three-level converter adopting continuous and discontinuous PWM modulation strategies. This aspect strongly influences the operation of the converter and directly affects its efficiency. Therefore, a simulation platform is developed in Matlab/Simulink and PLECS environment to analyse...... the dynamics of the system using different kinds of modulation strategies, identifying which methods can improve the converter efficiency. It is concluded that 60° discontinuous PWM modulation strategies show less power losses in the semiconductor devices and will increase the overall efficiency...

  15. Miniaturization Design for 8 × 8 Butler Matrix Based on Back-to-Back Bilayer Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, compact 8 × 8 Butler matrix based on a novel bilayer microstrip configuration is presented and implemented for 4.3 GHz telecommunication application. A back-to-back placed bilayer microstrip structure has been proposed to avoid using crossover. To expand operational bandwidth of the Butler matrix, a three-branch line directional coupler has been employed as 3 dB/90° bridge, and a kind of improved two-order Schiffman phase shifter has been adopted as fixed phase shifter. For application of indoor wireless communication, a compact broadband 8 × 8 Butler matrix has been designed and fabricated. The measured results show that the return loss of the matrix is lower than −10 dB, the isolation is better than 17 dB, the power distribution error is less than ±2.0 dB, the phase error is less than ±15°, and the relative bandwidth is more than 23%.

  16. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water). PMID:25902942

  17. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water).

  18. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon;

    2014-01-01

    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...... cycle of the current by calibrating them at load current. The measurement is very accurate and also measures the voltage at the middle of a pulse-width modulation (PWM) switching. A major objective is that this method is designed to be implemented in real applications. The performance of this technique...

  19. Definition of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  20. A Low Voltage Ride-through Control Strategy of Permanent Magnet Direct-driven Wind Turbine With a Back-to-Back PWM Converter%双PMW直驱同步风力发电的低电压穿越控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘胜文; 包广清; 范少伟; 刘峻; 李正元

    2011-01-01

    The low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability of a MW-Level variable speed wind turbine with a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is investigated. In this paper a novel DC link voltage control scheme was proposed to prevent DC link dynamic voltage from too high value. Comparison of the traditional control method, the machine-side converter uses a double control with the current inner loop and the DC link voltage outer loop; and network-side converter has dual-loop control with grid current inner loop and generator speed outer ring, to output the best energy. The simulation results show that the new control method can effectively improve the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind turbines with PMSG.%通过对兆瓦级双PMW直驱式永磁同步风力发电机(PMSG)系统低电压穿越能力的研究,本文提出了一种改进的功率变换控制方法来抑制过高的直流母线动态电压.与传统控制方法相比,该方法中机侧整流器采用电流内环、直流母线电压外环的双闭环控制结构,同时网侧逆变器采用电网电流为内环、发电机转速为外环的双闭环控制结构,保证系统输出最佳能量.仿真结果表明本文提出的控制方法有效提高了PMSG系统的低电压穿越能力.

  1. Power Converters and Power Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the subject of power quality for power converters. The first part gives an overview of most of the common disturbances and power quality issues in electrical networks for particle accelerators, and explains their consequences for accelerator operation. The propagation of asymmetrical network disturbances into a network is analysed. Quantitative parameters for network disturbances in a typical network are presented, and immunity levels for users’ electrical equipment are proposed. The second part of this paper discusses the technologies and strategies used in particle accelerator networks for power quality improvement . Particular focus is given to networks supplying loads with cycling active and reactive power

  2. Discussion on back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor compact design techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Lei; Liu, Huoxing

    2013-12-01

    Design a small flow back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor in the aviation turbocharger, the compressor is compact structure, small axial length, light weighted. Stationary parts have a great influence on their overall performance decline. Therefore, the stationary part of the back-to-back two-stage centrifugal compressor should pay full attention to the diffuser, bend, return vane and volute design. Volute also impact downstream return vane, making the flow in circumferential direction is not uniformed, and several blade angle of attack is drastically changed in downstream of the volute with the airflow can not be rotated to required angle. Loading of high-pressure rotor blades change due to non-uniformed of flow in circumferential direction, which makes individual blade load distribution changed, and affected blade passage load decreased to reduce the capability of work, the tip low speed range increases.

  3. Improved Design Methods for Robust Single- and Three-Phase ac-dc-ac Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian

    . With the proposed new active power decoupling method, the ripple power in the converter can be compensated in a more efficient and more compact way. Then, Chapter 5 changes the scope of the thesis to three-phase converters, and the nine-switch converter, as a reduced switch version of two three-phase full......-bridges connected back-to-back, is studied. Application criteria of the nine-switch converter are investigated for reducing the relatively high stress introduced by the less number of switches. In Chapter 6 a rotating speed controller design method is proposed for improving the thermal loading of the three...... to users. Their performances including cost, efficiency, reliability, and so on, therefore are more important concerns than they were. The objective of this thesis is to study and propose advanced design methods for robust ac-dc-ac converters, which are widely used interfaces in energy conversion system...

  4. Unity power factor converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Gene W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A unity power factor converter capable of effecting either inversion (dc-to-dc) or rectification (ac-to-dc), and capable of providing bilateral power control from a DC source (or load) through an AC transmission line to a DC load (or source) for power flow in either direction, is comprised of comparators for comparing the AC current i with an AC signal i.sub.ref (or its phase inversion) derived from the AC ports to generate control signals to operate a switch control circuit for high speed switching to shape the AC current waveform to a sine waveform, and synchronize it in phase and frequency with the AC voltage at the AC ports, by selectively switching the connections to a series inductor as required to increase or decrease the current i.

  5. Resonant power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2012-01-01

    This book is devoted to resonant energy conversion in power electronics. It is a practical, systematic guide to the analysis and design of various dc-dc resonant inverters, high-frequency rectifiers, and dc-dc resonant converters that are building blocks of many of today's high-frequency energy processors. Designed to function as both a superior senior-to-graduate level textbook for electrical engineering courses and a valuable professional reference for practicing engineers, it provides students and engineers with a solid grasp of existing high-frequency technology, while acquainting them wit

  6. Back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrèges, Stanis; Lacroix, Benjamin; Amadjikpe, Arnaud; Phillips, Stan; Zhao, Zhiyong; Choi, Kwang; Hunt, Andrew; Papapolymerou, John

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the design and the fabrication of two low-loss X-band back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible liquid crystal polymer substrates using wire-bonded BST capacitors as analog tuning elements. The back-to-back topology consists of three resonators on both sides of the substrate coupled by apertures in their common ground plane, allowing the overall size of the filter to be reduced. BST varactors made on a sapphire substrate are easily diced and mounted on the polymer substrates to achieve the desired tuning. Both 3-pole tunable filters show a 1-dB bandwidth of 8 to 10%, low insertion loss (3.6 to 1.95 dB for the best one) with bias voltages from 0 to 35 V, a better compactness compared with classical tunable structures (reduced footprint area by 30% for the best filter) and a frequency tuning of about 11 to 13% at 8 GHz. The demonstrated feasibility opens interesting prospects for the fabrication of compact tunable filters with more resonators.

  7. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  8. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  9. Back-to-back correlations of boson-antiboson pairs for anisotropic expanding sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-01-01

    In the hot and dense hadronic sources formed in high energy heavy ion collisions, the particle interactions in medium might lead to a measurable back-to-back correlation (BBC) of boson-antiboson pairs. We calculate the BBC functions of $\\phi\\,\\phi$ and $K^+K^-$ for anisotropic expanding sources. The dependences of the BBC on the particle momentum and source expanding velocity are investigated. The results indicate that the BBC functions increase with the magnitude of particle momentum and exhibit an obvious dependence on the direction of the momentum for the anisotropic sources. As the source expanding velocity decreases, the BBC function decreases when the particle momentum is approximately perpendicular to the source velocity, and the BBC function increases when the particle momentum is approximately parallel to the source velocity.

  10. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  11. DSP controlled power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CH; Pong, MH

    1995-01-01

    A digital controller is designed and implemented by a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to replace the Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) and error amplifier compensation network in a two wheeler forward converter. The DSP controller is designed in three approaches: a) Discretization of analog controller - the design is based on the transfer function of the error amplifier compensation network. b) Digital PID controller design - the design is based on the general form of the pulse transfer function of ...

  12. Radiation tolerant power converter controls

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B; King, Q; Uznanski, S

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is the world's most powerful particle collider. The LHC has several thousand magnets, both warm and super-conducting, which are supplied with current by power converters. Each converter is controlled by a purpose-built electronic module called a Function Generator Controller (FGC). The FGC allows remote control of the power converter and forms the central part of a closed-loop control system where the power converter voltage is set, based on the converter output current and magnet-circuit characteristics. Some power converters and FGCs are located in areas which are exposed to beam-induced radiation. There are numerous radiation induced effects, some of which lead to a loss of control of the power converter, having a direct impact upon the accelerator's availability. Following the first long shut down (LS1), the LHC will be able to run with higher intensity beams and higher beam energy. This is expected to lead to signifi...

  13. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS, with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  14. Integrated power electronic converters and digital control

    CERN Document Server

    Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T

  15. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  16. Impute DC link (IDCL) cell based power converters and control thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Prasai, Anish; Hernendez, Jorge; Moghe, Rohit; Iyer, Amrit; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad

    2016-04-26

    Power flow controllers based on Imputed DC Link (IDCL) cells are provided. The IDCL cell is a self-contained power electronic building block (PEBB). The IDCL cell may be stacked in series and parallel to achieve power flow control at higher voltage and current levels. Each IDCL cell may comprise a gate drive, a voltage sharing module, and a thermal management component in order to facilitate easy integration of the cell into a variety of applications. By providing direct AC conversion, the IDCL cell based AC/AC converters reduce device count, eliminate the use of electrolytic capacitors that have life and reliability issues, and improve system efficiency compared with similarly rated back-to-back inverter system.

  17. Advanced power electronics converters PWM converters processing AC voltages

    CERN Document Server

    dos Santos, Euzeli

    2014-01-01

    This book covers power electronics, in depth, by presenting the basic principles and application details, which can be used both as a textbook and reference book.  Introduces a new method to present power electronics converters called Power Blocks Geometry. Applicable for courses focusing on power electronics, power electronics converters, and advanced power converters. Offers a comprehensive set of simulation results to help understand the circuits presented throughout the book

  18. Radiated EMI from power converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnautovski-Toševa Vesna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous increase of switching frequency together with the ongoing trend to higher complexity and functionality, power converters as a part of electronic systems have raised more and more electromagnetic energy pollution to the local system environment. In the same time, stringent demands are imposed on the designers of new circuits that electromagnetic interference (EMI has to be suppressed at its source before it is allowed to propagate into other circuits and systems. In this paper, the authors present a full-wave numerical method for calculation and simulation of electromagnetic field radiated by power converter circuitry. The main objective is to analyze the layout geometry in order to obtain competitive PCB layout that will enable suitably attenuated level of the radiated electric field to safe level. By this it would be possible to ensure reliable operation of the sensitive electronic components in the proximity.

  19. Radiated EMI from power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Arnautovski-Toševa Vesna; Rousset Yanis; Drissi El Khamlichi Khalil; Grčev Leonid

    2005-01-01

    With the continuous increase of switching frequency together with the ongoing trend to higher complexity and functionality, power converters as a part of electronic systems have raised more and more electromagnetic energy pollution to the local system environment. In the same time, stringent demands are imposed on the designers of new circuits that electromagnetic interference (EMI) has to be suppressed at its source before it is allowed to propagate into other circuits and systems. In this p...

  20. Thermal loading and reliability of 10 MW multilevel wind power converter at different wind roughness classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading and reliability of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (3-L NPC) back-to-back full scale converter for a 10 MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The reliability performance of the three...

  1. Current control method of thyristor converter for PF superconducting coil in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-hoon, E-mail: jaehoon@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyun-sik [POSCO ICT, 622, Sampyeong-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Kyeonggi-do 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-keun; Jin, Jong-kuk [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gye-yong; Seong, Dae-kyung; Yun, Min-sung; Shin, Hyun-seok [POSCO ICT, 622, Sampyeong-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Kyeonggi-do 463-400 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yaung-soo [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the current control method of thyristor converter which is applied to PF power supply in KSTAR. The thyristor converter for PF superconducting coil is composed of two 6 pulse converters and each converter is connected in parallel using DC reactor to reduce voltage ripple, current rating of converter and harmonic components. For 4 quadrant operation, each 6 pulse converter has six arms of anti-paralleled thyristor device, back-to-back connection. To apply this converter on KSTAR PF coil, stable coil current control is needed. Additionally, PF coil needs smooth current control without dead-time when current polarity changes and it is not easy in back-to-back thyristor converter. For this reason, zero crossing current control using circulating current and test results are introduced in this paper and it was satisfactory.

  2. Modeling and control of squirrel cage induction generator with full power converter applied to windmills

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez Garcia, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    The project aims to develop a dynamic model, of a generation system of electrical energy with a variable speed wind turbine using a squirrel cage induction generator which is connected to the grid by a back to back frequency converter, for testing purposes. In the project has been done an analysis of the mathematical equations of the whole system, separating the mechanical system (turbine and gearbox) and the electrical (generator and converter). We study the control design ...

  3. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The main aims of power electronic converter systems (PECS) are to control, convert, and condition electrical power flow from one form to another through the use of solid-state electronics. This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC......-link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...

  4. Back-to-Back Energization of a 60kV Cable Network - Inrush Currents Phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria da Silva, Filipe; Bak, Claus Leth; Hansen, M. Lind

    2010-01-01

    Network, and force a change in the approach used until now when planning, analyzing and operating electrical power systems. One problem that might arise is the energization of cables in parallel, as this operation may originate high inrush currents, which represent a risk to the circuit breakers connected...... to the cables. The Danish utility ENV plans to install a new cable on its 60kV network, which will be installed in parallel with other cables already installed in the network. This paper summarizes the study made to calculate the inrush currents during the cable's energization, and its importance...

  5. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control......Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...

  6. Reactive Power Compensation using a Matrix Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Holtsmark, Nathalie Marie-Anna

    2010-01-01

    This Master's thesis investigates a new application for the matrix converter: Shunt reactive power compensation. The suggested Matrix Converter-based Reactive power Compensation (MCRC) device is composed of a matrix converter, which input is connected to the grid and an electric machine at the output of the converter. The reactive power flowing in or out of the grid can be regulated with the matrix converter by controlling the magnitude and/or phase angle of the current at the input of the co...

  7. Independently accessed back-to-back HgCdTe photodiodes: A new dual-band infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reine, M. B.; Norton, P. W.; Starr, R.; Weiler, M. H.; Kestigian, M.; Musicant, B. L.; Mitra, P.; Schimert, T.; Case, F. C.; Bhat, Lb.; Ehsani, H.; Rao, V.

    1995-05-01

    We report the first data for a new two-color HgCdTe infrared detector for use in large dual-band infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPAs). Referred to as the independently accessed back-to-back photodiode structure, this novel dual-band HgCdTe detector provides independent electrical access to each of two spatially collocated back-to-back HgCdTe photodiodes so that true simultaneous and independent detection of medium wavelength (MW, 3-5 μm) and long wavelength (LW, 8-12 μm) infrared radiation can be accomplished. This new dual-band detector is directly compatible with standard backside-illuminated bump-interconnected hybrid HgCdTe IRFPA technology. It is capable of high fill factor, and allows high quantum efficiency and BLIP sensitivity to be realized in both the MW and LW photodiodes. We report data that demonstrate experimentally the key features of this new dual-band detector. These arrays have a unit cell size of 100 x 100 μm2, and were fabricated from a four-layer p-n-N-P HgCdTe film grown in situ by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on a CdZnTe substrate. At 80K, the MW detector cutoff wavelength is 4.5 μm and the LW detector cutoff wavelength is 8.0 μm. Spectral crosstalk is less than 3%. Data confirm that the MW and LW photodiodes are electrically and radiometrically independent.

  8. Selective harmonic control for power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an Internal Model Principle (IMP) based Selective Harmonic Controller (SHC) for power converters. The proposed SHC offers an optimal control solution for power converters to mitigate power harmonics. It makes a good trade-off among cost, complexity and performance. It has high...

  9. Interface of magnetoresistive converter of active power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Vytiaganets

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The vehicle and programmatic interfaces of magnetoresistive converter of active power are considered, the results of statistical treatment of the multiple measuring of active-power are analysed.

  10. High Precision Current Measurement for Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cerqueira Bastos, M

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power converter currents is essential to controlling and delivering stable and repeatable currents to magnets in particle accelerators. This paper reviews the most commonly used devices for the measurement of power converter currents and discusses test and calibration methods.

  11. High Precision Current Measurement for Power Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, M. Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power converter currents is essential to controlling and delivering stable and repeatable currents to magnets in particle accelerators. This paper reviews the most commonly used devices for the measurement of power converter currents and discusses test and calibration methods.

  12. Power Electronics Converters for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2012-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power together with the upscaling of the single wind turbine power capability has pushed the research and development of power converters toward full-scale power conversion, lowered cost pr kW, increased power density, and also the need for higher reliability. ...

  13. High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo

    entitled "High Efficiency Reversible Fuel Cell Power Converter" and it presents the design of a high efficiency dc-dc converter developed and optimized for bidirectional fuel cell applications. First, a brief overview of fuel cell and energy storage technologies is presented. Different system topologies...... as well as different dc-ac and dc-dc converter topologies are presented and analyzed. A new ac-dc topology for high efficiency data center applications is proposed and an efficiency characterization based on the fuel cell stack I-V characteristic curve is presented. The second part discusses the main...... of magnetic components especially for large production volumes. At last, the complete converter design is presented in detailed and characterized in efficiency terms. Both benefits, provided by SiC power devices and by a redesign of the converter layout increased the converter power density up to 2.2 k...

  14. 300MW可逆式机组背靠背启动振荡分析及对策%Analysis of oscillation in back-to-back starting process of 300 MW reversible pumped-storage unit and solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康永林; 张成平

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing capacity of the power grid, the reversible pumped-storage hydropower station as a special pow-er supply with the functions of load balancing, frequency regulation and phase modulation and emergency reserve demonstrates its advantages of flexibility and quick response in ensuring the safe, stable and economical operation of the power system. Back-to-back starting serves as a convenient, alternative way to start a reversible pumped-storage station when failures occur to the static frequency converter used in the normal starting mode. Based on a test of back-to-back starting in a large pumped-stor-age station, the dragging process of the units and the starting process of the dragged unit are explained. The problems in the drag-ging test are taken as an example, and the impacts of excitation, opening process of guide vanes and sub-synchronous over cur-rent protection on the staring process are analyzed. According to the field shakedown test and operation experience, directed solu-tions are proposed to meet the reliability index of the units.%随着电网容量的逐渐增加,可逆式抽水蓄能电站作为电网中调峰、填谷、调频、调相和事故备用等多种用途的特殊电源,具有运行灵活和反应快速的特点,对确保电力系统安全、稳定和经济运行具有重要作用. 可逆式抽水蓄能电站常规设置的启动方式是以静止变频器启动为主,背靠背启动为备用. 在电网静止变频器发生故障时,采用背靠背启动是一种非常便捷的方式. 以大型抽水蓄能电站背靠背启动试验为背景,阐述了抽水蓄能电站机组背靠背拖动流程、被拖动机组的开启物理过程;以实际拖动试验中遇到的问题为例,分析讨论了励磁、导叶开启过程和次同步过流保护对启动过程的影响,并结合现场调试、运行经验,提出了有针对性的解决方案,以满足机组运行的可靠性指标.

  15. 基于半导体功率损耗的小型风电变换器可靠性研究%Small wind power converter reliability research based on semiconductor power loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学生; 张新闻; 常玉峰; 程中普

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents reliability analysis of the power electronic converters for grid-connected permanent magnet generator-based small wind energy conversion system based on the semiconductor power losses. The power converters examined are: the intermediate boost converter (IBC), the intermediate buck-boost converter (IBBC), the back-to-back converter (BBC) and the matrix converter (MC). The aim is to determine which power electronic converter yields the highest mean time between failures (MTBF) and reliability in terms of power losses of the semiconductor devices with a predetermined wind speed. Based on the statistics, converter component failure rate of the unified calculation model is established. The power loss model presented has taken into account the conduction and switching losses of the semiconductor devices within each converter. The analysis reveals that efficiency and MTBF of an IBC are much higher compared to the other converters. It is shown that the inverter has the dominant effect on the system reliability for the converters. The reliability and service life of four kinds of electronic converters are compared through field data, which prove that theoretical analysis is correct.%基于半导体功率损耗,针对小型风电永磁电机常用的Boost(Intermediate boost converter, IBC)、Buck-boost (Intermediate buck-boost converter,IBBC)、背靠背(Back-to-back converter, BBC)、矩阵(Matrix converter, MC)变换器可靠性进行分析,确定变换器在特定风速下的失效周期和可靠性.在统计学基础上,建立了变换器元件的故障率统一计算模型.通过计算电力电子器件的开关损耗和导通损耗,确定 Boost变换器相对其他变换器具有最高的失效周期.同时确定出变换器组件中,逆变器可靠性是影响变换器可靠性最重要的因素.通过现场数据比较四种变换器可靠性和使用寿命,证明理论分析是正确的.

  16. Power electronics converters for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco; Ma, Ke

    2011-01-01

    The steady growth of installed wind power which reached 200 GW capacity in 2010, together with the up-scaling of the single wind turbine power capability - 7 MW’s has been announced by manufacturers - has pushed the research and development of power converters towards full scale power conversion,...

  17. Impact of Wind Shear and Tower Shadow Effects on Power System with Large Scale Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    presents a simulation model of a variable speed wind farm with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) and fullscale back-to-back converters in the simulation tool of DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. In this paper, the impacts of wind shear and tower shadow effects on the small signal stability of power...

  18. Power Converters Secure Electronics in Harsh Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In order to harden power converters for the rigors of space, NASA awarded multiple SBIR contracts to Blacksburg, Virginia-based VPT Inc. The resulting hybrid DC-DC converters have proven valuable in aerospace applications, and as a result the company has generated millions in revenue from the product line and created four high-tech jobs to handle production.

  19. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  20. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  1. Mathematical efficiency modeling of static power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff Dupont, Fabrício; Zaragoza Bertomeu, Jordi; Rech, Cassiano; Pinheiro, José Renes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a review and a comparative analysis between mathematical models for the efficiency of power converters. Two different types of models are considered, being one for converters subject solely for output power variations, and a second one also considering input voltage variations. Both cases are particularly important for systems fed by renewable sources as photovoltaic panels or wind turbines. Knowledge of the appropriate models is of interest in the dev...

  2. Bidirectional power converter control electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildice, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this program was to design, build, test, and deliver a set of control electronics suitable for control of bidirectional resonant power processing equipment of the direct output type. The program is described, including the technical background, and results discussed. Even though the initial program tested only the logic outputs, the hardware was subsequently tested with high-power breadboard equipment, and in the testbed of NASA contract NAS3-24399. The completed equipment is now operating as part of the Space Station Power System Test Facility at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  3. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...

  4. Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Angerami, A.(Nevis Laboratory, Columbia University, Irvington, NY, U.S.A.); Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.

    2011-01-01

    Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |eta|

  5. Shakedown boundary determination of a 90° back-to-back pipe bend subjected to steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No experimental data exist within open literature, to the best knowledge of the author, for determining shakedown boundaries of 90° back-to-back pipe bends. Ninety degree back-to-back pipe bends are extensively utilized within piping networks of nuclear submarines and modern turbofan aero-engines where space limitation is considered a paramount concern. In the current research, the 90° back-to-back pipe bend setup analyzed is subjected to a spectrum of steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments. A previously developed direct non-cyclic simplified technique for determining elastic shakedown limit loads is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary of the analyzed structure. The simplified technique outcomes showed excellent correlation with the results of full elastic–plastic cyclic loading finite element simulations. - Highlights: • No shakedown experimental data exist for 90° back-to-back pipe bends. • A non-cyclic technique is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary. • The non-cyclic technique succeeded in generating the structure's Bree diagram. • The non-cyclic technique correlated well with full cyclic loading FE simulations

  6. LHC Power Converters: A Precision Game

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The LHC test-bed, String 2, is close to commissioning and one important element to get a first chance to prove what it can do is the power converter system. In String 2 there are 16 converters, in the full LHC there will be almost 1800. This article takes a look at what is so special about the power converters for the LHC. The 13 000 Amps power converters with the watercooled cables going to the String 2 feedboxes. The LHC's superconducting magnets will be the pinnacle of high technology. But to work, they'll need the help of high-precision power converters to supply them with extremely stable DC current. Perfection will be the name of the game, with an accuracy of just 1-2 parts per million (ppm) required. LEP, for the sake of comparison, could live with 10-20 ppm. The LHC's power converters will be very different from those of LEP or the SPS since the new accelerator's magnets are mostly superconducting. That means that they require much higher currents at a lower voltage since superconductors have no re...

  7. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  8. Power system applications for PASC converter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, M.K. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, R.M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This paper shows, using computer EMTP simulations, some preliminary results of applying pulse amplitude synthesis and control (PASC) technology to single-source level voltage converter system. The method can be applied to any single terminal pair source with appropriate modifications in power extraction interface and computer control program to match source and load impedance characteristics. The PASC realization as discussed here employs banks of transformers, one bank per phase, in which the primaries are connected in parallel through a switch matrix to the dc source. Two opposite polarity primaries per transformer are pulsed alternatively in time to produce an oscillatory sinusoidal output waveform. PASC conversion system capabilities to produce both leading and lagging power factor power output in single-phase and three-phase {Delta} or Y configurations are illustrated. EMTP simulations are used to demonstrate the converter capabilities. Also included are discussions regarding harmonics and potential control strategies to adapt the converter to an application or to minimize harmonics.

  9. Self-oscillating resonant power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to resonant power converters and inverters comprising a self-oscillating feedback loop coupled from a switch output to a control input of a switching network comprising one or more semiconductor switches. The self-oscillating feedback loop sets a switching frequency...... of the power converter and comprises a first intrinsic switch capacitance coupled between a switch output and a control input of the switching network and a first inductor. The first inductor is coupled in-between a first bias voltage source and the control input of the switching network and has...... a substantially fixed inductance. The first bias voltage source is configured to generate an adjustable bias voltage applied to the first inductor. The output voltage of the power converter is controlled in a flexible and rapid manner by controlling the adjustable bias voltage....

  10. Studies of di-jet survival and surface emission bias in Au+Au collisions via angular correlations with respect to back-to-back leading hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Agakishiev, H; Ahammed, Z; Alakhverdyants, A V; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anderson, B D; Anson, C D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Beavis, D R; Behera, N K; Bellwied, R; Betancourt, M J; Betts, R R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bridgeman, A; Brovko, S G; Bruna, E; Bueltmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderon, M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, P; Codrington, M J M; Corliss, R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Dash, S; Leyva, A Davila; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Derevschikov, A A; de Souza, R Derradi; Didenko, L; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Elnimr, M; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Fersch, R G; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Geromitsos, A; Geurts, F; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O G; Grosnick, D; Guertin, S M; Gupta, A; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hajkova, O; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Harris, J W; Hays-Wehle, J P; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hjort, E; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Humanic, T J; Huo, L; Igo, G; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jena, C; Jin, F; Joseph, J; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Kikola, D P; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Kizka, V; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Koroleva, L; Korsch, W; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Krus, M; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; LaPointe, S; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; Leight, W; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, L; Li, N; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, H; Liu, J; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Lukashov, E V; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mall, O I; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Milner, R; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M K; Mohammed, Y; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Mustafa, M K; Naglis, M; Nandi, B K; Nayak, T K; Netrakanti, P K; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Ploskon, M A; Pluta, J; Plyku, D; Poljak, N; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Powell, C B; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Redwine, R; Reed, R; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Sahoo, N R; Sakai, S; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T R; Seele, J; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Steadman, S G; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; de Toledo, A Szanto; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarini, L H; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Tsai, O D; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vanfossen, J A; Jr.,; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Walker, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Witzke, W; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xu, H; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, W; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Xue, L; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yepes, P; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhou, W; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y

    2011-01-01

    We report first results from an analysis based on a new multi-hadron correlation technique, exploring jet-medium interactions and di-jet surface emission bias at RHIC. Pairs of back-to-back high transverse momentum hadrons are used for triggers to study associated hadron distributions. In contrast with two- and three-particle correlations with a single trigger with similar kinematic selections, the associated hadron distribution of both trigger sides reveals no modification in either relative pseudo-rapidity or relative azimuthal angle from d+Au to central Au+Au collisions. We determine associated hadron yields and spectra as well as production rates for such correlated back-to-back triggers to gain additional insights on medium properties.

  11. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  12. Transcutaneous optical power converter for implantable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Toshiyo; Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Kawarada, Atsushi; Togawa, Tatsuo; Oberg, P. Ake

    1994-02-01

    An optical transcutaneous power converter has been developed for the power supply of implanted devices. It consists of a light source, optical fiber system and a photo detector. The light source is either a halogen lamp or continuous high-power laser diode which illuminated skin surface. The light penetrates through the skin to the solar cells. The preliminary experiments with a slice of tissue in between the light source and the solar cells showed that the power transfer efficiency was 40% in comparison to direct illumination of the solar cells. The maximum electric power obtained with a slice of tissue simulating the skin was about 8 mW at a laser diode run at a power of 100 mW. The electric power transferred is enough to supply low power consuming CMOS circuits.

  13. EMI filter techniques in power electronic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Edimer Hoyos Velasco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of EMI reduction techniques applied to power electronic converters. The techniques applied included shielding control and power signals, separating power system references regarding reference for instrumentation and measurement signals, implementing analog filters and configuring an appropriate switch trigger system for electronic power to decrease shifting EMI emissions to the maximum. This paper presents the results before and after applying the techniques to reduce interference. The results were also veryfied by using two real time control strategies rapid control prototyping (RCP.

  14. A power conversion system for PMSG-based WECS operating with fully-controlled current-source converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-yu BAO; Wei-bing BAO; Yu-ling LI

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new power conversion system for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based grid-connected wind energy conversion system (WECS) operating with fully-controlled back-to-back current-source converters. On the generator side, two independent current-source rectifiers (CSRs) with space-vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) are employed to regulate and stabilize DC-link currents. Between DC-link and the electrical grid, a direct-type three-phase five-level current-source inverter (CSI) is inserted as a buffer to regulate real and reactive power fed to the grid and thus adjusts the grid side power-factor. We also present a current-based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) scheme, which helps the generator extract the maximum power through closed-loop regulation of the generator speed. By applying the multilevel modulation and control strategies to the grid-side five-level CSI, a multilevel output current waveform with less distortion is produced, and the bulk requirement of the output capacitor filter to eliminate the harmonic current is reduced. All the proposed concepts are verified by simulation models built in a PSIM environment.

  15. DC Link Current Estimation in Wind-Double Feed Induction Generator Power Conditioning System

    OpenAIRE

    MARIAN GAICEANU; MADALIN COSTIN

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the implementation of the DC link current estimator in power conditioning system of the variable speed wind turbine is shown. The wind turbine is connected to double feed induction generator (DFIG). The variable electrical energy parameters delivered by DFIG are fitted with the electrical grid parameters through back-to-back power converter. The bidirectional AC-AC power converter covers a wide speed range from subsynchronous to supersynchronous speeds. The modern control of bac...

  16. High Efficiency Power Converter for Low Voltage High Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten

    , and remote power generation for light towers, camper vans, boats, beacons, and buoys etc. A review of current state-of-the-art is presented. The best performing converters achieve moderately high peak efficiencies at high input voltage and medium power level. However, system dimensioning and cost are often...

  17. DC Bus Control of Back-to-Back Connected Two-Level PWM Rectifier-Five-Level NPC Voltage Source Inverter to Torque Ripple Reduction in Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Thameur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected two-level PWM rectifier-five-level Voltage Source Inverter (VSI in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of two-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, five-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

  18. Emulador d’un sistema eòlic connectat a la xarxa elèctrica amb tecnologia back-to-back de tres nivells

    OpenAIRE

    Calle Prado, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    El present projecte final de carrera es situa dins de l’àmbit dels convertidors multinivell aplicats a la generació d’energia elèctrica a partir d’energia eòlica, particularment es centra en els convertidors de tres nivells. L’objectiu principal del projecte és aconseguir obtenir un conjunt funcional de dos convertidors de tres nivells connectats en configuració back-to-back, per connectar-los a l’emulador eòlic disponible al PERC (Centre de Recerca en Electrònica de Potència) ...

  19. Back-to-back isolated photon-quarkonium production at the LHC and the transverse-momentum-dependent distributions of the gluons in the proton

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J P

    2015-01-01

    The study of a quasi back-to-back isolated pair made of a heavy quarkonium, such as a J/psi or a Upsilon, and a photon produced in proton-proton collisions at the LHC, is probably the optimal way to get right away a first experimental determination of two gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) in an unpolarized proton, f1^g and h1^perp,g the latter giving the distribution of linearly polarized gluons. To substantiate this, we calculate the transverse-momentum-dependent effects that arise in the process under study and discuss the feasibility of their measurements.

  20. Modular Power Converters for PV Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    This report describes technical opportunities to serve as parts of a technological roadmap for Shoals Technologies Group in power electronics for PV applications. There are many different power converter circuits that can be used for solar inverter applications. The present applications do not take advantage of the potential for using common modules. We envision that the development of a power electronics module could enable higher reliability by being durable and flexible. Modules would have fault current limiting features and detection circuits such that they can limit the current through the module from external faults and can identify and isolate internal faults such that the remaining modules can continue to operate with only minimal disturbance to the utility or customer. Development of a reliable, efficient, low-cost, power electronics module will be a key enabling technology for harnessing more power from solar panels and enable plug and play operation. Power electronics for computer power supplies, communication equipment, and transportation have all targeted reliability and modularity as key requirements and have begun concerted efforts to replace monolithic components with collections of common smart modules. This is happening on several levels including (1) device level with intelligent control, (2) functional module level, and (3) system module. This same effort is needed in power electronics for solar applications. Development of modular units will result in standard power electronic converters that will have a lower installed and operating cost for the overall system. These units will lead to increased adaptability and flexibility of solar inverters. Incorporating autonomous fault current limiting and reconfiguration capabilities into the modules and having redundant modules will lead to a durable converter that can withstand the rigors of solar power generation for more than 30 years. Our vision for the technology roadmap is that there is no need

  1. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor...... of the second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or forcing substantially 0 degree phase shift, between corresponding resonant voltage waveforms of the first...... and second resonant DC-DC power converters. The first and second inductors are corresponding components of the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters....

  2. CCLIBS: The CERN Power Converter Control Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)404953; Lebioda, Krzysztof Tomasz; Magrans De Abril, Marc; Martino, Michele; Murillo Garcia, Raul; Nicoletti, Achille

    2015-01-01

    Accurate control of power converters is a vital activity in large physics projects. Several different control scenarios may coexist, including regulation of a circuit’s voltage, current, or field strength within a magnet. Depending on the type of facility, a circuit’s reference value may be changed asynchronously or synchronously with other circuits. Synchronous changes may be on demand or under the control of a cyclic timing system. In other cases, the reference may be calculated in real-time by an outer regulation loop of some other quantity, such as the tune of the beam in a synchrotron. The power stage may be unipolar or bipolar in voltage and current. If it is unipolar in current, it may be used with a polarity switch. Depending on the design, the power stage may be controlled by a firing angle or PWM duty-cycle reference, or a voltage or current reference. All these cases are supported by the CERN Converter Control Libraries (CCLIBS). These open-source C libraries include advanced reference generati...

  3. Realization of the LEP power converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a phase of intensive and detailed preparation, which included preliminary inquiries to a wide variety of firms, more than forty contracts and large orders were placed with industry. They cover the power part of the converters for the magnet system, the RF klystrons and the vacuum pumps as well as the electronics for the supervision, control and local intelligence for these high-precision equipments. The first deliveries of the series production started in the second half of 1986 and by the end of 1987 most of the high-power units for the magnet system have been delivered to CERN. After thorough tests they are being installed in the LEP equipment buildings. This includes all the equipment necessary for the injection tests into LEP octant 1 to 2, scheduled for July '88. This paper reports that the tests on the prototype 100 kV, 40 A converter for the RF klystrons were successfully terminated with a full power run on the RF test string. The first sets of the series units are being delivered, tested and installed. An important aspect for obtaining high reliability lies in the automatic test procedures which are rigorously carried out, starting at the module level and ending at the complete equipment

  4. Microcontroller based phase control circuit for resonant power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Milcevski, Dejan; Stefanov, Goce; Karadzinov, Ljupco

    2011-01-01

    A microcontroller based circuit is developed for driving the IGBT switches of a bridge resonant power converter used for induction heating of metals. When a resonant power converter is used for induction heating the load is variable due to the effects of the heating process making the converter to operate out of resonance. This effect decreases the converter output power and increases switching loses. In order to maintain constant output power operating constantly on the resonant frequency a ...

  5. Power converters for medium voltage networks

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Md Rabiul; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration te

  6. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador Fani; Majid Delshad; Daryoosh Nazarpour

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward) and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and compu...

  7. One-Quadrant Switched-Mode Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Petrocelli, R

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the main topics related to one-quadrant power convert- ers. The basic topologies are analysed and a simple methodology to obtain the steady-state output–input voltage ratio is set out. A short discussion of dif- ferent methods to control one-quadrant power converters is presented. Some of the reported derived topologies of one-quadrant power converters are also considered. Some topics related to one-quadrant power converters such as syn- chronous rectification, hard and soft commutation, and interleaved converters are discussed. Finally, a brief introduction to resonant converters is given.

  8. Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au Collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adare, A; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C -H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; del Valle, Z Conesa; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Perdekamp, M Grosse; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H -Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, Y -J; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Levy, L A Linden; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J -C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T -A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2011-01-01

    Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt(s_NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |eta|<0.35 and the associated hadron at forward rapidity (deuteron direction, 3.0back-to-back hadron pairs in d+Au collisions with small impact parameters is observed to be suppressed by a factor of 10 relative to p+p collisions. The kinematics of these pairs is expected to probe partons in the Au nucleus with low fraction x of the nucleon momenta, where the gluon densities rise sharply. The observed suppression as a function of nuclear thickness, p_T, and eta points to cold nuclear matter effects arising at high parton densities in the nucleus probed by the deuteron.

  9. Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2011-10-21

    Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |η|<0.35 and the associated hadron at forward rapidity (deuteron direction, 3.0<η<3.8). Pairs were also detected with both hadrons measured at forward rapidity; in this case, the yield of back-to-back hadron pairs in d+Au collisions with small impact parameters is observed to be suppressed by a factor of 10 relative to p+p collisions. The kinematics of these pairs is expected to probe partons in the Au nucleus with a low fraction x of the nucleon momenta, where the gluon densities rise sharply. The observed suppression as a function of nuclear thickness, p(T), and η points to cold nuclear matter effects arising at high parton densities.

  10. Suppression of back-to-back hadron pairs at forward rapidity in d+Au collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adare, A; Afanasiev, S; Aidala, C; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Al-Bataineh, H; Alexander, J; Angerami, A; Aoki, K; Apadula, N; Aramaki, Y; Atomssa, E T; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Azmoun, B; Babintsev, V; Bai, M; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Barish, K N; Bassalleck, B; Basye, A T; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Baumann, C; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Belmont, R; Bennett, R; Berdnikov, A; Berdnikov, Y; Bhom, J H; Blau, D S; Bok, J S; Boyle, K; Brooks, M L; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Butsyk, S; Campbell, S; Caringi, A; Chen, C-H; Chi, C Y; Chiu, M; Choi, I J; Choi, J B; Choudhury, R K; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cianciolo, V; Citron, Z; Cole, B A; Conesa del Valle, Z; Connors, M; Csanád, M; Csörgo, T; Dahms, T; Dairaku, S; Danchev, I; Das, K; Datta, A; David, G; Dayananda, M K; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dharmawardane, K V; Dietzsch, O; Dion, A; Donadelli, M; Drapier, O; Drees, A; Drees, K A; Durham, J M; Durum, A; Dutta, D; D'Orazio, L; Edwards, S; Efremenko, Y V; Ellinghaus, F; Engelmore, T; Enokizono, A; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Fadem, B; Fields, D E; Finger, M; Finger, M; Fleuret, F; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Frantz, J E; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fujiwara, K; Fukao, Y; Fusayasu, T; Garishvili, I; Glenn, A; Gong, H; Gonin, M; Goto, Y; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Grau, N; Greene, S V; Grim, G; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gunji, T; Gustafsson, H-Å; Haggerty, J S; Hahn, K I; Hamagaki, H; Hamblen, J; Han, R; Hanks, J; Haslum, E; Hayano, R; He, X; Heffner, M; Hemmick, T K; Hester, T; Hill, J C; Hohlmann, M; Holzmann, W; Homma, K; Hong, B; Horaguchi, T; Hornback, D; Huang, S; Ichihara, T; Ichimiya, R; Ikeda, Y; Imai, K; Inaba, M; Isenhower, D; Ishihara, M; Issah, M; Isupov, A; Ivanischev, D; Iwanaga, Y; Jacak, B V; Jia, J; Jiang, X; Jin, J; Johnson, B M; Jones, T; Joo, K S; Jouan, D; Jumper, D S; Kajihara, F; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kapustinsky, J; Karatsu, K; Kasai, M; Kawall, D; Kawashima, M; Kazantsev, A V; Kempel, T; Khanzadeev, A; Kijima, K M; Kikuchi, J; Kim, A; Kim, B I; Kim, D J; Kim, E J; Kim, Y-J; Kinney, E; Kiss, Á; Kistenev, E; Kochenda, L; Komkov, B; Konno, M; Koster, J; Král, A; Kravitz, A; Kunde, G J; Kurita, K; Kurosawa, M; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lai, Y S; Lajoie, J G; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Lee, J; Lee, K B; Lee, K S; Leitch, M J; Leite, M A L; Li, X; Lichtenwalner, P; Liebing, P; Linden Levy, L A; Liška, T; Litvinenko, A; Liu, H; Liu, M X; Love, B; Lynch, D; Maguire, C F; Makdisi, Y I; Malakhov, A; Malik, M D; Manko, V I; Mannel, E; Mao, Y; Masui, H; Matathias, F; McCumber, M; McGaughey, P L; Means, N; Meredith, B; Miake, Y; Mibe, T; Mignerey, A C; Miki, K; Milov, A; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Moon, H J; Morino, Y; Morreale, A; Morrison, D P; Moukhanova, T V; Murakami, T; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagle, J L; Naglis, M; Nagy, M I; Nakagawa, I; Nakamiya, Y; Nakamura, K R; Nakamura, T; Nakano, K; Nam, S; Newby, J; Nguyen, M; Nihashi, M; Nouicer, R; Nyanin, A S; Oakley, C; O'Brien, E; Oda, S X; Ogilvie, C A; Oka, M; Okada, K; Onuki, Y; Oskarsson, A; Ouchida, M; Ozawa, K; Pak, R; Pantuev, V; Papavassiliou, V; Park, I H; Park, S K; Park, W J; Pate, S F; Pei, H; Peng, J-C; Pereira, H; Peresedov, V; Peressounko, D Yu; Petti, R; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Proissl, M; Purschke, M L; Qu, H; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Richardson, E; Roach, D; Roche, G; Rolnick, S D; Rosati, M; Rosen, C A; Rosendahl, S S E; Rukoyatkin, P; Ružička, P; Sahlmueller, B; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, T; Sakashita, K; Samsonov, V; Sano, S; Sato, T; Sawada, S; Sedgwick, K; Seele, J; Seidl, R; Seto, R; Sharma, D; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shimomura, M; Shoji, K; Shukla, P; Sickles, A; Silva, C L; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Sim, K S; Singh, B K; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Slunečka, M; Soltz, R A; Sondheim, W E; Sorensen, S P; Sourikova, I V; Stankus, P W; Stenlund, E; Stoll, S P; Sugitate, T; Sukhanov, A; Sziklai, J; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tanabe, R; Tanaka, Y; Taneja, S; Tanida, K; Tannenbaum, M J; Tarafdar, S; Taranenko, A; Themann, H; Thomas, D; Thomas, T L; Togawa, M; Toia, A; Tomášek, L; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuchimoto, Y; Vale, C; Valle, H; van Hecke, H W; Vazquez-Zambrano, E; Veicht, A; Velkovska, J; Vértesi, R; Virius, M; Vrba, V; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, X R; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, Y; Wei, F; Wei, R; Wessels, J; White, S N; Winter, D; Woody, C L; Wright, R M; Wysocki, M; Yamaguchi, Y L; Yamaura, K; Yang, R; Yanovich, A; Ying, J; Yokkaichi, S; You, Z; Young, G R; Younus, I; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhou, S; Zolin, L

    2011-10-21

    Back-to-back hadron pair yields in d+Au and p+p collisions at √s(NN)=200 GeV were measured with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Rapidity separated hadron pairs were detected with the trigger hadron at pseudorapidity |η|<0.35 and the associated hadron at forward rapidity (deuteron direction, 3.0<η<3.8). Pairs were also detected with both hadrons measured at forward rapidity; in this case, the yield of back-to-back hadron pairs in d+Au collisions with small impact parameters is observed to be suppressed by a factor of 10 relative to p+p collisions. The kinematics of these pairs is expected to probe partons in the Au nucleus with a low fraction x of the nucleon momenta, where the gluon densities rise sharply. The observed suppression as a function of nuclear thickness, p(T), and η points to cold nuclear matter effects arising at high parton densities. PMID:22107509

  11. Thermal Loading and Reliability of 10 MW Multilevel Wind Power Converter at Different Wind Roughness Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isidori, Andrea; Rossi, Fabio Mario; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, thermal loading, and reliability of a three-level neutral-point-clamped back-to-back full-scale converter for a 10-MW direct-drive wind turbine equipped with a permanent-magnet synchronous generator. The reliability performance of the three-level converter is...... strongly influenced by the thermal behavior of the semiconductor devices and their mission profile which directly affects the lifetime and the cost of the entire converter. Therefore, a simulation platform is developed in a Matlab/Simulink and PLECS simulation environment to analyze the dynamics of the...... system using different kinds of modulation strategies and analyzing the different wind-load conditions that are dependent on roughness classes. This paper shows that the 60 ° discontinuous pulsewidth-modulation strategies allow better thermal performance and increase the estimated lifetime of the...

  12. Improved Parallel Boost Power Converter for Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ajith Bosco Raj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the study is to analysis and design parallel boost power converter for power factor correction using an active filtering approach by implementing single-phase soft-switching technique with an active snubber circuit. Zero voltage transition to turn ON and zero current transition to turn OFF is implemented by the active snubber circuit for the main switches with no any further current or voltage strains. By zero-current switching without the need of added voltage stress, auxiliary switch is turned ON and OFF. The proposed converter has simple structure, low cost and ease of control. The efficiency, which is about 96% in hard switching, will increases to about 98% in the proposed soft-switching parallel boost converter.

  13. Optimizing design of converters using power cycling lifetime models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Ørndrup; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Converter power cycling lifetime depends heavily on converter operation point. A lifetime model of a single power module switched mode power supply with wide input voltage range is shown. A lifetime model is created using a power loss model, a thermal model and a model for power cycling capability...

  14. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids. For the......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... as 3L-NPC-VSC, 3L active NPC VSC (3L-ANPC-VSC), and 3L neutralpoint-piloted VSC (3L-NPP-VSC) and are proven to be high power density and highly reliable solution in the MV converter market, are selected and employed as the gridside VSC of a large wind turbine as well as the 3L H-Bridge VSCs (3L......-HB-VSCs). As the switch technology for realizing these 3L-VSCs, press-pack IGBTs are chosen to ensure high power density and reliability. Based on the selected 3L-VSCs and switch technology, the converter electro-thermal models are developed comprehensively, implemented practically, and validated via a full-scale 3L...

  15. Improved Parallel Boost Power Converter for Power Factor Correction

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ajith Bosco Raj; Ramesh, R.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to analysis and design parallel boost power converter for power factor correction using an active filtering approach by implementing single-phase soft-switching technique with an active snubber circuit. Zero voltage transition to turn ON and zero current transition to turn OFF is implemented by the active snubber circuit for the main switches with no any further current or voltage strains. By zero-current switching without the need of added voltage stress, a...

  16. Power electronic converters and systems frontiers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M

    2016-01-01

    Power electronics is a branch of electrical engineering dealing with conversion and control of electric power using semiconductor power switches. This book provides an overview of modern power electronic converters and systems, and their applications.

  17. Three-phase AC-AC power converters based on matrix converter topology matrix-reactance frequency converters concept

    CERN Document Server

    Szczesniak, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    AC voltage frequency changes is one of the most important functions of solid state power converters. The most desirable features in frequency converters are the ability to generate load voltages with arbitrary amplitude and frequency, sinusoidal currents and voltages waveforms; the possibility of providing unity power factor for any load; and, finally, a simple and compact power circuit. Over the past decades, a number of different frequency converter topologies have appeared in the literature, but only the converters with either a voltage or current DC link are commonly used in industrial app

  18. A Technique for Mitigating Thermal Stress and Extending Life Cycle of Power Electronic Converters Used for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canras Batunlu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, various models have been developed to assess and improve the reliability of power electronic conversion systems (PECs with a focus on those used for wind turbines. However, only few studies have dealt with mitigating the PECs thermo-mechanical effects on their reliability taking into account variations in wind characteristics. This work critically investigates this issue and attempts to offer a mitigating technique by, first, developing realistic full scale (FS and partial scale (PS induction generator models combined with two level back-to-back PECs. Subsequently, deriving a driving algorithm, which reduces PEC’s operating temperature by controlling its switching patterns. The developed switching procedure ensures minimum temperature fluctuations by adapting the variable DC link and system’s frequency of operation. It was found for both FS and PS topologies, that the generator side converters have higher mean junction temperatures where the grid side ones have more fluctuations on their thermal profile. The FS and PS cycling temperatures were reduced by 12 °C and 5 °C, respectively. Moreover, this led to a significant improvement in stress; approximately 27 MPa stress reduction for the FS induction generator PEC.

  19. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically...... coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output voltage of the power converter. Forward and reverse current conducting periods of the bi......, a reverse current is conducted through the bi-directional switching circuit from the DC or AC output voltage to the output electrode to discharge the DC or AC output voltage and return power to the primary section of the piezoelectric transformer....

  20. Synchronously Driven Power Converter Controller Solution for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Šepetavc, Luka; Tavčar, Rok; Moser, Roland; Gutleber, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    MedAustron is an ion beam cancer therapy and research centre currently under construction in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. This facility features a synchrotron particle accelerator for light ions. Cosylab is closely working together with MedAustron on the development of a power converter controller (PCC) for the 260 deployed power converterspower supplies. Power converters deliver power to magnets used for focusing and steering particle beams. We have designed and developed software and hardware which allows integration of different types of power converters into MedAustron's control system (MACS). PCC's role is to synchronously control and monitor connected power converters. Custom real-time fibre optics link and modular front end devices have been designed for this purpose. Modular front end devices make it possible to interface with almost any type of power converter – with or without built in regulation logic. We implemented realtime mechanisms and a dedicated real-time fibre link to ...

  1. 直流背靠背换流站设计探讨%Design of Back-to-Back Converter Station in HVDC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁言桥

    2006-01-01

    结合西北与华中联网灵宝直流背靠背换流站工程的设计总结,分析了直流背靠背换流站工程设计中的特点,提出了直流背靠背换流站工程中需要探讨的问题和建议.

  2. Look who’s talking: Pre-verbal infants’ perception of face-to-face and back-to-back social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Augusti

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four-, 6-, and 11-month old infants were presented with movies in which two adult actors conversed about everyday events, either by facing each other or looking in opposite directions. Infants from 6 months of age made more gaze shifts between the actors, in accordance with the flow of conversation, when the actors were facing each other. A second experiment demonstrated that gaze following alone did not cause this difference. Instead the results are consistent with a social cognitive interpretation, suggesting that infants perceive the difference between face-to-face and back-to-back conversations and that they prefer to attend to a typical pattern of social interaction from 6 months of age.

  3. Simulation of New Switched Capacitance Power Converter for Srm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Mohamed Saleem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, design and simulation of switched capacitance power converter are proposed for 6/4 switched reluctance motor (SRM drive. The operating principle and design consideration of the proposed converter is explained. The proposed converter performance is better in reduction of torque ripple and constant speed can be achieved quickly with reduced power loss when compared with asymmetric converter. The proposed system is simulated by using MATLAB Simulink and their results are clearly presented.

  4. A New Hard Switching Bidirectional Converter With High Power Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahador Fani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new isolated dc-dc bidirectional converter is proposed. This converter consists of two transformers (flyback and forward and only one switch in primary side and one switch in secondary side of transformers. In this converter energy transfers to the output in both on and off switch states so power density of this converter is high This converter controlled by PWM signal. Also this converter operates over a wide input voltage range. Theoretical analysis is presented and computer simulation and experimental results verify the converter analysis.

  5. Heavy-power converters in electrical power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posse, A.V.; Merzhevskiy, V.A.

    1985-08-01

    Power semiconductor devices, specifically thyristors, are increasingly used for conversion of electric energy in power generation and transmission systems. The two major applications are a.c. to d.c. conversion for d.c. power transmission from synchronous a.c. generators or d.c. power insertion into network ties and d.c. to a.c. conversion for a.c. power transmission from MHD d.c. generators. They are also used with energy storing capacitors for peak-load coverage and with controllable sources of reactive power as static compensators. Other applications include frequency-controlled starting of large synchronous machines, with the converter operating first in the pulse mode at very low speeds and then switched to the continuous mode as the speed increases, speed control of squirrel-cage induction motors, contactless switching and current limiting especially for protective purposes, energizing of electric air filters, and emergency group-sequential load throw-off. The converting equipment is usually installed in substations or in the main plant.

  6. Piezoelectric power converter with bi-directional power transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Kaspar Sinding; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Andersen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a bi-directional piezoelectric power converter com¬ prising a piezoelectric transformer. The piezoelectric transformer comprises an input electrode electrically coupled to a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer and an output electrode electrically coupled to an output section of the piezoelectric transformer to provide a transformer output signal. A bi-directional switching circuit is coupled between the output electrode and a DC or AC output volta...

  7. High-power converters for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  8. High-power converters for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. N.; Cooper, Randy

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 was a concept definition effort to extend space-type dc/dc converter technology to the megawatt level with a weight of less than 0.1 kg/kW (220 lb./MW). Two system designs were evaluated in Phase 1. Each design operates from a 5 kV stacked fuel cell source and provides a voltage step-up to 100 kV at 10 A for charging capacitors (100 pps at a duty cycle of 17 min on, 17 min off). Both designs use an MCT-based, full-bridge inverter, gaseous hydrogen cooling, and crowbar fault protection. The GE-CRD system uses an advanced high-voltage transformer/rectifier filter is series with a resonant tank circuit, driven by an inverter operating at 20 to 50 kHz. Output voltage is controlled through frequency and phase shift control. Fast transient response and stability is ensured via optimal control. Super-resonant operation employing MCTs provides the advantages of lossless snubbing, no turn-on switching loss, use of medium-speed diodes, and intrinsic current limiting under load-fault conditions. Estimated weight of the GE-CRD system is 88 kg (1.5 cu ft.). Efficiency of 94.4 percent and total system loss is 55.711 kW operating at 1 MW load power. The Maxwell system is based on a resonance transformer approach using a cascade of five LC resonant sections at 100 kHz. The 5 kV bus is converted to a square wave, stepped-up to a 100 kV sine wave by the LC sections, rectified, and filtered. Output voltage is controlled with a special series regulator circuit. Estimated weight of the Maxwell system is 83.8 kg (4.0 cu ft.). Efficiency is 87.2 percent and total system loss is 146.411 kW operating at 1 MW load power.

  9. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  10. High Efficiency Hall Thruster Discharge Power Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek leveraged previous, internally sponsored, high power, Hall thruster discharge converter development which allowed it to design, build, and test new printed...

  11. A Proficient AC/DC Converter with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakh Md. Alimuzjaman Alim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dc power supplies are extensively used inside most of electrical and electronic appliances such as in computers, televisions, audio sets and others. Power supplies make the load compatible with its power source. The presence of nonlinear loads results into low power factor operation of the power system. Several techniques for power factor correction and harmonic reduction have been reported and a few of them have gained greater acceptance over the others. In this paper a bridgeless power factor correction boost converter is proposed which results in improved power factor and reduced harmonics content in input line currents as compared to conventional boost converter topology. Bridgeless power factor correction boost converter eliminates the linevoltage bridge rectifier in conventional boost power factor correction converter, so that the conduction loss is reduced.

  12. Estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridges power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanov, Goce; Karacinov, Ljupco; Cundev, Dobri

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In the paper estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridge converter with the output serial resonant load is given. The converter works on frequency higher than resonant frequency and supports the work of IGBT transistors in the bridge with zero voltage turn on. In the analysis of the converter, PowerSim and SemiSiel simulation programs is used. The results to the switching losses estimated by simulation are compared with the results in a practical realized converter.

  13. Three Phase Resonant DC Power Converter for Ion Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our phase 1 study has revealed many significant benefits of a new class of DC-to-DC power converters with performance that cannot be matched by current flight power...

  14. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  15. Single phase AC-DC power factor corrected converter with high frequency isolation using buck converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramesh,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Single phase ac-dc converters having high frequency isolation are implemented in buck, boost, buck-boost configuration with improving the power quality in terms of reducing the harmonics of input current. The paperpropose the circuit configuration, control mechanism, and simulation result for the single phase ac-dc converter.

  16. Power Electronics Converters for Variable Speed Pump Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Hassan Abdalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed the power electronics solution to obtain variable speed of the variable-speed pump storage The study focused on the types of variable-speed pump storage consists of doubly fed asynchronous machine and power electronics converter. Power Electronics converters used in this model are cycloconverter, two levels, three levels voltage source- converter and H-bridge cascaded eleven levels converters. The total harmonic distortions of rotor currents of Doubly fed asychronous machine and speed change for each type of converters are analyzed. Study explained the H-bridge eleven level converter is the best solution than other types.All simulation models depended on the used of PSIM software program.

  17. Sliding mode control of switching power converters techniques and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Siew-Chong; Tse, Chi-Kong

    2011-01-01

    Sliding Mode Control of Switching Power Converters: Techniques and Implementation is perhaps the first in-depth account of how sliding mode controllers can be practically engineered to optimize control of power converters. A complete understanding of this process is timely and necessary, as the electronics industry moves toward the use of renewable energy sources and widely varying loads that can be adequately supported only by power converters using nonlinear controllers.Of the various advanced control methods used to handle the complex requirements of power conversion systems, sliding mode c

  18. Optimized Reactive Power Flow of DFIG Power Converters for Better Reliability Performance Considering Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    If there is no reactive power exchange between the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and the grid, the various characteristics of the power converters in the DFIG wind turbine system cause the lifetime expectancy of the rotor-side converter significantly less than the grid-side converter. In ....... It is concluded that, among the different combined reactive power support strategies, the best scheme will trade-off the lifetime between the grid-side converter and the rotor-side converter....

  19. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1987-01-01

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation; parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  20. The New Modular Control System for Power Converters at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cosmo, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    The CERN accelerator complex consists of several generations of particle accelerators, with around 5000 power converters supplying regulated current and voltage to normal and superconducting magnet circuits. Today around 12 generations of converter control platforms can be found in the accelerator complex, ranging in age and technology. The diversity of these platforms has a significant impact on operability, maintenance and support of power converters. Over the past few years a new generation of modular controls called RegFGC3 has been developed by CERN’s power conversion group, with a goal to provide a standardised control platform, supporting a wide variety of converter topologies. The aim of this project is to reduce maintenance costs by decreasing the variety and diversity of control systems whilst simultaneously improving the operability and reliability of power converters and their controls. This paper describes the state of the on-going design and realization of the RegFGC3 platform, focusing on fun...

  1. Parallel Stirling Converters Being Developed for Spacecraft Onboard Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Lanny G.

    1999-01-01

    Stirling Technology Co., as part of a NASA Lewis Research Center Phase II Small Business Innovation Research contract, has successfully demonstrated paralleling two thermodynamically independent Stirling converters. A system of four Stirling converters is being developed by NASA and the Department of Energy as an alternative high-efficiency radioisotope power source for spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. The high Stirling efficiency, exceeding 20 percent for this application, will greatly reduce the necessary isotope inventory in comparison to the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG s), significantly reducing mission cost and risk. Stirling is the most developed converter option of the advanced power technologies under consideration.

  2. Power electronic converters modeling and control with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Seddik; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana

    2014-01-01

    Modern power electronic converters are involved in a very broad spectrum of applications: switched-mode power supplies, electrical-machine-motion-control, active power filters, distributed power generation, flexible AC transmission systems, renewable energy conversion systems and vehicular technology, among them. Power Electronics Converters Modeling and Control teaches the reader how to analyze and model the behavior of converters and so to improve their design and control. Dealing with a set of confirmed algorithms specifically developed for use with power converters, this text is in two parts: models and control methods. The first is a detailed exposition of the most usual power converter models: ·        switched and averaged models; ·        small/large-signal models; and ·        time/frequency models. The second focuses on three groups of control methods: ·        linear control approaches normally associated with power converters; ·        resonant controllers b...

  3. Advanced catalytic converter system for natural gas powered diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strots, V.O.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Matros, Y.S. [Matros Technologies Inc., Chesterfield, Missouri (United States); Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The paper discusses the development of catalytic converter for aftertreatment of exhaust gas from diesel engines powered with natural gas. The converter, operated with periodical reversals of the flow, ensures destruction of CO and hydrocarbons, including methane. Both computer simulation and engine testing results are presented. 8 refs.

  4. A generic converter for experimentation based power electronics learning

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, V; Barbosa, José; Teixeira, H.; Araújo, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost, modular, configurable and fully protected education tool based on a generic electronic converter to be used by students, providing them with skills regarding power electronics and converters, and enabling them to learn from experience the most important issues concerning DC and AC electric drives.

  5. An Advanced Turbo-Brayton Converter for Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, Mark V.; Izenson, Michael G.; Breedlove, Jeffrey J.; O'Connor, George M.; Ketchum, Andrew C.; Jetley, Richard L.; Simons, James K.

    2005-02-01

    Past work has shown that Brayton power converters are an attractive option for high power, long-duration space missions. More recently, Creare has shown that Brayton technology could be scaled with high efficiency and specific power to lower power levels suitable for radioisotope power conversion systems. Creare is currently leading the development of an advanced turbo-Brayton converter under NASA's Prometheus Program. The converter design is based on space-proven cryocooler technologies that have been shown to be safe; to provide long, maintenance-free lifetimes; and to have high reliability, negligible vibration emittance, and low EMI/EMC. The predicted performance of a converter at the beginning of life is greater than 20% (including electronic inefficiencies and overhead) with a converter specific power of greater than 8 We/kg for a test unit and greater than 15 We/kg for a flight unit. The degradation in performance over a 14-year mission lifetime is predicted to be negligible, and the primary life limiting factor is not expected to be an issue for greater than twice the mission duration. Work during the last year focused on the material and fabrication issues associated with a high temperature turbine and a lightweight recuperator, and the performance issues associated with the high-temperature insulation and power conversion electronics. The development of the converter is on schedule. Thermal vacuum testing to demonstrate a technology readiness level of 5 is currently planned for 2006.

  6. Another look at Statics and Dynamics of Switching Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Seigo; Watanabe, Haruo

    Three types of switching power supply, which are buck, boost, buck/boost converter, are statically and dynamically analysed. A framework of large signal analysis presents characteristics of converters which vary with operating points, and discusses a relationship between statics and dynamics. It is shown that boost and buck/boost converters substantially change their characteristics. There exists the operating points where for low frequencies the phases become -90° or -180° and the gains fall off to low values. The phenomenon is characterized by a zero of transfer function of the converter and also by the statics.

  7. Turbo-Brayton Power Converter for Spaceflight Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space missions require advanced systems to convert thermal energy into electric power. These systems must be reliable, efficient, and lightweight. In...

  8. Intercooled Turbo-Brayton Power Converter for Spaceflight Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA space missions require advanced systems to convert thermal energy into electric power. These systems must be reliable, efficient, and lightweight. In...

  9. Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocabert, Joan; Luna, Alvaro; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2012-01-01

    The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability of the ele......The enabling of ac microgrids in distribution networks allows delivering distributed power and providing grid support services during regular operation of the grid, as well as powering isolated islands in case of faults and contingencies, thus increasing the performance and reliability...

  10. Digital Control of Converters for Distributed Power Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Skjellnes, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Pulse width modulated converters are becoming increasingly popular as their cost decreases and power rating increases. The new trend of smallscale power producers, often using renewable energy sources, has created new demands for delivery of energy to the grid.A major advantage of the pulse width modulated converter is the ability to control the output voltage at any point in the voltage period. This enables rapid response to load changes and non-linear loads. In addition it can shape the vol...

  11. Modeling and simulation of matrix converter for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a matrix converter structure is proposed which is suitable for wind power generation applications. The matrix converter (MC) is the most general converter type in the family of AC-AC converters. It is a single-stage converter which has an array of m x n bidirectional power switches to connect, directly, an m- phase voltage source to an n-Phase load. It does not have any DC-link circuit and does not need any large energy storage elements. The key element in a matrix converter is the fully controlled four quadrant bidirectional switch, which allows highfrequency operation. The proposed converter uses MOSFETs as bidirectional switches. The model has been implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results obtained are presented. The waveforms for input current and output voltage are sinusoidal with very low total harmonic distortion (THD). Low THD is an indication that the model is suitable for wind power generation applications. The simulation results confirm the reduction of conversion losses by 10% to 12% as compared to conventional two stage converters thereby increasing the overall conversion efficiency. The MOSFETs which have been used as switching devices have four to five times more switching frequency as compared to IGBTs thus improving the resulting wave shapes. (author)

  12. On and off controlled resonant dc-dc power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    output voltage and connection to a converter load. The resonant DC-DC power converter further comprises a rectification circuit connected between an output of a resonant network and the output side circuit. The resonant network is configured for alternatingly being charged from the input voltage...... or current and discharged through the rectification circuit by a first controllable switch arrangement in accordance with a first switch control signal. A second controllable switch arrangement of the resonant DC-DC power converter is configured to select a first impedance characteristic of the resonant...

  13. Step-Up DC-DC Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a step-up DC-DC power converter which comprises a primary side circuit and a secondary side circuit coupled through a galvanic isolation barrier. The primary side circuit comprises a positive and a negative input terminal for receipt of an input voltage and an input...... being charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The step-up DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short-circuit connection across the galvanic...

  14. Improving EMI Attenuation in Frequency Modulated Power Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Stepins, D.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of frequency modulation on a power switching converter electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation is examined in this paper. A method known as “modified sawtooth” is applied for EMI attenuation in a boost converter and it is optimized in such a way to reduce EMI more effectively. The method is also verified experimentally by the use of a low power boost converter controlled via an arbitrary waveform generator. EMI attenuation up to 15 dB is achieved after using modified sawtoot...

  15. Design of Cuk Converter Powered by PV Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jayalalitha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents PV power based cuk converter for dc load application. The maximum power from the sun radiation is obtained by sun tracking and Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT. The sun tracking is implemented by the stepper motor control and MPPT is implemented by the Cuk converter and the load voltage is maintained constant irrespective of the variation in solar power. This technique improves the dynamic and steady state characteristics of the system. The simulation was done in MATLAB simulink and the experiments are carried out and the results are presented.

  16. Grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Remus; Rodríguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    "Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems provides a comprehensive description of the control of grid converters for photovoltaic and wind power systems. The authors present a range of control methods for meeting the latest application, power quality and power conversion requirements and standards, as well as looking towards potential future control functions. Practical examples, exercises, and an accompanying website with simulation models using Matlab and Simulink environments, and PSIM software make this text a pragmatic resource for electrical engineers as well as students taking related courses"--

  17. Multi Port Single Stage Power Electronics Converter and Wind PFC Converter for DC Micro Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hemachandran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study multi port AC/DC-DC single stage power electronics converter proposed for grid power supply. The topology includes reduced number of active element and passive element. Passive element is used to provide to achieve improved voltage gain and to reduce the voltage stress of input side switches. The active-clamp circuits are used to recycle the energy stored in the leakage inductors and to improve the system performances. Here two input port (wind and battery unit and output port connected to dc grid, battery act as charge unit and source. Efficient wind power conversion is achieved by PFC boost dc-dc converter. Controlled and high step up voltage is supplied to multi-port converter from wind source.

  18. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a power generation park comprising a power output for providing electrical output power to an electricity network . A power generation device comprises a converter device configured for receiving input power from a power generator and providing, in response hereto, the electrical...... in response to the oscillation indicating signal; the converter device being configured for modulating the electrical output power in response to the damping control signal so as to damp the power oscillation in the electricity network....

  19. Architecture for a High-to-Medium-Voltage Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorpenian, Vatche

    2008-01-01

    A power converter now undergoing development is required to operate at a DC input potential ranging between 5.5 and 10 kV and a DC output potential of 400 V at a current up to 25 A. This power converter is also required to be sufficiently compact and reliable to fit and operate within the confines of a high-pressure case to be lowered to several miles (approx.5 km) below the surface of the ocean. The architecture chosen to satisfy these requirements calls for a series/ parallel arrangement of 48 high-frequency, pulse-width-modulation (PWM), transformer-isolation DC-to-DC power converter blocks. The input sides of the converter blocks would be connected in series so that the input potential would be divided among them, each of them being exposed to an input potential of no more than 10 kV/48 . 210 V. The series connection of inputs would also enforce a requirement that all the converter blocks operate at the same input current. The outputs of the converter blocks would be connected in a matrix comprising 6 parallel legs, each leg being a cascade of eight outputs wired in series (see figure). All the converter blocks would be identical within the tolerances of the values of their components. A single voltage feedback loop would regulate the output potential. All the converter blocks would be driven by the same PWM waveform generated by this feedback loop. The power transformer of each converter block would have a unity turns ratio and would be capable of withstanding as much as 10 kVDC between its primary and secondary windings. (Although, in general, the turns ratio could be different from unity, the simplest construction for minimizing leakage and maximizing breakdown voltage is attained at a turns ratio of unity.)

  20. Protection of Hardware: Powering Systems (Power Converter, Normal Conducting, and Superconducting Magnets)

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, H; Wolff, D

    2016-01-01

    Along with the protection of magnets and power converters, we have added a section on personnel protection because this is our highest priority in the design and operation of power systems. Thus, our topics are the protection of people, power converters, and magnet loads (protected from the powering equipment), including normal conducting magnets and superconducting magnets.

  1. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Power converters for particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume presents the proceedings of the fifth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School, the subject on this occasion being power converters for particle accelerators. The course started with lectures on the classification and topologies of converters and on the guidelines for achieving high performance. It then went on to cover the more detailed aspects of feedback theory, simulation, measurements, components, remote control, fault diagnosis and equipment protection as well as systems and grid-related problems. The important topics of converter specification, procurement contract management and the likely future developments in semiconductor components were also covered. Although the course was principally directed towards DC and slow-pulsed supplies, lectures were added on fast converters and resonant excitation. Finally the programme was rounded off with three seminars on the related fields of Tokamak converters, battery energy storage for electric vehicles, and the control of shaft generators in ships. (orig.)

  2. Gas-to-hydraulic power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A gas piston driven hydraulic piston pump is described in which the gas cycle is of high efficiency by injecting the gas in slugs at the beginning of each power stroke. The hydraulic piston is disposed to operate inside the as piston, and the two pistons, both slidably but nonrotatably mounted, are coupled together with a rotating but non-sliding motion transfer ring extending into antifriction grooves in the sidewalls of the two pistons. To make the hydraulic piston move at a constant speed during constant hydraulic horsepower demand and thus exert a constant pressure on the hydraulic fluid, these grooves are machined with variable pitches and one is the opposite of the other, i.e., the gas piston groove increases in pitch during its power stroke while the hydraulic piston groove decreases. Any number of piston assembly sets may be used to obtain desired hydraulic horsepower.

  3. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2008-01-01

    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  4. Nonlinear Phenomena in Buck-Boost Power Factor Correction Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Vatani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Buck-Boost Power-Factor-Correction (PFC converter with Average-Current-Model (ACM control is a nonlinear circuit because of the multiplier using and large change in the duty cycle, so its stability analysis must be studied by nonlinear model. In this paper double averaging method is used for describing the model of this converter. By this model we would be able to explain the low frequency dynamics of the system and identify stability boundaries according to circuit parameters and also nonlinear phenomena of this converter are detected.

  5. PV power system using hybrid converter for LED indictor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. • The perturb-and-observe method is adopted to extract the maximum power of PV arrays. • The proposed circuit structure has a less component counts and higher conversion efficiency. • A prototype of LED indictor driving circuit has been implemented to verify its feasibility. • The proposed hybrid converter is suitable for LED inductor applications. - Abstract: This paper presents a LED indictor driving circuit with a PV arrays as its power source. The LED indictor driving circuit includes battery charger and discharger (LED driving circuit). In this research, buck converter is used as a charger, and forward converter with active clamp circuit is adopted as a discharger to drive the LED indictor. Their circuit structures use switch integration technique to simplify them and to form the proposed hybrid converter, which has a less component counts, lighter weight, smaller size, and higher conversion efficiency. Moreover, the proposed hybrid converter uses a perturb-and-observe method to extract the maximum power from PV arrays. Finally, a prototype of an LED indictor driving circuit with output voltage of 10 V and output power of 20 W has been implemented to verify its feasibility. It is suitable for the LED inductor applications

  6. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.;

    2007-01-01

    More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...... converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power...... management in the future European electricity network....

  7. Reactive Power Impact on Lifetime Prediction of Two-level Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, M.;

    2013-01-01

    The influence of reactive power injection on the dominating two-level wind power converter is investigated and compared in terms of power loss and thermal behavior. Then the lifetime of both the partial-scale and full-scale power converter is estimated based on the widely used Coffin-Manson model....... It is concluded that the injection of the reactive power could have serious impact on the power loss and thermal profile, especially at lower wind speed. Furthermore, the introduction of the reactive power could also shorten the lifetime of the wind power converter significantly....

  8. Design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    This technical report presents the design of the DC-DC power stage of the capacitor charger for MAXIDISCAP power converters. The power stage is based on a half bridge series resonant converter in Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM). This simple and robust topology allows obtaining a current source behavior with a low switching losses power stage. The associated control stage is implemented using a commercial controller which has differenti nternal circuits that allows a high integration of the converter control system. The report presents the design and tuning criteria for the DC-DC converter, including the power stage and the control system.

  9. Design of Low Power Successive Approximation Analog to Digital Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Jitendra A. Waghmare; Prof. P.M. Ghutke

    2014-01-01

    In Biomedical applications such as pacemaker it becomes mandatory to design the circuits with low power and low voltage to enhance the system by means of long sustainability and less power consumption with maintenance free operation, especially in the circuits like Analog to Digital Converters (ADCs). So here is the selection of right architecture is very crucial. Day by day more and more applications are built on the basis of power consumption so SAR ADC will be useful for me...

  10. CAS course on Power Converters in Baden, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) recently organised a specialised course on Power Converters, which was held at the Hotel du Parc in Baden, Switzerland from 7 to 14 May 2014.   Photo courtesy of Markus Fischer, Paul Scherrer Institut. Following some recapitulation lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered a wide range of topics related to the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Topical seminars completed the programme. The course was very successful, attended by 84 students representing 21 nationalities, mostly from European countries but also from America, Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Jordan and Thailand. Feedback from the participants was very positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures and teaching. In addition to the academic programme, the participants also had an opportunity to take part in a full-day site visit to ABB and PSI and an excursion to the Rhine Fall...

  11. Solar Photovoltaic Powered Sailing Boat Using Buck Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Das

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to establish technical and economical aspects of the application of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV system in sailing boat using a buck converter in order to enhance the power generation and also to minimize the cost. Performance and control of dc-dc converter, suitable for photovoltaic (PV applications, is presented here. A buck converter is employed here which extracts complete power from the PV source and feeds into the dc load. The power, which is fed into the load, is sufficient to drive a boat . With the help of matlab simulink software PV module and buck model has been designed and simulated and also compared with theoretical predictions.

  12. Integrated Solar Power Converters: Wafer-Level Sub-Module Integrated DC/DC Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-02-09

    Solar ADEPT Project: CU-Boulder is developing advanced power conversion components that can be integrated into individual solar panels to improve energy yields. The solar energy that is absorbed and collected by a solar panel is converted into useable energy for the grid through an electronic component called an inverter. Many large, conventional solar energy systems use one, central inverter to convert energy. CU-Boulder is integrating smaller, microinverters into individual solar panels to improve the efficiency of energy collection. The University’s microinverters rely on electrical components that direct energy at high speeds and ensure that minimal energy is lost during the conversion process—improving the overall efficiency of the power conversion process. CU-Boulder is designing its power conversion devices for use on any type of solar panel.

  13. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Bjørn; Frydensbjerg, Michael Nørtoft; Knüppel, Thyge

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a power generation park comprising a power output for providing electrical output power to an electricity network . A power generation device comprises a converter device configured for receiving input power from a power generator and providing, in response hereto, the electrical output power to the power output. The power generation park further comprises a controller being configured for receiving an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in the el...

  14. Grid-friendly wind power systems based on the synchronverter technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A grid-friendly wind power system that uses the synchronverter technology is proposed. • Both the rotor-side and the grid-side converters act as synchronverters. • The complete generator–motor–generator system improves the performance under grid faults. • Real-time digital simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. - Abstract: Back-to-back PWM converters are becoming a realistic alternative to conventional converters in high-power wind power applications. In this paper, a control strategy based on the synchronverter technology is proposed for back-to-back PWM converters. Both converters are run as synchronverters, which are mathematically equivalent to the conventional synchronous generators. The rotor-side converter is responsible for maintaining the DC link voltage and the grid-side converter is responsible for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT). As the two converters are operated using the synchronverter technology, the formed wind power system becomes more friendly to the grid. Extensive real-time digital simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method under normal operation and grid-fault scenarios

  15. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC) for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    OpenAIRE

    G.L. Valsala; L. Padma Suresh

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate ...

  16. Thermal Loading and Lifetime Estimation for Power Device Considering Mission Profiles in Wind Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    As a key component in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter and its power semiconductors suffer from complicated power loadings related to environment, and are proven to have high failure rates. Therefore, correct lifetime estimation of wind power converter is crucial...... for the reliability improvement and also for cost reduction of wind power technology. Unfortunately, the existing lifetime estimation methods for the power electronic converter are not yet suitable in the wind power application, because the comprehensive mission profiles are not well specified and included....... Consequently, a relative more advanced approach is proposed in this paper, which is based on the loading and strength analysis of devices and takes into account different time constants of the thermal behaviors in power converter. With the established methods for loading and lifetime estimation for power...

  17. New Multiphase Matrix Converter Based Device for Power Flow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Szczepanik; Tomasz Sieńko

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the concept of new matrix converter (MC) based device working as a phase shifting control device in a power system. The multiphase MC is working under an innovative control algorithm specially dedicated to the proposed application. The work presents the results of the simulation of the MC work in this application as well as the analysis of the MC properties.

  18. Distributed Generation Using Indirect Matrix Converter in Reverse Power Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiong; Chiang Loh, Poh; Wang, Peng;

    2013-01-01

    not appropriate. Like most power converters, the operation of the IMC can surely be reversed to produce a boosted gain, but so far its relevant control principles have not been discussed. These challenges are now addressed in this paper with distributed generation suggested as a potential application. Simulation...

  19. Variable frequency iteration MPPT for resonant power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qian; Bataresh, Issa; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-30

    A method of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) uses an MPPT algorithm to determine a switching frequency for a resonant power converter, including initializing by setting an initial boundary frequency range that is divided into initial frequency sub-ranges bounded by initial frequencies including an initial center frequency and first and second initial bounding frequencies. A first iteration includes measuring initial powers at the initial frequencies to determine a maximum power initial frequency that is used to set a first reduced frequency search range centered or bounded by the maximum power initial frequency including at least a first additional bounding frequency. A second iteration includes calculating first and second center frequencies by averaging adjacent frequent values in the first reduced frequency search range and measuring second power values at the first and second center frequencies. The switching frequency is determined from measured power values including the second power values.

  20. Self-commutating converters for high power applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arrillaga, Jos; Watson, Neville R; Murray, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    For very high voltage or very high current applications, the power industry still relies on thyristor-based Line Commutated Conversion (LCC), which limits the power controllability to two quadrant operation. However, the ratings of self-commutating switches such as the Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate-Commutated Thyristor (IGCT), are reaching levels that make the technology possible for very high power applications. This unique book reviews the present state and future prospects of self-commutating static power converters for applications requiring either ultr

  1. Simulations in the field of power converters for particle accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Ngada, Narcisse

    2016-01-01

    The complexity and cost of building and running high-power electrical systems make the use of simulations unavoidable. The simulations available today provide great understanding about how systems really operate. This paper helps the reader to gain an insight into simulation in the field of power converters for particle accelerators. Starting with the definition and basic principles of simulation, two simulation types, as well as their leading tools, are presented: analog and numerical simula...

  2. Digital control of grid connected converters for distributed power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjellnes, Tore

    2008-07-01

    Pulse width modulated converters are becoming increasingly popular as their cost decreases and power rating increases. The new trend of small scale power producers, often using renewable energy sources, has created new demands for delivery of energy to the grid. A major advantage of the pulse width modulated converter is the ability to control the output voltage at any point in the voltage period. This enables rapid response to load changes and non-linear loads. In addition it can shape the voltage in response to the output current to create an outward appearance of a source impedance. This is called a virtual impedance. This thesis presents a controller for a voltage controlled three phase pulse width modulated converter. This controller enables operation in standalone mode, in parallel with other converters in a micro grid, and in parallel with a strong main grid. A time varying virtual impedance is presented which mainly attenuates reactive currents. A method of investigating the overall impedance including the virtual impedance is presented. New net standards have been introduced, requiring the converter to operate even during severe dips in the grid voltage. Experiments are presented verifying the operation of the controller during voltage dips. (Author). 37 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Novel DC/DC Converters For High-Power Distributed Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Venustiano, Canales Abarca

    2003-01-01

    One of the requirements for the next generation of power supplies for distributed power systems (DPSs) is to achieve high power density with high efficiency. In the traditional front-end converter based on the two-stage approach for high-power three-phase DPSs, the DC-link voltage coming from the power factor correction (PFC) stage penalizes the second-stage DC/DC converter. This DC/DC converter not only has to meet the characteristics demanded by the load, but also must process energy w...

  4. A Multi-Functional Power Electronic Converter in Distributed Generation Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pedersen, John Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a power electronic converter which is used as an interface for a distributed generation unit/energy storage device, and also functioned as an active power compensator in a hybrid compensation system. The operation and control of the converter have been described. An example...... of the converter interfacing a wind power generation unit is also given. The power electronic interface performs the optimal operation in the wind turbine system to extract the maximum wind power, while it also plays a key role in a hybrid compensation system that consists of the active power electronic converter...... and passive filters connected to each distorting load or distributed generation (DG) unit. The passive filters are distributely located to remove major harmonics and provide reactive power compensation. The active power electronic filter corrects the system unbalance, removes the remaining harmonic components...

  5. Control of high power IGBT modules in the active region for fast pulsed power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Cravero, J M; Garcia Retegui, R; Maestri, S; Uicich, G

    2014-01-01

    At CERN, fast pulsed power converters are used to supply trapezoidal current in different magnet loads. These converters perform output current regulation by using a high power IGBT module in its ohmic region. This paper presents a new strategy for pulsed current control applications using a specifically designed IGBT driver.

  6. Advanced power converters for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network - Converter applications in future European electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    The present report summarizes the work done in the Work Package 2 where the main goal is to provide essential data for the other workpackages in the UNIFLEX-PM project and determines in detail the performance requirements that will be placed upon power converters to make the Future European...

  7. Piezoelectric transformer based power converters; design and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødgaard, Martin Schøler

    the utilization of the PT technology advantages, reduce cost and increase competitiveness. First of all an overview of the basic PT technology used in general power converters is given, including the basic piezoelectric nature, converter topologies and control methods. Compared to traditional magnetic technology......-oscillating control method is proposed that has a very tight and precise frequency control, which ensures optimal and soft switching operation at all times. Furthermore a forward conduction mode control method is proposed, which resembles a PLL control and ensures a constant and optimal operation, as well as having...... the advantage of being purely primary side based. A revolutionary bi-directional control method is proposed, which utilizes active phase shift of the output rectifier that enables bi-directional power flow. Soft switching operation is maintained over the full power flow modulation range, ensuring optimal...

  8. DC-DC power converter research for Orbiter/Station power exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, M.

    1993-01-01

    This project was to produce innovative DC-DC power converter concepts which are appropriate for the power exchange between the Orbiter and the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The new converters must interface three regulated power buses on SSF, which are at different voltages, with three fuel cell power buses on the Orbiter which can be at different voltages and should be tracked independently. Power exchange is to be bi-directional between the SSF and the Orbiter. The new converters must satisfy the above operational requirements with better weight, volume, efficiency, and reliability than is available from the present conventional technology. Two families of zero current DC-DC converters were developed and successfully adapted to this application. Most of the converters developed are new and are presented.

  9. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  10. Modular Power Electronic Converters in the Power Range 1 to 10 kW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Pawel

    of SES based plants , like hydro-, geothermal-, biofuel-plants, use synchronous generators directly connected to the grid. But some other SES technologies, like fuel cell or photovoltaic, require a power electronic converter between the energy source and the load or the grid. Work presented...... in this thesis concentrates on dc-dc non-isolated converters suitable for high voltage gain applications, like uninterruptible power supply (UPS) and some of sustainable energy sources. A special attention is on reduction of power losses and efficiency improvements in non-isolated dc-dc step-up converters......-pull-boost and a non-isolated two-inductor-boost converters are the best candidates for applications requiring a high voltage gain. Design of a high efficiency converter requires a detailed knowledge and accurate prediction of power losses. For this purpose average steady-state models of selected topologies...

  11. Power decoupling method for single phase differential buck converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Tang, Yi; Zhang, Xiaobin;

    2015-01-01

    The well-known inherent second-order ripple power in single phase converters imposes harmonic stress on the dc link, resulting in low efficiency and overheating issues. In order to avoid installing bulky electrolytic capacitors or LC filters in the dc-link, this paper presents a differential buck...... inverter to improve the dc link power quality, and an improved active power decoupling method is proposed to achieve ripple power reduction for both AC-DC and DC-AC conversions. The ripple energy storage is realized by the filter capacitors, which are connected between the output terminal and the negative...... dc bus. By properly controlling the differential mode voltage of the capacitors, it is possible to transfer desired energy between the DC port and AC port. The common mode voltage is controlled in such a way that the ripple power on the dc side will be reduced. Furthermore, an autonomous reference...

  12. Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Liserre, Marco; Rodriguez, Pedro

    to power electronics, this book focuses on the specific applications in photovoltaic wind power systems where grid condition is an essential factor. With a review of the most recent grid requirements for photovoltaic and wind power systems, the book discusses these other relevant issues: Modern grid...... inverter topologies for photovoltaic and wind turbines Islanding detection methods for photovoltaic systems Synchronization techniques based on second order generalized integrators (SOGI) Advanced synchronization techniques with robust operation under grid unbalance condition grid filter design and active...... damping techniques Power control under grid fault conditions, considering both positive and negative sequences Grid Converters for Photovoltaic and Wind Power Systems is intended as a coursebook for graduated students with a background in electrical engineering and also for professionals in the evolving...

  13. New Multiphase Matrix Converter Based Device for Power Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szczepanik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of new matrix converter (MC based device working as a phase shifting control device in a power system. The multiphase MC is working under an innovative control algorithm specially dedicated to the proposed application. The work presents the results of the simulation of the MC work in this application as well as the analysis of the MC properties.

  14. Realization of Digital Differentiator Using Generalized Integrator for Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    In power converters, the digital implementation of differentiator is challenged by noise amplification and phase error. For example, the backward Euler differentiator loses its effectiveness at high frequency due to an introduced large phase error. The Tustin differentiator, on the other hand......, yields unacceptable noise amplification even though it produces the phase of an ideal differentiator perfectly. For an even more accurate performance, this letter proposes a new digital differentiator based on Generalized Integrator (GI). It will specifically be shown that differentiation characteristic...

  15. Trimode Power Converter optimizes PV, diesel and battery energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osullivan, George; Bonn, Russell; Bower, Ward

    1994-12-01

    Conservatively, there are 100,000 localities in the world waiting for the benefits that electricity can provide, and many of these are in climates where sunshine is plentiful. With these locations in mind a prototype 30 kW hybrid system has been assembled at Sandia to prove the reliability and economics of photovoltaic, diesel and battery energy sources managed by an autonomous power converter. In the Trimode Power Converter the same power parts, four IGBT's with an isolation transformer and filter components, serve as rectifier and charger to charge the battery from the diesel; as a stand-alone inverter to convert PV and battery energy to AC; and, as a parallel inverter with the diesel-generator to accommodate loads larger than the rating of the diesel. Whenever the diesel is supplying the load, an algorithm assures that the diesel is running at maximum efficiency by regulating the battery charger operating point. Given the profile of anticipated solar energy, the cost of transporting diesel fuel to a remote location and a five year projection of load demand, a method to size the PV array, battery and diesel for least cost is developed.

  16. Investigation of pitting resistance in ultra clean IQ-Steel vs commonly used conventional steel; 158Q vs 16MnCr5 : Back-to-back pitting tests

    OpenAIRE

    Bergseth, Ellen; Sosa, Mario; Andersson, Martin; Olofsson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    KTH Machine Design has conducted pitting tests on gears made out of two different types of steel in a standard back-to-back pitting test rig (FZG). The tested gears were produced from Ovako’s IQ-Steel in grade 158Q and compared to the behaviour of a reference steel, commonly used conventional steel in grade 16MnCr5 (reference steel, RS). The test method is a mechanical test procedure generally used to determine the pitting load capacity of gear transmission lubricants, but in this study the p...

  17. Circuit Simulation for Solar Power Maximum Power Point Tracking with Different Buck-Boost Converter Topologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The power converter is one of the essential elements for effective use of renewable power sources. This paper focuses on the development of a circuit simulation model for maximum power point tracking (MPPT evaluation of solar power that involves using different buck-boost power converter topologies; including SEPIC, Zeta, and four-switch type buck-boost DC/DC converters. The circuit simulation model mainly includes three subsystems: a PV model; a buck-boost converter-based MPPT system; and a fuzzy logic MPPT controller. Dynamic analyses of the current-fed buck-boost converter systems are conducted and results are presented in the paper. The maximum power point tracking function is achieved through appropriate control of the power switches of the power converter. A fuzzy logic controller is developed to perform the MPPT function for obtaining maximum power from the PV panel. The MATLAB-based Simulink piecewise linear electric circuit simulation tool is used to verify the complete circuit simulation model.

  18. Monitoring Wind Turbine Loading Using Power Converter Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, C. A.; Smith, C. J.; Crabtree, C. J.

    2016-09-01

    The ability to detect faults and predict loads on a wind turbine drivetrain's mechanical components cost-effectively is critical to making the cost of wind energy competitive. In order to investigate whether this is possible using the readily available power converter current signals, an existing permanent magnet synchronous generator based wind energy conversion system computer model was modified to include a grid-side converter (GSC) for an improved converter model and a gearbox. The GSC maintains a constant DC link voltage via vector control. The gearbox was modelled as a 3-mass model to allow faults to be included. Gusts and gearbox faults were introduced to investigate the ability of the machine side converter (MSC) current (I q) to detect and quantify loads on the mechanical components. In this model, gearbox faults were not detectable in the I q signal due to shaft stiffness and damping interaction. However, a model that predicts the load change on mechanical wind turbine components using I q was developed and verified using synthetic and real wind data.

  19. DC System Control Strategy for 500 kV AC Line Automatic Reclosing in China-Russia Back to Back Project%中国—俄罗斯背靠背联网工程500 kV交流出线具有自动重合闸的直流控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马为民; 曹燕明; 蒋维勇

    2013-01-01

    为提高中俄直流联网黑河换流站跨国联网工程运行的可靠性,提出了修改故障期间直流控制策略的方案,以使工程原设计方案中未设置的自动重合闸功能恢复使用.采用EMTDC仿真软件建立模型进行典型工况计算,并对重合闸期间产生的交流母线过电压、交流母线避雷器和阀避雷器的耐受能力进行了校核比较.仿真结果表明,新的控制策略应限制故障期间功率水平在300 MW(标幺值为0.4)以内.修改后的控制策略在黑河换流站实施后,通过兴福变至黑河变(兴黑线)故障后重合闸的实践检验,证明了策略的可行性和可靠性.所得出的直流控制策略对研究弱交流系统条件下换流站仅有1回交流出线时采用自动重合闸功能有重要指导意义.%To improve the operation reliability of Heihe converter station at China-Russia back to back(BTB) project,we proposed a modified DC system control strategy during line faults in order to recover the automatic reclosing function,which was not adopted in original design of the project.Models of the software EMTDC were used to simulate typical cases,through which the AC bus's over-voltage and the arrester energy of AC bus arrester and valve arrester during faults were compared and checked.The simulation results show that,from the new strategy,the power at the level of 300 MW (0.4 in per unit value) should be limited during a line fault.Feasibility and reliability of the modified control strategy have been proved by the successful reclosing in HeiHe station with the proposed strategy implemented under a failure on Xingfu Station to Heihe Station(Xinghei line) section.Thus the proposed DC control strategy is proven to be of great significance for studying the adopting automatic reclosing function in future converter station with only one AC line under weak AC system condition.

  20. Wireless power charging using point of load controlled high frequency power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M.; Campbell, Steven L.; Chambon, Paul H.; Seiber, Larry E.; White, Clifford P.

    2015-10-13

    An apparatus for wirelessly charging a battery of an electric vehicle is provided with a point of load control. The apparatus includes a base unit for generating a direct current (DC) voltage. The base unit is regulated by a power level controller. One or more point of load converters can be connected to the base unit by a conductor, with each point of load converter comprising a control signal generator that transmits a signal to the power level controller. The output power level of the DC voltage provided by the base unit is controlled by power level controller such that the power level is sufficient to power all active load converters when commanded to do so by any of the active controllers, without generating excessive power that may be otherwise wasted.

  1. Control of DFIG Wind Turbines Based on Indirect Matrix Converters in Short Circuit Mode to Improve the LVRT Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khajeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs based wind turbines (WTs are the dominant type of WTs. Traditionally, the back-to-back converters are used to excite the rotor circuit of DFIG. In this paper, an indirect matrix converter (IMC is proposed to control the generator. Compared with back-to-back converters, IMCs have numerous advantages such as higher level of robustness, reliability, and reduced size and weight due to the absence of bulky electrolytic capacitor. According to the recent grid codes wind turbines must have low voltage ride-through (LVRT capability. In this paper a new crowbar system is proposed so that along with the control system it protects the IMC from large fault currents and supports the grid voltage dips during grid faults. This crowbar system is provided using the existing converter switches to establish a short circuit mode without any extra circuitry. Even in severe fault conditions, the duration of short circuit mode is quite small so the control system will be activated shortly after the fault to inject reactive power as required by new LVRT standards. Therefore, the new LVRT standards are well satisfied without any extra costs. PSIM simulation results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  2. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage of already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.

  3. Implementation of Power Efficient Flash Analogue-to-Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taninki Sai Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient low power high speed 5-bit 5-GS/s flash analogue-to-digital converter (ADC is proposed in this paper. The designing of a thermometer code to binary code is one of the exacting issues of low power flash ADC. The embodiment consists of two main blocks, a comparator and a digital encoder. To reduce the metastability and the effect of bubble errors, the thermometer code is converted into the gray code and there after translated to binary code through encoder. The proposed encoder is thus implemented by using differential cascade voltage switch logic (DCVSL to maintain high speed and low power dissipation. The proposed 5-bit flash ADC is designed using Cadence 180 nm CMOS technology with a supply rail voltage typically ±0.85 V. The simulation results include a total power dissipation of 46.69 mW, integral nonlinearity (INL value of −0.30 LSB and differential nonlinearity (DNL value of −0.24 LSB, of the flash ADC.

  4. RESONANT STEP-DOWN DC-DC POWER CONVERTERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    charged from the input voltage and discharged to the output capacitor through the galvanic isolation barrier by a semiconductor switch arrangement in accordance with a switch control signal to produce the converter output voltage. The resonant step-down DC-DC power converter comprises an electrical short...... of the primary side circuit thereby establishing in both the first and second cases a series coupling of the output capacitor and the input capacitor. A load connection is established, in the first case, between the first positive electrode of the output capacitor and the positive input terminal or......-circuit connection across the galvanic isolation barrier connecting, in a first case, the second negative electrode of the output capacitor to the positive input terminal of the primary side circuit or, in a second case, connecting the second positive electrode of the output capacitor to the negative input terminal...

  5. Thermal Behavior Optimization in Multi-MW Wind Power Converter by Reactive Power Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2014-01-01

    The influence of actively controlled reactive power on the thermal behavior of multi-MW wind power converter with a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is investigated. First, the allowable range of internal reactive power circulation is mapped depending on the DC-link voltage as well as the in...

  6. Power-Based Control for a Bidirectional AC-DC Power Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Puerto Flores, Dunstano; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In many electrical applications it is indispensable that the power converter can operate as a generating or rectifier unit, and the controller must be able to handle this bidirectional power flow. An application example is the doubly fed induction machine, where power can flow in both directions thr

  7. Multijunction InGaAs thermophotovoltaic power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Parodos, Themis

    1995-10-01

    The experimental performance of a multijunction monolithic In(0.53)Ga(0. 47)As power converter under blackbody irradiation is reported. Eight InGaAs PN junctions grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating wafer were monolithically integrated in series to boost the approximately 0.4 V photovoltage per typical InGaAs junction to over 3 volts for the 1 sq cm chip. This chip was originally designed and characterized for free-space 1.3 micron laser power beaming. This is the first report of such a multijunction TPV. This is not a traditional tandem cell in which the junctions are stacked vertically. The junctions are each about 1mm long by 1 cm wide and are laterally connected across the 1 sq cm device area. This multijunction design has the potential for lower I(sup 2)R power loss since the smaller PN junction area limits the current to one-eighth that of the equivalent surface area. In essence, the current is traded for voltage to avoid the I(sup 2)R loss, analogous to the way power utilities avoid I(sup 2)P loss in high-tension power lines, by transforming the high current, low voltage generated at a power plant into a high voltage at a low current before transmitting the power over great distances.

  8. Asynchronous Power Flow Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Juneja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present system demand of electrical power increases so fast and transfer of electrical power is need of today‟s scenario. . The electrical power is transfer at same frequency through AC transmission line. However, power generation may be at different frequencies such as wind generation, sources at islanding or power generation in different countries. The proposed Asynchronous Power Flow Controller (APFC system essentially consists of two back-to-back voltage source converters as “Shunt Converter” and “Series Converter” which is coupled via a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor This paper suggests the power transfer and control between the sources operating at different or same frequencies.

  9. DC Link Current Estimation in Wind-Double Feed Induction Generator Power Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of the DC link current estimator in power conditioning system of the variable speed wind turbine is shown. The wind turbine is connected to double feed induction generator (DFIG. The variable electrical energy parameters delivered by DFIG are fitted with the electrical grid parameters through back-to-back power converter. The bidirectional AC-AC power converter covers a wide speed range from subsynchronous to supersynchronous speeds. The modern control of back-to-back power converter involves power balance concept, therefore its load power should be known in any instant. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a second order DC link current estimator. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the dc link input current of the rotor side converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feedforward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through the numerical simulation the performances of the proposed DC link output current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  10. A High Power Density Three-level Parallel Resonant Converter for Capacitor Charging

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Honggang

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a high-power, high-frequency and high-density three-level parallel resonant converter for capacitor charging. DC-DC pulsed power converters are widely used in military and medical systems, where the power density requirement is often stringent. The primary means for reducing the power converter size has been to reduce loss for reduced cooling systems and to increase the frequency for reduced passive components. Three-level resonant converters, which combine the mer...

  11. Self-oscillating loop based piezoelectric power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a piezoelectric power converter comprising an input driver electrically coupled directly to an input or primary electrode of the piezoelectric transformer without any intervening series or parallel inductor. A feedback loop is operatively coupled between an output...... voltage of the piezoelectric transformer and the input driver to provide a self-oscillation loop around a primary section of the piezoelectric transformer oscillating at an excitation frequency. Electrical characteristics of the feedback loop are configured to set the excitation frequency of the self......- oscillation loop within a zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation range of the piezoelectric transformer....

  12. Model predictive control for Z-source power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, W.; Loh, P.C.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents Model Predictive Control (MPC) of impedance-source (commonly known as Z-source) power converter. Output voltage control and current control for Z-source inverter are analyzed and simulated. With MPC's ability of multi- system variables regulation, load current and voltage...... regulations, impedance network inductor current, capacitor voltage as well as switching frequency fixation, transient reservation and null state penalization are all regulated as subjecting to constraints of this control method. The quality of output waveform, stability of impedance-network, level constraint...

  13. Reliability-cost models for the power switching devices of wind power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the growing reliability requirements for the wind power converters with more cost-effective solution, the target of this paper is to establish a new reliability-cost model which can connect the relationship between reliability performances and corresponding semiconductor cost...... for power switching devices. First the conduction loss, switching loss as well as thermal impedance models of power switching devices (IGBT module) are related to the semiconductor chip number information respectively. Afterwards simplified analytical solutions, which can directly extract the junction...... temperature mean value Tm and fluctuation amplitude ΔTj of power devices, are presented. With the proposed reliability-cost model, it is possible to enable future reliability-oriented design of the power switching devices for wind power converters, and also an evaluation benchmark for different wind power...

  14. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  15. Switching transients in high-frequency high-power converters using power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, T. H.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.

    1979-01-01

    The use of MOSFETs in a high-frequency high-power dc-to-dc converter is investigated. Consideration is given to the phenomena associated with the paralleling of MOSFETs and to the effect of stray circuit inductances on the converter circuit performance. Analytical relationships between various time constants during the turning-on and turning-off intervals are derived which provide estimates of plateau and peak levels during these intervals.

  16. Predictions for squeezed back-to-back correlations of φ φ and K^+K^- in high-energy heavy-ion collisions by event-by-event hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2016-08-01

    We calculate the squeezed back-to-back correlation (BBC) functions of φ φ and K^+K^- for heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC energies, using (2+1)-dimensional hydrodynamics with fluctuating initial conditions. The BBC functions averaged over event-by-event calculations for many events for the hydrodynamic sources are smoothed as a function of the particle momentum. For heavy-ion collisions of Au + Au at √{s_{NN}}=200 GeV, the BBC functions are larger than those for collisions of Pb + Pb at √{s_{NN}}=2.76 TeV. The BBC of φ φ may possibly be observed in peripheral collisions at the RHIC and LHC energies. It is large for the smaller sources of Cu + Cu collisions at √{s_{NN}}=200 GeV.

  17. Implementation of complementary resistive switch for image matching through back-to-back connection of ITO/TiO{sub 2-x}/TiO{sub 2}/ITO memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Cho, Kyoungrok [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Eshraghian, Kamran [College of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Chungbuk National University, 52 Naesudong-ro, Cheongju, 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); iDataMap Corporation, 198 Green Hill Road, Eastwood, South Australia, 5063 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Nanoscale memristive structures realized through combination of metal-insulator-metal (MIM) processing technologies have paved the way for efficient adoption of memory constructs such as ReRAM crossbar essential for mapping of new and emerging architectures. A noticeable drawback of the crossbar architecture is the existence of sneak-path currents between adjacent cells. Varieties of approaches including the complementary resistive switch (CRS) architecture offered as possible solution. This paper presents a memristor with heterojunction architecture ITO/TiO{sub 2-x}/TiO{sub 2}/ITO and implements CRS by anti-serial (back-to-back) connection of two memristive devices. For the application of this concept, implementation of an imaging search engine based on Hamming distance measure simply highlights the versatility of this novel technology. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Power converter with maximum power point tracking MPPT for small wind-electric pumping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We implement a wind electric pumping system of small power. • The power converter allowed to change the operating point of the electro pump. • Two control techniques were implemented in the power converter. • The control V/f variable allowed to increase the power generated by the permanent magnet generator. - Abstract: In this work, an AC–DC–AC direct-drive power converter was implemented for a wind electric pumping system consisting of a permanent magnet generator (PMG) of 1.3 kW and a peripheral single phase pump of 0.74 kW. In addition, the inverter linear V/f control scheme and the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm with variable V/f were developed. MPPT algorithm seeks to extract water in a wide range of power input using the maximum amount of wind power available. Experimental trials at different pump pressures were conducted. With a MPPT tracking system with variable V/f, a power value of 1.3 kW was obtained at a speed of 350 rpm and a maximum operating hydraulic head of 50 m. At lower operating heads pressures (between 10 and 40 m), variable V/f control increases the power generated by the PMG compared to the linear V/f control. This increase ranged between 4% and 23% depending on the operating pressure, with an average of 13%, getting close to the maximum electrical power curve of the PMG. The pump was driven at variable frequency reaching a minimum speed of 0.5 times the rated speed. Efficiency of the power converter ranges between 70% and 95% with a power factor between 0.4 and 0.85, depending on the operating pressure

  19. Reliability-cost models for the power switching devices of wind power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the growing reliability requirements for the wind power converters with more cost-effective solution, the target of this paper is to establish a new reliability-cost model which can connect the relationship between reliability performances and corresponding semiconductor cost for power switching devices. First the conduction loss, switching loss as well as thermal impedance models of power switching devices (IGBT module) are related to the semiconductor chip number informa...

  20. Special Tests for the Power Electronic Converters of Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars; Senturk, Osman Selcuk; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    -level medium-voltage source converter topologies, of the 3L-ANPC-VSC and 3L-HB-VSC type, are considered in the paper. Both converters employ press-pack IGBT-diode pairs and interface a 6 MW wind turbine to a medium voltage grid. The power loss and thermal model data applicable for both grid and generator......Power electronic converters for wind turbines are characterized by high specific power density and high reliability. Special tests for such converters are performed in order to determine the power loss and thermal models, which are dependent of the load profile and converter structure. Two multi...

  1. Low-power PFC and forward converters : methods to improve performance

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomainen, Vesa

    2004-01-01

    The number of power electronic appliances is growing. Power electronic converters can be used to convert the ac line voltage to a dc voltage, and further through dc-dc conversion stages to desired dc voltages for different loads. This Thesis deals with three single-stage power factor correction converters and a forward type dc-dc converter. Single-stage converters can be considered as low cost solutions for power factor correction. This is because only one active switching stage is used i...

  2. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part B: boost converter with energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Rogelio, Garcia Retegui; Gustavo, Uicich; Mario, Benedetti; Gilles, Le Godec; Konstantinos, Papastergiou

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of dierent power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. In this report, the use of a boost front-end converter supplying DC link of a 4-quadrant magnet supply is analysed. The key objective of the study is to find control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. The study comprises the modelling of the system by means of the method of state averaging and the development of regulation strategies to energy management. The proposed control strategies can be divided in two groups: in the first group, the magnet current is used to define the reference for the control system, while in the second group this current is unknown and some strategies are devised to limit the power drawn from the el...

  3. A new converter for improving efficiency of multi-actuators fluid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yong; Shang, JianZhong; Yang, JunHong; Wang Zhuo [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is concerned with the application of energy efficient fluid power in mobile robots system and proposes a new fluid power converter system which is analogous to a boost converter in power electronics. The fluid power converter system is based on the principle of pulse-width modulation. The fluid power converter has an effect akin to an electrical switched inductance transformer, wherein the output pressure or flow rate can be stepped up or down. Using an inductive reactance device (an inertia mass-block), the output flow and pressure can be varied to meet the load by a means that does not rely on dissipation of power (the resistance control). The simulation model based on the mathematics models of the components is built to analyse the performance of the fluid power converter. It is clearly shown that the fluid power converter has higher energy efficiency than conventional resistance control manners.

  4. Harmonics caused by power converters; Power electronics oyo sochi no hasseisuru kochoha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motoyoshi, O.; Osawa, H. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development, Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-12-10

    Power electronics applied devices utilize switching action of elements to adjust voltage, current, power and frequency, hence harmonics components are contained. The wider use of these devices have made actual such impediments as overheat in such paralleled devices as motors and capacitors, and occurrence of abnormal harmonics in electric power systems. Establishing suitable countermeasures requires knowledge about characteristics of the generated harmonics. Therefore, this paper summarizes harmonics generated by such representative power converters as a thyristor rectifier, a cycloconverter, an AC power adjusting device, and a PWM inverter. In the case of the thyristor rectifier, for example, waveform analysis revealed that AC side waveforms vary due to difference in connection systems (Y and {Delta}) in transformers for the converters, but there is no difference in order and size of the contained harmonic current; and it is only the phase of harmonic current that varies. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Custom DC-DC converters for distributing power in SLHC trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Allongue, B; Blanchot, G; Faccio, F; Fuentes, C; Mattavelli, P; Michelis, S; Orlandis, S; Spiazzi, G

    2008-01-01

    A power distribution scheme based on the use of on-board DC-DC converters is proposed to efficiently distribute power to the on-detector electronics of SLHC trackers. A comparative analysis of different promising converter topologies is presented, leading to the choice of a magneticbased buck converter as a first conversion stage followed by an on-chip switched capacitors converter. An overall efficiency above 80% is estimated for the practical implementation proposed.

  6. Power efficiency improvement of a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Tadahiko; Matsuo, Hirofumi; Ota, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Higashi, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an improvement of a power efficiency of a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter. The current resonant type converter employs generally the pulse frequency modulation and its magnetizing inductance is set relatively low. For this reason, the magnetizing current through the converter causes a power loss under a light load. In order to solve this problem, a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter has been proposed, and revealed the advantage ...

  7. Matrix Converter Based Unified Power Quality Conditioner (MUPQC for Power Quality Improvement in a Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Valsala

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new approach of unified power quality conditioner which is made up of a matrix converter without energy storage devices to mitigate the current harmonics, voltage sags and swell. By connecting the matrix converter output terminals to the load side through series transformer and the input side of matrix converter is connected to the supply side with step up transformer. So a matrix converter injects the compensation voltage on the load-side, so it is possible to mitigate the voltage sag/swell problems, resulting in an efficient solution for mitigating voltage and current related power quality problems. Thus, the proposed topology can mitigate the voltage fluctuations and current harmonics without energy storage elements and the total harmonic distortion produced by the system also very low. It also reduced volume and cost, reduced capacitor power losses, together with higher reliability. The Space-Vector Modulation (SVM is used to control the matrix converter. MATLAB/SIMULINK based simulation results are presented to validate the approach.

  8. Analysis of Power Converter Losses in Vector Control System of a Self-Excited Induction Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Mateo; Vukadinović, Dinko; Polić, Miljenko

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides analysis of losses in the hysteresis-driven three-phase power converter with IGBTs and free-wheeling diodes. The converter under consideration is part of the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) vector control system. For the analysis, the SEIG vector control system is used in which the induction generator iron losses are taken into account. The power converter losses are determined by using a suitable loss estimation algorithm reported in literature. The chosen algorithm allows the power converter losses to be determined both by type (switching/conduction losses) and by converter component (IGBT/diode losses). The overall power converter losses are determined over wide ranges of rotor speed, dc-link voltage and load resistance, and subsequently used for offline correction of the overall control system's losses (efficiency) obtained through control system simulations with an ideal power converter. The control system's efficiency values obtained after the correction are compared with the measured values.

  9. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...... has a measured inductance of around 5 nH. That allows the converter to switch with low turn-off losses, and allows the safe operation at higher dc-link voltages. This paper investigates the power transfer limits of a ShowerPower® cooled power stack....

  10. A Learning Aid Tool for Power Electronics Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouketir

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that power electronics and its related subjects are not easy to understand for students taking them for first time. This is due to nature of the subjects which involve many areas and disciplines. The introduction of general purpose simulation package has helped the student a step further in understanding this subject. However, because of the generality of these tools and their drag-and drop and ad-hoc features, the students still face problems in designing a converter circuit. In this paper, the problem above is addressed by introducing a learning aid tool that guides the student over prescribed steps to design a power electronics circuit. The tool is knowledge-based system where its knowledge base encompasses two types of knowledge; topologies and switching devices. The first step in the design procedure is the selection of the application of the desired circuit. Then few steps are to be followed to come out with the appropriate topology with the optimum switching devices and parameters. System structure, its different modules and the detailed design procedure are explained in this paper

  11. A High Power Density DC-DC Converter for Distributed PV Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed S; Chi, Song; Elasser, Ahmed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Jiang, Yan; Mueller, Frank; Tao, Fengfeng

    2012-06-01

    In order to maximize solar energy harvesting capabilities, power converters have to be designed for high efficiency and good MPPT and voltage/current performance. When many converters are used in distributed systems, power density also becomes an important factor as it allows for simpler system integration. In this paper a high power density string dc-dc converter suitable for distributed medium to large scale PV installation is presented. A simple partial power processing topology, implemented with all silicon carbide devices provides high efficiency as well as high power density. A 3.5kW, 100kHz converter is designed and tested to verify the proposed methods.

  12. AC–AC power electronic converters without DC energy storage: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The review of AC–AC power converters, without DC energy storage elements are shown. • A limitations of such systems are depicted. • Basic properties and regulation ranges of presented converters are shown. • The comprehensive comparison of component complexity and basic properties of such converters is presented. - Abstract: The development of power converter topologies, with an increased number of components seems to be an interesting option in modern applications, especially in terms of reliability, efficiency, and current or voltage distortions improvement. This paper focuses on AC–AC power converter technologies without DC-link energy storage elements. The presented converter topologies are fully solid state devices with small passive elements, which are implemented to filter off the high frequency current or voltage components. In the paper the converters are categorized into two groups: with constant output frequency, and with variable output frequency. The first group includes topologies of matrix and matrix-reactance choppers. The second group includes frequency converters based on the matrix converter, taking into account indirect (indirect matrix converter, sparse matrix converter) and multi-level topologies (three-level-output-stage indirect matrix converter, indirect three-level sparse matrix converter, multimodular matrix converters), as well as the topology allowing an increase in the output voltage (matrix-reactance frequency converters). Various converter topologies are presented, compared, and evaluated against output voltage and phase control, input power factor control, and number of components. The features of each converter configuration are considered in the context of alternative applications for commonly used converters with DC-link energy storage devices

  13. Maximum Power Search in Wind Turbine Based on Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenije Adzic

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes fuzzy logic control of induction generator speed in windturbine application. The aim of fuzzy controller is to establishe maximum power delivery tothe grid from available wind power. Fully-controlled wind turbine which consists ofinduction generator and back-to-back converter is under estimate. This configuration hasfull control over the electrical torque, full control of the speed, and also supports reactivepower compensation and operation under grid disturbances. Fuzzy logic control alorithmhas been aplied and validated by detailed simulation in MATLAB/Simulink. All systemcomponents have been described in detail.

  14. Soft switching buck-boost converter for photovoltaic power generation; Taiyoko hatsuden no tame no soft switching shokoatsu converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. [Kyungnam University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-27

    A soft switching method with small switching loss was proposed for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a DC-DC boost converter which converted a DC current generated by solar cells to a variable DC current. Existing current converters are supplemented by using a snubber circuit around the switch so as to protect the switch by a hard switching action. However, with an increase of the output current, snubber loss is increased, reducing the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, the partial resonant switch method was applied to the converter; with this method of partially forming a resonant circuit only at the time of turning on/off of the switch, the switching loss was reduced through the soft switching, thereby making the proposed converter operate with high efficiency. Moreover, the resonant element of the partial resonant circuit using a snubber condenser, the energy accumulated in the condenser was regenerated on the power supply side without loss of snubber. With the regenerated energy, the proposed converter was provided with a smaller ratio of switching to use than the conventional converter. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Design of the Trap Filter for the High Power Converters with Parallel Interleaved VSCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2014-01-01

    The power handling capability of the state-of-the-art semiconductor devices is limited. Therefore, the Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize high power converter. The switching frequency semiconductor devices, used in the high power VSCs, is also limited. The...

  16. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic controller in Photovoltaic Power generation using Boost Converter and Boost Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakkar Siddik A; Shangeetha M

    2012-01-01

    Increasing in power demand and shortage of conventional energy sources, researchers are focused on renewable energy. The proposed solar power generation circuit consists of solar array, boost converter and boost inverter. Low voltage, of photovoltaic array, is boosted using dc-dc boost converter to charge the battery and boost inverter convert this battery voltage to high quality sinusoidal ac voltage. The output of solar power fed from boost inverter feed to autonomous load without any inter...

  17. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    OpenAIRE

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate an interleaved buck topology for driving high current light-emitting diodes. Low output capacitor value allows the use of non-electrolytic capacitors extending the lifetime of the converter. Converter is operated as a constant, regulated current source which increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By sett...

  18. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can...... be operated close to the 50% duty cycle, where the ripple attenuation is the highest....

  19. Hybrid Voltage-Multipliers Based Switching Power Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Caro, Julio C.; Mayo-Maldonado, Jonathan C.; Vazquez-Bautista, Rene Fabian; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, Antonio; Salas-Cabrera, Ruben; Valdez-Resendiz, Jesus Elias

    2011-08-01

    This work presents a derivation of PWM DC-DC hybrid converters by combining traditional converters with the Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier, the voltage multiplier of each converter is driven with the same transistor of the basic topology; this fact makes the structure of the new converters very simple and provides high-voltage gain. The traditional topologies discussed are the boost, buck-boost, Cuk and SEPIC. They main features of the discussed family are: (i) high-voltage gain without using extreme duty cycles or transformers, which allow high switching frequency and (ii) low voltage stress in switching devices, along with modular structures, and more output levels can be added without modifying the main circuit, which is highly desirable in some applications such as renewable energy generation systems. It is shown how a multiplier converter can become a generalized topology and how some of the traditional converters and several state-of-the-art converters can be derived from the generalized topologies and vice-versa. All the discussed converters were simulated, additionally experimental results are provided with an interleaved multiplier converter.

  20. Design of a Switch-Mode Power Electronic Converter for Teaching Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Solheim, Ragnhild

    2012-01-01

    A power electronic switch-mode three-leg converter is a flexible converter and hence very useful for practical teaching of several disciplines within electric power engineering. It can be used as a half-bridge, full-bridge and three-phase converter, to mention a few, and enables the user to study many different power electronic topologies. The converter, controlled by a microcontroller, can also be used for teaching digital control of power electronics. Its output can be varied in frequency, ...

  1. Two-stage optimization method for efficient power converter design including light load operation

    OpenAIRE

    R. Yu; Ling, BWK; Pong, BMH; Lam, J

    2012-01-01

    Power converter efficiency is always a hot topic for switch mode power supplies. Nowadays, high efficiency is required over a wide load range, e.g., 20, 50, and 100 load. Computer-aided design optimization is developed in this research study, to optimize off-line power converter efficiency from light load to full load. A two-stage optimization method to optimize power converter efficiency from light load to full load is proposed. The optimization procedure first breaks the converter design va...

  2. A real time measurement of junction temperature variation in high power IGBT modules for wind power converter application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; Pedersen, Kristian Bonderup; de Vega, Angel Ruiz;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real time measurement of on-state forward voltage and estimating the junction temperature for a high power IGBT module during a power converter operation. The power converter is realized as it can be used for a wind turbine system. The peak of the junction temperature...

  3. DC Storage Energy Variation Factor Study for Switched Mode Power Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of energy conversion in DC switched-mode power converters is studied.The ratio of the energy storage in the systemto the energy put - through is investigated for several converters.A very comprehensive study to identify how the energy is manipulatedby the various types of converters is reported in this paper.

  4. Shunt Active and Series Active Filters-Based Power Quality Conditioner for Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeno Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a series active filter and shunt active filter to minimize the power quality impact present in matrix converters instead of passive filter. A matrix converter produces significant harmonics and nonstandard frequency components into load. The proposed system compensates the sag and swell problems efficiently in matrix converter. The proposed system has been tested and validated on the matrix converter using MATLAB/Simulink software. Simulated results confirm that the active power filters can maintain high performance for matrix converter.

  5. High-feedback Operation of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai T.; Mosekilde, Erik; Andriyanov, Alexey I.;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of some of the most important bifurcation phenomena that one can observe in pulse-modulated converter systems when operating with high corrector gain factors. Like other systems with switching control, electronic converter systems belong to the cl......The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of some of the most important bifurcation phenomena that one can observe in pulse-modulated converter systems when operating with high corrector gain factors. Like other systems with switching control, electronic converter systems belong...... or resonant periodic dynamics on the surface of a two-dimensional torus. This transition occurs when the feedback gain is increased beyond a certain threshold, for instance in order to improve the speed and accuracy of the output voltage regulation. For each of the three converter types, we discuss a number...

  6. A High Efficiency Power Factor Correction Using Interleaved Boost Converter With Fuzzy Logic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.BHUVANESWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents interleaved front end boost converter to perform better power factor correction to store energy for electric vehicles. The interleaved boost converter increases reliability, decreased stress on critical components, improves efficiency and more flexibility. The parallel connection of two boost converters reduces the input ripple current of the converter. The interleaved boost converter with coupled inductors reduces the volume and copper usage of the magnetic components and also achieves high power density. The coupled inductor delivers continuous current to improve the efficiency. The boost power factor correction (PFC converter with auxiliary circuit optimizes the amount of reactive current during light load condition. In addition the control system regulates the amount of reactive current to guarantee zero voltage switching (ZVS during line cycle for different load conditions. The proposed interleaved boost converter with coupled inductor was modeled and its performance is simulated and analyzed in Mat lab/Simulink environment.

  7. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two m...

  8. Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2004-02-01

    Three Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters (CTCs) are optimized for potential use in Multi-Mission Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (MM-ARPS) for electrical powers up to 1 kWe, or even higher, in support of 7-10 year missions. The peak efficiencies of these CTCs of 9.43% to 14.32% are 40% to 110% higher than that of SiGe in State-of-the-Art (SOA) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Such high efficiencies would significantly reduce the amount of 238PuO2 fuel and the total system mass for a lower mission cost. Each CTC is comprised of a SiGe top unicouple that is thermally, but not electrically, coupled to a bottom unicouple with one of the following three choices of thermoelectric materials: (a) p-leg of TAGS-85 and n-leg of 2N-PbTe (b) p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and n-leg of CoSb3; and (c) segmented p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Zn4Sb3 and n-leg of CoSb3. The length of the top and bottom unicouples is 10 mm, but the cross-sectional areas of the n- and p-legs of the unicouples are optimized for maximum efficiency operation. They vary with the thermal power inputs of 1, 2, and 3 Wth per SiGe unicouple, and the heat rejection temperature of 375 K, 475 K, and 575 K, from the bottom unicouple. Such geometrical optimization is at nominal hot shoe temperature of 1273 K for the SiGe unicouple and cold shoe temperature of either 780 K or 980 K, depending on the materials of the bottom unicouples. The hot shoe temperature of the bottom unicouples is 20 K lower than the cold shoe of the top SiGe unicouple, but the rate of heat input is the same as the rate of heat rejection from the top unicouple. The present results are conservative as they assume a contact resistance of 150 μΩ-cm2 per leg for the top and the bottom unicouples in the CTCs; however, decreasing this resistance to 50 μΩ-cm2 per leg could increase the current efficiency estimates by an additional 1 - 2 percentage points.

  9. Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab-Marzouk, Ahmad

    A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.

  10. Independent Control of Active and Reactive Powers of a DFIG Based Wind Energy Conversion System by Vector Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Ahmad A; Anitha, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with a design and implementation of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind energy conversion system (WECS) connected to the power grid. A back-to-back AC/DC/AC converter is incorporated between the stator and the rotor windings of a DFIG, in order to obtain variable speed operation. The DFIG can be controlled from sub-synchronous speed to super synchronous speed operation. The main objective of the paper is to control the flow of the Active and Reactive power...

  11. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  12. High Power Efficiency Buck Converter Design for Standalone Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigeng Huangfu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In wind generation system, the power converter efficiency is one of the key factors for the performance of the system. In those systems, DC/DC Buck converter is widely used for high power system. Considering the converter’s cost and efficiency, this paper mainly focuses on the design of an improved topology Buck converter adopted for high power standalone wind generation system. The designed converter uses multi-MOSFETs in parallel instead of the IGBTs, in order to increase the conductive current as well as the converter switch frequency. From the experimental tests results, the maximum efficiency of the designed 2 kW Buck converter is up to 96% based on maximum power point tracking (MPPT method.

  13. High Voltage Power Converter for Large Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal

    application. System B consists of the generator-side 2-level converter, DC/DC boost unit and a grid-side NPC-3L converter. System C is made of a seriesconnected full-bridge cells on the generator-side, and a grid-side NPC-5L converter. The performance of the proposed topologies is analyzed both under...... also for different grounding schemes, which impact is the result of the removed step-up transformer. Finally, the ground fault detection scheme for feeder cable system is proposed - with the usage of current differential relay. Due to lack of the galvanic separation between the wind turbines...

  14. Ultra-Lightweight, High Efficiency Silicon-Carbide (SIC) Based Power Electronic Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I of this project, APEI, Inc. proved the feasibility of creating ultra-lightweight power converters (utilizing now emerging silicon carbide [SiC] power...

  15. A New Very-High-Efficiency R4 Converter for High-Power Fuel Cell Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    A new very high efficiency 10 kW isolated R4 boost converter for low-voltage high-power fuel cell applications is presented. Using a new concept for partially paralleling of isolated boost converters, only the critical high ac-current parts are paralleled. Four 2.5 kW power stages, consisting...

  16. Reliability of Capacitors for DC-Link Applications in Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    DC-link capacitors are an important part in the majority of power electronic converters which contribute to cost, size and failure rate on a considerable scale. From capacitor users' viewpoint, this paper presents a review on the improvement of reliability of dc link in power electronic converters...

  17. Investigating Enhancement Mode Gallium Nitride Power FETs in High Voltage, High Frequency Soft Switching Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    An increased attention has been detected to develop smaller and lighter high voltage power converters in the range of 50V to 400V domain. The main applications for these converters are mainly focused for Power over Ethernet (PoE), LED lighting and AC adapters. This work will discuss a study of us...

  18. Accelerated lifetime testing of energy storage capacitors used in particle accelerators power converters

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)679542; Genton, Charles-Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage capacitors are used in large quantities in high power converters for particle accelerators. In this application capacitors see neither a DC nor an AC voltage but a combination of the two. The paper presents a new power converter explicitly designed to perform accelerated testing on these capacitors and the results of the tests.

  19. Model based design of efficient power take-off systems for wave energy converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    The Power Take-Off (PTO) is the core of a Wave Energy Converter (WECs), being the technology converting wave induced oscillations from mechanical energy to electricity. The induced oscillations are characterized by being slow with varying frequency and amplitude. Resultantly, fluid power is often...

  20. Three-dimensional integration of power electronic converters on printed circuit board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    The current construction technology for PCB assembled power converters is based on the assembly of pre-manufactured discrete components. Fundamental limits of this construction method are steadily being reached as power converters tend to exploit higher processing speeds to gain advantages in both m

  1. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the integrated magnetic components do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation...... of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs....

  2. Power Loss Modeling of Isolated AC/DC Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Khan, Naveed

    2012-01-01

    Several research activities at KTH are carried out related to Isolated AC/DC converters in order to improve the design and efficiency. Concerning the improvement in the mentioned constraints, losses of the elements in the prototype converter are modeled in this thesis work. The obtained loss model is capable of calculating the losses under different circumstances. The individual contribution of losses for each element at different conditions can be obtained, which is further useful in improvi...

  3. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the two integrated magnetic components on the same core do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs. (au)

  4. Matrix Converter Bi-directional Switch Power Loss and Cooling Condition Estimation for Integrated Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovs, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper power loss estimation of bi-directional switch of matrix converter is done by means of calculation and experiments. For safe operation of power devices an efficient cooling system of specific device must be designed. This work is part of a greater project of integrated matrix converter AC drives and the cooling problem here is viewed in context of this task. It is necessary to develop a compact power board and cooling system to extract excessive heat from power devices.

  5. Solid State Transformer Based on the Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converter for Intelligent Power Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ghias, Amer M.Y.M.; Ciobotaru, M.; Agelidis, Vassilios; Pou Félix, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Future grids will consist of large scale of integration of both renewable and other distributed energy sources. Therefore, advanced power electronics converters for critical loads will be needed in order to enhance power quality, and to ensure proper and secure operation of future grids. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper proposes a solid state transformer (SST) which consists of medium fre...

  6. Design and Implementation of Power Flow Control for a novel Dual Input DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taeed, Fazel; Ouyang, Ziwei; Nymand, Morten;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a control strategy for controlling the power flow from input voltage sources of a novel dual-input dcdc converter to the load is introduced. The converter can be used in renewable energy applications with two independent power sources. Firstly, the operation principle of the converter...... to control the power flow in the converter. The implemented controller in FPGA is low cost and simple. The complete system can be practically used in power management for renewable energy sources....... is outlined; then the control method for adjusting power sharing is proposed. In the next step, the controller is implemented in an FPGA, and then a 350W dual input converter is built to verify operation of the proposed control strategy. The experimental results show the excellent ability of the controller...

  7. High-Feedback Operation of Power Electronic Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady Y. Mikhal'chenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to provide a survey of some of the most important bifurcation phenomena that one can observe in pulse-modulated converter systems when operating with high corrector gain factors. Like other systems with switching control, electronic converter systems belong to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems. A characteristic feature of such systems is that the trajectory is “sewed” together from subsequent discrete parts. Moreover, the transitions between different modes of operation in response to a parameter variation are often qualitatively different from the bifurcations we know for smooth systems. The review starts with an introduction to the concept of border-collision bifurcations and also demonstrates the approach by which the full dynamics of the piecewise-linear, time-continuous system can be reduced to the dynamics of a piecewise-smooth map. We describe the main bifurcation structures that one observes in three different types of converter systems: (1 a DC/DC converter; (2 a multi-level DC/DC converter; and (3 a DC/AC converter. Our focus will be on the bifurcations by which the regular switching dynamics becomes unstable and is replaced by ergodic or resonant periodic dynamics on the surface of a two-dimensional torus. This transition occurs when the feedback gain is increased beyond a certain threshold, for instance in Electronics 2013, 2 114 order to improve the speed and accuracy of the output voltage regulation. For each of the three converter types, we discuss a number of additional bifurcation phenomena, including the formation and reconstruction of multi-layered tori and the appearance of phase-synchronized quasiperiodicity. Our numerical simulations are compared with experimentally observed waveforms.

  8. DC-DC switching converter based power distribution vs serial power distribution EMC strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Arteche, F; Iglesias, M; Rivetta, C; Arcega, F G; Vila, I

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed and comparative analysis from the electromagnetic compatibility point of view of the proposed power distributions for the SLHC tracker up-grade. The main idea is to identify and quantify the noise sources, noise distribution at the system level and the sensitive areas in the front-end electronics corresponding to both proposed topologies: The DC-DC converter based power distribution and the serial power distribution. These studies will be used to define critical points on both systems to be studied and prototyped to ensure the correct integration of the system taking critically into account the electromagnetic compatibility. This analysis at the system level is crucial to ensure the final performance of the detector using non conventional power distributions, avoiding interference problems and excessive losses that can lead to catastrophic failures or expensive and un-practical solutions.

  9. Study and Handling Methods of Power IGBT Module Failures in Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo-Beum

    2015-01-01

    , and availability in different applications. This paper presents an overview of the major failure mechanisms of IGBT modules and their handling methods in power converter systems improving reliability. The major failure mechanisms of IGBT modules are presented first, and methods for predicting lifetime......Power electronics plays an important role in a wide range of applications in order to achieve high efficiency and performance. Increasing efforts are being made to improve the reliability of power electronics systems to ensure compliance with more stringent constraints on cost, safety...... and estimating the junction temperature of IGBT modules are then discussed. Subsequently, different methods for detecting open- and short-circuit faults are presented. Finally, fault-tolerant strategies for improving the reliability of power electronic systems under field operation are explained and compared...

  10. A Dual-Input DC-DC Converter Using Clean Energy Power Supplies

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Kei

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, a serial SC DC-DC converter using clean energy power supplies has been proposed. The validity of the circuit design was confirmed by theoretical analyses, SPICE simulations, and experiments. The proposed converter can realize not only long battery runtime but also small hardware-cost and wide input-range. Concretely, in comparison with the conventional parallel converter using 1.5× step-up SC converters, the proposed converter can achieve 20%

  11. Comparison of multi-MW converters considering the determining factors in wind power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Many power converter configurations have been proposed for the next generation multi-MW wind turbines. However a comprehensive comparison based on the real determining factors in the wind power application is still missing. In fact the existing evaluation criteria and methods for the multi-MW power...... to be unified for comparison. And the two-level low-voltage converter solution still shows cost advantage regarding power semiconductors, while some multi-level medium-voltage converter solutions can show better performance when complying with the grid codes....

  12. Low dose failures of hardened DC-DC power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J.; Yui, C.; Rax, B. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weideman, M.; Schrick, P.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Box-level total dose testing of the FOG (Fiber Optic Gyro) by IXSEA at ESA's GammabeamFacility were abruptly terminated at 8krad (Si) due to catastrophic failure (complete shutdown). This was unexpected because all components within the gyro were supposedly radiation tolerant. Further testing showed that the components responsible for the failure were two DC-DC converters, manufactured by Interpoint, that stopped regulating shortly before shutdown. This paper summarizes diagnostic test results for the converters to determine the underlying cause of the unexpected failure at low levels of radiation.

  13. Energy Factor and Mathematical Modeling for Power DC/DC Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Lin LUO; Hong YE

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical modelling for power DC/DC converters is a historical problem accompanying DC/DC conversion technology since 1940's. The traditional mathematical modelling is not available for complex structure converters since the differential equation order increases very high. We have to search other way to establish mathematical modelling for power DC/DC converters. We have theoretically defined a new concept - Energy Factor (EF) in this paper and researched the relations between EF and the mathematical modelling for power DC/DC converters. EF is a new concept in power DC/DC conversion technology, which thoroughly differs from the traditional concepts such as power factor (PF), power transfer efficiency (η), total harmonic distortion (THD) and ripple factor (RF). EF and the subsequential EFv (and EFvD ) can illustrate the system stability, reference response and interference recovery. This investigation is very helpful for system design and DC/DC converters characteristics foreseeing. Two DC/DC converters: Buck converter and Super-Lift Luo-Converter as the samples are analysed in this paper to demonstrate the applications of EF, EFv (and EFvD), PE,SE, VE (and VED ), time constant τ and damping time constant τd .

  14. Implementation of Fuzzy Logic controller in Photovoltaic Power generation using Boost Converter and Boost Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakkar Siddik A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing in power demand and shortage of conventional energy sources, researchers are focused on renewable energy. The proposed solar power generation circuit consists of solar array, boost converter and boost inverter. Low voltage, of photovoltaic array, is boosted using dc-dc boost converter to charge the battery and boost inverter convert this battery voltage to high quality sinusoidal ac voltage. The output of solar power fed from boost inverter feed to autonomous load without any intermediate conversion stage and a filter. For boost converter operation duty cycle is varied through fuzzy logic controller and PWM block to regulate the converter output voltage. The ac voltage total harmonic distortion (THD obtained using this configuration is quite acceptable. The proposed power generation system has several desirable features such as low cost and compact size as number of switches used, are limited to four as against six switches used in classical two-stage inverters.

  15. New Primary-Parallel Boost Converter for High-Power High-Gain Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—A new simple and low cost method for paralleling multiple power stages in high-power high-gain isolated full-bridge boost converters is presented. A small current balancing transformer and serial connection of transformer secondary windings provides ideal current sharing between paralleled...... and manufacturing. Extension of the principle to other isolated boost converter topologies are demonstrated as well as extension to higher numbers of parallel operated power stages. Test results from a 3 kW experimental prototype converter are presented, verifying converter operation and demonstrating current...... sharing capability. Very high converter efficiency is achieved. Worst case efficiency at minimum input voltage and maximum power is 96.9 %. Maximum efficiency is 98 %....

  16. Forward Single-Stage Power Factor Correction AC/DC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Lin Luo; Hong Ye

    2005-01-01

    Power Factor Correction (PFC) is the capacity of generating or absorbing the reactive power produced by a load.The major industrial loads have aninductive power factor. The current tends to go beyond the power is usually used for the power conversion.This paper introduces a forward Single-Stage Power Factor Correction AC/DC converter which effectively improves the power factor up to PF=0.999.The simulation and experimental results verified our design.

  17. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  18. Evaluation and Design Tools for the Reliability of Wind Power Converter System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    As a key part in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter is proven to have high failure rates. At the same time, the failure of the wind power converter is becoming more unacceptable because of the quick growth in capacity, remote locations to reach, and strong impact to the power...... of suitable physic-of-failure based evaluation tools for a reliability assessment in power electronics. In this paper, an advanced tool structure which can acquire various reliability metrics of wind power converter is proposed. The tool is based on failure mechanisms in critical components of the system...... and mission profiles in wind turbines. Potential methodologies, challenges, and technology trends involved in this tool structure are also discussed. Finally, a simplified version of the tool is demonstrated on a wind power converter based on Double Fed Induction Generator system. With the proposed tool...

  19. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Chen, Wenjie; Liserre, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrent problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC voltage....

  20. Power Controllability of Three-phase Converter with Unbalanced AC Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Three-phase DC-AC power converters suffer from power oscillation and overcurrentt problems in case of unbalanced AC source voltage that can be caused by grid/generator faults. Existing solutions to handle these problems are properly selecting and controlling the positive and negative sequence...... converter can enable more flexible control targets, achieving better performances in the delivered power and load current when suffering from unbalanced AC sources....

  1. Voltage source ac-to-dc converters for high-power transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, R.

    1990-01-01

    This work was done to optimize the design of the components used for the beam power supply, which is a component of the transmitters in the Deep Space Network (DSN). The major findings are: (1) the difference in regulation between a six-pulse and a twelve-pulse converter is at most 7 percent worse for the twelve-pulse converter; (2) the commutation overlap angle of a current source converter equals that of a voltage source converter with continuous line currents; (3) the sources of uncharacteristic harmonics are identified with SPICE simulation; (4) the use of an imperfect phase-shifting transformer for the twelve-pulse converter generates a harmonic at six times the line frequency; and (5) the assumptions usually made in analyzing converters can be relaxed with SPICE simulation. The results demonstrate the suitability of using SPICE simulation to obtain detailed performance predictions of ac-to-dc converters.

  2. Carrier phase shifted SPWM based on current sourced multi-modular converter for active power filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立乔; 李建林; 张仲超

    2004-01-01

    A novel current-source active power filter(APF)based on multi-modular converter with carrier phase-shifted SPWM(CPS-SPWM)technique is proposed.With this technique,the effect of equivalent high switching frequency converter is obtained with low switching frequency converter.It is very promising in current-source APF that adopt superconducting magnetic energy storage component.

  3. Bifurcation Analysis of a DC-DC Bidirectional Power Converter Operating with Constant Power Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, Rony; Pagano, Daniel J.; Benadero, Luis; Ponce, Enrique

    Direct current (DC) microgrids (MGs) are an emergent option to satisfy new demands for power quality and integration of renewable resources in electrical distribution systems. This work addresses the large-signal stability analysis of a DC-DC bidirectional converter (DBC) connected to a storage device in an islanding MG. This converter is responsible for controlling the balance of power (load demand and generation) under constant power loads (CPLs). In order to control the DC bus voltage through a DBC, we propose a robust sliding mode control (SMC) based on a washout filter. Dynamical systems techniques are exploited to assess the quality of this switching control strategy. In this sense, a bifurcation analysis is performed to study the nonlinear stability of a reduced model of this system. The appearance of different bifurcations when load parameters and control gains are changed is studied in detail. In the specific case of Teixeira Singularity (TS) bifurcation, some experimental results are provided, confirming the mathematical predictions. Both a deeper insight in the dynamic behavior of the controlled system and valuable design criteria are obtained.

  4. Digital control of high-frequency switched-mode power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Luca; Mattavelli, Paolo; Zane, Regan

    This book is focused on the fundamental aspects of analysis, modeling and design of digital control loops around high-frequency switched-mode power converters in a systematic and rigorous manner Comprehensive treatment of digital control theory for power converters Verilog and VHDL sample codes are provided Enables readers to successfully analyze, model, design, and implement voltage, current, or multi-loop digital feedback loops around switched-mode power converters Practical examples are used throughout the book to illustrate applications of the techniques developed Matlab examples are also

  5. Proceedings of the CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Power Converters, Baden, Switzerland, 7-14 May 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, R

    2015-01-01

    These proceedings collate lectures given at the twenty-eighth specialized course organised by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). The course was held at the Hotel du Parc, Baden, Switzerland from 7 - 14 May 2014, in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute. Following introductory lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered components and topologies of the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Issues of design, control and exploitation in a sometimes-hostile environment were addressed. Site visits to ABB and PSI provided an insight into state-of-the-art power converter production and operation, while topical seminars completed the programme.

  6. Complex-Vector Time-Delay Control of Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, P. C.; Tang, Y.;

    2008-01-01

    to develop dynamically fast and accurate current controllers is even more intensive with more features expected to be embedded within a single control module. Believing in its continual importance, this paper contributes by proposing a complex-vector time-delay control scheme that can achieve high tracking...... a set of load-matching control characteristics that are less sensitive to external noise interferences. These added features, complementing the basic requirement of fast and accurate fundamental positive-sequence tracking, render the proposed scheme as an attractive alternative for high-end converter...... control. Lastly, for proving its practicality, experimental testing of the scheme is performed digitally using a commercial grid converter with some informative results captured and compared with those of an existing scheme....

  7. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau;

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the p......In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature...... in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generator-side converter will have higher mean junction temperature and larger junction temperature...... fluctuation compared to grid-side converter at the rated wind speed. Moreover, the thermal performance of the generator-side converter in the partial-scale power converter becomes crucial around the synchronous operating point and should be considered carefully....

  8. Development of a current-type PWM converter with high power factor. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power supply system for superconducting poloidal field coils of a next generation tokamak-type fusion device can be operated on the relatively low voltage for the duration of discharge except the plasma initiation. In the case of the conventional phase-controlled thyristor converters are adopted in such a system, the input power factor would be low in average, and a reactive power fluctuation caused by the change of DC output voltage may produce serious effects on the commercial transmission line. From the above viewpoint, a current-type PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) converter, which can work with the power factor of unity for the input power, is regarded as one of the promising candidates of the converters for the power supplies of next generation fusion devices. Hence, a 100kW-class current-type PWM converter has been developed by using IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) as switching devices. In this development, the basic performance has been preliminary investigated whether this converter is applicable to the power supply for the next generation fusion device. In addition, two different PWM control methods were examined whether these methods can realize a unit power factor and suppress the transient oscillation of converter input current at the same time in case that the reference of DC output current is changed rapidly. (author)

  9. Impact of Wind Power Plants with Full Converter Wind Turbines on Power System Small-Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nygaard Nielsen, Jørgen; Dixon, Andrew

    Wind power is being developed in power systems all around the world, and already today wind power covers more than 20 % of the electricity consumption in some countries. As the size of each wind power plant (WPP) increases and as the levels of penetration reaches certain magnitudes, the inclusion...... of the dynamic properties of the WPPs in the power system stability studies become important. The work presented in this report deal with the impact of WPPs based on full converter wind turbines (WTs) on the power system small-signal rotor angle stability. During small disturbances in the power system, the rotor...... based on converter interfaced WTs oer a high degree of controllability due to the rapid response of the converter and the ability to control both the active and the reactive power output. During this project, it has been explored how these properties could be utilized to actively contribute to the modal...

  10. Modelling, simulation and construction of a dc/dc boost power converter: a school experimental system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders the feasible introduction of this equipment in undergraduate laboratories. (paper)

  11. A dual voltage control strategy for single-phase PWM converters with power decoupling function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    The inherent double line ripple power in singlephase systems is adverse to the converter performance, e.g. limited lifetime due to the requirement of large electrolytic capacitors and low voltage control bandwidth due to harmonic disturbance. In this paper, an active converter topology based on a...

  12. Modelling, Simulation and Construction of a DC/DC Boost Power Converter: A School Experimental System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Ortigoza, R.; Silva-Ortigoza, G.; Hernandez-Guzman, V. M.; Saldana-Gonzalez, G.; Marcelino-Aranda, M.; Marciano-Melchor, M.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a dc/dc boost power converter as a didactic prototype intended to support courses on electric circuit analysis experimentally. The corresponding mathematical model is obtained, the converter is designed and an experimental setup is described, constructed and tested. Simplicity of construction as well as low cost of components renders…

  13. 100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Merrill Skeist; Richard H. (Dick) Baker; Anthony G.P. Marini; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-03-21

    Project Final Report for "100kW Energy Transfer Multiplexer Power Converter Prototype Development Project" prepared under DOE grant number DE-FG36-03GO13138. This project relates to the further development and prototype construction/evaluation for the Energy Transfer Multiplexer (ETM) power converter topology concept. The ETM uses a series resonant link to transfer energy from any phase of a multiphase input to any phase of a multiphase output, converting any input voltage and frequency to any output voltage and frequency. The basic form of the ETM converter consists of an eight (8)-switch matrix (six phase power switches and two ground power switches) and a series L-C resonant circuit. Electronic control of the switches allows energy to be transferred in the proper amount from any phase to any other phase. Depending upon the final circuit application, the switches may be either SCRs or IGBTs. The inherent characteristics of the ETM converter include the following: Power processing in either direction (bidirectional); Large voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics; High efficiency independent of output load and frequency; Wide bandwidth with fast transient response and; Operation as a current source. The ETM is able to synthesize true sinusoidal waveforms with low harmonic distortions. For a low power PM wind generation system, the ETM has the following characteristics and advantages: It provides voltage gain without the need of low frequency magnetics (DC inductors) and; It has constant high efficiency independent of the load. The ETM converter can be implemented into a PM wind power system with smaller size, reduced weight and lower cost. As a result of our analyses, the ETM offers wind power generation technology for the reduction of the cost and size as well as the increase in performance of low power, low wind speed power generation. This project is the further theoretical/analytical exploration of the ETM converter concept in relationship to

  14. Advanced DC-DC converter for power conditioning in hydrogen fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacevic, G.; Tenconi, A.; Bojoi, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    The fuel cell (FC) generators can produce electric energy directly from hydrogen and oxygen. The DC voltage generated by FC is generally low amplitude and it is not constant, depending on the operating conditions. Furthermore, FC systems have dynamic response that is slower than the transient responses typically requested by the load. For this reason, in many applications the FC generators must be interfaced with other energy/power sources by means of an electronic power converter. An advanced full-bridge (FB) DC-DC converter, which effectively achieves zero-voltage switching and zero-current switching (ZVS-ZCS), is proposed for power-conditioning (PC) in hydrogen FC applications. The operation and features of the converter are analyzed and verified by simulations results. The ZVS-ZCS operation is obtained by means of a simple auxiliary circuit. Introduction of the soft-switching operation in PC unit brings improvements not only from the converter efficiency point of view, but also in terms of increased converter power density. Quantitative analysis of hard and soft-switching operating of the proposed converter is also made, bringing in evidence the benefits of soft-switching operation mode. The proposed converter can be a suitable solution for PC in hydrogen FC systems, especially for the medium to high-power applications. (author)

  15. STATIC CONVERTERS OF THE ELECTRIC POWER WITH IMPROVED OPERATION-TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uskov A. E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes scopes and new technical decisions of static converters of the electric power with the improved operation-characteristics, executed with use of new element base and a modular principle of construction

  16. Modular Power System Configured with Standard Product Hybrid DC-DC Converters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — VPT proposes an innovative concept whereby complex NASA space power electronic systems can be configured using a small number of qualified hybrid DC-DC converter...

  17. A control strategy for multi-functional converter to improve grid power quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe;

    2011-01-01

    The extensive use of converter-interfacing distributed energy resources (DER), combined with a large amount of nonlinear and unbalanced loads connected to the distribution power system, has led to power quality problem. This paper proposes a control strategy for a three-phase four-leg multi......-functional converter which can compensate reactive power, harmonic currents, unbalance, and neutral current simultaneously under distorted voltage conditions, besides the active power exchange. The capacity of the converter is taken into account. The proposed control strategy based on synchronous reference frame (SRF......) for multi-functional converter is described. Simulation and hardware in the loop real time test results carried on a three-phase four-wire distributed generation system illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy....

  18. Capacitor performance limitations in high power converter applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khatib, Walid Ziad; Holbøll, Joachim; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2013-01-01

    series inductances include the risk of transient overvoltages, with a negative effect on life time and reliability of the capacitors. These allowable limits of such current and voltage peaks are decided by the ability of the converter components, including the capacitors, to withstand them over...... the expected life time. In this paper results are described from investigations on the electrical environment of these capacitors, including all the conditions they would be exposed to, thereby trying to find the tradeoffs needed to find a suitable capacitor. Different types of capacitors with the same voltage...

  19. An overview of power electronic converter technology for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic technology which is an enabling tool for modern wind and marine energy conversion systems. In this chapter, the main power electronic devices are described. Various power electronic converter topologies are represented, and commonly used modulation schemes and...

  20. Generation of Random Wind Speed Profiles for Evaluation of Stress in WT Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigazo, Alberto; Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbines are subjected to wind speed variations that cause a power profile that will stress the overall system. This stress is tranfered to the power converter, resulting in temperature variations of the power devices and, hence, causing the reduction of the lifetime. The lifetime expectatio...

  1. The electrical, thermal and spatial integration of a converter in a power electronic module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the design and implementation of a power electronic system (14/42V DC/DC converter) that is implemented in the automotive environment, specifically the engine compartment. The power electronic system must have a high power density while operating in a high temperature e

  2. A method to analysis and design for long life power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, HM; Pong, BMH

    2010-01-01

    Engineers are always looking for more reliable or longer life power converters. Electrolytic capacitor is the critical component to be considered. Using the powerful calculation tools like Mathcad and Matlab and allowable life model, this paper aims at proposing a method to optimize the circuit design to lower the current ripple through the electrolytic capacitor in order to reach for longer capacitor life. Comparison between two modes of operation and the two converter topologies, Forward an...

  3. A new class of hybrid AC/AC direct power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Klumpner, Christian; Wijekoon, Thiwanka; Wheeler, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Variable voltage and variable frequency conversion of electrical energy from an AC source to an AC load is done in traditional power converters via a DC-link where an energy storage element (electrolytic capacitors) is situated. Despite its well-known benefits, it has the disadvantage of being bulky and to limit the converter lifetime. On the other hand, Direct Power Conversion (DPC) is an attractive concept, which doesn’t need an energy storage buffer, but has two main disadvantages: reduced...

  4. Effect of a nonlinear power take off on a wave energy converter

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Helen Louise

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is titled The influence of a nonlinear Power Take Off on a Wave Energy Converter. It looks at the effect that having a nonlinear Power Take Off (PTO) has on an inertial referenced, slack moored, point absorber, Wave Energy Converter (WEC). The generic device studied utilizes relative heave motion between an axi-symmetric cylinder and an internal mass, for the PTO to operate between. The PTO is the part of the WEC that transforms the relative motion into electricity....

  5. Low power very high frequency resonant converter with high step down ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a resonant converter with a switching frequency in the very high frequency range (30-300MHz), a large step down ratio and low output power. This gives the designed converters specifications which are far from previous results. The class E inverter and rectifier...... is with a large input inductor. The power stages are designed with the same specs and efficiencies from 60.7−82.9% are achieved....

  6. The Feasibility Study on Thermal Loading Control of Wind Power Converters with a Flexible Switching Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    Thermal loading of wind power converters is critical to their reliability performance. Especially for IGBT modules applied in a converter, both of the mean value and variation of the junction temperature have significant impact on the lifetime. Besides other strategies to reduce the thermal loadi...... the temperature fluctuations due to wind speed variations. The trade-off between the reduced amplitude of temperature fluctuations and the additional power losses that may be introduced is quantitatively studied....

  7. A Comparison Between Two Average Modelling Techniques of AC-AC Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Szczesniak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative evaluation of two modelling tools for switching AC-AC power converters is presented. Both of them are based on average modelling techniques. The first approach is based on the circuit averaging technique and consists in the topological manipulations, applied to a converters states. The second approach makes use of state-space averaged model of the converter and is based on analytical manipulations using the different state representations of a converter. The two modelling techniques are applied to a same AC-AC converter called matrix-reactance frequency converter based on buck-boost topology. These techniques are compared on the basis of their rapidity, quantity of calculations and transformations and its limitations.

  8. Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off System for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Kramer, Morten; Vidal, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The Wavestar Wave Energy Converter (WEC) is a multiple absorber concept, consisting of 20 hemisphere shaped floats attached to a single platform. The heart of the Wavestar WEC is the Power Take-Off (PTO) system, converting the wave induced motion of the floats into a steady power output to the grid...... is converted into electricity at a steady pace by hydraulic motors and generators. The storage, thereby, decouples the complicated process of wave power absorption from power generation. The core for enabling this PTO technology is implementing a near loss-free force control of the energy absorbing cylinders...... system for a 20 float Wavestar based on the DDC. The WEC and PTO is rigorously modeled from incident waves to the electric output to the grid. The resulting model of +600 states is simulated in different irregular seas, showing that power conversion efficiencies above 70% from input power to electrical...

  9. Power Converters and Control of Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Chen, Zhe;

    2004-01-01

    energy conversion system, will play an important part in our future energy supply. But other sources like microturbines, photovoltaics and fuel cell systems may also be serious contributor to the power supply. Characteristically, power electronics will be an efficient and important interface to the grid...

  10. A Reliability-Oriented Design Method for Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is a crucial performance indicator of power electronic systems in terms of availability, mission accomplishment and life cycle cost. A paradigm shift in the research on reliability of power electronics is going on from simple handbook based calculations (e.g. models in MIL-HDBK-217F...

  11. Comprehensive review of high power factor ac-dc boost converters for PFC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro Pereira, Dênis; Da Silva, Márcio Renato; Mateus Silva, Elder; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    High power factor rectifiers have been consolidated as an effective solution to improve power quality indices in terms of input power factor correction, reduction in the total harmonic distortion of the input current and also regulated dc voltages. Within this context, this subject has motivated the introduction of numerous converter topologies based on classic dc-dc structures associated with novel control techniques, thus leading to the manufacturing of dedicated integrated circuits that allow high input power factor by adding a front-end stage to switch-mode converters. In particular, boost converters in continuous current mode (CCM) are widely employed since they allow obtaining minimised electromagnetic interference levels. This work is concerned with a literature review involving relevant ac-dc single-phase boost-based topologies with high input power factor. The evolution of aspects regarding the conventional boost converter is shown in terms of improved characteristics inherent to other ac-dc boost converters. Additionally, the work intends to be a fast and concise reference to single-phase ac-dc boost converters operating in CCM for engineers, researchers and experts in the field of power electronics by properly analysing and comparing the aforementioned rectifiers.

  12. A Reduced-Part, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter for Electric Vehicle Power Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may consist of three voltage nets; 14 V, 42 V and high voltage (>200 V) buses. A soft-switched, bi-directional dc-dc converter using only four switches was proposed for interconnecting the three nets. This paper presents a reduced- part dc-dc converter, which decreases the converter cost while retaining all the favorable features of the original topology. Simulation and experimental data are included to verify a simple power flow control scheme.

  13. Advanced buck converter power supply ABCPS for APT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, R.; Overett, T.; Bowles, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to fabricate an Accelerator for the Production of Tritium (APT) at their Savannah River Site, to provide Tritium for national defense. The 1700 million electron volt (MeV) proton beam accelerator will be powered by radio frequency (RF) klystrons. A direct current (DC) power supply is required for each of the approximately two hundred and fifty 1-megawatt (MW) continuous wave klystrons in the RF power system. The requirements are that the power supply meet output performance specifications, provide fault protection for the klystron, have high efficiency, high reliability, good maintainability, and be readily manufacturable. As the power supplies are one of the largest cost elements in the accelerator, a technology review was made to determine the most economical approach to satisfy the requirements. A switch-mode power supply employing a buck-regulator was identified as being potentially the lowest cost approach. As the switch represents a certain development risk, a small-scale prototype has been constructed for evaluation, and has resulted in the decision to fabricate a full-scale prototype power supply. A description of the hardware will be presented.

  14. Thermal analysis of multi-MW two-level wind power converter

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Mogens, Lau; Tonnes, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter with DFIG and direct-drive PMSG are designed and compared in terms of their thermal performance. Simulations of different configurations regarding loss distribution and junction temperature in the power device in the whole range of wind speed are presented and analyzed. It is concluded that in both partial-scale and full-scale power converter the most thermal stressed power device in the generat...

  15. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    OpenAIRE

    Marian GAICEANU; Emil ROSU

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller) 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP), were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation ...

  16. Module-Integrated Power Converters Based on Universal Dock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Patrick; Rodriguez, Fernando

    2015-03-13

    Solar power installations using alternating current photovoltaic (ACPV) modules have significant cost and performance advantages over systems using conventional solar modules and string inverters. ACPV modules have improved energy harvest due to module-level power point tracking and redundancy. More importantly, ACPV modules are easier and cheaper to install, lowering the total installed cost, indirect costs, and barriers to market entry. Furthermore, ACPV modules have communications and data logging capability, yielding module-level telemetry data that is useful in site diagnostics and other data applications. The products of these efforts were threefold. First, an advanced microinverter power topology was developed, modeled, simulated, and tested. Second, new microinverter enclosure concepts were developed and tested. Third, a new ACPV module prototype was constructed, combining the power topology and the enclosure concepts. SolarBridge filed for patents in each of these areas and is transitioning the project from a concept phase to full development.

  17. Power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents power electronic conversion systems for wind and marine energy generation applications, in particular, direct drive generator energy conversion systems. Various topologies are presented and system design optimization and reliability are briefly discussed....

  18. The Quiet Rotary Power and Information Transformer Converter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many satellites, spacecraft, and radar antennas with spun and de-spun configurations require the transfer of power across rotating interfaces in lieu of slip rings...

  19. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Charles W. Solbrig

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial sp...

  20. Investigation of a metallic photonic crystal high power microwave mode converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is demonstrated that an L band metallic photonic crystal TEM-TE11 mode converter is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. The proposed mode converter is realized by partially filling metallic photonic crystals along azimuthal direction in a coaxial transmission line for phase-shifting. A three rows structure is designed and simulated by commercial software CST Microwave Studio. Simulation results show that its conversion efficiency is 99% at the center frequency 1.58 GHz. Over the frequency range of 1.56-1.625 GHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90 %, with a corresponding bandwidth of 4.1 %. This mode converter has a gigawatt level power handling capability which is suitable for narrow band high power microwave application. Using magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator(MILO) as a high power microwave source, particle-in-cell simulation is carried out to test the performance of the mode converter. The expected TE11 mode microwave output is obtained and the MILO works well. Mode conversion performance of the converter is tested by far-field measurement method. And the experimental result confirms the validity of our design. Then, high power microwave experiment is carried out on a Marx-driven Blumlein water line pulsed power accelerator. Microwave frequency, radiated pattern and power are measured in the far-field region and the results agree well with simulation results. The experiment also reveals that no microwave breakdown or pulse shortening took place in the experimental setup

  1. The Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Design Challenge for Scientific Spacecraft Powered by a Stirling Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Noel B.

    2001-01-01

    A 55 We free-piston Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) has been tested as part of an evaluation to determine its feasibility as a means for significantly reducing the amount of radioactive material required compared to Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to support long-term space science missions. Measurements were made to quantify the low frequency magnetic and electric fields radiated from the Stirling's 80 Hertz (Hz) linear alternator and control electronics in order to determine the magnitude of reduction that will be required to protect sensitive field sensors aboard some science missions. One identified "Solar Probe" mission requires a 100 dB reduction in the low frequency magnetic field over typical military standard design limits, to protect its plasma wave sensor. This paper discusses the electromagnetic interference (EMI) control options relative to the physical design impacts for this power system, composed of 3 basic electrical elements. They are (1) the Stirling Power Convertor with its linear alternator, (2) the power switching and control electronics to convert the 90 V, 80 Hz alternator output to DC for the use of the spacecraft, and (3) the interconnecting wiring including any instrumentation to monitor and control items 1 and 2.

  2. 永磁同步电机对拖试验电压降低问题研究%Research on Problem of Voltage Reduction for PMSM Back-to-back Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康尔良; 肖子阳; 赵鹏; 吕德刚

    2015-01-01

    As the terminal voltage of permanent magnet synchronous motor(PMSM)running as the generator decreases with the load current increasing during the large permanent magnet synchronous motor back-to-back connected dragging for the load test,it will not be able to be loaded when the terminal voltage is lower than the grid-side voltage under the load feedback.In this paper,proposed an approach to make sure the capacitor and the output of permanent magnet synchronous generator were in paralleled,so the voltage reduction of the generator resulted from the lag of reactive current in the motor perceptual loop can be compensated.It can satisfy the need of loading and the lifetime of generator insulation material would not be influenced by the overtopped terminal voltage of generator in the case of large capacitance after the direct axis current demagnetization Id was calculated based on stator winding current of the generator and the capacitance reactive compensation was figured up,then simulation model of PMSM dragging test with capacitance com-pensation can be built.The simulation results show that the calculation of capacitance compensation is cor-rect,so the terminal voltage of generator can be improved effectively,and the PMSM can be loaded steadily. The method in this paper has an advantage of low cost compared with other methods of loading,and can be used in the performance test of PMSM in practice.%大型永磁同步电动机(PMSM)对拖做负载试验时,由于作为发电机运行的PMSM端电压随负载电流增加而降低,端电压低于负载回馈的电网侧电压导致无法继续加载的问题,本文提出永磁同步发电机输出端并联电容器的方法,以补偿因电机感性回路中滞后的无功电流导致的发电机端电压下降。根据发电机定子绕组电流计算直轴去磁电流Id ,定量计算无功补偿的电容值,既可以满足PMSM加载的需求,也可以避免投入电容量过大导致发电机端电压

  3. High-power non linear frequency converted laser diodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Hansen, Anders Kragh;

    2015-01-01

    We present different methods of generating light in the blue-green spectral range by nonlinear frequency conversion of tapered diode lasers achieving state-of-the-art power levels. In the blue spectral range, we show results using single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) as well as cavity...

  4. Nonlinear control of voltage source converters in AC-DC power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, P K; Nayak, N

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents the design of a robust nonlinear controller for a parallel AC-DC power system using a Lyapunov function-based sliding mode control (LYPSMC) strategy. The inputs for the proposed control scheme are the DC voltage and reactive power errors at the converter station and the active and reactive power errors at the inverter station of the voltage-source converter-based high voltage direct current transmission (VSC-HVDC) link. The stability and robust tracking of the system parameters are ensured by applying the Lyapunov direct method. Also the gains of the sliding mode control (SMC) are made adaptive using the stability conditions of the Lyapunov function. The proposed control strategy offers invariant stability to a class of systems having modeling uncertainties due to parameter changes and exogenous inputs. Comprehensive computer simulations are carried out to verify the proposed control scheme under several system disturbances like changes in short-circuit ratio, converter parametric changes, and faults on the converter and inverter buses for single generating system connected to the power grid in a single machine infinite-bus AC-DC network and also for a 3-machine two-area power system. Furthermore, a second order super twisting sliding mode control scheme has been presented in this paper that provides a higher degree of nonlinearity than the LYPSMC and damps faster the converter and inverter voltage and power oscillations. PMID:24906895

  5. A power electronics controlled current source based on a double-converter topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwóźdź Michał

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a conception of power electronics voltage controlled current source (VCCS which is able much more precise mapping of its an output current in a reference signal, compared to a typical converter solution. It can be achieved by means of such interconnection of two separate converters that one of them corrects a total output current towards a reference signal. An output power of auxiliary converter is much smaller than an output power of main one. Thanks to continuous work of this converter also pulse modulation components in this current are minimized. These benefits are paid for by a relatively small increase in the complexity and the cost of the system. This conception of a converter has been called the double-converter topology (DCT. In the author opinion presented solution of the system can find application in many power electronics equipment and, therefore, will be developed. In the paper DCT basics, simulation experiments, and possible practical arrangement of the DCT are presented

  6. An overview of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems: DC and AC converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Kamarudin, S K; Masdar, M S; Mohamed, A

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and fuel cell technologies play an important role in the field of renewable energy. The demand for fuel cells will increase as fuel cells become the main power source for portable applications. In this application, a high-efficiency converter is an essential requirement and a key parameter of the overall system. This is because the size, cost, efficiency, and reliability of the overall system for portable applications primarily depend on the converter. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate converter topology is an important and fundamental aspect of designing a fuel cell system for portable applications as the converter alone plays a major role in determining the overall performance of the system. This paper presents a review of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems, which include various topology combinations of DC converters and AC inverters and which are primarily used in fuel cell systems for portable or stand-alone applications. This paper also reviews the switching techniques used in power conditioning for fuel cell systems. Finally, this paper addresses the current problem encountered with DC converters and AC inverter.

  7. An overview of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems: DC and AC converters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M S; Kamarudin, S K; Masdar, M S; Mohamed, A

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics and fuel cell technologies play an important role in the field of renewable energy. The demand for fuel cells will increase as fuel cells become the main power source for portable applications. In this application, a high-efficiency converter is an essential requirement and a key parameter of the overall system. This is because the size, cost, efficiency, and reliability of the overall system for portable applications primarily depend on the converter. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate converter topology is an important and fundamental aspect of designing a fuel cell system for portable applications as the converter alone plays a major role in determining the overall performance of the system. This paper presents a review of power electronics applications in fuel cell systems, which include various topology combinations of DC converters and AC inverters and which are primarily used in fuel cell systems for portable or stand-alone applications. This paper also reviews the switching techniques used in power conditioning for fuel cell systems. Finally, this paper addresses the current problem encountered with DC converters and AC inverter. PMID:25478581

  8. Realization of SVM Algorithm for Indirect Matrix Converter and Its Application in Power Factor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with AC-DC-AC converter, matrix converter (MC has several advantages for its bidirectional power flow, controllable power factor, and the absence of large energy storage in dc-link. The topology of MC includes direct matrix converter (DMC and indirect matrix converter (IMC. IMC has received great attention worldwide because of its easy implementation and safe commutation. Space vector PWM (SVM algorithm for indirect matrix converter is realized on DSP and CPLD platform in this paper. The control of the rectifier and inverter in IMC can be decoupled because of the intermediate dc-link. The space vector modulation scheme for IMC is discussed and the PWM sequences for the rectifier and inverter are generated. And a two-step commutation of zero current switching (ZCS in the rectifier is achieved. Input power factor of IMC can be changed by adjusting the angle of the reference current vector. Experimental tests have been conducted on a RB-IGBT based indirect matrix converter prototype. The results verify the performance of the SVM algorithm and the ability of power factor correction.

  9. Network power flux control of a wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aouzellag, D.; Ghedamsi, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, A. Mira University, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Berkouk, E.M. [Control Process Laboratory, E.N.P, Algiers (Algeria)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, a network power flux control of a variable speed wind generator is investigated. The wind generator system consists of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to the network associated to a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The dynamic behaviour of a wind generator, including the models of the wind turbine, the doubly fed induction generator, the back-to-back AC/AC converter, the converter control and the power control of this system, is studied. Is also investigated a control method of the FESS system which consists of the classical squirrel-cage induction machine (IM) supplied off the variable speed wind generator (VSWG). In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, a dynamic model of the proposed system has been simulated, for different operating points, to demonstrate the performance of the system. (author)

  10. Estimation and reduction of harmonic currents from power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian

    in harmonic current mitigation. Although their mitigation efficiency is lower, they are compact, simple to build, and relatively inexpensive. As it is confirmed here, the design of a PPF is very sensitive to the system impedance, but this can be decoupled with a large line reactance installed on the line......-power applications. However, at a higher power the inverter cannot operate at a very high switching frequency because of the considerable increase of switching losses. On the other hand, a lower switching frequency is not desirable in APF's because of the reduced controller bandwidth, which determines improper....... The research of in this project deals with harmonic currents from ASD's. The models developed help predicting the harmonic currents and propose solutions for their mitigation. The project makes it possible to compare different harmonic mitigation solutions and reveals their demands in respect...

  11. A new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in application of photovoltaic power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Mo; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new DC/AC boost transformerless converter in the applications of photovoltaic (PV) power generation. A new circuit topology of single phase full bridge power inverter with additional DC/DC boost stage is proposed. The proposed topology overcomes two commonly existing......, and then converts the DC into AC to supply the load. A special modulation technique is proposed to eliminate the leakage current which is commonly presents in PV transformerless power generation, helps to increase the system efficiency and output performance....

  12. Overview of power converter designs feasible for high voltage transformer-less wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sztykiel, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Many leading wind turbine manufacturers are pushing forward in variable-speed wind turbines, often exceeding 5 MW. Therefore, novel designs and concepts for optimal high power wind turbines appeared. One of the most promising concepts is the high voltage (10-35 kV) transformer-less topology. High...... topology along with an overview of most promising candidates for optimal full-scale power converter design. Study is carried with proposed and justified high voltage wind turbine application along with selection of existing and most promising multilevel power converter topologies, which could be...

  13. Simple Power Control for Sensorless Induction Motor Drives Fed by a Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new and simple method for sensorless control of matrix converter drives using a power flowing to the motor. The proposed control algorithm is based on controlling the instantaneous real and imaginary powers into the induction motor. To improve low-speed sensorless performance......, the nonlinearities of a matrix converter drive such as commutation delays, turn-ON and turn-OFF times of switching devices, and on-state switching device voltage drop are modeled using a PQ power transformation and compensated using a reference power control scheme. The proposed sensorless control...... method is applied for the induction motor drive using a 3 kW matrix converter system. Experimental results are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed strategy....

  14. Isolated single-stage high power factor AC/DC converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫; 贲洪奇; 高国安

    2001-01-01

    The problem of harmonic pollution has brought wide attention with the increase of power customers. The adoption of the technology of active power factor correction (APFC) with advanced high frequency power converter is a more efficient solution to the problem of harmonic pollution. A single-stage isolated high power factor AC/DC converter, which features wide range DC output, high power factor, lower harmonic pollution in input current, and phase-shift PWM full-bridge circuit can achieve soft switching. The principle of the circuit topology and the reasons of voltage surges across the power switch are analyzed. Experiment results illustrate that this circuit has the advantages of high power factor and lower harmonic distortion.

  15. Thermal loading of wind power converter considering dynamics of wind speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baygildina, Elvira; Peltoniemi, Pasi; Pyrhönen, Olli;

    2013-01-01

    The thermal loading of power semiconductors is a crucial performance related to the reliability and cost of the wind power converter. However, the thermal loading impacts by the variation of wind speeds have not yet been clarified, especially when considering the aerodynamic behavior of the wind ...

  16. Loss Performance Analysis of an Isolated Power Supply for Ultrafast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the loss performance analysis of an isolated power supply that is designed for ultra-fast tracking converters. The results of the analysis provide insights into the operation of the proposed power supply, how each physical component contributes to the total loss, and how its...

  17. Loss Performance Analysis of an Isolated Power Supply for Ultrafast Tracking Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the loss performance analysis of an isolated power supply that is designed for ultra-fast tracking converters. The results of the analysis provide insights into the operation of the proposed power supply, how each physical component contributes to the total loss, and how its efficiency may be further improved

  18. Thermal analysis of two-level wind power converter under symmetrical grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    ) condition as well as the junction temperature. For the full-scale wind turbine system, the most thermal stressed power device in the grid-side converter will appear at the grid voltage below 0.5 pu, and for the partial-scale wind turbine system, the most thermal stressed power device in the rotor...

  19. 1 GHz GaAs Buck Converter for High Power Amplifier Modulation Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busking, E.B.; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated 1 GHz buck converter output stage, including on-chip inductor and DC output filtering has been realized, in a standard high-voltage breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. This is a significant step forward in designing highspeed power control of supply-modulated HPAs (high power amplifie

  20. Device loading of modular multilevel converter MMC in wind power application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popova, L.; Pyrhönen, J.; Ma, Ke;

    2014-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a recently emerged multilevel topology for high-voltage high-power applications. However, in wind power application the performance of the MMC has not been deeply investigated. In this paper the application of MMC in wind energy systems is studied. The conver...

  1. A dual voltage control strategy for single-phase PWM converters with power decoupling function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi; Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    The inherent double line ripple power in single-phase systems is adverse to the performance of power electronics converters, e.g. limited lifetime due to the requirement of large electrolytic capacitors and low voltage control bandwidth due to harmonic disturbance. In this paper, an active conver...

  2. Grid Synchronization of Power Converters using Multiple Second Order Generalized Integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus; Candela, Ignacio;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new frequency-adaptive synchronization method for grid-connected power converters which allows estimating not only the positive- and negative- sequence components of the power signal at the fundamental frequency, but also other sequence components at higher frequencies. The ...

  3. Observer design for DC/DC power converters with bilinear averaged model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinu, V.; Dam, M.C.A.; Lazar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demand for high bandwidth and high efficiency made full state-feedback control solutions very attractive to power-electronics community. However, full state measurement is economically prohibitive for a large range of applications. Moreover, state measurements in switching power converters

  4. Power Network impedance effects on noise emission of DC-DC converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, M. C.; Arteche, F.; Iglesias, M.; Gimeno, A.; Arcega, F. J.; Johnson, M.; Cooper, W. E.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of electromagnetic noise emissions of DC-DC converters is a critical issue that has been analyzed during the desing phase of CMS tracker upgrade. Previous simulation studies showed important variations in the level of conducted emissions when DC-DC converters are loaded/driven by different impedances and power network topologies. Several tests have been performed on real DC-DC converters to validate the Pspice model and simulation results. This paper presents these test results. Conducted noise emissions at the input and at the output terminals of DC-DC converters has been measured for different types of power and FEE impedances. Special attention has been paid to influence on the common-mode emissions by the carbon fiber material used to build the mechanical structure of the central detector. These study results show important recommendations and criteria to be applied in order to decrease the system noise level when integrating the DC-DC.

  5. A Control Method of Current Type Matrix Converter for Plasma Control Coil Power Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In exploration to a tokamak fusion reactor, the control of plasma instabilities of high β plasma such as neoclassical tearing mode (NTM), resistive wall mode (RWM) etc., is the key issue for steady-state sustainment. One of the proposed methods to avoid suppressing RWM is that AC current having a phase to work for reduction the RWM growth is generated in a coil (sector coil) equipped spirally on the plasma vacuum vessel. To stabilize RWM, precise and fast real-time feedback control of magnetic field with proper amplitude and frequency is necessary. This implies that an appropriate power supply dedicated for such an application is expected to be developed. A matrix converter as one of power supply candidates for this purpose could provide a solution The matrix converter, categorized in an AC/AC direct converter composed of nine bi-directional current switches, has a great feature that a large energy storage element is unnecessary in comparison with a standard existing AC/AC indirect converter, which is composed of an AC/DC converter and a DC/AC inverter. It is also advantageous in cost and size of its applications. Fortunately, a voltage type matrix converter has come to be available at the market recently, while a current type matrix converter, which is advantageous for fast control of the large-inductance coil current, has been unavailable. On the background above mentioned, we proposed a new current type matrix converter and its control method applicable to a power supply with fast response for suppressing plasma instabilities. Since this converter is required with high accuracy control, the gate control method is adopted to three-phase switching method using middle phase to reduce voltage and current waveforms distortion. The control system is composed of VME-bus board with DSP (Digital Signal Processor) and FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) for high speed calculation and control. This paper describes the control method of a current type matrix converter

  6. Decoupled Control Of Active And Reactive Powers Of DFIG With Cascaded SPWM Converters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H.Phani Shree

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic modeling and simulation of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG driven by wind turbine connected with cascaded converters. A doubly fed induction generator is basically a standard, wound rotor induction machine with its stator windings directly connected to the grid and its rotor windings connected to the grid through converters. Vector control technique is used to obtain decoupled control for powers. This paper investigates on the performance of DFIG with cascaded SPWM inverters. The total harmonic distortion has been calculated with different converters. The model is developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  7. Precision BiCMOS successive approximation analog-to-digital converter with low power consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An IP block of a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with low power consumption has been developed as a part of an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for an intellectual flow meter. The advantages of the application of the modified “top-down” design method to the design of the chip have been demonstrated. The results of the simulation, verification, and test of the analog-to-digital converter are presented

  8. Average current control of DC-DC Cuk Converters as Power Factor Corrector

    OpenAIRE

    Ashima Kulshreshtha; Anmol R. Saxena

    2015-01-01

    The era of electronic devices in all loads due to the manufacturing technologies replaced many conventional electrical or mechanical loads including lighting loads where Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) is becoming an emerging technique with many advantages. High frequency switching dc-dc converter is a new technology to control the load and the supply side simultaneously. Due to additional harmonics generated by these switching converters power factor correction has become a necessit...

  9. Research on Two-channel Interleaved Two-stage Paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter for Plasma Cutting Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xi-jun; Qu, Hao; Yao, Chen;

    2014-01-01

    As for high power plasma power supply, due to high efficiency and flexibility, multi-channel interleaved multi-stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter becomes the first choice. In the paper, two-channel interleaved two- stage paralleled Buck DC-DC Converter powered by three-phase AC power supply...

  10. Control of synchrotron electromagnet power supply using a current type PWM converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Together with actualization of large volume semiconductor switching element, direct current (DC) source for electromagnet excitation of an accelerator is changing from thyristor rectification source to PWM converter source using GTO and IGBT, which is a direct converter of alternating current (AC) power to DC power as well as the thyristor rectification source in difference from conventional DC-DC converter. And that, it has an advantage that it can not only convert AC power to DC one, but also compensate loss factor and harmonic wave of the converter simultaneously and actualize a precise control because of its possibility of setting short sampling time. At present a basic experiment was carried out under consideration on application of a current type PWM converter to a source for synchrotron electromagnet excitation. And, two kinds of comparative investigation on two freedoms PI control system and repeating control system with minor loop were carried out. As a result, it was found that as a problem on follow-delay against a target value could be compensated more easily than two freedoms control system using a target value filter could, compensation of outer disturbance such as source voltage variation, load variation, and so forth, and that a repeating control system with minor loop could compensate a follow-delay problem at each repeating, and also compensate outer disturbance on source voltage and load variations due to minor loop. (G.K.)

  11. Modeling of Zeta converter based DVR system for power quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Velmurugan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new development of voltage control scheme for power quality improvement such as voltage sag, swell, harmonics, and transient conditions in three-phase power systems has been proposed. Faults occurring in power distribution systems or amenities can inject the voltage sag or swell. This fault can damage or affect the power transmission and distribution. For sensitive loads, the short duration of voltage sags also cause huge problems in the entire power system. In order to reduce power interruptions, this work proposes a novel Zeta converter based DVR system. This proposed scheme can quickly access the voltage sag and swell under transient condition.

  12. Implementation of Rapid Prototyping Tools for Power Loss and Cost Minimization of DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amruta V. Kulkarni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, power loss and cost models of power electronic converters based on converter ratings and datasheet information are presented. These models aid in creating rapid prototypes which facilitate the component selection process. Through rapid prototyping, users can estimate power loss and cost which are essential in design decisions. The proposed approach treats main power electronic components of a converter as building blocks that can be arranged to obtain multiple topologies to facilitate rapid prototyping. In order to get system-level power loss and cost models, two processes are implemented. The first process automatically provides minimum power loss or cost estimates and identifies components for specific applications and ratings; the second process estimates power losses and costs of each component of interest as well as the whole system. Two examples are used to illustrate the proposed approaches—boost and buck converters in continuous conduction mode. Achieved cost and loss estimates are over 93% accurate when compared to measured losses and real cost data. This research presents derivations of the proposed models, experimental validation of the models and demonstration of a user friendly interface that integrates all the models. Tools presented in this paper are expected to be very useful for practicing engineers, designers, and researchers, and are flexible and adaptable with changing or new technologies and varying component prices.

  13. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin;

    2016-01-01

    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... of the proposed converter in comparison with conventional nine-level ANPC converter are decreasing the number of switches and flying capacitors (FCs) in the proposed converter, doubling the output voltage level of a traditional ANPC converter and reduction of output L-C filter sizes which results in significant...

  14. A new approach to the minimum weight/loss design of switching power converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Rahman, S.; Wu, C. J.; Kolacki, J.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique using the mathematical nonlinear programming ALAG is proposed to facilitate design optimizations of switching power converters. This computer-aided approach provides a minimum weight (or loss) design down to the details of component level and concurrently satisfies all related power-circuit performance requirements. It also provides such design insights as tradeoffs between power loss and system weight as the switching frequency is increased.

  15. 1 GHz GaAs Buck Converter for High Power Amplifier Modulation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Busking, E.B.; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated 1 GHz buck converter output stage, including on-chip inductor and DC output filtering has been realized, in a standard high-voltage breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. This is a significant step forward in designing highspeed power control of supply-modulated HPAs (high power amplifiers). Agile power controlled HPAs are intended to find application in high-efficiency transmitters for both radio communication and radar applications, especially in which phased array transmit chai...

  16. Superior decoupled control of active and reactive power for three-phase voltage source converters

    OpenAIRE

    RAHBARIMAGHAM, HESAM; AMIRI, ERFAN MAALI; VAHIDI, Behrooz; GHAREHPETIAN, GEVORG BABAMALEK; Abedi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an active-reactive power control strategy for voltage source converters (VSCs) based on derivation of the direct and quadrature components of the VSC output current. The proposed method utilizes a multivariable proportional-integral controller and provides almost completely decoupled control capability of the active and reactive power with almost full disturbance rejection due to step changes in the power exchanged between the VSC and the grid. It also imposes fast transie...

  17. Optimization of Power MOSFET for High-Frequency Synchronous Buck Converter

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Yuming

    2003-01-01

    Evolutions in microprocessor technology require the use of a high-frequency synchronous buck converter (SBC) in order to achieve low cost, low profile, fast transient response and high power density. However, high frequency also causes more power loss on MOSFETs. Optimization of the MOSFETs plays an important role in the system performance. Circuit and device modeling is important in understanding the relationship between the device parameters and the power loss. The gate-to-drain charge ...

  18. Structural Reliability Methods for Wind Power Converter System Component Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind power converter systems are essential subsystems in both off-shore and on-shore wind turbines. It is the main interface between generator and grid connection. This system is affected by numerous stresses where the main contributors might be defined as vibration and temperature loadings....... The temperature variations induce time-varying stresses and thereby fatigue loads. A probabilistic model is used to model fatigue failure for an electrical component in the power converter system. This model is based on a linear damage accumulation and physics of failure approaches, where a failure criterion...... reliability methods and simulation are implemented for the power converter system and results are compared. Based on an illustrative example, it is shown that structural reliability methods are appropriate techniques to use for further convertor system reliability estimation studies....

  19. Wind-driven SEIG supplying DC microgrid through a single-stage power converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellapatchi Nayanar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increased emphasis on utilizing the renewable energy sources and selection of suitable power converters for supplying dc microgrid. Among the various renewable energy sources, wind energy stands first in terms of installed capacity. So, an attempt is made in this paper for supplying dc microgrid utilizing wind energy. A self-excited induction generator has been used in the proposed wind energy conversion system (WECS. A single-stage power converter, namely, semi-converter is connected between the SEIG and dc grid terminals for closed-loop control of the proposed system. A perturb and observe (P&O based maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm has been developed and implemented using a dsPIC30F4011 digital controller. In this MPPT algorithm, the firing angle of the converter is adjusted by continuously monitoring the dc grid current for a given wind velocity. For analyzing the proposed system, a MATLAB/Simulink model has been developed by selecting the various components starting from wind-turbine model to the power converter supplying dc microgrid. Successful working of the proposed WECS has also been shown through experimental results obtained on a prototype model developed in the laboratory.

  20. The Impact of Power Switching Devices on the Thermal Performance of a 10 MW Wind Power NPC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Power semiconductor switching devices play an important role in the performance of high power wind energy generation systems. The state-of-the-art device choices in the wind power application as reported in the industry include IGBT modules, IGBT press-pack and IGCT press-pack. Because...... of significant deviation in the packaging structure, electrical characteristics, as well as thermal impedance, these available power switching devices may have various thermal cycling behaviors, which will lead to converter solutions with very different cost, size and reliability performance. As a result......, this paper aimed to investigate the thermal related characteristics of some important power switching devices. Their impact on the thermal cycling of a 10 MW three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped wind power converter is then evaluated under various operating conditions; the main focus will be on the grid...

  1. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Lung Shen; Shih-Hsueh Yang

    2013-01-01

    A multi-input converter (MIC) to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controlle...

  2. Direct switching control of DC-DC power electronic converters using hybrid system theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Lin, F. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wang, C. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology

    2010-07-01

    A direct switching control (DSC) scheme for power electronics converters was described. The system was designed for use in both traditional and renewable energy applications as well as in electric drive vehicles. The proposed control scheme was based on a detailed hybrid system converter model that used model predictive control (MPC), piecewise affine (PWA) approximations and constrained optimal control methods. A DC-DC converter was modelled as a hybrid machine. Switching among different modes of the DC-DC converter were modelled as discrete events controlled by the hybrid controller. The modelling scheme was applied to a Buck converter. The DSC was used to control the switch of the power converter based on a hybrid machine model. Results of the study showed that the method can be used to regulate output voltage and inductor currents. The method also provides fast transient responses and effectively regulates both currents and voltage. The controller can be used to provide immediate responses to dynamic disturbances and output voltage fluctuations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Unified power flow controller based on two shunt converters and a series capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshkbar Sadigh, Arash; Tarafdar Hagh, Mehrdad; Sabahi, Mehran [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper a novel configuration of unified power flow controller (UPFC) which consists of two shunt converters and a series capacitor is proposed. In this configuration, a series capacitor is used between two shunt converters to inject desired series voltage. As a result, it is possible to control the active and reactive power flow as same as the conventional configuration of UPFC. The main advantage of the proposed UPFC in comparison with the conventional configuration is injection of a series voltage waveform with a very low total harmonic distortion (THD). Also, using two shunt converters instead of a series and a shunt converters, results in reduction of design efforts and simplification of control, measuring and protection strategies. An optimal control strategy based on the discrete model of converters is applied to shunt converters. The proposed UPFC is simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB software and simulation results are presented to validate the effectiveness of the novel configuration of UPFC. Also, the experimental results which are obtained from an experimental set-up are presented. (author)

  4. Design issues of the TF AC/DC converter for the ITER coil power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil system is composed of 18 series-connected superconductor coils (L=17.5 Henry), related protection circuits, and an AC/DC converter. The converter for the TF coil system is a 12-pulse and 2-quadrant converter with the two thyristor bridges connected in parallel through the inter-phase reactor. The rated current of the converter is 68 kA, and no-load output voltage is 900 V when 66 kV AC input is used. Because ITER is a pulse system that uses huge power during the pulse, there are additional critical issues in designing the AC/DC converters. In this study the following issues in designing the TF AC/DC converter are discussed to improve the characteristics of the TF coil system; - Fault current issues related with AC input voltage and operational scenario. - Junction temperatures during the faults and the thyristor numbers per an arm. - Efficient and reliable bypass method including resuming. - Protection sequence for the fault conditions. - Reactive power reduction method. - Estimation of the optimum inductance of the DC Reactor (DCR)

  5. Design, operation and control of series-connected power converters for offshore wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, Alejandro Garces

    2012-07-01

    Offshore wind farms need to develop technologies that fulfill three main objectives:Efficiency, power density and reliability. The purpose of this thesis is to study an HVDC transmission system based on series connection of the turbines which theoretically meet these three objectives. A new topology of matrix converter operated at high frequency is proposed. This converter is studied using different modulation algorithms. Simulation and experimental results demonstrated that the converter can be operated as a current source converter with high efficiency. An optimal control based on a linear quadratic regulator is propose dto control the matrix converter as well as the converter placed on shore. Results demonstrated the high performance of this type of control and its simplicity for implementation. An stationary state study based on non-linear programming and Montecarlo simulation was carried out to determine the performance of the concept for long-term operation. Series connection is an efficient technology if and only if the differences in the effective wind velocity are small. This aspect limits the number of wind turbines that can be connected in series, since a numerous number of turbines will lead to high covariances in the distribution of the wind. A complementary study about active filter and reactive power compensation was carried out using an optimization-based algorithm. (Author)

  6. A power conditioning system for thermoelectric generator based on interleaved Boost converter with MPPT control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, L.-X; Sun, K.; Zhang, L.;

    2011-01-01

    conditioning system for TEG based on interleaved Boost converter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control is investigated in this paper. Since an internal resistance exists inside TEG modules, an improved perturbation and observation (P&O) MPPT control scheme with power limit is proposed to extract......The thermoelectric generation (TEG) system has its special charactristics of high stablility, low voltage and high current output, which is different from PV modules. The power conditioning system and control schemes used in PV applications cannot be directly applied to TEG applications. A power...... and effectiveness of the developed power conditioning system with the proposed control schemes....

  7. 双馈异步风力发电机网侧换流器控制策略研究%The Composite Control Strategy of Doubly-fed Induction Wind-power Generator Grid side Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新宇; 白珂

    2015-01-01

    双馈异步风力发电机( DFIG)采用两个背靠背、通过直流环节连接的两电平电压型PWM换流器进行交流励磁,实现变速恒频运行和最大风能追踪控制,因此DFIG的运行控制主要是对交流励磁变换器的控制.双馈异步风力发电系统的控制分为机侧换流器控制与网侧换流器控制.研究网侧换流器的控制策略.双馈异步风力发电系统网侧换流器主要用以保证输入电流正弦,控制输入功率因数和保持直流母线电压的稳定.根据网侧换流器系统的数学模型,分析其工作原理与稳态特性,设计基于电网电压定向的电流内环PI控制及电压外环PI控制的双闭环控制略.通过matlab/simu-link软件仿真,直流母线电压在双闭环控制策略下能快速的达到给定值并处于稳态,换流器输入电流亦保持正弦.所提出的双闭环控制策略能很好地实现换流器输出电压和输入电流的有效控制,具有实际意义和应用价值.%The doubly-fed Induction Wind Generator ( DFIG) uses two back to back PWM converter which exchange excitation to achieve VSCF operation and maximum wind energy tracking control,so the operation control of DFIG is mainly for AC excitation converter.The DFIG control system is divided into the machine side converter control and network-side converter control.In this paper,the main research control strategy is network side converter.The main task of doubly-fed induction wind-power generator ( DFIG) grid side converter is to maintain the DC bus voltage stability,ensure inputting sinusoidal current and control input pow-er factor.The Author,according to the grid-side converter system,analyzes its working principle and steady characteristic and based on the grid voltage orientation designs current inner and voltage outer PI control.By matlab / simulink software emulation,the DC bus voltage in the double loop control strategy can quickly reach a given value,inverter input current is also

  8. Study of matrix converter as a current-controlled power supply in QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because QUEST tokamak has a divertor configuration with a higher κ and a negative n-index, a precise power supply with a rapid response is needed to control the vertical position of the plasma. A matrix converter is a direct power conversion device that uses an array of controlled bidirectional switches as the main power elements for creating a variable-output current system. This paper presents a novel three-phase to two-phase topological matrix converter as a proposed power supply that stabilizes the plasma vertical position and achieves unity input power factor. An indirect control strategy in which the matrix converter is split into a virtual rectifier stage and a virtual inverter stage is adopted. In the virtual rectifier stage, the instantaneous active power and reactive power are decoupled on the basis of system equations derived from the DQ transformation; hence, unity power factor is achieved. Space vector pulse width modulation is adopted to determine the switching time of each switch in the virtual rectifier; the output voltage of the virtual rectifier is adjusted by the virtual inverter stage to obtain the desired load current. Theoretical analyses and simulation results are provided to verify its feasibility. (author)

  9. POWER FACTOR CORRECTION IN PERMANENT MAGNET BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR DRIVE USING SINGLE-PHASE CUK CONVERTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJEEV SINGH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnet brushless DC motor (PMBLDCM drives are being employed in many variable speed applications due to their high efficiency, silent operation, compact size, high reliability, ease of control, and low maintenance requirements. These drives have power quality problems and poor power factor at input AC mains as they are mostly fed through diode bridge rectifier based voltage source inverters. To overcome such problems a single-phase single-switch power factor correction AC-DC converter topology based on a Cuk converter is proposed to feed voltage source inverters based PMBLDCM. It focuses on the analysis, design and performance evaluation of the proposed PFC converter topology for a 1.5 kW, 1500 rpm, 400 V PMBLDCM drive used for an air-conditioning system. The proposed PFC converter topology is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab-Simulink environment and results show an improved power quality and good power factor in wide speed range of the drive.

  10. A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuidong Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell. In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell. The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation.

  11. A High-Efficiency Monolithic DC-DC PFM Boost Converter with Parallel Power MOS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Ming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a high-efficiency monolithic dc-dc PFM boost converter designed with a standard TSMC 3.3/5V 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The proposed boost converter combines the parallel power MOS technique with pulse-frequency modulation (PFM technique to achieve high efficiency over a wide load current range, extending battery life and reducing the cost for the portable systems. The proposed parallel power MOS controller and load current detector exactly determine the size of power MOS to increase power conversion efficiency in different loads. Postlayout simulation results of the designed circuit show that the power conversion is 74.9–90.7% efficiency over a load range from 1 mA to 420 mA with 1.5 V supply. Moreover, the proposed boost converter has a smaller area and lower cost than those of the existing boost converter circuits.

  12. The Impact of Power Switching Devices on the Thermal Performance of a 10 MW Wind Power NPC Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Ma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Power semiconductor switching devices play an important role in the performance of high power wind energy generation systems. The state-of-the-art device choices in the wind power application as reported in the industry include IGBT modules, IGBT press-pack and IGCT press-pack. Because of significant deviation in the packaging structure, electrical characteristics, as well as thermal impedance, these available power switching devices may have various thermal cycling behaviors, which will lead to converter solutions with very different cost, size and reliability performance. As a result, this paper aimed to investigate the thermal related characteristics of some important power switching devices. Their impact on the thermal cycling of a 10 MW three-level Neutral-Point-Clamped wind power converter is then evaluated under various operating conditions; the main focus will be on the grid connected inverter. It is concluded that the thermal performances of the 3L-NPC wind power converter can be significantly changed by the power device technology as well as their parallel configurations.

  13. Thermal Modeling and Design of On-board DC-DC Power Converter using Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo;

    2014-01-01

    Power electronic converters are widely used and play a pivotal role in electronics area . The temperature causes around 54 % of all power converters failures. Thermal loads are nowadays one of the bottlenecks in the power system design and the cooling efficiency of a system is primarily determine...

  14. Thermal Modelling and Design of On-board DC-DC Power Converter using Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Pittini, R.;

    2014-01-01

    Power electronic converters are widely used and play a pivotal role in electronics area. The temperature causes around 54 % of all power converters failures. Thermal loads are nowadays one of the bottlenecks in the power system design and the cooling efficiency of a system is primarily determined...

  15. Analog Fixed Maximum Power Point Control for a PWM Step-downConverter for Water Pumping Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran, H.; Perez, E.; Chen, Zhe;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a Fixed Maximum Power Point analog control used in a step-down Pulse Width Modulated power converter. The DC/DC converter drives a DC motor used in small water pumping installations, without any electric storage device. The power supply is provided by PV panels working around...

  16. Application Criteria for Nine-Switch Power Conversion Systems with Improved Thermal Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Nine-switch converter is a reduced-switch equivalence of the widely used twelve-switch back-to-back converter. Like other reduced-switch topologies, the nine-switch converter experiences operating constraints, which may limit its efficiency. This is however not universal, meaning losses of the nine...

  17. Inverse optimal control as an alternative to regulate a Boost DC-DC power converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús Vega Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of the fundamental theory of the inverse optimal control problem for regulation of the output voltage in a Boost DC-DC power converter. The inverse optimal control problem states a priori an optimal control law and a posteriori it proposes the functional cost to be minimized, avoiding the explicit solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and, therefore, making easier the solution of the optimal control problem. Some analytical developments are shown here to obtain mathematical expressions needed to perform the inverse optimal control approach on regulation of the output voltage in a Boost power converter circuit under the influence of external disturbances. Numerical routines performed in MATLAB® have shown promising results of the proposed technique by achieving annihilation of the perturbation effect in the system´s model. Future work is focused on experimental verification of this approach on a real prototype of the DC-DC converter.

  18. A New Fast Peak Current Controller for Transient Voltage Faults for Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Muñoz-Cruzado-Alba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power converters are the basic unit for the transient voltage fault ride through capability for most renewable distributed generators (DGs. When a transient fault happens, the grid voltage will drop suddenly and probably will also suffer a phase-jump event as well. State-of-the-art voltage fault control techniques regulate the current injected during the grid fault. However, the beginning of the fault could be too fast for the inner current control loops of the inverter, and transient over-current would be expected. In order to avoid the excessive peak current of the methods presented in the literature, a new fast peak current control (FPCC technique is proposed. Controlling the peak current magnitude avoids undesirable disconnection of the distributed generator in a fault state and improves the life expectancy of the converter. Experimental and simulation tests with high power converters provide the detailed behaviour of the method with excellent results.

  19. Three-phase electronic power converter for photovoltaic system connected to power line; Conversor eletronico de potencia trifasico para sistema fotovoltaico conectado a rede eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalva, Marcelo Gradella

    2010-10-15

    This work is a contribution to the study of power converters for photovoltaic distributed generation systems. The main objective is to present the development and results of a three phase power converter for a grid-connected photovoltaic plant. The work presents experimental results and theoretical studies on the modeling and simulation of photovoltaic devices, regulation of the photovoltaic voltage, maximum power point tracking, and the modeling and control of a two-stage grid-connected power converter. (author)

  20. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  1. Effect of full converter wind turbines on inter-area oscillation of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askari, Hanieh Hajizadeh; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Eriksson, Robert;

    2015-01-01

    By increasing in the penetration level of wind turbines, the influence of these new added generation units on the power system oscillations specifically inter-area oscillations has to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper, the impact of increasing in the penetration of full rate converter wind...... turbines (FRC-WTs) on the inter-area oscillations of power system is examined. In order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of FRC-WT on the inter-area oscillations, different scenarios associated with the wind power penetration levels, wind farm locations, strength of interconnection line......, and different operating conditions of synchronous generators are investigated. The synchronous generators, exciter systems and power system stabilizers (PSSs) as well as the FRC-WT grid-side converter and its related controllers are modelled in detail in Matlab in order to evaluate the effects of FRC...

  2. Comparison of three different Modulators for Power Converters with Respect to EMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    Switch-mode Power Converters are well known for emissions in the band of electromagnetic interference (EMI) interest. The spectrum shape depends on the type of modulator and its purpose. This paper gives design guidelines to choose the optimum topology depending on requirements of different appli...

  3. Catastrophic Failure and Fault-Tolerant Design of IGBT Power Electronic Converters - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Rui; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai;

    2013-01-01

    -event overstress. The wear out failure under field operation could be mitigated by scheduled maintenances based on lifetime prediction and condition monitoring. However, the catastrophic failure is difficult to be predicted and thus may lead to serious consequence of power electronic converters. To obtain a better...

  4. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  5. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...

  6. Power loss benchmark of nine-switch converters in three-phase online-UPS application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    as parameters like modulation index and phase angle of the load are taken into account. The benchmark of power loss will become a guidance for the users to make best use of the advantages and bypass the disadvantages of nine-switch converters. The results are finally verified on a 1.5 kW prototype....

  7. Power Factor Correction and THD Minimization by Interleaved Boost Converter in Continuous Conduction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saubhik Maulik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical energy available in the utility grid is not suitable for direct use in many applications. In particular, applications requiring DC source must involve an interface device between the AC power line and the load requiring the DC voltage. Conventional AC/DC conversion involves diode rectifiers with large capacitor to reduce DC voltage ripple. The filter capacitor reduces the ripple present in the output voltage but draws non-sinusoidal line current which reduces the power factor. So power factor correction (PFC techniques are gaining increasing attention. The most popular topology for active PFC is boost converter as it draws continuous input current. This input current can be manipulated by average current mode control technique. But there are ripple in the input current due to inductor of boost converter which can be minimized by using two phase interleaved boost converter. Here average current mode controlled interleaved boost converter in continuous conduction mode using PI controller, is represented which provides high power factor and low THD.

  8. Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System With Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygaard; Jensen, Kim Høj;

    2012-01-01

    is presented which assesses the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine (WT) model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study...

  9. Power Devices Loading in Multilevel Converters for 10 MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Xu, Dehong

    2011-01-01

    Several promising multilevel converter solutions for 10 MW wind turbines using permanent magnet synchronous generators are proposed, designed and compared both with one-stage gear-box drive and direct drive systems. The current and loss distributions, as well as the utilization of power devices...

  10. Development of Field Data Logger for Recording Mission Profile of Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Ghimire, Pramod; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2015-01-01

    Mission profile data provides useful data for a cost effective and reliable design of future power converters. The development of a field data logger using a Raspberry Pi (RBPI) and temperature and humidity sensors is presented. The collected data is analyzed and classified for the purpose of data...

  11. A review and design of power electronics converters for fuel cell hybrid system applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Pittini, Riccardo; Andersen, Michael A. E.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of most promising power electronics topologies for a fuel cell hybrid power conversion system which can be utilized in many applications such as hybrid electrical vehicles (HEV), distributed generations (DG) and uninterruptible-power-supply (UPS) systems. Then, a...... multiple-input power conversion system including a decoupled dual-input converter and a three-phase neutral-point-clamped (NPC) inverter is proposed. The system can operate in both stand-alone and grid-connected modes. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show the feasibility of the proposed...

  12. Operation Method for AC Motor Control during Power Interruption in Direct AC/AC Converter System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizu, Keiichiro; Azuma, Satoshi

    Direct AC/AC converters have been studied due to their potential use in power converters with no DC-link capacitor, which can contribute to the miniaturization of power converters. However, the absence of a DC-link capacitor makes it difficult to control the AC motor during power interruption. First, this paper proposes a system that realizes AC motor control during power interruption by utilizing a clamp capacitor. In general, direct AC/AC converters have a clamp circuit consisting of a rectifier diode(s) and a clamp capacitor in order to avoid over-voltages. In the proposed system, there is an additional semiconductor switch reverse-parallel to the rectifier diode(s), and the clamp capacitor voltage can be utilized for AC motor control by turning on the additional switch. Second, this paper discusses an operation method for AC motor control and clamp capacitor voltage control during power interruption. In the proposed method “DC-link voltage control”, the kinetic energy in the AC motor is transformed into electrical energy and stored in the clamp capacitor; the clamp capacitor is therefore charged and the capacitor voltage is controlled to remain constant at an instruction value. Third, this paper discusses a switching operation during power interruption. A dead-time is introduced between the operation of turning off all switches on the rectifier side and the operation of turning on the additional switch, which prevents the occurrence of a short circuit between the interrupted power source and the clamp capacitor. Finally, experimental results are presented. During power interruptions, an output current was continuously obtained and the clamp capacitor voltage was maintained to be equal to the instruction value of the capacitor voltage. These results indicate that both AC motor control and capacitor voltage control were successfully achieved by using the proposed system.

  13. Totem-Pole Power-Factor-Correction Converter under Critical-Conduction-Mode Interleaved Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, Eka; Tomioka, Satoshi; Abe, Seiya; Shoyama, Masahito; Ninomiya, Tamotsu

    This paper proposes a new power-factor-correction (PFC) topology, and explains its operation principle, its control mechanism, related application problems followed by experimental results. In this proposed topology, critical-conduction-mode (CRM) interleaved technique is applied to a bridgeless PFC in order to achieve high efficiency by combining benefits of each topology. This application is targeted toward low to middle power applications that normally employs continuous-conduction-mode boost converter.

  14. AlGaAs/GaAs photovoltaic converters for high power narrowband radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvostikov, Vladimir; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay; Mintairov, Sergey; Potapovich, Nataliia; Shvarts, Maxim; Sorokina, Svetlana; Andreev, Viacheslav [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Luque, Antonio [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 26 Polytechnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021, Russia and Instituto de Energia Solar, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    AlGaAs/GaAs-based laser power PV converters intended for operation with high-power (up to 100 W/cm{sup 2}) radiation were fabricated by LPE and MOCVD techniques. Monochromatic (λ = 809 nm) conversion efficiency up to 60% was measured at cells with back surface field and low (x = 0.2) Al concentration 'window'. Modules with a voltage of 4 V and the efficiency of 56% were designed and fabricated.

  15. Review of modular power converters solutions for smart transformer in distribution system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzola, Rafael Pena; Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Mathe, Laszlo;

    2013-01-01

    While the use of power electronics based Smart Transformer (ST) is becoming a reality in traction applications, and it has been considered as an interesting option for interfacing different transmission systems, the possibility to use it in distribution systems is still considered futuristic....... Replacing primary distribution transformers with ST can lead to more flexible handling of the distribution feeders, while replacing secondary distribution transformers can allow decoupling of distribution network. This paper reviews different power converter solutions for the ST focusing on modularity...

  16. Hybrid Multistarting GA-Tabu Search Method for the Placement of BtB Converters for Korean Metropolitan Ring Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remund J. Labios

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to determine the optimal locations for installing back-to-back (BtB converters in a power grid as a countermeasure to reduce fault current levels. The installation of BtB converters can be regarded as network reconfiguration. For the purpose, a hybrid multistarting GA-tabu search method was used to determine the best locations from a preselected list of candidate locations. The constraints used in determining the best locations include circuit breaker fault current limits, proximity of proposed locations, and capability of the solution to reach power flow convergence. A simple power injection model after applying line-opening on selected branches was used as a means for power flows with BtB converters. Kron reduction was also applied as a method for network reduction for fast evaluation of fault currents with a given topology. Simulations of the search method were performed on the Korean power system, particularly the Seoul metropolitan area.

  17. Test and evaluation of load converter topologies used in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution dc test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Ramon C.; Oliver, Angela C.; Bodi, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Power components hardware in support of the Space Station freedom dc Electric Power System were tested. One type of breadboard hardware tested is the dc Load Converter Unit, which constitutes the power interface between the electric power system and the actual load. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. Three load converters were tested: a series resonant converter, a series inductor switch-mode converter, and a switching full-bridge forward converter. The topology, operation principles, and test results are described, in general. A comparative analysis of the three units is given with respect to efficiency, regulation, short circuit behavior (protection), and transient characteristics.

  18. A control method of matrix converter for plasma control coil power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a tokamak fusion reactor will require a fast response and precise power supply to control the coil current, we propose a matrix converter configuration, as a candidate, having a filter in a load side and smaller elements than a conventional matrix converter. Coil current control performance of the candidate converter has been evaluated by a simulation model using the code 'PSCAD/EMTDC.' Simulated circuit parameters were: 30 mH for the load coil, 1 kV for the matrix converter input voltage, and ∼100 A for the output coil current. The PWM (pulse width modulation) control using triangular carrier modulation of a 10 kHz carrier frequency was adopted as the control method. The simulation results show that the settling delay time of coil current in the step variation is ∼1 ms. The transient response performance of the simulated coil current to the reference current was good. We have come to a condition that the matrix converter can be applied to the plasma control coil power supply

  19. A High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Solution for On-Board Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Boscaino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-input, low-voltage, and high-current applications are addressed. A single-ended isolated topology which improves the power efficiency, reduces both switching and conduction losses, and heavily lowers the system cost is presented. During each switching cycle, the transformer core reset is provided. The traditional tradeoff between the maximum allowable duty-cycle and the reset voltage is avoided and the off-voltage of active switches is clamped to the input voltage. Therefore, the system cost is heavily reduced and the converter is well suited for wide-input applications. Zero-voltage switching is achieved for active switches, and the power efficiency is greatly improved. In the output mesh, an inductor is included making the converter suitable for high-current, low-voltage applications. Since the active clamp forward converter is the closest competitor of the proposed converter, a comparison is provided as well. In this paper, the steady-state and small-signal analysis of the proposed converter is presented. Design examples are provided for further applications. Simulation and experimental results are shown to validate the great advantages brought by the proposed topology.

  20. A Transformer-less Partial Power Boost Converter for PV Applications Using a Three-Level Switching Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed; Harfman-Todorovic, Maja; Elasser, Ahmed; Essakiappan, Somasundaram

    2013-03-01

    Photovoltaic architectures with distributed power electronics provide many advantages in terms of energy yield as well as system level optimization. As the power level of the solar farm increases it becomes more beneficial to increase the dc collection network voltage, which requires the use of power devices with higher voltage ratings, and thus making the design of efficient, low cost, distributed power converters more challenging. In this paper a simple partial power converter topology is proposed. The topology is implemented using a three-level switching cell, which allows the use of semiconductor devices with lower voltage rating; thus improving design and performance and reducing converter cost. This makes the converters suitable for use for medium to high power applications where dc-link voltages of 600V~1kV may be needed without the need for high voltage devices. Converter operation and experimental results are presented for two partial power circuit variants using three-level switching cells.

  1. Feedback Linearization Controller for a Wind Energy Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthana Alrifai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the control of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG-based variable speed wind turbine power system. A system of eight ordinary differential equations is used to model the wind energy conversion system. The generator has a wound rotor type with back-to-back three-phase power converter bridges between its rotor and the grid; it is modeled using the direct-quadrature rotating reference frame with aligned stator flux. An input-state feedback linearization controller is proposed for the wind energy power system. The controller guarantees that the states of the system track the desired states. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control scheme. Moreover, further simulation results are shown to investigate the robustness of the proposed control scheme to changes in some of the parameters of the system.

  2. Active Power and DC-link Voltage Coordinative Control for Cascaded DC-AC Converter with Bidirectional Power Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Chen, Zhe; Deng, Fujin;

    2015-01-01

    Two stage cascaded converters are widely used in DC/AC hybrid systems to achieve the bidirectional power transmission. The topology of dual active bridge cascaded with inverter (DABCI) is commonly used in this application. This paper proposes a coordinative control method for DABCI and it’s able...

  3. Hybrid Three-Phase/Single-Phase Microgrid Architecture with Power Management Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Zhou, Jianguo; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    of the proposed PSU and its power management strategy, the loads among different phases can be properly supplied and the energy can be fully utilized as well as obtaining better load sharing. Simulation and experimental results are provided to demonstrate the validity of the proposed hybrid microgrid structure...... architecture and its power management strategy. In this microgrid structure, a power sharing unit (PSU), composed of three single-phase back-to-back (SPBTB) converters, is proposed to be installed at the point of common coupling (PCC). The aim of the PSU is mainly to realize the power exchange and coordinated......With the fast proliferation of single-phase distributed generation (DG) units and loads integrated into residential microgrids, independent power sharing per phase and full use of the energy generated by DGs have become crucial. To address these issues, this paper proposes a hybrid microgrid...

  4. Li-Ion Battery Charging with a Buck-Boost Power Converter for a Solar Powered Battery Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wei Ma; Jaw-Kuen Shiau

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the Li-ion battery charging process for a solar powered battery management system. The battery is charged using a non-inverting synchronous buck-boost DC/DC power converter. The system operates in buck, buck-boost, or boost mode, according to the supply voltage conditions from the solar panels. Rapid changes in atmospheric conditions or sunlight incident angle cause supply voltage variations. This study develops an electrochemical-based equivalent circuit mod...

  5. Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off System for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vidal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wavestar Wave Energy Converter (WEC is a multiple absorber concept, consisting of 20 hemisphere shaped floats attached to a single platform. The heart of the Wavestar WEC is the Power Take-Off (PTO system, converting the wave induced motion of the floats into a steady power output to the grid. In the present work, a PTO based on a novel discrete displacement fluid power technology is explored for the Wavestar WEC. Absorption of power from the floats is performed by hydraulic cylinders, supplying power to a common fixed pressure system with accumulators for energy smoothing. The stored pressure energy is converted into electricity at a steady pace by hydraulic motors and generators. The storage, thereby, decouples the complicated process of wave power absorption from power generation. The core for enabling this PTO technology is implementing a near loss-free force control of the energy absorbing cylinders. This is achieved by using special multi-chambered cylinders, where the different chambers may be connected to the available system pressures using fast on/off valves. Resultantly, a Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC is created, allowing near loss free discrete force control. This paper presents a complete PTO system for a 20 float Wavestar based on the DDC. The WEC and PTO is rigorously modeled from incident waves to the electric output to the grid. The resulting model of +600 states is simulated in different irregular seas, showing that power conversion efficiencies above 70% from input power to electrical power is achievable for all relevant sea conditions.

  6. Proposal for the Award of a Contract for the Supply of the Power Units for LHC Thyristor Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 12 power units of thyristor power converters rated from 365 to 770 kW for the LHC. Following a market survey carried out among 98 firms in nineteen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-3003/SL/LHC) was sent on 25 October 2002 to six firms in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received five tenders from five firms in four Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with OCEM (IT), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 12 power units of thyristor power converters for a total amount of 981 484 Swiss francs not subject to revision, with options for three additional units of the power part of thyristor power converters, for an additional amount of 249 681 Swiss francs, subject to revision for inflation from 1 August 2006, bringing the total amount to 1 231 165 Swiss francs. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication propos...

  7. Simulation on Soft-Switching PWM Converter with High Power Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new PWM converter based on soft-switching is introduced. The converter uses a minimum number of devices, and requires less switching operations than conventional techniques. Switching is realized solely in a ZVS (zero voltage switching) mode,therefore the loss is reduced and EMI (electromagnetic interference) is suppressed. The paper analyzes the operation of ZVS, and discusses the methods for maintaining a unit power factor and constant DC voltage. Changing the modulation index M and the phase angle θ keeps the input current in phase with the voltage. It also keeps the current sinusoidal, and ensures a constant output voltage.

  8. Harmonics in power systems of ships with electrical propulsion drives. Comparison between different converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1996-11-01

    In this report the effects of harmonics in marine power systems is discussed and a comparison is given between the most typical converter types, including pulse width modulated drives, load commutated inverters and cycloconverters. The effect of harmonic distortion on the power system equipment and loads is first briefly discussed. Special attention is given to the circumstances in the low voltage distribution system, where general load equipment is connected. In addition to the total harmonic distortion the effect of voltage deviation to the supply quality is also considered. The origin of harmonics in the load currents of the three converter types is then considered. The differences between the converters are outlined, and the most typical spectra are presented. The possible means for reducing the harmonic distortion are also studied. The solutions considered are the increasing of the short circuit level, the use of harmonic filters and the increasing of the pulse number. In the case of cycloconverters, the optimization of the phase shift between the parallel operating bridges is also presented. Finally the effects of different converter types on the voltage quality are compared using calculations made for a typical marine power system. (author)

  9. A novel wireless power and data transmission AC to DC converter for an implantable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jhao-Yan; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a novel AC to DC converter implemented by standard CMOS technology, applied for wireless power transmission. This circuit combines the functions of the rectifier and DC to DC converter, rather than using the rectifier to convert AC to DC and then supplying the required voltage with regulator as in the transitional method. This modification can reduce the power consumption and the area of the circuit. This circuit also transfers the loading condition back to the external circuit by the load shift keying(LSK), determining if the input power is not enough or excessive, which increases the efficiency of the total system. The AC to DC converter is fabricated with the TSMC 90nm CMOS process. The circuit area is 0.071mm(2). The circuit can produce a 1V DC voltage with maximum output current of 10mA from an AC input ranging from 1.5V to 2V, at 1MHz to 10MHz. PMID:24110077

  10. Optimal laser wavelength for efficient laser power converter operation over temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, O.; Walker, A. W.; Bett, A. W.; Helmers, H.

    2016-06-01

    A temperature dependent modeling study is conducted on a GaAs laser power converter to identify the optimal incident laser wavelength for optical power transmission. Furthermore, the respective temperature dependent maximal conversion efficiencies in the radiative limit as well as in a practically achievable limit are presented. The model is based on the transfer matrix method coupled to a two-diode model, and is calibrated to experimental data of a GaAs photovoltaic device over laser irradiance and temperature. Since the laser wavelength does not strongly influence the open circuit voltage of the laser power converter, the optimal laser wavelength is determined to be in the range where the external quantum efficiency is maximal, but weighted by the photon flux of the laser.

  11. The polyphase resonant converter modulator for pulse power and plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new technique to generate high voltage pulses (100 kV and up) with high peak power (10 MW and up) and high average power (1 MW and up) from a low voltage input source (e.g. +/- 1.2 kV). This technology is presently being used to provide cathode pulse modulation for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifiers, which operate to 140 kV 11 MW peak power and 1.1 MW average power. The design of the modulator, referred to as the Polyphase Resonant Converter-Modulator takes advantage of high-power component advances, in response to the needs of the traction motor industry (in particular, railroad locomotives), such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT's) and self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene capacitors. In addition, the use of amorphous nanocrystalline transformer core alloy permits high frequency voltage and current transformation with low loss and small size. Other unique concepts embodied in the converter-modulator topology are polyphase resonant voltage multiplication and resonant rectification. These techniques further reduce size and improve electrical efficiency. Because of the resonant conversion techniques, electronic 'crowbars' and other load protective networks are not required. A shorted load detunes the circuit resonance and little power transfer can occur. This yields a high-power, high-voltage system that is inherently self-protective. To provide regulated output voltages, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of the individual IGBT pulses is used. A Digital signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the IGBT's, with adaptive feed forward and feedback control algorithms that improve pulse fidelity. The converter-modulator has many attributes that make it attractive to various pulse power and plasma applications such as high power RF sources, neutral beam modulators, and various plasma applications. This paper will review the design as used for the SNS accelerator and speculate on related plasma

  12. The polyphase resonant converter modulator for pulse power and plasma applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reass, W. A. (William A.); Baca, D. M. (David M.); Doss, James D.; Gribble, R. (Robert F.); North, W. R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique to generate high voltage pulses (100 kV and up) with high peak power (10 MW and up) and high average power (1 MW and up) from a low voltage input source (e.g. +/- 1.2 kV). This technology is presently being used to provide cathode pulse modulation for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator klystron RF amplifiers, which operate to 140 kV 11 MW peak power and 1.1 MW average power. The design of the modulator, referred to as the Polyphase Resonant Converter-Modulator takes advantage of high-power component advances, in response to the needs of the traction motor industry (in particular, railroad locomotives), such as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT's) and self-clearing metallized hazy polypropylene capacitors. In addition, the use of amorphous nanocrystalline transformer core alloy permits high frequency voltage and current transformation with low loss and small size. Other unique concepts embodied in the converter-modulator topology are polyphase resonant voltage multiplication and resonant rectification. These techniques further reduce size and improve electrical efficiency. Because of the resonant conversion techniques, electronic 'crowbars' and other load protective networks are not required. A shorted load detunes the circuit resonance and little power transfer can occur. This yields a high-power, high-voltage system that is inherently self-protective. To provide regulated output voltages, Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) of the individual IGBT pulses is used. A Digital signal Processor (DSP) is used to control the IGBT's, with adaptive feed forward and feedback control algorithms that improve pulse fidelity. The converter-modulator has many attributes that make it attractive to various pulse power and plasma applications such as high power RF sources, neutral beam modulators, and various plasma applications. This paper will review the design as used for the SNS accelerator and speculate on

  13. Design and real time implementation of single phase boost power factor correction converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouafassa, Amar; Rahmani, Lazhar; Mekhilef, Saad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of the single-phase power factor correction (PFC) AC-DC boost converter. A combination of higher order sliding mode controller based on super twisting algorithm and predictive control techniques are implemented to improve the performance of the boost converter. Due to the chattering effects, the higher order sliding mode control (HOSMC) is designed. Also, the predictive technique is modified taking into account the large computational delays. The robustness of the controller is verified conducting simulation in MATLAB, the results show good performances in both steady and transient states. An experiment is conducted through a test bench based on dSPACE 1104. The experimental results proved that the proposed controller enhanced the performance of the converter under different parameters variations.

  14. A study of DC-DC converters with MCT's for arcjet power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Many arcjet DC power supplies use PWM full bridge converters with large arrays of parallel FET's. This report investigates an alternative supply using a variable frequency series resonant converter with small arrays of parallel MCT's (metal oxide semiconductor controlled thyristors). The reasons for this approach are to: increase reliability by reducing the number of switching devices; and decrease the surface mounting area of the switching arrays. The variable frequency series resonant approach is used because the relatively slow switching speed of the MCT precludes the use of PWM. The 10 kW converter operated satisfactorily with an efficiency of over 91 percent. Test results indicate this efficiency could be increased further by additional optimization of the series resonant inductor.

  15. A Modified Control Scheme of Droop-Based Converters for Power Stability Analysis in Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Usunariz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is principally an active distribution network since it aggregates numerous DG systems through their interface converters and different loads at distribution level. This paper discusses the power sharing in autonomous AC-microgrid infrastructure by common P-f and Q-V˙ droop control schemes on parallel-connected converters. Moreover, this research work proposes a frequency and voltage restoration mechanism through the utilization of secondary control. Experimental results are presented for a two-50 kVA parallel-connected converter-based system, demonstrating the necessity for the proper operation of the secondary control in order to monitor the system’s capability to withstand any perturbations that may occur and to ensure the system’s security.

  16. POPS: the 60MW power converter for the PS accelerator: Control strategy and performances

    CERN Document Server

    Boattini, Fulvio; Skawinski, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The main power supply of Proton-Synchrotron (PS) accelerator is one of the biggest at CERN. The old rotating machine system has been replaced with a new NPC based DC/DC power supply named POPS (Power system for PS main magnets) with capacitor banks as energy storage mean. POPS is in operation since February 2011. The operation of the PS accelerator requires a specific design of the control system with very high performance requirements in term of accuracy and precision. This paper describes the main lines of the control strategies analyzing the problems encountered and the solutions adopted. The performances of the converter are presented throughout the paper.

  17. Photovoltaic Power System with an Interleaving Boost Converter for Battery Charger Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Yu Tseng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a photovoltaic (PV power system for battery charger applications. The charger uses an interleaving boost converter with a single-capacitor turn-off snubber to reduce voltage stresses of active switches at turn-off transition. Therefore, active switches of the charger can be operated with zero-voltage transition (ZVT to decrease switching losses and increase conversion efficiency. In order to draw the maximum power from PV arrays and obtain the optimal power control of the battery charger, a perturbation-and-observation method and microchip are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power management. Finally, a prototype battery charger is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed PV power system for battery charger applications.

  18. A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian GAICEANU

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP, were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this way a small DC link capacitor is required to handle the dc voltage error control. The feed-forward (Sul and Lipo, 1990 current component provides fast correction of the reference control to load power variation. In order to obtain the feed-forward current component, the load power must to be known. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a dc load current estimator. In this way the author overcomes the use of the serial communication between control boards (Gaiceanu, 2004 in order to deliver the load power information from the inverter side. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the load current of the supply converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feed-forward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through simulation and experimental results the performances of the proposed load current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  19. Cost on Reliability and Production Loss for Power Converters in the Doubly Fed Induction Generator to Support Modern Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens;

    2016-01-01

    of providing reactive power on the lifetime of the power converter and the cost-of-energy of the whole system are seldom evaluated, even though it is an important topic. In this paper, the loss models of the DFIG system are established at various conditions of the reactive power injection. If the mission...... profile is taken into account, the lifespan of the power semiconductors as well as the cost of the reactive power can be calculated. It is concluded that an over-excited reactive power injection significantly reduces the power converter lifetime, only 1/4 of the case that there is no reactive power...

  20. SWITCH MODE PULSE WIDTH MODULATED DC-DC CONVERTER WITH MULTIPLE POWER TRANSFORMERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A switch mode pulse width modulated DC-DC power converter comprises at least one first electronic circuit on a input side (1) and a second electronic circuit on a output side (2). The input side (1) and the output side (2) are coupled via at least two power transformers (T1, T2). Each power...... transformer (T1, T2) comprises a first winding (T1a, T2a) arranged in a input side converter stage (3, 4) on the input side (1) and a second winding (T1 b, T2b) arranged in a output side converter stage (5) on the output side (2), and each of the windings (T1a, T1 b, T2a, T2b) has a first end and a second end......-state, and a second OFF-state, and/or being adapted to provide rectified current to the terminals (BO, B1). The second windings (T1b, T2b) of the power transformers (T1, T2) are connected in series and coupled via the single arrangement of switches of the second circuit to the terminals (BO, B1) of the output side....

  1. Multi-Input Converter with MPPT Feature for Wind-PV Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-input converter (MIC to process wind-PV power is proposed, designed, analyzed, simulated, and implemented. The MIC cannot only process solar energy but deal with wind power, of which structure is derived from forward-type DC/DC converter to step-down/up voltage for charger systems, DC distribution applications, or grid connection. The MIC comprises an upper modified double-ended forward, a lower modified double-ended forward, a common output inductor, and a DSP-based system controller. The two modified double-ended forwards can operate individually or simultaneously so as to accommodate the variation of the hybrid renewable energy under different atmospheric conditions. While the MIC operates at interleaving mode, better performance can be achieved and volume also is reduced. The proposed MIC is capable of recycling the energy stored in the leakage inductance and obtaining high step-up output voltage. In order to draw maximum power from wind turbine and PV panel, perturb-and-observe method is adopted to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT feature. The MIC is constructed, analyzed, simulated, and tested. Simulations and hardware measurements have demonstrated the feasibility and functionality of the proposed multi-input converter.

  2. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IN THREE PHASE AC-AC CONVERTER THROUGH MODIFIED SPWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.VASUKI,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a new generation of ac-ac single-phase and three-phase power converters with more commutations per half cycle has been proposed for ac power due to the increasing availability and power capability of high frequency controlled-on and off power emiconductor switching devices. This paper presents three phase ac-acconverter whose control strategy is based on modified sinusoidal ulse-width modulation switching technique. As majority of the industrial loads are being inductive, the power factor is less. To improve the power factor, the delayed current is shifted to the input voltage, through a modification of the classical sinusoidal pulse width modulation switching technique. In this way, the decrease in the phase angle between the input current and voltage is feasible, and consequently, high cost compensation capacitors can be avoided. The improvement of power factor through this switching technique on the proposed converter is investigated and verified via simulation using the software Matlab/Simulink.

  3. An Interleaved Reduced-Component-Count Multivoltage Bus DC/DC Converter for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Vehicle Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    An interleaved reduced-component-count dc/dc converter is proposed for power management in fuel cell powered vehicles with a multivoltage electric net. The converter is based on a simplified topology and can handle more power with less ripple current, therefore reducing the capacitor requirements, making it more suited for fuel cell powered vehicles in the near future. A prototype rated at 4.3 kW was built and tested to verify the proposed topology.

  4. A modular power electronic transformer based on a cascaded H-bridge multilevel converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iman-Eini, H. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran); G2ELab, INPG-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5269 ENSIEG, B.P. 46, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex, Grenoble (France); Farhangi, Sh. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-515, Tehran (Iran); Schanen, J.-L. [G2ELab, INPG-UJF-CNRS, UMR 5269 ENSIEG, B.P. 46, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex, Grenoble (France); Khakbazan-Fard, M. [Iran Power Generation, Distribution and Transmission Management Company, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper a modular power electronic transformer (PET) for feeding critical loads is presented. The PE-based transformer is a multi-cellular step-down converter that can directly connect to medium voltage levels on the primary side and provide a low voltage, highly stable interface for consumer applications. The presented structure consists of three stages: a cascaded H-bridge (CHB) rectifier, an isolation stage, and an output stage. The CHB rectifier serves as an active rectifier to ensure that the input current is sinusoidal, and it converts the high AC input voltage to low DC voltages. The isolated DC/DC converters are then connected to the DC links and provide galvanic isolation between the HV and LV sides. Finally, a three-phase inverter generates the AC output with the desired amplitude and frequency. This paper introduces a new control strategy to maintain DC voltage balance among the CHB converter cells, even if the attached loads are different. The effects of voltage offsets and device mismatches on the equal load-current sharing are investigated, and an active load-current sharing method is presented to balance the load power among the parallel-output cells. The validity of the proposed controllers and the PET performance are verified by simulation and experimental results. (author)

  5. A RESEARCH TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE MULTI-LEVEL SINGLEPHASE AC/DC POWER FACTOR CORRECT SWITCHING CONVERTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Chao

    2008-01-01

    This letter studies and analyzes the working features of main circuit of tri-level boost Power Factor Correct (PFC) converter and the advantages of tri-level switch converter in aspects of bearing high-voltage of power components,overall system loss and magnetic component selection based upon the single-level boost PFC switch converter. Besides,relying on the application of mi-croprocessor in power converter technology and DSP (Digital Signal Processing) chip's strong cal-culating capacity,the letter presents the adoption of modified scheme of tri-level boost PFC converter under the control of predictive control algorithm. Moreover,the operating principle and control method are specified,the results of circuit test and analysis are provided and the advantages of pre-dictive control technology-based multi-level boost PFC converter is verified.

  6. A novel Modulation Topology for Power Converters utilizing Multiple Carrier Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    Power converters are known to generate spectral components in the range of interest of electromagnetic compatibility measurements. Common approaches to manipulate some selected components in these frequency ranges are shown here. These approaches add components to the input signal of the modulator...... to derive a slightly varied spectrum. To achieve a rectangular output signal, those modulators use a triangular or saw tooth carrier signal. A novel family of modulators is shown here, using more than one carrier signal to obtain a completely changed spectrum while maintaining the rectangular shaped...... waveform at the output. The multiple carriers are fed into multiple comparators and their outputs are intelligently combined by logic gates to get a single signal to drive one power stage of any type of converter. This commutation distinguishes between the four members of the novel family: the first one...

  7. Short term Braking Capability during Power Interruptions for Integrated Matrix Converter-Motor Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2002-01-01

    The new trend in Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is to integrate the inverter and the motor into a single unit in order to reduce the production cost, the commissioning time and the physical size of the equipment. This last issue becomes more important, making the matrix converter topology more...... engages or to perform more effective a combined braking.This paper proposes a new method to provide short-term braking capability during a power outage for matrix converters. A braking chopper is needed in the clamp circuit, which allows for a drastically reduction of the capacitor size. The power flow...... in the clamp circuit may be reduced by increasing the harmonic content in the motor currents, which causes higher motor losses. Experiments prove the validity of the proposed method....

  8. Short term braking capability during power interruptions for integrated matrix converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    The new trend in adjustable speed drives (ASD) is to integrate the inverter and the motor into a single unit in order to reduce the production cost, the commissioning time, and the physical size of the equipment. This last issue becomes more important, making the matrix converter topology more...... engages or to perform more effective a combined braking. This paper proposes a new method to provide short-term braking capability during a power outage for matrix converters. A braking chopper is needed in the clamp circuit, which allows for a drastically reduction of the capacitor size. The power flow...... in the clamp circuit may be reduced by increasing the harmonic content in the motor currents, which causes higher motor losses. Experiments prove the validity of the proposed method....

  9. Enhancing the Frequency Adaptability of Periodic Current Controllers for Grid-Connected Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    (PR) and Repetitive Controllers (RC). The synchronization is actually to detect the instantaneous grid information (e.g., frequency and phase of the grid voltage) for the current control, which is commonly performed by a Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) system. As a consequence, harmonics and deviations......It is mandatory for grid-connected power converters to synchronize the feed-in currents with the grid. Moreover, the power converters should produce feed-in currents with low total harmonic distortions according to the demands, by employing advanced current controllers, e.g., Proportional Resonant...... deviations. Experiments on a single-phase grid-connected inverter system are presented, which have verified the proposals and also the effectiveness of the frequency adaptive current controllers....

  10. A power-based perspective in modeling and control of switched power converters [Past and Present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltsema, D.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Nonlinear passivity-based control (PBc) algorithms for switched converters have proven to be an interesting alternative to most linear, control techniques. A possible drawback though of PBC is that it relies on a (partial) system inversion. This usually results in indirect regulations schemes to con

  11. Analysis of Parallel Topology for Active Power Factor Correction Using Single and Dual Mode Boost Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mosfiqur Rahaman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The ratio between real or average power and apparent power known as power factor has a high impact on power system industries. Efficient usage of the real power is very indicative in developing a power system. With the profusely development of technology in power semiconductor devices, the rate of using power electronic systems has expanded to new and wide application range that include residential, commercial, aerospace and other systems. In the nonlinear system, loads are the main source of harmonics. So that nonlinear behavior puts a question mark on their high efficiency. The current drawn by power electronic interfaces from the line is distorted resulting in a high total Harmonic Distortion and low p.f. this creates adverse effects on the power system include increased magnitudes of neutral currents in three phase systems, overheating in transformers and induction motors. This paper aims to develop a circuit for PFC by using active filtering approach by implementing two (single & dual boost converters arranged in parallel, for improving circuit quality and switching loss. This work actually involves simulation of basic power electronic circuit and it starts with simple circuit with a gradual increase in complexity by inclusion of new components and their subsequent effect on current and voltage wave forms. We focused to improve the condition of input current waveforms for making it sinusoidal by tuning the circuits.

  12. Optimization of Power Dissipation in Pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐江涛; 姚素英; 赵毅强; 张为; 李树荣; 张生才

    2004-01-01

    Power optimization for pipelined analog-to-digital converter(ADC) was studied. Operational principle of pipelined ADC was discussed and noise voltage caused by two important thermal noise sources, sampling switch and amplifier,was quantitatively analyzed. Method used to minimize power and the values under simple model were presented. Power can be saved by making the sampling and feedback capacitors scale down in the pipeline.And the size of capacitors was limited by thermal noise in high resolution ADC.The equivalent circuits of the two important thermal noise sources were established.Thermal noise was optimally distributed among the pipeline stages,and the relationship between scaling factor and closed loop gain was obtained for minimum power dissipation.Typical closed loop gain was 2 or 4 in pipeline ADC, and the corresponding scaling factor was 1.217 and 1.317.These results can serve as useful guidelines for designers to minimize the ADC's power consumption.

  13. Performance of arrays of direct-driven wave energy converters under optimal power take-off damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the total power converted by a wave energy farm is influenced by the hydrodynamic interactions between wave energy converters, especially when they are close to each other. Therefore, to improve the performance of a wave energy farm, the hydrodynamic interaction between converters must be considered, which can be influenced by the power take-off damping of individual converters. In this paper, the performance of arrays of wave energy converters under optimal hydrodynamic interaction and power take-off damping is investigated. This is achieved by coordinating the power take-off damping of individual converters, resulting in optimal hydrodynamic interaction as well as higher production of time-averaged power converted by the farm. Physical constraints on motion amplitudes are considered in the solution, which is required for the practical implementation of wave energy converters. Results indicate that the natural frequency of a wave energy converter under optimal damping will not vary with sea states, but the production performance of a wave energy farm can be improved significantly while satisfying the motion constraints.

  14. An adaptive digital controller for satellite medium power DC/DC converter

    OpenAIRE

    Skup, Konrad R.; Grudziński, Paweł; Orleański, Orleański

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the work concerning an adaptive digital controller for satellite medium power DC/DC converters is presented. The adaptive techniques and methods developed in Space Research Centre allows an implemented in VHDL controller to modify its parameters according to detected changes in operating conditions. Inductor entering from discontinuous to continuous current mode and vice versa or moving sampling instants due to changes in duty time are good examples of varying operation...

  15. Top-down methodology employing hardware description languages (HDLs) for designing digital control in power converters

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna Ruiz, Leonardo; Prieto López, Roberto; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a research line oriented to develop methodologies that takes advantage of hardware description languages in order to simplify the design of power converters that employ digital control techniques. The methodology focuses on setting the adequate communications among subsystems in order to simplify the change of the levels of abstraction of the subsystem’s models (from the conceptual level to the actual electric + synthesizable code). Changing the level of abstraction in the...

  16. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar.S.Pawar; Prakash.T.Patil

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  17. Design of Three Phase Matrix Converter AC-AC Utility Power Supply using SPWM Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar. S. Pawar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the control analysis and design of an three phase matrix AC-AC utility power supply .The SPWM modulation techniques is used to control the desired output voltage and gives the control output voltage and reduced input harmonic distortions .In this Matrix converter Input is directly connected to output no DC link components is required. Simulation had been done using mat lab simulink and Simulated results are observed

  18. Inductor based switching DC-DC converter for low voltage power distribution in SLHC

    CERN Document Server

    Michelis, S; Marchioro, A; Kayal, M; PH-EP

    2007-01-01

    In view of a power distribution scheme compatible with the requirements of the SLHC environment, we are evaluating the feasibility of on-board inductor-based DC-DC step-down conversion. Such converter should be an integrated circuit and capable of operating in harsh radiation environments and in the high magnetic field of the experiments. In this paper we present results concerning the choice of the technology, the search for the magnetic components and the calculations of the expected efficiency.

  19. LIMITS OF THE QUASI-STATIC APPROACH FOR CALCULATING RADIATED EMISSION FROM POWER ELECTRONICS CONVERTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Moez, Youssef; Yousef, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of switching frequencies in power electronics converters, the range validity of circuit models must be more and more larger. A useful method for interconnect modeling is the Partial Element Equivalent Circuit technique. The model given by this technique can be combined with other circuit models (like transistors) into an input circuit for a circuit simulator. This technique can be used when the quasi-static hypothesis is verified. In the other case, this technique can be ext...

  20. Single-stage active clamp power factor correction AC/DC converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A simple single-stage AC/DC converter circuit with active clamp is presented. The operation theory and state are analyzed. The experimental results show that the voltage across main switch can be clamped to a certain value, and zero voltage switching (ZVS) can be achieved. The voltage stress and switching loss are both decreased. In range of the whole load, power factors can be always more than 97%, and the highest efficiency can reach 88%.

  1. Steady-State Analysis of Switching Power Converters via Augmented Time-Invariant Equivalents

    OpenAIRE

    Stievano, Igor Simone; Trinchero, Riccardo; Canavero, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    This letter addresses the simulation of the steadystate response of switching power converters. The proposed approach is based on the interpretation of the voltage and current variables of a periodically switched linear circuit in terms of a series expansion and on the generation of augmented timeinvariant constitutive relations of the circuit elements. The circuit solution is obtained from an augmented time-invariant nodal equation generated from topological information and circuit inspectio...

  2. MOS-FET as a Current Sensor in Power Electronics Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Rok Pajer; Miro Milanoviĉ; Branko Premzel; Miran Rodiĉ

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a current sensing principle appropriate for use in power electronics’ converters. This current measurement principle has been developed for metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS-FET) and is based on U D S voltage measurement. In practice, shunt resistors and Hall effect sensors are usually used for these purposes, but the presented principle has many advantages. There is no need for additional circuit elements within high current paths, causing parasitic i...

  3. An Observer-Based Finite Control Set Model Predictive Control for Three-Phase Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite control set model predictive control (FCS-MPC for three-phase power converters uses a discrete mathematical model of the power converter to predict the future current value for all possible switching states. The circuit parameters and measured input currents are necessary components. For this reason, parameter error and time delay of current signals may degrade the performance of the control system. In the previous studies of the FCS-MPC, few articles study these aspects in detail and almost no method is proposed to avoid these negative influences. This paper, first, investigates the negative impacts of inductance inaccuracy and AC-side current distortion due to the time delay caused by filter on FCS-MPC system. Then, it proposes an observer-based FCS-MPC approach with which the inductance error can be corrected, the current signal’s time delay caused by filter can be compensated, and therefore the performance of FCS-MPC will be improved. At last, as an example, it illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach with experimental testing results for a power converter.

  4. A Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation using Cuk Converter and Single Phase Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, A. K.; Singh, B.; Kaushika, S. C.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a standalone solar photovoltaic (SPV) power generating system is designed and modeled using a Cuk dc-dc converter and a single phase voltage source inverter (VSI). In this system, a dc-dc boost converter boosts a low voltage of a PV array to charge a battery at 24 V using a maximum power point tracking control algorithm. To step up a 24 V battery voltage to 360 V dc, a high frequency transformer based isolated dc-dc Cuk converter is used to reduce size, weight and losses. The dc voltage of 360 V is fed to a single phase VSI with unipolar switching to achieve a 230 Vrms, 50 Hz ac. The main objectives of this investigation are on efficiency improvement, reduction in cost, weight and size of the system and to provide an uninterruptible power to remotely located consumers. The complete SPV system is designed and it is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated results are presented to demonstrate its satisfactory performance for validating the proposed design and control algorithm.

  5. Model Predictive Current Control for High-Power Grid-Connected Converters with Output LCL Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delpino, Hernan Anres Miranda; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2009-01-01

    A model predictive control strategy for a highpower, grid connected 3-level neutral clamped point converter is presented. Power losses constraints set a limit on commutation losses so reduced switching frequency is required, thus producing low frequency current harmonics. To reduce these harmonics...... an LCL filter is used. The proposed control strategy allows control of the active and reactive power fed into the grid, reduce the switching frequency within acceptable operational margins and keep balance of the DC-link capacitor voltages while avoiding excitation of the filter resonance frequencies....

  6. A low-power piecewise linear analog to digital converter for use in particle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencic, V.; Deval, P. [MEAD Microelectronics S.A., St. Sulpice (Switzerland)]|[EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland). Electronics Labs.; Anghinolfi, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bonino, R.; Marra, D. La; Kambara, Hisanori [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a low-power piecewise linear A/D converter. A 5MHz {at} 5V with 25mW power consumption prototype has been implemented in a 1.5{micro}m CMOS process. The die area excluding pads is 5mm{sup 2}. 11-bit absolute accuracy is obtained with a new DC offset plus charge injection compensation technique used in the comparators scheme. This ADC with large dynamic range and high resolution is developed for the readout of a tracker and/or preshower in the future LHC experiments.

  7. Optimal Design and Tradeoff Analysis of Planar Transformer in High-Power DC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    The trend toward high power density, high operating frequency, and low profile in power converters has exposed a number of limitations in the use of conventional wire-wound magnetic component structures. A planar magnetic is a low-profile transformer or inductor utilizing planar windings, instead...... of the traditional windings made of Cu wires. In this paper, the most important factors for planar transformer (PT) design including winding loss, core loss, leakage inductance, and stray capacitance have individually been investigated. The tradeoffs among these factors have to be analyzed in order to achieve...

  8. Avoidance High-Frequency Chattering Second-Order Sliding Mode Controller Design: Buck Converter in Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigeng Huangfu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly discussed a method of high-frequency second-order sliding mode control for Buck converter in wind power systems. Because the wind energy of nature is always unpredictable and intermittent, the robust control such as sliding mode control is adopted in past literatures. In order to remove the high frequency chattering problem when the traditional sliding mode achieves convergence, the second order sliding mode algorithm is reviewed firstly. Meanwhile, the Buck converter taken as a step-down converter is usually adopted in wind power system, because of its simple structure and good linearity. Under those conditions, the second order sliding mode controller is designed based on Buck converter, especially in high-power wind generation system. The experimental results illustrate that the theory of second order sliding mode can be used in high-power Buck converter. It provides one novel avoidance high frequency chattering method for the technology development of new energy generation system.

  9. A Simple MPPT Algorithm for Novel PV Power Generation System by High Output Voltage DC-DC Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanjeevikumar, Padmanaban; Grandi, Gabriele; Wheeler, Patrick;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the novel topology of Photo Voltaic (PV) power generation system with simple Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm in voltage operating mode. Power circuit consists of high output voltage DC-DC boost converter which maximizes the output of PV panel. Usually traditional...... DC-DC boost converters are used for such application, but they are not the most suitable solution due to output limitation, lower efficiency and require more sensors with complex control algorithm. Further on, the effects of parasitic elements are suppressed, as well as the power transfer efficiency...... of DC-DC converters for PV integration. Hence, to overcome these difficulties this paper investigates a DC-DC boost converter together with the additional parasitic component within the circuit to provide high output voltages for maximizing the PV power generation. The proposed power system circuit...

  10. A DC-DC converter based powering scheme for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-11-01

    Around 2016, the pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be upgraded. The amount of current that has to be provided to the front-end electronics is expected to increase by a factor of two. Since the space available for cables is limited, this would imply unacceptable power losses in the currently installed supply cables. Therefore it is foreseen to place DC-DC converters close to the front-end electronics, allowing the provision of power at higher voltages, thereby facilitating the supply of the required currents with the present cable plant. This conference report introduces the foreseen powering scheme of the pixel upgrade. For the first time, system tests have been conducted with pixel barrel sensor modules, radiation tolerant DC-DC converters and the full power supply chain of the pixel detector. In addition, studies of the stability of different powering schemes under various conditions are summarized. In particular the impact of large and fast load variations, which are related to the bunch structure of the LHC beam, has been studied.

  11. Novel catalytic converter for natural gas powered diesel engines to meet stringent exhaust emission regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, M.; Mirosh, E.A. [Alternative Fuel Systems Inc. (Canada); Matros, Yu.S.; Bunimovich, G.A.; Strots, V.O. [Matros Technologies Inc. (United States); Sallamie, N.; Checkel, M.D. [Alberta Univ. (Canada); Windawi, H. [Johnson Matthey (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The implementation of stringent exhaust emission regulations has led to the development of natural gas powered dual fuel systems with electronic multiport injection. The high compression ratio of the baseline diesel engine was maintained to keep the high thermal efficiency of diesel cycles. The dual fuel system is mainly powered by natural gas and ignited by a diesel pilot. Extensive experimental results indicate that the diesel dual fuel system provides simultaneous reductions in NO{sub x} and particulate emissions. The system also has low exhaust THC and CO under heavy-duty operations. With the combined use of exhaust gas recirculation and catalytic converter, low emission operation has been extended to a larger range, from medium to full loads for all testing speeds. However, conventional converters exhibit poor conversion efficiency at low engine loads due to the low exhaust temperature levels. This leads to increased exhaust emissions during low load operations, especially for the non-reactive hydrocarbons, specifically, methane. To solve this problem, a novel automotive exhaust gas aftertreatment system - the reversing flow catalytic converter - has been developed. The prototype Reversing Flow Converter (RFC) consists of a diversion flow valve and a catalytic monolith converter. The diversion valve periodically re-directs the engine exhaust flow through the catalyst in alternative directions. The duration of flow in each direction is determined by engine operating conditions to obtain an ideal temperature profile along the axis of the monolith. The catalytic converter was designed to have high methane conversion efficiency. Associated techniques, such as retarding fuel injection, exhaust gas recirculation, and the variation of diesel pilot to natural gas ratio, can be used to raise exhaust temperature and bring the catalytic converter to light-off temperatures quicker. Engine dynamometer tests showed that CO conversion rate was above 95% and CH{sub 4

  12. Self-Starting DC:DC Boost Converter for Low-Power and Low-Voltage Microbial Electric Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Degrenne, Nicolas; Buret, François; Morel, Florent; Adami, Salah-Eddine; Labrousse, Denis; Allard, Bruno; Zaoui, Abderrahime

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper describes and evaluates an original boost converter able to harvest energy from low-power and lowvoltage power sources. Design and sizing are made according to specifications issued from the stringent characteristics of microbial electric generators such as microbial fuel cells and microbial desalination cells. The harvested power is 10mW under input voltage Vin=0.3V (33mA input current). The design of the converter is adapted from a classical boost topolo...

  13. Microcontroller–Based Modified SEPIC Converter for Driving Lamp with Power Factor Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yamuna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A methodological study of electronic ballast for electrode less lamps including design and development issues is presented in this paper. The ballast is intended to feed a 300 W ultra violet lamp at 100 kHz with dimming feature. The proposed topology is composed of a Single-Ended Primary Inductance Converter (SEPIC, used as power factor correction (PFC stage, integrated with a resonant half-bridge inverter, used as lamp power control (PC stage. The integration of both stages is proposed in this paper, in order to reduce the number of active switches, as well as to simplify the required driving and control circuitry for this application. The implemented topology attained very high power factor (0.9982, and low line current total harmonic distortion (THD (1.86%, without using electromagnetic interference (EMI filter, while the measured efficiency was 90% at nominal lamp power.

  14. Push-pull converter with energy saving circuit for protecting switching transistors from peak power stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In a push-pull converter, switching transistors are protected from peak power stresses by a separate snubber circuit in parallel with each comprising a capacitor and an inductor in series, and a diode in parallel with the inductor. The diode is connected to conduct current of the same polarity as the base-emitter juction of the transistor so that energy stored in the capacitor while the transistor is switched off, to protect it against peak power stress, discharges through the inductor when the transistor is turned on, and after the capacitor is discharges through the diode. To return this energy to the power supply, or to utilize this energy in some external circuit, the inductor may be replaced by a transformer having its secondary winding connected to the power supply or to the external circuit.

  15. Modeling and Control of Grid Side Converter in Wind Power Generation System Based on Synchronous VFDPC with PLL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Li, Lijuan;

    2011-01-01

    Virtual flux oriented direct power control (VFDPC) is combined space vector modulation (SVM) with PI of DC-link voltage, active power and reactive power to control the grid side converter in wind power generation system in this paper. VFDPC has reached good performances with PLL (phase lock loop)...

  16. 5uW-10mW input power range inductive boost converter for indoor photovoltaic energy harvesting with integrated maximum power point tracking algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.; Van Liempd, C.; Op het Veld, J.H.G.; Blanken, P.G.; Van Hoof, C.

    2010-01-01

    A fully autonomous inductive boost converter for indoor photovoltaic harvesting with maximum power point tracking circuit is implemented in a commercial 0.25um CMOS process. The converter can handle input power from 5uW up to 10mW and charge a battery or a super-capacitor up to 5V. Its control circ

  17. Design of a nonlinear backstepping control strategy of grid interconnected wind power system based PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errami, Y.; Obbadi, A.; Sahnoun, S.; Benhmida, M.; Ouassaid, M.; Maaroufi, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents nonlinear backstepping control for Wind Power Generation System (WPGS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG) and connected to utility grid. The block diagram of the WPGS with PMSG and the grid side back-to-back converter is established with the dq frame of axes. This control scheme emphasises the regulation of the dc-link voltage and the control of the power factor at changing wind speed. Besides, in the proposed control strategy of WPGS, Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) technique and pitch control are provided. The stability of the regulators is assured by employing Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control strategy for the system has been validated by MATLAB simulations under varying wind velocity and the grid fault condition. In addition, a comparison of simulation results based on the proposed Backstepping strategy and conventional Vector Control is provided.

  18. Design of practical sliding-mode controllers with constant switching frequency for power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Lopez, Eva M. [School of Computer Science, Centre for Interdisciplinary Computational and Dynamical Analysis, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Kilburn Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cortes, Domingo [Seccion de Mecatronica, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Castro, Christian [Centro de Investigacion en Computacion del IPN, Av. Jose Othon de Mendizabal s/n, Col. Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    A novel experimentally motivated method in order to design a family of easy-to-implement sliding-mode controllers for power converters is proposed. Two main results are presented. First, the relation between sliding-mode control and average control is reinterpreted so that the limitation of the switching frequency for the closed-loop system is achieved in a more direct way than other methods so far reported in the literature. For this purpose, a class of sliding surfaces which makes the associated equivalent control be the system average control is proposed. Second, the achievement of a constant switching frequency in the controlled system is assured without requiring the sliding-mode-based controller to be modified, unlike most previous works. As a result, the proposed sliding surfaces-type can be directly implemented via a pulse-width modulator. The control methodology is implemented for the voltage control in a boost converter prototype in which the load is considered unknown. Experimental results confirm high performance and robustness under parameters variation. Furthermore, the solution proposed is easy to implement and well-suited for other power converters. (author)

  19. Study of a control strategy for grid side converter in doubly- fed wind power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D. J.; Tan, Z. L.; Yuan, F.; Wang, Q. Y.; Ding, M.

    2016-08-01

    The grid side converter is an important part of the excitation system of doubly-fed asynchronous generator used in wind power system. As a three-phase voltage source PWM converter, it can not only transfer slip power in the form of active power, but also adjust the reactive power of the grid. This paper proposed a control approach for improving its performance. In this control approach, the dc voltage is regulated by a sliding mode variable structure control scheme and current by a variable structure controller based on the input output linearization. The theoretical bases of the sliding mode variable structure control were introduced, and the stability proof was presented. Switching function of the system has been deduced, sliding mode voltage controller model has been established, and the output of the outer voltage loop is the instruction of the inner current loop. Affine nonlinear model of two input two output equations on d-q axis for current has been established its meeting conditions of exact linearization were proved. In order to improve the anti-jamming capability of the system, a variable structure control was added in the current controller, the control law was deduced. The dual-loop control with sliding mode control in outer voltage loop and linearization variable structure control in inner current loop was proposed. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy even during the dc reference voltage and system load variation.

  20. Fractional-order control and simulation of wind energy systems with PMSG/full-power converter topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new integrated model for the simulation of wind energy systems. The proposed model is more realistic and accurate, considering a variable-speed wind turbine, two-mass rotor, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), different power converter topologies, and filters. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with PMSG/full-power converter topology, based on fractional-order controllers. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out with matrix and multilevel power converter topologies, in order to adequately assert the system performance in what regards the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn.

  1. Fractional-order control and simulation of wind energy systems with PMSG/full-power converter topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melicio, R.; Catalao, J.P.S. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a new integrated model for the simulation of wind energy systems. The proposed model is more realistic and accurate, considering a variable-speed wind turbine, two-mass rotor, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), different power converter topologies, and filters. Additionally, a new control strategy is proposed for the variable-speed operation of wind turbines with PMSG/full-power converter topology, based on fractional-order controllers. Comprehensive simulation studies are carried out with matrix and multilevel power converter topologies, in order to adequately assert the system performance in what regards the quality of the energy injected into the electric grid. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  2. Effect of embedded voltage source converter on power system oscillation damping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R; DUNN

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the damping torque analysis of power system oscillation stability as affected by the dynamic and control functions of an embedded voltage source converter(VSC).The objective of the study is to explain why and how the dynamic and basic control functions of the embedded VSC,ac and dc voltage regulation,provide damping to power system oscillations.The most important conclusion obtained in the paper is that both the dynamics and the dc voltage control of the VSC contribute a variable damping torque,which can be positive or negative,at different levels of system load conditions.More positive damping torque can be provided by the VSC at a heavier load condition.There exists a point of system load condition where the VSC provides no damping torque to power system oscillation hence dose not impose any influence on power system oscillation stability.The VSC studied in the paper can be the power-electronics-based interface of various FACTS(flexible ac transmission systems) devices,energy storage systems and renewable power generation units,although the focus of the discussion presented in this paper is the effect of the dynamics and basic control functions of the VSC themselves on power system oscillation damping.To demonstrate the analytical conclusions obtained in the paper,results of eigenvalue computation and nonlinear simulation of an example power system with STATCOM(static synchronous compensator) are given.

  3. Design of a 300-Watt Isolated Power Supply for Ultra-Fast Tracking Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Ouyang, Ziwei; Petersen, Lars Press;

    2015-01-01

    that an overall circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance of 10 pF in a 300 W prototype can be achieved. The circuit input-to-output capacitance per watt is therefore 30 times lower than that of existing approaches. A mathematical model of the inter-winding capacitance of the proposed transformer, circuit......This paper presents the design of a medium-powerrating isolated power supply for ultra-fast tracking converters and MOS-gate driver circuits in medium and high voltage applications. The key feature of the design is its very low circuit input-to-output parasitic capacitance, which maximizes its...... noise immunity from noise due to fast changes in voltage. The converter is a voltage-controlled current source, utilizing a transformer with extremely low inter-winding parasitic capacitance, which is achieved by separating the windings by a significant distance. Experimental measurements show...

  4. Interconnected High-Voltage Pulsed-Power Converters System Design for H− Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental validations of a system of three new high-voltage (HV) pulsedpower converters for the H− sources. The system requires three pulsed voltages (50, 40, and 25 kV to ground) at 2-Hz repetition rate, for 700 μs of usable flat-top. The solution presents ripplefree output voltages and minimal stored energy to protect the ion source from the consequences of arc events. Experimental results on the final full-scale prototype are presented. In case of short-circuit events, the maximal energy delivered to the source is in the Joule range. HV flat-top stability of 1% is experimentally achieved with a simple Proportional-Integral- Derivative regulation and preliminary tuned H− source (e.g., radio frequency control, gas injection, and so forth). The system is running since more than a year with no power converter failures and damage to the source.

  5. A Novel Soft Switching PWM Power Frequency Converter with Non DC Smoothing Filter Link for Consumer High Frequency Induction Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Hisayuki; Muraoka, Hidekazu; Hiraki, Eiji; Hirota, Izuo; Yasui, Kenji; Omori, Hideki; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In this paper, high frequency power converter without DC smoothing electrolytic capacitor filter link which convert the 100V/200Vrms and 60Hz single phase utility frequency AC power into a high frequency AC. This proposed high frequency AC power converter without electrolytic capacitor filter can operate under a principle of soft switching PWM based on a lossless capacitor snubber is proposed and demonstrated for consumer high frequency induction heating (IH). In particular, this high frequency power converter capable of producing a high frequency AC more than 20kHz is developed for consumer IH applications as hot water producer and steamer based on the specially designed spiral type IH-Dual Packs Heater (DPH), which includes the dual mode pulse modulation control scheme based on soft switching PWM for high output power setting and commercial frequency AC zero voltage soft switching pulse density modulation (PDM) for low output power settings. This developed high frequency power frequency converter using trench gate IGBTs is clarified on the basis of experimental and simulation results for its circuit operation of the utility frequency AC to high frequency AC frequency PWM power converter without the electrolytic capacitor bank DC filter link for the IH hot water and IH steamer. These IH appliances are based upon an innovative electromagnetic IH-DPH for fluid heating as heat exchanger in consumer pipeline. Finally, its power regulation characteristics, power conversion efficiency and harmonic current components characteristics including power factor in utility AC grid side are evaluated and discussed from an experimental point of view. The practical effectiveness of this utility frequency AC to high frequency AC soft switching high power frequency converter defined conveniently as high frequency soft switching cyclo-inverter is proved as one of the important products effective for next generation IH application all electricity power utilizations.

  6. Apparatus and method for heat-run test on high-power PWM converters with low energy expenditure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Siva Prasad; G Narayanan

    2013-06-01

    Before installation, a voltage source converter is usually subjected to heat-run test to verify its thermal design and performance under load. For heat-run test, the converter needs to be operated at rated voltage and rated current for a substantial length of time. Hence, such tests consume huge amount of energy in case of high-power converters. Also, the capacities of the source and loads available in the research and development (R & D) centre or the production facility could be inadequate to conduct such tests. This paper proposes a method to conduct heat-run tests on highpower, pulse width modulated (PWM) converters with low energy consumption. The experimental set-up consists of the converter under test and another converter (of similar or higher rating), both connected in parallel on the ac side and open on the dc side. Vector-control or synchronous reference frame control is employed to control the converters such that one draws certain amount of reactive power and the other supplies the same; only the system losses are drawn from the mains. The performance of the controller is validated through simulation and experiments. Experimental results, pertaining to heat-run tests on a high-power PWM converter, are presented at power levels of 25 kVA to 150 kVA.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  8. The Application of Stationary VOC-PR with PLL for Grid side Converter-based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Li, Lijuan;

    2010-01-01

    Voltage oriented control PR is combined with space vector modulation and phase locked loop to control the grid side converter in wind power generation system in this paper. First the mathematical models of grid side converter and LCL filter as well as grid are given. Then the control strategy of ...

  9. Power Flow Control of a Dual-Input Interleaved Buck/Boost Converter with Galvanic Isolation for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Zhang, Zhe; Knott, Arnold;

    2015-01-01

    DC microgrids or nanogrids have attracted increasing research interest in recent years. Therefore, as a critical component, dc-dc converters with multiple inputs are required. In this paper, a dual-input interleaved buck/boost converter is proposed and its corresponding power flow control methods...

  10. Power Block Geometry Applied to the Building of Power Electronics Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E. C., Jr.; da Silva, E. R. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology, Power Block Geometry (PBG), for the presentation of power electronics topologies that process ac voltage. PBG's strategy uses formal methods based on a geometrical representation with particular rules and defines a universe with axioms and conjectures to establish a formation law. It allows power…

  11. Modeling and Comparison of Power Converters for Doubly Fed Induction Generators in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars

    -level inverter topologies four new modulation methods have been proposed. The functionality of most of the developed modulation methods have been demonstrated on an experimental test-setup. Apart from the loss modeling approach, models and methods to estimate the average temperature and peak temperature......, all the developed wind turbine component models have been implemented in a simulation tool Drives enabling a fast and fair comparison of the considered converter topologies. Besides enabling a comparison on the turbine efficiency (and turbine component efficiency), the tool enables an investigation......During the last decades, renewable energy resources have become an ever increasing part of the world wide power generation and especially energy produced by wind turbines has captured a significant part of this power production. This large penetration of wind power has caused increased focus...

  12. Chaos in Switching Converters for Power Management Designing for Prediction and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez Vilamitjana, Enric; Alarcón, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the need for models and techniques to predict stability boundaries, given trends toward miniaturization of switching power supplies in battery-operated portable devices, which lead to the exhibition of fast-scale chaotic instabilities.  The authors describe a method to predict stability boundaries from a design-oriented perspective, which captures the effect of the different parameters of the system upon the particular boundary.  Unlike previous methods involving complex analysis based on the discrete-time mathematical model, the method introduced here allows for prediction of the overall stability boundaries within the complete design space and is based upon a simple design-oriented index. Provides a valuable reference to the field of nonlinear dynamical behavior and bifurcation analysis and control of switch-mode power supplies. Shows limitations of existing models for predicting chaotic instabilities in switching power converters; Describes a new approach to predict  instabilities fr...

  13. Selection of Design Power of Wave Energy Converters Based on Wave Basin Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, L.; Zanuttigh, B.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to develop a method for selecting the optimal power generation capacity for which a wave energy converter (WEC) should be rated. This method is suitable for the earliest stages of development, when several studies are missing, including design of the Power Take Off (PTO) system......, and the first economic considerations become essential for investment opportunities. It relies on the availability of an experimental description of the maximum possible produced power under realistic conditions, typically obtained by dummy PTOs. It consists of three steps: statistical characterisation...... of the measured efficiency; description of the energy production by means of a function of the design capacity; application of a simple formula for cost benefit analysis. The analyses here proposed are based on the experimental results of 3D tests on two floating wave energy devices, named LEANCON and DEXA...

  14. High Power Neutral Point Clamped (NPC Multilevel UPFC with DC Link Switch for Effective Control of Real & Reactive Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sanjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage and power capability of multilevel converters better used for unified power-flow controller (UPFC applications. The three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC converter allows back-to-back connection as the UPFC shunt and series converters than other multilevel topologies. In place of the pulse width-modulated (PWM multilevel control schemes, constant dc-link voltage and balanced voltages in the NPC multilevel dc capacitors is necessary for UPFCs. The proposed work provides three main contributions to increase the performance of the system of multilevel UPFCs as this can be operated in STATCOM, SSSC and exactly in the UPFC mode with the double balancing of dc capacitor voltages under line faults, overall enhancing the UPFC ride-through capability. NPC series and shunt converters keep the dc-link voltage steady. Transients are the causes of fault in power system, Power System Stabilizer (PSS and Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR are used to stabilize the response. The voltage regulator and current controller plays important roll to generate control pulses for VSC. A MATLAB simulation has been carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed model for UPFC in achieving transient stability with real and reactive power control.

  15. Study and Analysis of a Natural Reference Frame Current Controller for a Multi-Level H-Bridge Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, P.;

    2008-01-01

    To pave the way to a sustainable energy future based on a larger share of Distributed Generation (DG), there is a clear need to prepare the European electricity system for the large-scale integration of both renewable and other distributed energy sources. Advanced power electronic converters for DG...... will be needed in order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid with an increased level of renewable power. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents an analysis of the natural...... reference frame controller, based on proportional-resonant (PR) technique, for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network. The proposed method is tested in terms of harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling (PCC), voltage...

  16. Investigation of a matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems; Untersuchung eines Matrixumrichters fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklebe, Andreas

    2009-05-22

    The publication discusses a three- to two-phase matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems. Based on relevant publications, possible resonance setups for contactless power transmission systems are investigated to begin with. An analysis of relevant parameters shows the differences between the various setups, but it also shows that for an investigation focusing on the feeding converter, simple modelling of the three investigated resonance setups is possible with the aid of a serial oscillating circuit. In consequence, it should be possible to apply the results also to the matrix converter with other serially resonant loads. The second part of the investigation focuses on the matrix converter. After a theoretical description, a combination von high-frequency control - e.g. bulk pulsing - and low-frequency pulsing patterns for setting the harmonics level of the grid currents is presented. The similarity to a conventional H bridge circuit enables an assessment of commutation and the identification of the necessary inverter states. These are characterized in that a bidirectional connection between the input system and each output phase is available at any time. The functioning of the commutation and of the inverter as a whole is proved by simulation in a first step, in which also the dynamic switching characteristics of the power semiconductors is taken into account. Finally, the results of laboratory measurements are presented and compared with the theoretical results. The laboratory setup consists of the power section of the matrix converter with input filters and modular gate drivers, a DSP/FPGA control system, and a contactless power transmission system with a current inverter and load on the secondary side. The investigation thus provides information on the use of the three-to-two phase matrix converter as an interesting alternative for feeding of contactless power transmission systems and other serially resonant loads. (orig.) [German] Diese

  17. Investigation of a matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems; Untersuchung eines Matrixumrichters fuer kontaktlose Energieuebertragungssysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecklebe, Andreas

    2009-05-22

    The publication discusses a three- to two-phase matrix converter for contactless power transmission systems. Based on relevant publications, possible resonance setups for contactless power transmission systems are investigated to begin with. An analysis of relevant parameters shows the differences between the various setups, but it also shows that for an investigation focusing on the feeding converter, simple modelling of the three investigated resonance setups is possible with the aid of a serial oscillating circuit. In consequence, it should be possible to apply the results also to the matrix converter with other serially resonant loads. The second part of the investigation focuses on the matrix converter. After a theoretical description, a combination von high-frequency control - e.g. bulk pulsing - and low-frequency pulsing patterns for setting the harmonics level of the grid currents is presented. The similarity to a conventional H bridge circuit enables an assessment of commutation and the identification of the necessary inverter states. These are characterized in that a bidirectional connection between the input system and each output phase is available at any time. The functioning of the commutation and of the inverter as a whole is proved by simulation in a first step, in which also the dynamic switching characteristics of the power semiconductors is taken into account. Finally, the results of laboratory measurements are presented and compared with the theoretical results. The laboratory setup consists of the power section of the matrix converter with input filters and modular gate drivers, a DSP/FPGA control system, and a contactless power transmission system with a current inverter and load on the secondary side. The investigation thus provides information on the use of the three-to-two phase matrix converter as an interesting alternative for feeding of contactless power transmission systems and other serially resonant loads. (orig.) [German] Diese

  18. A fast time domain digital simulation technique for power converters - Application to a buck converter with feedforward compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Small signal analysis was performed earlier to demonstrate the marked improvement of dynamic properties and stability margins of a switching regulator employing a novel feedforward input filter compensation scheme. A large signal nonlinear recurrent time domain model is presented for the converter to analyse the transient response due to a step input change with and without the presence of the proposed feedforward loop. The results are verified with experimental data.

  19. An ocean kinetic energy converter for low-power applications using piezoelectric disk elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñolo, C.; Toma, D.; Mànuel, A.; del Rio, J.

    2013-09-01

    The main problem facing long-term electronic system deployments in the sea, is to find a feasible way to supply them with the power they require. Harvesting mechanical energy from the ocean wave oscillations and converting it into electrical energy, provides an alternative method for creating self-contained power sources. However, the very low and varying frequency of ocean waves, which generally varies from 0.1 Hz to 2 Hz, presents a hurdle which has to be overcome if this mechanical energy is to be harvested. In this paper, a new sea wave kinetic energy converter is described using low-cost disk piezoelectric elements, which has no dependence on their excitement frequency, to feed low-consumption maritime-deployed electronic devices. The operating principles of the piezoelectric device technique are presented, including analytical formulations describing the transfer of energy. Finally, a prototypical design, which generates electrical energy from the motion of a buoy, is introduced. The paper concludes with the the behavior study of the piezoelectric prototype device as a power generator.

  20. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj;

    2010-01-01

    The size of wind power plants (WPPs), both physical and in terms of power rating, is rapidly growing. More and more WPPs are commissioned as offshore as well as the distances from the WPP to the coast are increasing. The problems associated with long HVAC sea-cables are well documented. Alternative...... power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...... and the energy losses. A complete procedure of evaluating the energy transmission as well as losses in both systems are presented. A brief discussion about the limitations of HVAC transmission is also included in the paper together with advantages and disadvantages of both systems....

  1. Improvement of Input Current Waveform for Soft-Switching Boost DCM Converter with Unity Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Katsunori; Morizane, Toshimitsu; Kimura, Noriyuki

    In this paper, a soft-switching discontinuous mode (DCM) power factor corrected (PFC) converter is analyzed by applying the double Fourier series expansion. It is found that the fundamental component and higher-order harmonics included in the input current waveform are obtained by the Fourier series expansion of the mean value of the inductor current. From the theoretical analysis, a new method removing the distortion of the input current waveform is proposed. In spite of an open loop system, the proposed method makes a great improvement of the total harmonic distortion even if the ratio of output voltage to input voltage is very low.

  2. An active trap filter for high-power voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Haofeng; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang;

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a power electronic based device to actively trap the switching current ripples for highpower converters. Control principle and system design of the active trap filter are discussed first. Comparisons of the active trap filter with LCL and LLCL filters are then carried out...... in time-domain simulations and experimental tests. The results demonstrate that the active trap filter not only provides more controllability and flexibility than the passive filters, but also mitigates the adverse effects of parameter shifts on harmonic filtering performance of passive filters....

  3. Single stage AC-DC converter for Galfenol-based micro-power energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaroc, Peyton; Curtis, Chandra; Naik, Suketu; Cooper, James

    2014-06-01

    Military based sensor systems are often hindered in operational deployment and/or other capabilities due to limitations in their energy storage elements. Typically operating from lithium based batteries, there is a finite amount of stored energy which the sensor can use to collect and transmit data. As a result, the sensors have reduced sensing and transmission rates. However, coupled with the latest advancements in energy harvesting, these sensors could potentially operate at standard sensing and transition rates as well as dramatically extend lifetimes. Working with the magnetostrictive material Galfenol, we demonstrate the production of enough energy to supplement and recharge a solid state battery thereby overcoming the deficiencies faced by unattended sensors. As with any vibration-based energy harvester, this solution produces an alternating current which needs to be rectified and boosted to a level conducive to recharge the storage element. This paper presents a power converter capable of efficiently converting an ultra-low AC voltage to a solid state charging voltage of 4.1VDC. While we are working with Galfenol transducers as our energy source, this converter may also be applied with any AC producing energy harvester, particularly at operating levels less than 2mW and 200mVAC.

  4. The Three-Phase Power Router and Its Operation with Matrix Converter toward Smart-Grid Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Kordonis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A power router has been recently developed for both AC and DC applications that has the potential for smart-grid applications. This study focuses on three-phase power switching through the development of an experimental setup which consists of a three-phase direct AC/AC matrix converter with a power router attached to its output. Various experimental switching scenarios with the loads connected to different input sources were investigated. The crescent introduction of decentralized power generators throughout the power-grid obligates us to take measurements for a better distribution and management of the power. Power routers and matrix converters have great potential to succeed this goal with the help of power electronics devices. In this paper, a novel experimental three-phase power switching was achieved and the advantages of this operation are presented, such as on-demand and constant power supply at the desired loads.

  5. Efficiency and Output Power Evaluation of a Wavelength Converter Based on FWM in a Single Mode Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. C. Sarker; S. P. Majumder; T. Yoshino

    2003-01-01

    A frequency domain analysis is presented to determine the performance characteristics of a tunable alloptical wavelength converter using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a single mode fiber (SMF) around the zero dispersion wavelength using two pump lasers. The output converted signal power as well as efficiency evaluated at a bit rate of 10 Gb/s show that the signal power is substantially higher at lower values of wavelength separation.

  6. A New Approach to High Efficincy in Isolated Boost Converters for High-Power Low-Voltage Fuel Cell Apllications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    A new low-leakage-inductance low-resistance design approach to low-voltage high-power isolated boost converters is presented. Very low levels of parasitic circuit inductances are achieved by optimizing transformer design and circuit lay-out. Primary side voltage clamp circuits can be eliminated b...... converter verify theoretical analysis and demonstrate very high efficiency. Worst case efficiency, at minimum input voltage maximum power, is 96.8 percent and maximum efficiency reaches 98 percent....

  7. Design and analysis of a novel zero-voltage-transition interleaved boost converter for renewable power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Ires; Genc, Naci

    2010-09-01

    High-efficiency stepping up operation is an important feature of the converters used in renewable power applications due to the low voltage level of photo-voltaic arrays and fuel cells. Decreasing the switching losses of the converters is an effective solution for increasing the converter efficiency, especially in high-power applications. This article presents a novel zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) interleaved dc-dc boost converter that can be used in renewable power sources to reduce switching losses. The auxiliary circuit used in the proposed converter is composed of only one auxiliary switch and a minimum number of passive components without an important increase in the cost and complexity. The main advantage of the proposed converter is that it not only provides ZVT in the boost switches but also provides soft switching in the auxiliary switch. Another advantage of the proposed topology is that the semiconductor devices used in the converter do not have any additional voltage or current stresses. Also, it has a simple structure, low cost and ease of control. In this article, a detailed steady-state analysis of the proposed converter is presented. The theoretical analysis is verified via simulation and experimental studies which are in very good agreement.

  8. Load converter interactions with the secondary system in the Space Station Freedom power management and distribution DC test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Ramon C.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA LeRC in Cleveland, Ohio, is responsible for the design, development, and assembly of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Electrical Power System (EPS). In order to identify and understand system level issues during the SSF Program design and development phases, a system Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC test bed was assembled. Some of the objectives of this test bed facility are the evaluation of, system efficiency, power quality, system stability, and system protection and reconfiguration schemes. In order to provide a realistic operating scenario, dc Load Converter Units are used in the PMAD dc test bed to characterize the user interface with the power system. These units are dc to dc converters that provide the final system regulation before power is delivered to the load. This final regulation is required on the actual space station because the majority of user loads will require voltage levels different from the secondary bus voltage. This paper describes the testing of load converters in an end to end system environment (from solar array to loads) where their interactions and compatibility with other system components are considered. Some of the system effects of interest that are presented include load converters transient behavior interactions with protective current limiting switchgear, load converters ripple effects, and the effects of load converter constant power behavior with protective features such as foldback.

  9. A Reduced-Part, Triple-Voltage DC-DC Converter for EV/HEV Power Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Gui-Jia [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electrical power systems in future hybrid and fuel cell vehicles may consist of three voltage nets: 14 V, 42 V, and high voltage (>200 V) buses. A soft-switched, bidirectional dc-dc converter that uses only four switches was proposed for interconnecting the three nets. This paper presents a reduced-part dc-dc converter, which decreases the converter cost while retaining all the favorable features of the original topology. Experimental data are included to verify a simple power flow control scheme.

  10. Decoupled Power Solution for Dual-input Isolated DC-DC Converters Using Four Quadrants Integrated Transformers (FQIT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2012-01-01

    A common limitation of power coupling effect in some known multiple-input dc-dc converters has been addressed in many literatures. In order to overcome this limitation, a new concept for decoupling the primary windings in the integrated multiple-winding transformers based on 3-dimensional (3D....... In order to verify the feasibility of the FQIT in multiple-input converter, a dual-input isolated boost dc-dc converter employing with the FQIT is designed and tested. The results have excellently demonstrated that the two input power stages can be operated independently and the correctness of all...

  11. Performance evaluation of Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm with buck dc-dc converter for Solar PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahteshamul Haque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy crisis concern leads to look for alternate source of energy. Solar energy is considered as most reliable among the all renewable energy sources. Solar PV (Photovoltaic is used to convert solar energy into electric energy. The efficiency of solar PV is very low and its characteristic is nonlinear. To overcome these drawbacks a technique known as maximum power point tracking is used. This algorithm is implemented in the control circuit of DC – DC converter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking with buck DC-DC converter under load varying conditions. The simulation work is done using PSIM simulation software.

  12. Design and Implementation of a Power Converter to Process Renewable Energy for Step-down Voltage Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Lung Shen; Yu-Sheng Shen

    2014-01-01

    In this study a power converter to process renewable energy is proposed, which can not only process solar energy but deal with wind power. The proposed converter is derived from two series modified forwards to step down voltage for charger system or dc distribution application, so as called Modified-Forward Dual-Input Converter (MFDIC). The MFDIC mainly contains an upper Modified Forward (MF), a lower MF, a common output inductor and a DSP-based system controller. The upper and lower MFs can ...

  13. Wind-powered asynchronous AC/DC/AC converter system. [for electric power supply regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitan, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Two asynchronous ac/dc/ac systems are modelled that utilize wind power to drive a variable or constant hertz alternator. The first system employs a high power 60-hertz inverter tie to the large backup supply of the power company to either supplement them from wind energy, storage, or from a combination of both at a preset desired current; rectifier and inverter are identical and operate in either mode depending on the silicon control rectifier firing angle. The second system employs the same rectification but from a 60-hertz alternator arrangement; it provides mainly dc output, some sinusoidal 60-hertz from the wind bus and some high harmonic content 60-hertz from an 800-watt inverter.

  14. Current Harmonics Compensation in Microgrids Exploiting the Power Electronics Interfaces of Renewable Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bouloumpasis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a method of current harmonic reduction in a distorted distribution system. In order to evaluate the proposed method a grid with high-order current harmonics is assumed. The reduction of current distortion is feasible due to the pulse modulation of an active filter, which consists of a buck-boost converter connected back-to-back to a polarity swapping inverter. For a practical application, this system would be the power electronic interface of a Renewable Energy Source (RES and therefore it changes a source of harmonics to a damping harmonics system. Using the proposed method, the current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD of the grid is reduced below the acceptable limits and thus the general power quality of the system is improved. Simulations in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and experiments have been performed in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. A stationary reference frame current control for a multi-level H-bridge power converter for universal and flexible power management in future electricity network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Iov, Florin; Zanchetta, Pericle;

    2008-01-01

    More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...... converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper assesses a control method based on the stationary reference frame with Proportional-Resonant current controllers...... for a multi-level cascaded H-bridges power converter used for grid applications. Harmonic content in the Point of Common Coupling, system response for bidirectional power flow, voltage and frequency excursions as well as voltage unbalances and asymmetries and low voltage ride-though capabilities are studied....

  16. Optimisation of Working Areas in Discrete Hydraulic Power Take off-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid power is the leading technology in Power Take Off(PTO) systems in Wave Energy Converters(WEC’s), due to the capability of generating high force at low velocity. However, as hydraulic force controlling system may suffer from large energy losses the efficiency of the hydraulic PTO systems may...... be a limiting factor for wave energy. Therefore, a secondary controlled force system has been proposed as PTO element for WEC’s. This paper investigates the configuration of a multi-chamber cylinder utilising two common pressure lines. By usage of model based optimisation an optimal number and size of working...... areas is proposed. This area encoding strategy is investigated and compared to two standard binary encodings, finding that the optimised area coding yields significantly higher energy output....

  17. A Novel Approach of Position Estimation and Power Factor Corrector Converter Fed BLDC Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaliappan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Power factor Corrected (PFC Bridgeless Buck-Boost converter fed BLDC motor drive. The Bridgeless configuration eliminates the Diode Bridge Rectifier in order to reduce the number of components and the conduction loss. The position sensors used in BLDC drives have drawbacks of additional cost, mechanical alignment problems. These bottle necks results in sensorless technique. The Sensorless technique mostly relies on measurement of Back EMF to determine relative positions of stator and rotor for the correct coil energising sequence can be implemented. This paper introduces the offline Finite Element method for sensorless operation. The proposed sensorless scheme estimates the motor position at standstill and running condition. The obtained Power Factor is within the acceptable limits IEC 61000-3-2. The proposed drive is simulated in MATLAB/Simulink the obtained results are validated experimentally on a developed prototype of the drive.

  18. The alkali metal thermoelectric converter /AMTEC/ - A new direct energy conversion technology for aerospace power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankston, C. P.; Cole, T.; Jones, R.; Ewell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A thermally regenerative electrochemical device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy, the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), is characterized by potential efficiencies on the order of 15-40% and possesses no moving parts, making it a candidate for space power system applications. Device conversion efficiency is projected on the basis of experimental voltage vs current curves exhibiting power densities of 0.7 W/sq cm and measured electrode efficiencies of up to 40%. Preliminary radiative heat transfer measurements presented may be used in an investigation of methods for the reduction of AMTEC parasitic radiation losses. AMTEC assumes heat input and rejection temperatures of 900-1300 K and 400-800 K, respectively. The working fluid is liquid sodium, and the porous electrode employed is of molybdenum.

  19. Design of Bidirectional Check Valve for Discrete Fluid Power Force System for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power force systems consisting of a multichamber cylinder, a witching manifold and common pressure lines have been proposed as a technology for increasing the efficiency of the power take off system in ocean wave energy converters. However the force shifting of these discrete systems...... introduces large switching losses, especially when large pressure difference is present across the valves in the manifold. The current paper therefore focus on designing a bidirectional check valve for use in the switching manifold of the discrete force systems. The use of the bidirectional check valve...... enables passive force switching under minimal pressure difference, hence minimal energy loss. The bidirectional check valve is designed with a rated flow in the range of 1000L/min@5bar. The flow direction of the bidirectional check valve is set by the setting the pilot pressure. This paper presents...

  20. The All-digital Approach to LHC Power Converter Current Control

    CERN Document Server

    Dinius, A H; Pett, John G; Brazier, J C L

    2001-01-01

    The design of the LHC machine imposes severe demands upon the control of current in the 1700 magnet circuits. This has required the use of novel methods for the control of individual power converters and of the magnet current control system as a whole. This paper will review the chosen hardware and software methods and architectures. The digital regulation techniques used to achieve the overall targets for short-term stability (<3ppm) and reproducibility (<10ppm) of the 24 principal LHC circuits will be discussed. While the proposed system architecture will follow the canonical three-layer design, so successfully exploited in LEP, the software will be far from traditional. This software must be more reliable and maintainable than ever before, and will need to integrate with advanced object-oriented applications via commercial middleware. These challenges will be faced by applying object-oriented techniques throughout the system and by harnessing the power of XML for system definition.