WorldWideScience

Sample records for back pressure

  1. SOLA-LOOP analysis of a back pressure check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a simple valve model to analyze a feedwater pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) at Kahl, West Germany, are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data

  2. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoon Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of "prevention is better than cure" suits this condition the most.

  3. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karoon; Chauhan, Neha

    2012-05-01

    Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of "prevention is better than cure" suits this condition the most.

  4. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  5. An accurate estimation and optimization of bottom hole back pressure in managed pressure drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boniface Aleruchi ORIJI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD utilizes a method of applying back pressure to compensate for wellbore pressure losses during drilling. Using a single rheological (Annular Frictional Pressure Losses, AFPL model to estimate the backpressure in MPD operations for all sections of the well may not yield the best result. Each section of the hole was therefore treated independently in this study as data from a case study well were used. As the backpressure is a function of hydrostatic pressure, pore pressure and AFPL, three AFPL models (Bingham plastic, Power law and Herschel Bulkley models were utilized in estimating the backpressure. The estimated backpressure values were compared to the actual field backpressure values in order to obtain the optimum backpressure at the various well depths. The backpressure values estimated by utilizing the power law AFPL model gave the best result for the 12 1/4" hole section (average error % of 1.855% while the back pressures estimated by utilizing the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model gave the best result for the 8 1/2" hole section (average error % of 12.3%. The study showed that for hole sections of turbulent annular flow, the power law AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure while for hole sections of laminar annular flow, the Herschel Bulkley AFPL model fits best for estimating the required backpressure.

  6. Isometric Back Exercise Has Different Effect on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Healthy Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona

    2017-01-01

    inhibitory mechanisms. So far the results on EIH in patients with low back pain (LBP) are equivocal and no studies have investigated an EIH paradigm targeting the lower back in order to assess EIH in patients with LBP. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess pressure pain sensitivity at local...... and remote assessment sites, before and after an isometric back exercise in healthy women and men. METHODS: In a pre-posttest design, pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed at the lower back, biceps femoris muscle, and hand in 29 healthy subjects (17 women) before and after 120 seconds of the isometric......OBJECTIVE: Isometric exercises produce an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Existing EIH paradigms use exercises at the extremities with more pronounced EIH at local compared to remote body sites, indicating local inhibition in addition to central...

  7. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    2010-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols – in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues,we derive

  8. Experimental and simulation-based investigations of marine diesel engine performance against static back pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapra, H.D.; Godjevac, M.; Visser, K.; Stapersma, D.; Dijkstra, Chris

    2017-01-01

    After-treatment technologies are adopted in automobiles and ships to meet strict emission regulations, which increase exhaust back pressure. Furthermore, underwater exhaust systems are employed on board ships to save space, and reduce noise and pollution on working decks. However, water at

  9. Isometric Back Exercise Has Different Effect on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke

    2017-05-01

    Isometric exercises produce an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Existing EIH paradigms use exercises at the extremities with more pronounced EIH at local compared to remote body sites, indicating local inhibition in addition to central inhibitory mechanisms. So far the results on EIH in patients with low back pain (LBP) are equivocal and no studies have investigated an EIH paradigm targeting the lower back in order to assess EIH in patients with LBP. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess pressure pain sensitivity at local and remote assessment sites, before and after an isometric back exercise in healthy women and men. In a pre-posttest design, pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed at the lower back, biceps femoris muscle, and hand in 29 healthy subjects (17 women) before and after 120 seconds of the isometric Biering-Soerensen back extension test. After exercise, PPT increased significantly at the hand in women, but not in men ( P  = 0.027). Moreover, PPT at the leg increased independently of sex ( P  exercise approached significance ( P  = 0.07). The results of this pilot study indicate that isometric back exercise produces local and remote hypoalgesia. Remote EIH was only demonstrated in women, supporting the influence of sex in the hypoalgesic response after exercise. The effect of isometric back exercise on pain sensitivity in patients with low back pain should be investigated in future studies. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Energy Analysis of Cascade Heating with High Back-Pressure Large-Scale Steam Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the exergy loss that is caused by the high-grade extraction steam of traditional heating mode of combined heat and power (CHP generating unit, a high back-pressure cascade heating technology for two jointly constructed large-scale steam turbine power generating units is proposed. The Unit 1 makes full use of the exhaust steam heat from high back-pressure turbine, and the Unit 2 uses the original heating mode of extracting steam condensation, which significantly reduces the flow rate of high-grade extraction steam. The typical 2 × 350 MW supercritical CHP units in northern China were selected as object. The boundary conditions for heating were determined based on the actual climatic conditions and heating demands. A model to analyze the performance of the high back-pressure cascade heating supply units for off-design operating conditions was developed. The load distributions between high back-pressure exhaust steam direct supply and extraction steam heating supply were described under various conditions, based on which, the heating efficiency of the CHP units with the high back-pressure cascade heating system was analyzed. The design heating load and maximum heating supply load were determined as well. The results indicate that the average coal consumption rate during the heating season is 205.46 g/kWh for the design heating load after the retrofit, which is about 51.99 g/kWh lower than that of the traditional heating mode. The coal consumption rate of 199.07 g/kWh can be achieved for the maximum heating load. Significant energy saving and CO2 emission reduction are obtained.

  11. Back-pressure effects on unsteadiness of separation shock in a rectangular duct at Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bing; Fan, Xiao-qiang; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Liang; Tao, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate back-pressure effects on unsteadiness of separation shock in a rectangular duct, some test cases were designed and conducted in a supersonic air-breathing wind tunnel. High-speed Schlieren technique and high-frequency pressure measurements were utilized for data acquisition. Different back-pressure levels were applied by changing downstream throttling ratio. Some parameters for estimating canonical separation flows, such as zero-crossing frequency and intermittency, have been introduced to analyze the duct separation flow. The experimental results show that the separation shock oscillation frequencies increase and the intermittent region lengths decrease with the increasing back-pressure level. A comparison between the unsteadiness of shock/boundary layer interactions for the canonical flow and the duct internal flow were made. It is found that the normalized Strouhal number for the duct internal separation flow ranges from 0.01 to 0.03, which share the similar range with canonical separation flows. That is to say, the physics of separation shock unsteadiness is similar over a wide range of interaction flows, which may share the inherent flow mechanism.

  12. Optical back-action in silicon nanowire resonators: bolometric versus radiation pressure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santos, E.; Ramos, D.; Pini, V.; Llorens, J.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; San Paulo, A.

    2013-03-01

    We study optical back-action effects associated with confined electromagnetic modes in silicon nanowire resonators interacting with a laser beam used for interferometric read-out of the nanowire vibrations. Our analysis describes the resonance frequency shift produced in the nanowires by two different mechanisms: the temperature dependence of the nanowire's Young's modulus and the effect of radiation pressure. We find different regimes in which each effect dominates depending on the nanowire morphology and dimensions, resulting in either positive or negative frequency shifts. Our results also show that in some cases bolometric and radiation pressure effects can have opposite contributions so that their overall effect is greatly reduced. We conclude that Si nanowire resonators can be engineered for harnessing back-action effects for either optimizing frequency stability or exploiting dynamic phenomena such as parametric amplification.

  13. Brownfield management opportunities to reduce the back pressure effects on the gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanescu Dan-Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas mature fields are associated with challenges to optimize the hydrocarbon flow from reservoir to the sales point in a cost effective manner due to declining well productivity. Laslau Mare field is a mature gas field in Transylvanian basin (Mures County developed in 1970s and is producing∼99% methane with low water-gas ratio. As any brown field, the state of depleted reservoir will generate several constraints for gas flow from formation to surface facilities and further to delivery point. During the exploitation has been observed that the operation conditions are facing with unstable pressure in the system due to low demand. Therefore, the back pressure effect will affect the wells in terms of inability to unload the bottomhole accumulated liquids and the reservoir will suffer a higher pressure drawdown. The best fit-for-purpose solution to overcome the above challenges is represented by installation of group compressor. Laslau Mare field has 3 group compressors running and shows positive results, especially when external pressure fluctuates continuously. This paper explain the challenges seen in 2016 in Laslau Mare field with back pressure effects and how the compression overcome them, and also other solutions that should be considered to optimize the well production.

  14. Back reaction between restite and melt: Implications for geothermobarometry and pressure-temperature paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsman, Leo M.; Hensen, Bas J.

    1998-12-01

    Partial melting is an important process in high-grade metamorphism and is responsible for the production of large volumes of melt in the Earth's crust. Unless melt extraction is complete, in-situ crystallizing melt back-reacts with the restite upon cooling. In the Northampton Block, Western Australia, spinel formed by high-temperature (˜850 °C) partial melting of metapelites is separated from leucosome by garnet ± sillimanite or cordierite ± sillimanite coronas. Formation of the coronas by back reaction with a silica-undersaturated melt is inferred because: (1) textural evidence indicates that quartz was exhausted as a result of progressive dehydration melting before formation of spinel + melt; (2) the coronitic phases are never in direct contact with quartz of the leucosome; (3) barometry on cordierite- and garnet-bearing equilibria with spinel gives conflicting pressures (8.0 ± 0.5 and 3.3 ± 0.2 kbar, respectively, at 850 °C) if reactions with quartz are assumed, but pressure estimates converge on 6.5 ± 0.5 kbar at lower silica activity, aSiO2 =0.85 ± 0.02. These results indicate that the use of corona textures for the derivation of pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions and pressure-temperature vectors in migmatites should be reconsidered. Such coronas may result from a heating-cooling cycle without substantial change in pressure. Back reaction with residual melt is likely to be an important process in migmatites generally, affecting both the solid residuum and the leucosome composition.

  15. Shakedown boundary determination of a 90° back-to-back pipe bend subjected to steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Hany F.

    2014-01-01

    No experimental data exist within open literature, to the best knowledge of the author, for determining shakedown boundaries of 90° back-to-back pipe bends. Ninety degree back-to-back pipe bends are extensively utilized within piping networks of nuclear submarines and modern turbofan aero-engines where space limitation is considered a paramount concern. In the current research, the 90° back-to-back pipe bend setup analyzed is subjected to a spectrum of steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments. A previously developed direct non-cyclic simplified technique for determining elastic shakedown limit loads is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary of the analyzed structure. The simplified technique outcomes showed excellent correlation with the results of full elastic–plastic cyclic loading finite element simulations. - Highlights: • No shakedown experimental data exist for 90° back-to-back pipe bends. • A non-cyclic technique is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary. • The non-cyclic technique succeeded in generating the structure's Bree diagram. • The non-cyclic technique correlated well with full cyclic loading FE simulations

  16. Effect of back-pressure forcing on shock train structures in rectangular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; White, C.; Kontis, K.

    2018-04-01

    The deceleration of a supersonic flow to the subsonic regime inside a high-speed engine occurs through a series of shock waves, known as a shock train. The generation of such a flow structure is due to the interaction between the shock waves and the boundary layer inside a long and narrow duct. The understanding of the physics governing the shock train is vital for the improvement of the design of high-speed engines and the development of flow control strategies. The present paper analyses the sensitivity of the shock train configuration to a back-pressure variation. The complex characteristics of the shock train at an inflow Mach number M = 2 in a channel of constant height are investigated with two-dimensional RANS equations closed by the Wilcox k-ω turbulence model. Under a sinusoidal back-pressure variation, the simulated results indicate that the shock train executes a motion around its mean position that deviates from a perfect sinusoidal profile with variation in oscillation amplitude, frequency, and whether the pressure is first increased or decreased.

  17. Combustion characteristics of porous media burners under various back pressures: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The porous media combustion technology is an effective solution to stable combustion and clean utilization of low heating value gas. For observing the combustion characteristics of porous media burners under various back pressures, investigating flame stability and figuring out the distribution laws of combustion gas flow and resistance loss, so as to achieve an optimized design and efficient operation of the devices, a bench of foamed ceramics porous media combustion devices was thus set up to test the cold-state resistance and hot-state combustion characteristic of burners in working conditions without back pressures and with two different back pressures. The following results are achieved from this experimental study. (1 The strong thermal reflux of porous media can preheat the premixed air effectively, so the flame can be kept stable easily, the combustion equivalent ratio of porous media burners is lower than that of traditional burners, and its pollutant content of flue gas is much lower than the national standard value. (2 The friction coefficient of foamed ceramics decreases with the increase of air flow rate, and its decreasing rate slows down gradually. (3 When the flow rate of air is low, viscosity is the dominant flow resistance, and the friction coefficient is in an inverse relation with the flow rate. (4 As the flow rate of air increases, inertia is the dominant flow resistance, and the friction coefficient is mainly influenced by the roughness and cracks of foamed ceramics. (5 After the introduction of secondary air, the minimum equivalent ratio of porous media burners gets much lower and its range of equivalent ratio is much larger than that of traditional burners.

  18. Center of pressure trajectories, trunk kinematics and trunk muscle activation during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigenburg, N.W.; Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Trunk motor behavior has been reported to be altered in low-back pain. This may be associated with impaired lumbar proprioception, which could be compensated by trunk stiffening. We assessed trunk control by measuring center-of-pressure, lumbar kinematics and trunk muscle electromyography in 20

  19. Efcient Computation of Buffer Capacities for Cyclo-Static Real-Time Systems with Back-Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Bekooij, Marco; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Jansen, P.G.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    A key step in the design of cyclo-static real-time systems is the determination of buffer capacities. In our multiprocessor system, we apply back-pressure, which means that tasks wait for space in output buffers. Consequently buffer capacities affect the throughput. This requires the derivation of

  20. Numerical analysis of back pressure equal channel angular pressing of an Al-Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comăneci, R.

    2017-08-01

    Ultrafine grain size provides enhanced mechanical and/or physical properties such as strength and high ductility, superplasticity at relatively low temperatures and high strain rate and better corrosion resistance. Well-known as one of the most promising and effective structure refining method among other severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) has been intensively investigated due to spectacular improvements in structure and therefore properties of bulk ultrafine grained/nanostructured materials. A successful ECAP requires surpassing two obstacles: the necessary load level which directly affects tools and a favourable stress distribution so the material withstanding the accumulated strain of repeated deformation. Materials could withstand more passes if a back pressure (BP) is applied. In traditional ECAP, tensile stress along the contact surface between the work piece and the upper wall of the outlet channel leads to crack initiation, while in the presence of BP, a negative (compressive) stress appears during the process balancing the tensile stress. In this study a comparative tridimensional finite element analysis (FEA) is performed to evaluate the flow of an Al-Mg alloy depending on different BP levels and process parameters. The results in terms of load level and strain distribution show the influence of BP on the material behaviour, opening opportunities for industrial applications.

  1. Low pressure pain thresholds are associated with, but does not predispose for, low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Kjær, Per; Nielsen, Thomas Graven

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with hyperalgesia in cross-sectional studies. In the present study, a random cohort of 40-year-old individuals (n = 264) from the general population was assessed for low back pain (LBP) status and pressure pain threshold (PPT), with follow-up assessment 4 and 8......-lasting LBP, those with a low PPT at baseline (lower 10% percentile) had no increased risk of developing LBP (p > 0.05). The findings indicate that PPT decreases as a consequence of long-lasting pain, whereas a low PPT seems not to constitute a separate risk factor for the development of LBP....... years later. Low PPT at baseline as a potential risk factor for the development of LBP was investigated longitudinally and the association between LBP and hyperalgesia was studied cross-sectionally at baseline and 8-year follow-up. Generalized (p   0.08). Of the participants without recent or long...

  2. Reynolds-Averaged Turbulence Model Assessment for a Highly Back-Pressured Isolator Flowfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurle, Robert A.; Middleton, Troy F.; Wilson, L. G.

    2012-01-01

    The use of computational fluid dynamics in scramjet engine component development is widespread in the existing literature. Unfortunately, the quantification of model-form uncertainties is rarely addressed with anything other than sensitivity studies, requiring that the computational results be intimately tied to and calibrated against existing test data. This practice must be replaced with a formal uncertainty quantification process for computational fluid dynamics to play an expanded role in the system design, development, and flight certification process. Due to ground test facility limitations, this expanded role is believed to be a requirement by some in the test and evaluation community if scramjet engines are to be given serious consideration as a viable propulsion device. An effort has been initiated at the NASA Langley Research Center to validate several turbulence closure models used for Reynolds-averaged simulations of scramjet isolator flows. The turbulence models considered were the Menter BSL, Menter SST, Wilcox 1998, Wilcox 2006, and the Gatski-Speziale explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models. The simulations were carried out using the VULCAN computational fluid dynamics package developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. A procedure to quantify the numerical errors was developed to account for discretization errors in the validation process. This procedure utilized the grid convergence index defined by Roache as a bounding estimate for the numerical error. The validation data was collected from a mechanically back-pressured constant area (1 2 inch) isolator model with an isolator entrance Mach number of 2.5. As expected, the model-form uncertainty was substantial for the shock-dominated, massively separated flowfield within the isolator as evidenced by a 6 duct height variation in shock train length depending on the turbulence model employed. Generally speaking, the turbulence models that did not include an explicit stress limiter more closely

  3. Emission Treatment towards Cold Start and Back Pressure in Internal Combustion Engine against Performance of Catalytic Converter: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, regulation for the vehicles emissions has becoming more stringent in order to reduce the effect of pollutant gases that was being released by the vehicles exhaust. The development of catalytic converter is to resolve the pollution emission aspect. There are lots of improvements done by the researchers towards improving catalytic converter, yet there are still key issues which give negative impact to the environment. One of the problems that are being concern by among of researchers is the cold-start and back pressure problems that usually occur in the composition of catalytic converter. Presented here is a review of cold-starts and back pressure problems together with several alternatives taken by not affecting the performance of vehicles engine and fuel consumption. The review also includes alternative system development and selection of materials to resolve these problems.

  4. Enhanced superplasticity in a magnesium alloy processed by equal-channel angular pressing with a back-pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrin, Y. [ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Department of Materials Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); CSIRO Division of Manufacturing and Materials Technology, Clayton, Vic. 3168 (Australia); Popov, M.V. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Clausthal University of Technology, Agricolastr. 6, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Langdon, T.G. [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Lapovok, R.

    2008-05-15

    Improving superplastic formability of magnesium alloys is a challenging problem. Recently, several attempts at achieving this goal by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were undertaken. We show that by using back-pressure, it is possible to reduce the temperature of ECAP of Mg alloy AZ31 thereby producing bimodal grain structure that is believed to be conducive for superplasticity. A record superplastic elongation in excess of 1200 % was achieved for this alloy. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  5. MEMS pressure sensor with maximum performances by using novel back-side direct-exposure concept featuring through glass vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, B.; Fritz, M.; Mackowiak, P.; Vu, T. C.; Ehrmann, O.; Lang, K.-D.; Ngo, H.-D.

    2013-05-01

    Design, simulation, fabrication, and characterization of novel MEMS pressure sensors with new back-side-direct-exposure packaging concept are presented. The sensor design is optimized for harsh environments e.g. space, military, offshore and medical applications. Unbreakable connection between the active side of the Si-sensor and the protecting glass capping was realized by anodic bonding using a thin layer of metal. To avoid signal corruption of the measured pressure caused by an encapsulation system, the media has direct contact to the backside of the Si membrane and can deflect it.

  6. Optimization and simulation of tandem column supercritical fluid chromatography separations using column back pressure as a unique parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Zhang, Yingru

    2014-04-15

    Tandem column supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) has demonstrated to be a useful technique to resolve complex mixtures by serially coupling two columns of different selectivity. The overall selectivity of a tandem column separation is the retention time weighted average of selectivity from each coupled column. Currently, the method development merely relies on extensive screenings and is often a hit-or-miss process. No attention is paid to independently adjust retention and selectivity contributions from individual columns. In this study, we show how tandem column SFC selectivity can be optimized by changing relative dimensions (length or inner diameter) of the coupled columns. Moreover, we apply column back pressure as a unique parameter for SFC optimization. Continuous tuning of tandem column SFC selectivity is illustrated through column back pressure adjustments of the upstream column, for the first time. In addition, we show how and why changing coupling order of the columns can produce dramatically different separations. Using the empirical mathematical equation derived in our previous study, we also demonstrate a simulation of tandem column separations based on a single retention time measurement on each column. The simulation compares well with experimental results and correctly predicts column order and back pressure effects on the separations. Finally, considerations on instrument and column hardware requirements are discussed.

  7. On the pathogenesis of bedsores. Skin blood flow cessation by external pressure on the back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    -antipyrine mixed with histamine. The external pressure was measured by a small airfilled plastic cushion connected to a mercury manometer. In 11 normal subjects, eight patients with hypertension and seven patients with tetra- or paraplegia the "flow cessation external pressure" (FCEP) was strongly correlated...

  8. Clinimetric analysis of pressure biofeedback and transversus abdominis function in individuals with stabilization classification low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Dustin R; Grindstaff, Terry L; Croy, Theodore; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan A

    2013-03-01

    Descriptive laboratory study. To determine if a proposed clinical test (pressure biofeedback) could detect changes in transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle thickness during an abdominal drawing-in maneuver. Pressure biofeedback may be used to assess abdominal muscle function and TrA activation during an abdominal drawing-in maneuver but has not been validated. Forty-nine individuals (18 men, 31 women) with low back pain who met stabilization classification criteria underwent ultrasound imaging to quantify changes in TrA muscle thickness while a pressure transducer was used to measure pelvic and spine position during an abdominal drawing-in maneuver. A paired t test was used to compare differences in TrA activation ratios between groups (able or unable to maintain pressure of 40 ± 5 mmHg). The groups were further dichotomized based on TrA activation ratio (high, greater than 1.5; low, less than 1.5). Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios were calculated. There was not a significant difference (P = .57) in TrA activation ratios (able to maintain pressure, 1.59 ± 0.28; unable to maintain pressure, 1.54 ± 0.24) between groups. The pressure biofeedback test had low sensitivity of 0.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10, 0.42) but moderate specificity of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.89), a positive likelihood ratio of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.33, 2.68), and a negative likelihood ratio of 1.02 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.38). Successful completion on pressure biofeedback does not indicate high TrA activation. Unsuccessful completion on pressure biofeedback may be more indicative of low TrA activation, but the correlation and likelihood coefficients indicate that the pressure test is likely of minimal value to detect TrA activation. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01015846).J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2013;43(3):184-193. Epub 16 November 2012. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4397.

  9. Probabilistic approach: back pressure turbine for geothermal vapor-dominated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandi Ahmad, Angga; Xaverius Guwowijoyo, Fransiscus; Pratama, Heru Berian

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal bussiness nowadays needs to be accelerated in a way that profit can be obtained as soon as reasonable possible. One of the many ways to do this is by using one of geothermal wellhead generating unit (GWGU), called backpressure turbine. Backpressure turbine can be used in producing electricity as soon as there is productive or rather small-scale productive well existed after finished drilling. In a vapor dominated system, steam fraction in the wellhead capable to produce electricity based on each well productivity immediately. The advantage for using vapor dominated system is reduce brine disposal in the wellhead so it will be a cost benefit in operation. The design and calculation for backpressure turbine will use probablistic approach with Monte Carlo simulation. The parameter that will be evaluated in sensitivity would be steam flow rate, turbine inlet pressure, and turbine exhaust pressure/atmospheric pressure. The result are probability for P10, P50, and P90 of gross power output which are 1.78 MWe, 2.22 MWe and 2.66 Mwe respectively. Whereas the P10, P50, and P90 of SSC are 4.67 kg/s/MWe, 5.19 kg/s/MWe and 5.78 kg/s/MWe respectively.

  10. Impact of gas backing pressure and geometry of conical nozzle on the formation of methane clusters in supersonic jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haiyang; Chen, Guanglong; Ni, Guoquan; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2010-01-14

    We present an experimental investigation of the dependence of the production of large methane clusters on the cluster source conditions. The clusters were produced at room temperature through supersonic expansion of methane gas at the backing pressures P(0) ranging from 10 to 84 bar using five conical nozzles of different geometries. The cluster size was characterized by Rayleigh scattering measurements and calibrated with Coulomb explosion of the clusters at P(0) = 44 bar subjected to an ultraintense laser pulse. A quantitative evaluation of the performance of the conical nozzles against the nozzle geometry and the backing pressure was made by introducing a parameter delta. Differ from the idealized case where the performance of the conical nozzle can be described by the equivalent sonic nozzle of diameter d(eq), in the present work, the "effective equivalent sonic-nozzle diameter" of the conical nozzle defined by d(eq)* = deltad(eq) is introduced. delta represents the deviation of the performance in cluster formation of the conical nozzles from that predicted on the basis of the concept of the equivalent diameter d(eq) = d/tan alpha, with d being the throat diameter, and alpha the half-opening angle of the conical nozzle. Experimental results show that the cluster growth process will be restricted when the gas backing pressure P(0) is higher and/or d/tan alpha of the conical nozzle becomes larger, resulting in smaller delta. From the experimental data, delta can be expressed by an empirical relation delta = A/[P(0)(B)(d/tan alpha)(1.36)], where A = 8.4 and B = 0.26 for 24 bar cases investigated in this work, delta was found to lie between about 0.2 and 1.0, and the average radii of the methane clusters were measured to be 1-7 nm, depending on the experimental conditions. For lack of the experimental data on methane cluster formation with sonic nozzles, the data from the "sonic-like" conical nozzles were applied. Consequently, the delta values provided in this

  11. Reproducibility of the pressure biofeedback unit in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Pedro Olavo de Paula; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro; de Moura Filho, Alberto Galvão; Raposo, Maria Cristina Falcão; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Laurentino, Glória Elizabeth Carneiro

    2012-04-01

    The Pressure Biofeedback Unit (PBU) is often used by clinicians and researchers to indirectly evaluate transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter and intra-examiner reproducibility of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. This study was performed using a test-retest design with a seven day interval. An Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC(2,1)) of 0.74 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.85) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.86) was observed for the intra and inter-examiner reproducibility, respectively. The intra-examiner agreement (Limits of Agreement - LOA = 2.1 to -1.8 mmHg) and the inter-examiner agreement (LOA = 2.0 to -1.9 mmHg) were within the limits of agreement on 95% of occasions. The reproducibility of PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain ranged from satisfactory to excellent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ICECON: a computer program used to calculate containment back pressure for LOCA analysis (including ice condenser plants)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    The ICECON computer code provides a method for conservatively calculating the long term back pressure transient in the containment resulting from a hypothetical Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) for PWR plants including ice condenser containment systems. The ICECON computer code was developed from the CONTEMPT/LT-022 code. A brief discussion of the salient features of a typical ice condenser containment is presented. Details of the ice condenser models are explained. The corrections and improvements made to CONTEMPT/LT-022 are included. The organization of the code, including the calculational procedure, is outlined. The user's manual, to be used in conjunction with the CONTEMPT/LT-022 user's manual, a sample problem, a time-step study (solution convergence) and a comparison of ICECON results with the results of the NSSS vendor are presented. In general, containment pressure calculated with the ICECON code agree with those calculated by the NSSS vendor using the same mass and energy release rates to the containment

  13. In vitro study on equal channel angular pressing AZ31 magnesium alloy with and without back pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X.N.; Li, N. [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex System and Department of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Kang, F. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, No. 200, Xiaolingwei, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, J.T., E-mail: jtwang@mail.njust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, No. 200, Xiaolingwei, Nanjing 210094 (China); Ruan, Liquan [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kurokami 2-39-1, Kumamoto-shi 860-8555 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    The equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) technique with and without back pressure (BP) was introduced in this paper to prepare biomedical AZ31 magnesium alloy, with the effect of pass number (from 1 to 4) on the corrosion properties as well as in vitro biocompatibility being investigated. The results indicated that ECAPed or BP-ECAPed AZ31 alloys exhibited similar corrosion rate to that of the as-extruded one, but the corrosion rate slightly increased after 1-2 passes ECAP or BP-ECAP and further decreased after 4-pass procedure. Additionally, severe local corrosion was observed for the 1-3 passes ECAPed or BP-ECAPed AZ31 alloy samples. Compared to the as-extruded AZ31 alloy, the samples after ECAP or BP-ECAP procedure showed much smaller sized corrosion pits on the surface after removing the corrosion product. The surface analysis after 20 days immersion in Hank's solution revealed that the composition of the corrosion product consisted of C, O, Mg, P, Ca whereas only weak signal of Mg(OH){sub 2} could be detected beside the dominant {alpha}(Mg) peak by X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity results suggested that the multi-pass ECAPed or BP-ECAPed AZ31 alloy exhibited Grade I-II cytotoxicity according to ISO 10993-5: 1999.

  14. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Pedro O. P.; Oliveira,Rodrigo R.; Moura Filho,Alberto G.; Raposo,Maria C. F.; Costa,Leonardo O. P.; Laurentino,Glória E. C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was perfor...

  15. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensi...

  16. Comparison of pressure-controlled provocation discography using automated versus manual syringe pump manometry in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Richard; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Sang-Heon

    2011-01-01

    The study compares the rate of positive discograms using an automated versus a manual pressure-controlled injection devise and compares the pressure and volume values at various pressures and initial evoked pain and 6/10 or greater evoked pain. A retrospective study prospectively collected patient study data used in a prior prospective study and with prospectively collected data which is routinely collected per our institutional standardized audit protocol. Two custom-built disc manometers (automated injection speed control; manual injection speed control) were sequentially employed during provocation discography in 510 discs of 151 consecutive patients. Two hundred thirty-seven discs of 67 patients with chronic low back pain were evaluated using the automated manometer (automated group) and 273 discs of 84 patients were evaluated with a manual manometer (manual group). No significant differences in positive discogram rates were found between the automated and manual groups (32.1% vs 32.6% per disc, respectively, P>0.05). No significant differences in low-pressure positive discogram rates were found (16.0% vs 15.0% per disc, automated group versus manual group, respectively, P>0.05). However, there were significantly increased volumes and lower pressures at initial and "bad" pain provocation. The study results found equivalent positive discogram rates following a series of pressure-controlled discography using either an automated or manual pressure devise. There were, however significant increases in volume at both initial onset of evoked pain and at 6/10 pain when using the automated injection devise that may have caused the observed lower opening pressure and lower pressure values at initial evoked pain. Assuming increased volumes are innocuous, automated injection is inherently more controlled and may better reduce unintended and often unrecorded spurious high dynamic pressure peaks thereby reducing conscious and unconscious operator bias. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Pedro O P; Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Moura Filho, Alberto G; Raposo, Maria C F; Costa, Leonardo O P; Laurentino, Glória E C

    2012-01-01

    The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test) and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test) were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, plow sensitivity (60%) and specificity (60%) of the PBU. The positive predictive value was high (0.8) and negative predictive value was low (0.2). Concurrent validity of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain is poor given the low correlation and diagnostic accuracy with superficial EMG.

  18. Is One Trial Sufficient to Obtain Excellent Pressure Pain Threshold Reliability in the Low Back of Asymptomatic Individuals? A Test-Retest Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT) provides a quantitative value related to the mechanical sensitivity to pain of deep structures. Although excellent reliability of PPT has been reported in numerous anatomical locations, its absolute and relative reliability in the lower back region remains to be determined. Because of the high prevalence of low back pain in the general population and because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in industrialized countries, assessing pressure pain thresholds over the low back is particularly of interest. The purpose of this study study was (1) to evaluate the intra- and inter- absolute and relative reliability of PPT within 14 locations covering the low back region of asymptomatic individuals and (2) to determine the number of trial required to ensure reliable PPT measurements. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were included in this study. PPTs were assessed among 14 anatomical locations in the low back region over two sessions separated by one hour interval. For the two sessions, three PPT assessments were performed on each location. Reliability was assessed computing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC) for all possible combinations between trials and sessions. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to assess potential bias in the dataset. Relative reliability for both intra- and inter- session was almost perfect with ICC ranged from 0.85 to 0.99. With respect to the intra-session, no statistical difference was reported for ICCs and SEM regardless of the conducted comparisons between trials. Conversely, for inter-session, ICCs and SEM values were significantly larger when two consecutive PPT measurements were used for data analysis. No significant difference was observed for the comparison between two consecutive measurements and three measurements. Excellent relative and absolute reliabilities were reported for both intra

  19. Cortical sensorimotor processing of painful pressure in patients with chronic lower back pain – An optical neuroimaging study using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vrana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and HHb in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 compared to healthy controls (HC. Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6.1 years; range: 24 – 44 years; 9 women and twenty HCs (33.5 ± 10.7 years; range 22-61 years; 8 women participated in the study. Painful and non-painful pressure stimulation was exerted with a thumb grip perpendicularly to the spinous process of the lumbar spine. A force sensor was attached at the spinous process in order control for pressure forces. Tactile stimulation was realized by a one-finger brushing. Hemodynamic changes in the SMA and S1 were measured bilaterally using a multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS imaging system and a multi-distant probe array. Patients with CLBP showed significant stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in O2Hb only in the right S1, while the healthy controls exhibited significant O2Hb changes bilaterally in both, SMA and S1. However, the group comparisons revealed no significant different hemodynamic responses in O2Hb and HHb in the SMA and S1 after both pressure stimulations. This non-significant result might be driven by the high inter-subject variability of hemodynamic responses that has been observed within the patients group. In conclusion, we could not find different stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in patients with CLBP compared to HCs. This indicates that neither S1 nor the SMA show a specificity for CLBP during pressure stimulation on the lower back. However, the results point to a potential subgrouping regarding task-related cortical activity within the CLBP group; a

  20. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed May 29, 2015. Adult acute and subacute low back pain. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. http://www.icsi.org/low_back_pain/adult_low_back_pain__8.html. Accessed June ...

  1. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  2. Investigation of the on-axis atom number density in the supersonic gas jet under high gas backing pressure by simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized deq in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  3. [Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a caesarean with epidural anaesthesia after bringing the cerebrospinal fluid pressure back to normal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, M; de Carlos Errea, J; Dorronsoro Auzmendi, M; Batllori Gastón, M

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is diagnosed by exclusion. Because of its uncertain physiopathology and infrequent occurrence, its anaesthetic management is not well defined. The patient in this case is a pregnant woman with this disease with no lumbar-peritoneal shunt who was referred for non-urgent caesarean section, consisting of CSF drainage and pressure normalisation before the administration of epidural anaesthesia. We believe this technique can de effective to achieve adequate blockage and increased patient comfort, as well as improving postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Microstructure and anisotropy of the mechanical properties in commercially pure titanium after equal channel angular pressing with back pressure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jäger, A., E-mail: jager@fzu.cz; Gärtnerova, V.; Tesař, K.

    2015-09-17

    In this work, we report on the anisotropy of the mechanical properties and the results of in-depth microstructural analysis of commercially pure (CP) grade 2 titanium after severe plastic deformation. CP-Ti was successfully processed at room temperature via four consecutive passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) with very high back pressure (BP). An ECAP-BP die with circular channel cross-section, channel angle φ=90° and arc curvature angle ψ=0° was used. A sub-microcrystalline structure with a grain size of ~150 nm exhibits promising mechanical properties, as determined by hardness measurements and tensile and compression tests in different directions. We observed a significant mechanical anisotropy related to the strong texture. Considering the ID, ED and TD to be the insert, extrusion and transverse directions of the ECAP die, respectively, the highest compression strength was attained for samples with the major axis in the ID and in a direction inclined 22.5° from the ID toward the TD (σ{sub max}~1150 MPa). In contrast, the lowest strength was observed in the ED and at 45° from the ID toward the ED (σ{sub max}~940 MPa). Although a fracture occurred during compression of the samples tested along the ID, compression along the ED exhibited perfect plasticity with balanced hardening and softening mechanisms. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination after ECAP-BP revealed a small amount of high-pressure hexagonal ω-phase. The occurrence of this phase was induced by a combination of severe plastic deformation and high pressure.

  5. Water-Shale interactions in bench-top and high pressure/high temperature autoclave experiments: Identifying geochemical reaction controlling flow back water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Nicot, J.

    2013-12-01

    An important side effect of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in shale gas wells is the production of saline flow-back water. This water often contains total dissolved soil (TDS) concentrations greater than 100,000 ppm which requires expensive treatment and disposal of the produced water. Possible origins of the high TDS content include: 1. Mixing of fresh HF-fluids with highly saline pore fluids in the targeted shale. 2. Migration and mixing of saline brines by newly-formed fractures into the HF-water from neighboring formations. 3. Water rock interactions between the targeted shale and HF-water that include mineral dissolution, pyrite oxidation buffered by carbonate dissolution and cation exchange in newly hydrated clay minerals.. These possibilities are not mutually exclusive and all may be operating to alter flow-back water chemistry. This study will examine geochemical reactions between a productive Gulf Coast shale and manufactured HF-waters using sealed bench top experiments and high temperature/high pressure autoclave experiments. The samples of the shale were collected from core material housed at The Bureau of Economic Geology collected from two wells. The manufactured HF-waters were produced by mixing NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 salts with De-ionized water at approximately 0, 2000 and 20,000 ppm. During experiments, elements that show large increases in aqueous concentrations are Na, Cl, Ca and SO4. Simultaneous increases in Na and Cl, coupled with high Cl/Br ratios, suggest halite dissolution rather than pore space brine is responsible for Na and Cl concentrations. Simultaneous increase in Ca and SO4 suggest anhydrite dissolution. (SEM imaging shows that anhydrite crystals are usually embedded with the framework mineral grains, rather than precipitated in pores during sample drying, which suggests mineral source of Ca and SO4, possibly for Na and Cl as well). Pyrite oxidation and calcium carbonate dissolution were not significant due to no decrease in pH and no

  6. Residual stress and its effect on the mechanical properties of Y-doped Mg alloy fabricated via back-pressure assisted equal channel angular pressing (ECAP-BP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Jianghua, E-mail: j_shen@live.cn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Gärtnerová, Viera [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kecskes, Laszlo J. [US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5069 (United States); Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaragi, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Jäger, Aleš, E-mail: jager@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, CZ – 182 21, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Wei, Qiuming [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)

    2016-07-04

    In this study, pure magnesium (Mg) and Mg-0.6 wt% yttrium (Y) binary alloy were fabricated via casting followed by room temperature equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) using an applied back pressure (BP). Microstructural examination after ECAP-BP revealed a fine-grained Mg-Y alloy with a high residual stress level, whereas, the pure Mg exhibited a well-recrystallized microstructure with uniform and equiaxed grains, but retaining very little residual stress. The Y atoms were present in the Mg matrix as solid solutes and acted as dislocation and grain boundary blockers, thus suppressing dynamic recovery and/or recrystallization during the ECAP process. The Mg-Y alloy had an average grain size of ~400 nm, approximately one order smaller than that of pure Mg. The combination of high residual stress and ultrafine grains of the Mg-Y alloy gave rise to a significant difference in its mechanical behavior from that of the pure Mg, under both quasi-static and dynamic compressive loading.

  7. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  8. Cross friction algometry (CFA): Comparison of pressure pain thresholds between patients with chronic non-specific low back pain and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farasyn, Andre; Lassat, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Palpation is widely used to assess muscular sensitivity in clinical settings but still remains a subjective evaluation. This cross-sectional study assessed a newly developed cross-friction algometry making palpation measurable. The objective was to investigate the reliability of pressure pain thresholds obtained using Cross-Friction Algometry (CFA-PPTs) measured at the level of Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus central muscle parts, and to compare the CFA-PPTs between patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (nCLBP) and matching healthy subjects. Patients presenting nCLBP to GP's and send into a Pain Center and healthy subjects recruited via university ad valvas & flyers distribution. 30 patients with nCLBP were measured for cross-friction algometry. Other evaluations consisted of the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The inter- and intra-reliability were tested and found to be sufficient. The mean CFA-PPT values of the Erector spinae at levels T8, T10, L1 & L3 and the Gluteus maximus of the nCLBP group were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001) when compared to the CFA-PPT values of the healthy group. The greatest difference (-58%) was found at L1 Erector spinae level and at the superior part of the Gluteus maximus measuring point (-59%). Within the group of patients with nCLBP it was surprising to notice that there was no significant correlation between all the reference points measured using CFA-PPTs and the outcomes of the VAS and ODI scores. With the aid of CFA, the importance of local muscular disorder in the lumbar part of the Erector spinae and Gluteus maximus in patients with nCLBP is obviously demonstrated, but also reveals the very large inter-individual differences in muscular fibrosis sensitivity and/or pain behavior in daily life. This possibly re-opens the debate on which influences can be put forward as the most important: the central or the peripheral sensitization system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, there doesn't appear to be one type of mattress that's best for people with back pain. It's probably a ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  10. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Back Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January ...

  11. Microstructure and anisotropy of the mechanical properties in commercially pure titanium after equal channel angular pressing with back pressure at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jäger, Aleš; Gärtnerová, Viera; Tesař, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 644, Sep (2015), s. 114-120 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP108/12/G043 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : equal channel angular processing * nanostructured materials * phase transformation * grain refinement * mechanical anisotropy * high pressure omega phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015

  12. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a week. ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or 3 ...

  13. Pressure-induced chemical reactions in the N2(H2)2compound: from the N2and H2species to ammonia and back down into hydrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniel, D; Svitlyk, V; Weck, G; Loubeyre, P

    2018-02-07

    Theory predicts a very rich high pressure chemistry of hydronitrogens with the existence of many N x H y compounds. The stability of these phases under pressure is being investigated by the compression of N 2 -H 2 mixtures of various compositions. A previous study had disclosed a eutectic-type N 2 -H 2 phase diagram with two stoichiometric van der Waals compounds: (N 2 ) 6 (H 2 ) 7 and N 2 (H 2 ) 2 . The structure and pressure induced chemistry of the (N 2 ) 6 (H 2 ) 7 compound have already been investigated. Here, we determine the structure of the N 2 (H 2 ) 2 compound and characterize using Raman spectroscopy measurements the chemical changes under a pressure cycle up to 60 GPa and back to ambient conditions. A N 2 (H 2 ) 2 single crystal was grown from a 1 : 2 N 2 -H 2 mixture and its crystalline structure was solved using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Similar to the (N 2 ) 6 (H 2 ) 7 solid, N 2 (H 2 ) 2 has a remarkable host-guest structure containing N 2 molecules orientationally disordered with spherical, ellipsoidal and planar shapes. Above 50 GPa, N 2 (H 2 ) 2 was found to undergo a chemical reaction. The reaction products were determined to be of the azane family, with NH 3 as the main constituent, along with molecular nitrogen. Upon pressure decrease, the reaction products are found to react in such a way that below 10 GPa, hydrazine is the sole azane detected. Observed down to the opening of the diamond anvil cell, the formation of metastable hydrazine instead of the energetically favorable ammonia is puzzling and remains to be elucidated. That could change the current view of Jovian planets' atmospheres in which ammonia is assumed the only stable hydronitrogen molecule.

  14. Use of Near Infrared Transillumination / Back Scattering Sounding (NIR-T/BSS) to assess effects of elevated intracranial pressure on width of subarachnoid space and cerebrovascular pulsation in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Guminski, Wojciech; Przyborska, Agata; Kaczmarek, Jacek; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to assess changes in the width of the subarachnoid space (SAS) and amplitude of cerebrovascular pulsation (CVP) during acute elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP) using Near Infrared Transillumination/Back Scattering Sounding (NIR-T/BSS). Changes in the width of the SAS and amplitude of CVP were observed in rabbits during experimental ICP elevation induced by: (1) quick injections of saline into the subdural space of the spinal cord, and (2) distension of a surgical catheter balloon placed intracranially in the subdural space. The amplitude of CVP was also assessed during acute elevation of blood pressure in the intracranial portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) induced by adrenaline. Each of the injections of saline caused a transient rise in the width of the SAS and amplitude of CVP. The amplitude of the increase in CVP was dependent on changes in blood pressure in the ICA (r=-0.82, P<0.01). Distension of the intracranial balloon resulted in elimination of the respiratory oscillations in the CVP and increased its systolic-diastolic amplitude. An increase in the amplitude of CVP was evoked by adrenaline without an increase in the carotid blood flow. We demonstrated that during elevation of ICP the amplitude of CVP depends on blood pressure rather than on blood flow in large cerebral vessels. Elimination of the respiratory oscillations by a minute ("sub-critical") ICP increase may be used as an early indicator of rising ICP. The direction of changes recorded using NIR-T/BSS was consistent with changes recorded using tensometric transducers.

  15. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, H.; Niethard, F.U.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  16. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  17. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Health and Safety - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Exercises for Your Back - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin ...

  18. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  19. Back pain - returning to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain - work; Backache - work; Lumbar pain - work; Pain - back - chronic; Low back pain - work; Lumbago - work ... Exercise helps to prevent future back pain: Exercise a little ... keep your heart healthy and your muscles strong. If walking is ...

  20. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; Jordan, Alan; Mikkelsen, Connie

    a significant step forward with the advent of the new back pain diagnosis, ”Modic changes”. During the coming years, thousands of back pain patients will now be given a precise diagnosis as well as a useful treatment in cases where we previously we unable to provide either a diagnosis or a useful treatment......Long awaited breakthrough Approximately 25 years ago a few researchers managed to publish an article in the renowned medical journal, The Lancet. The article demonstrated that intensive exercise was most useful for patients with chronic back pain. Many of our colleagues found this difficult...... to accept, nonetheless, intensive exercise has for chronic back pain has spread across the world and has become – in different forms – the most commonly prescribed treatment for back pain patients. Since that time, there has not been much research based progress in back science, however, we have taken...

  1. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  2. Low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits; Öberg, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of years lost to disability and its burden is growing alongside the increasing and ageing population.1 Because these population shifts are more rapid in low-income and middle-income countries, where adequate resources to address the problem might...... not exist, the effects will probably be more extreme in these regions. Most low back pain is unrelated to specific identifiable spinal abnormalities, and our Viewpoint, the third paper in this Lancet Series,2,3 is a call for action on this global problem of low back pain....

  3. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an X-ray, computerized tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tests help to diagnose the ... posture when you are sitting, standing, sleeping, or lifting. Severe cases of low back pain may require ...

  4. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  5. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Back pain and sciatica are common health complaints. Almost everyone has back ... Back Pain Read more MRI Scans Read more Sciatica Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  6. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    , Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre....... Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms...

  7. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a b......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  8. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  9. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...

  10. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  11. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  12. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  13. Handout on Health: Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disks in your back if you smoke. Smoker’s cough may also cause back pain. People who smoke are slow to heal, so back pain may last longer. Race. Black women are two to three times more likely than white women to have part of the lower spine ...

  14. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  15. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  16. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11 000 cm2/V·s

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Casey

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11 000 cm 2/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low t ox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  18. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  19. Low back pain during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Terceiro, Cristovam Alves de Lira; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we incl...

  20. [Low back pain during gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Flavia Silva; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2006-01-01

    This research qualitatively analyzed the contents of national and international scientific publications, indexed in the period from 1999 to 2005, about low back pain in gestation. Around 50 % of pregnant women complain about low back pain. The physiologic modifications that occur happen in pregnancy alter the posture of pregnant women and the largest incidence of low back pain usually happens in the last three months. Specific causes remain unknown. However, treatment involves analgesics, antiphlogistics, exercises and physiotherapy. Low back pain during gestation is a symptom that causes great discomfort and, depending on the level of pain, it generates motor disability and impairs daily activities, besides causing problems to take care of the baby after birth. Some discomfort of low back pain can continue for a period of up to three years after childbirth. We see a great need for further research in this subject area, in order to provide a better quality of life for pregnant women.

  1. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  2. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  3. Bring back the Glory!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Whitman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.

  4. Luring the elephants back?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delman, Jørgen

    procedures based on key performance indicators and with assessments by the public are meant to improve policy implementation, also in the environmental field. It is observed how the city authorities respond to central and popular pressure by opening up to these through external participation and assessment....... This approach is seen as a key instrument to stimulate policy compliance and enhance government transparency and public accountability. However, the system of implementation still needs improvement, especially with regard to evidence based assessments of progress, compliance and effectiveness in the eco...... and state system seems to be taking more control of itself as an organization and of its agents to promote green development. The local green regulations are becoming increasingly specific and more and more measurable, and a new public management system with performance reviews and results management...

  5. Waves of change - the dynamics of institutional pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Taminiau, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    This article coins additional explanations for organizations’ room for agency and institutional change by bringing all institutional and competitive pressures back into institutional theory, and by introducing theory on how the interaction between these pressures leads to novelty, contradictions,

  6. TIPS to reduce Pressure Decreasess rebleed and Death (Monescillo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TIPS to reduce Pressure Decreasess rebleed and Death (Monescillo A, Oct 2004, Hepatology). 116 Bleeders. Liver Pressure > 20 mm Hg - 52 Patients (high risk)

  7. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  8. Pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Woodard, Charles R; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Long, William B; Gebhart, Jocelynn H; Ma, Eva K

    2004-01-01

    has been compared to the standard hospital bed as well as to two other commercially available pressure relief mattresses. The most recent advance in pressure ulcer prevention is the development of the ALTERN8* seating system. This seating system provides regular periods of pressure relief and stimulation of blood flow to skin areas while users are seated. By offering the combination of pressure relief therapy and an increase in blood flow, the ALTERN8* reportedly creates an optimum pressure ulcer healing environment. Foam is the most commonly used material for pressure reduction and pressure ulcer prevention and treatment for the mobile individual. For those immobilized individuals who can achieve a passive standing position, a powered wheelchair that allows the individual to achieve a passive standing position is recommended. The beneficial effects of passive standing have been documented by comprehensive scientific studies. These benefits include reduction of seating pressure, decreased bone demineralization, increased blander pressure, enhanced orthostatic circulatory regulation, reduction in muscular tone, decrease in upper extremity muscle stress, and enhanced functional status in general. In the absence of these dynamic alternating pressure seating systems and mattresses, there are enormous medicolegal implications to the healthcare facility. Because there is not sufficient staff to provide pressure relief to rotate the patient every 2 hours in a hospital setting, with the exception of the intensive care unit, the immobile patient is prone to develop pressure ulcers. The cost of caring for these preventable pressure ulcers may now be as high as 60,000 dollars per patient. The occupational physical strain sustained by nursing personnel in rotating their patients has led to occupational back pain in nurses, a major source of morbidity in the healthcare environment.

  9. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  10. Chiropractic care for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...

  11. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem...... to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings...... and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations...

  12. [Low back pain during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; de Lira Terceiro, Cristovam Alves; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we included pregnant women over 18 years of age and excluded those with psychiatric disorders, previous lumbar pathologies, and receiving treatment for low back pain. We interviewed 97 pregnant women. The frequency of low back pain was 68%. The mean age was 26.2 years and the median gestational age was 30 weeks. Fifty-eight pregnant women declared themselves as brown (58%). Most (88.6%) were married or living in common-law marriage, fifty-six (57.7%) worked outside the home, and 71 (73.2%) had completed high school. Low back pain was more frequent during the second trimester of pregnancy (43.9%), referred to as a "burning" sensation in 37.8% of patients, with intermittent frequency in 96.9% of the women. The symptoms got worse at night (71.2%). Resting reduced low back pain in 43.9% of pregnant women, while the standing position for a long time worsened it in 27.2% of patients. Low back pain is common in pregnant women, has specific characteristics, and is more frequent in the second trimester of pregnancy. This indicates the need for prevention strategies that enable better quality of life for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Bouncing Back From "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLisi, Gregory A.; Rarick, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    Halfway through the 2015 AFC Championship game between the New England Patriots and Indianapolis Colts, game officials discovered that the Patriots were using underinflated footballs on their offensive snaps. A controversy ensued because the Patriots had actually supplied these balls to the game's referee just hours before kickoff. Athletes and physicists have since agreed that using underinflated footballs gives several unfair advantages to the offensive team. Media outlets have focused their attention on two possible culprits behind the deflationary debacle: either the Patriots had intentionally underinflated their supply of footballs, or the climatic conditions, coupled with the various impacts to which the balls were subjected during the course of the game, had somehow altered the internal air pressure of the balls. This controversy soon became known as "Deflategate" (the moniker makes an obvious connection to the 1970s "Watergate" scandal). The purpose of this article is to bring Deflategate into the laboratory activities of high school and undergraduate introductory physics courses. First, we provide some background information on the actual 2015 AFC Championship game and subsequent media blitz surrounding the controversy. When used in an introductory mechanics class, this information can help students contextualize Deflategate as a real-word application of the material they are learning. Next, we recast the spotlight on Deflategate from its current focus, the ideal gas law, to a new one—namely, the physics of a bouncing ball. We then use this scenario as a motivation for a fun but informative set of experiments that can be carried out using equipment already in most high school or college laboratories. The subsequent data analysis relies on three basic principles: projectile motion, conservation of energy, and linear impulse/momentum. The analysis showcases the application of introductory physics to the world of sports, brings current events into the

  14. Metal extrusion using hydrostatic pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, Ch.

    1965-01-01

    The main problems connected with the deformation of metals due to extrusion are described. A method is put forward for calculating the rational rate of percentage deformation in the case of bar extrusion using a cylindrical container; reference is made to previous work on extrusion using a hydrostatic pressure with or without back-pressure. An extrusion process is described using hydrostatic pressure, without back-pressure, and using the lubricant for transmitting the thrust. This process has been used for eight years by the C.E.A. for the extrusion of a very wide range of metals, from beryllium to uranium and including steels; it leads to excellent surface textures. A very fine crystallization can be obtained on extruded products when the rate of extrusion is very low. There appears to be nothing against the use of high extrusion rates using this method. (author) [fr

  15. Inspiratory muscle training affects proprioceptive use and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lotte; McConnell, Alison K; Pijnenburg, Madelon; Claeys, Kurt; Goossens, Nina; Lysens, Roeland; Troosters, Thierry; Brumagne, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that individuals with recurrent nonspecific low back pain (LBP) and healthy individuals breathing against an inspiratory load decrease their reliance on back proprioceptive signals in upright standing. Because individuals with LBP show greater susceptibility to diaphragm fatigue, it is reasonable to hypothesize that LBP, diaphragm dysfunction, and proprioceptive use may be interrelated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) affects proprioceptive use during postural control in individuals with LBP. Twenty-eight individuals with LBP were assigned randomly into a high-intensity IMT group (high IMT) and low-intensity IMT group (low IMT). The use of proprioception in upright standing was evaluated by measuring center of pressure displacement during local muscle vibration (ankle, back, and ankle-back). Secondary outcomes were inspiratory muscle strength, severity of LBP, and disability. After high IMT, individuals showed smaller responses to ankle muscle vibration, larger responses to back muscle vibration, higher inspiratory muscle strength, and reduced LBP severity (P 0.05). No changes in disability were observed in either group (P > 0.05). After 8 wk of high IMT, individuals with LBP showed an increased reliance on back proprioceptive signals during postural control and improved inspiratory muscle strength and severity of LBP, not seen after low IMT. Hence, IMT may facilitate the proprioceptive involvement of the trunk in postural control in individuals with LBP and thus might be a useful rehabilitation tool for these patients.

  16. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  17. Steam regulation for 5 MW back-pressure units when a failure occurs in the Los Humeros, Pue., field, Mexico; Regulacion del vapor en caso de falla a unidades a contrapresion de 5 MW en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: cesar.rosales@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Four out of the seven back-pressure power units of 5 MW operating in the Los Humeros geothermal field, State of Puebla, Mexico, are fed by one steam pipe gathering the steam produced by nine wells. When a failure occurred in any of the units and the excedence valve had to be open to deviate the steam, a decrease in the steam flow for the remaining units was noted, along with lower electrical generation. The cause for that is analyzed and explained in this paper by comparing the interconnected steam supply system to an electric circuit. A way to maintain a uniform and continuous supply of steam in the Los Humeros field has been found. It was implemented several months ago and the problem has not reoccurred. [Spanish] Cuatro de las siete unidades de 5 MW a contrapresion que operan en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, son alimentadas por un solo vaporducto que reune el vapor de nueve pozos productores. Cuando ocurria una falla en alguna de estas unidades y se abria por completo la valvula de excedencia para desviar el vapor, se observaba una reduccion en el flujo de vapor que llegaba a las otras tres unidades, lo que a su vez ocasionaba que la generacion de electricidad se redujera notoriamente. En este trabajo se analiza y explica la causa de ello, mediante la comparacion de este sistema interconectado de suministro de vapor con un circuito electrico, y se explica la solucion que se encontro e implemento en el campo de Los Humeros para regular el suministro continuo y uniforme de vapor, con resultados satisfactorios a varios meses de su implementacion en las cuatro unidades interconectadas.

  18. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  19. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  20. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (CoP...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...... aspects of postural stability. We examined 49 LBP patients and found acceptable reliability of the CoP parameters' trace length and velocity, whereas reliability regarding C90 area, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST was poor. Correlations between the CoP parameters and OLST were insignificant. Reliability...

  1. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury

  2. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  3. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  4. Back surgery: Modern medical pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jc

    2002-01-01

    Medical iatrogenesis is at an all-time high with increasing deaths, disability, and costs compounded by unnecessary and ineffective surgeries despite the warnings from WHO, the US Public Health Service, and the Institute of Medicine. One area in particular, failed back surgeries, has drawn increasing attention by researchers due to disproved medical theories and surgical treatments. Paradoxically, while spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to achieve better results for this epidemic of low back pain in particular, medical and insurance programs often limit or boycott this inexpensive and effective treatment, indicating the solution to lowering medical costs and iatrogenesis now rests with political and economic factors primarily.

  5. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  6. Back-to-School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Back-to-School Health Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents ... improve eating and physical habits for a healthier school year. Talk about being healthy Take the time ...

  7. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Maher, C.G.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hancock, M.J.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Cabral, C.M.N.; Menezes Costa, L.C.; Costa, L.O.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  8. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, Tiê P.; Maher, Christopher G.; Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Hancock, Mark J.; Ostelo, Raymond W.J.G.; Cabral, Cristina M.N.; Menezes Costa, Luciola C.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  9. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  10. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  11. BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  12. Approach to lower back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered ... Approach to management. Therapy or management of chronic LBP involves a multidisciplinary approach. The aim is to prevent a chronic vicious cycle by means of ...

  13. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  14. Pressure recovery in a diffuser for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Masatoshi; Takashima, Yoichi; Mikami, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    The pressure recovery of supersonic flow at very low density was studied in a vane-island type diffuser for gas centrifuge. A tester of diffuser with a rapidly rotating cylinder was used in experiments. Wall static pressures were measured at many points in the diffuser to observe the static pressure distribution. The change of pressure distribution with back pressure and the effect of flow rate were investigated. Pressure distribution showed that the pressure recovery occurred in the converging section. The pressure ratio increased linearly with the back pressure in this experimental range and the effect of flow rate was not observed. A numerical analysis of the pressure recovery in the channel section of the diffuser was made by applying the finite difference method to the slender-channel equations. The pressure distribution obtained in experiments could be explained as a result of supersonic compression with reverse flow. (auth.)

  15. 46 CFR 59.10-35 - Wrapper plates and back heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrapper plates and back heads. 59.10-35 Section 59.10-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-35...

  16. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  17. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which ...

  18. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002-05). Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain.

  19. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B.; Dufour, Alyssa B.; Riskowski, Jody L.; Hillstrom, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05). Methods. Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). Conclusion. These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. PMID:24049103

  20. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... where Lars von Trier seeks to elaborate on his particular fondness of the values that this pop duo seems to represent for him; simplicity, popularity (in Danish “folkelighed”), and irony. In this sense, by promoting the Laid Back single by means of a music video, von Trier’s contribution leads us rather......; an interest which historically both evokes ideas of pop music and pop culture, the role of the artist in a national, social-democratic context, and the role of the avant-garde artist after the completion of such projects as situationism and the American neo-avant-garde. In this manner, the paper finally seeks...

  1. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    skydiving music videos (e.g. Boards of Canada) and to von Trier’s work (e.g. Element of Crime) will be discussed by means of a perspective. The paper will draw on a collection of press material concerning von Triers life and work collected by the author until ca. the mid1990ies....... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... the official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...

  2. Pressure Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    EPIC is Electronic Pressure Indicating Controller produced by North American Manufacturing Company. It is a high-sensitivity device for improving combustion efficiency in industrial furnaces that interprets a signal from a pressure transducer on a furnace and regulates furnace pressure accordingly. A controller can provide savings of from five to 25 percent of an industrial user's annual furnace fuel bill.

  3. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  4. Biomechanical effects of sitting with adjustable ischial and lumbar support on occupational low back pain: evaluation of sitting load and back muscle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to standing posture, sitting decreases lumbar lordosis, increases low back muscle activity, disc pressure, and pressure on the ischium, which are associated with occupational LBP. A sitting device that reduces spinal load and low back muscle activities may help increase sitting comfort and reduce LBP risk. The objective of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effect of sitting with a reduced ischial support and an enhanced lumbar support (Off-Loading on load, interface pressure and muscle activities. Methods A laboratory test in low back pain (LBP and asymptomatic subjects was designed to test the biomechanical effect of using the Off-Loading sitting posture. The load and interface pressure on seat and the backrest, and back muscle activities associated with usual and this Off-Loading posture were recorded and compared between the two postures. Results Compared with Normal (sitting upright with full support of the seat and flat backrest posture, sitting in Off-Loading posture significantly shifted the center of the force and the peak pressure on the seat anteriorly towards the thighs. It also significantly decreased the contact area on the seat and increased that on the backrest. It decreased the lumbar muscle activities significantly. These effects are similar in individuals with and without LBP. Conclusion Sitting with reduced ischial support and enhanced lumbar support resulted in reduced sitting load on the lumbar spine and reduced the lumbar muscular activity, which may potentially reduce sitting-related LBP.

  5. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  6. Placing piggy back: An easy way out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of piggy back nickel-titanium (NiTi archwire with stainless steel base archwire is often a part of an orthodontic treatment mechanics. Here is an innovative method for securing the piggy back.

  7. Forward coronary flow normally seen in systole is the result of both forward and concealed back flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J. A.; Breuls, N. P.; Laird, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Normally systolic coronary blood flow is almost entirely forward. As perfusion pressure was lowered through the autoregulatory range in open-chest dogs, net systolic back flow appeared at approximately 70 mm Hg. Imposing a series resistance (Rs), which impedes both forward and back flow, abolished

  8. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  9. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experien...

  10. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  11. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  12. Pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2011-04-28

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in people at risk of developing pressure ulcers? What are the effects of treatments in people with pressure ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 64 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: air-filled vinyl boots, air-fluidised supports, alternating-pressure surfaces (including mattresses), alternative foam mattresses, constant low-pressure supports, debridement, electric profiling beds, electrotherapy, hydrocellular heel supports, low-air-loss beds (including hydrotherapy beds), low-level laser therapy, low-tech constant-low-pressure supports, medical sheepskin overlays, nutritional supplements, orthopaedic wool padding, pressure-relieving overlays on operating tables, pressure-relieving surfaces, repositioning (regular "turning"), seat cushions, standard beds, standard care, standard foam mattresses, standard tables, surgery, therapeutic ultrasound, topical lotions and

  13. Back to consumption and production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Kos Koklic, Mateja; Bajde, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    of production and consumption. Yet, in response to the mounting commercial and legal pressures, Web 2.0 companies pro-actively regulate prosumption, deploying advanced technological devices and innovative contractual arrangements. Exploring the case of Warner Music Group lockdown on YouTube, we investigate...

  14. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  15. Looking Back at 'Purgatory Dune'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dug more than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the soft, sandy material of a wind-shaped ripple in Mars' Meridiani Planum region during the rover's 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). Getting the rover out of the ripple, dubbed 'Purgatory Dune,' required more than five weeks of planning, testing, and carefully monitored driving. Opportunity used its navigation camera to capture this look back at the ripple during sol 491 (June 11, 2005), a week after the rover drove safely onto firmer ground. The ripple that became a sand trap is about one-third meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide.

  16. Back to the 80s

    CERN Document Server

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  17. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangersnes, Krister

    2010-10-15

    Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cells, on the other hand, have both the complete metallization and the active diffused regions of both polarities on the backside. World-record efficiencies have already been demonstrated for this type of cell design in production, both on cell and module level. However, the production of these cells is both complex and costly, and a further cost reduction in fabrication is needed to make electricity from BC-BJ silicon solar cells cost-competitive with electricity on the grid ('grid-parity'). During the work with this thesis, we have investigated several important issues regarding BC-BJ silicon solar cells. The aim has been to reduce production cost and complexity while at the same time maintaining, or increasing, the already high conversion efficiencies demonstrated elsewhere. This has been pursued through experimental work as well as through numerical simulations and modeling. Six papers are appended to this thesis, two of which are still under review in scientific journals. In addition, two patents have been filed based on the work presented herein. Experimentally, we have focused on investigating and optimizing single, central processing steps. A laser has been the key processing tool during most of the work. We have used the same laser both to structure the backside of the cell and to make holes in a double-layer of passivating amorphous silicon and silicon oxide, where the holes were opened with the aim of making local contact to the underlying silicon. The processes developed have the possibility of using a relatively cheap and industrially proven laser and obtain results better than most state-of-the-art laser technologies. During the work with the laser, we also developed a thermodynamic model that was able to predict the outcome from laser interaction with amorphous and crystalline silicon. Alongside the experimental work, we

  18. On Pressure Affected Shear Viscosity of Poly(Lactic) Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyamanocha, Pongprapat; Sedlacek, Tomas; Saha, Petr

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of pressure coefficient of polymer melt viscosity has become important parameter taken into account for flow behavior prediction in polymer processing simulation software. In this paper, the pressure coefficient of biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic) acid (PLA), was investigated. A capillary rheometer equipped with back pressure device controlling pressure in polymer melt during flow was employed for experiments. Pressure sensitivity was evaluated through pressure coefficient calculated via fitting of obtained viscosity data by the help of Carreau-Yasuda model. It was found that pressure coefficient of PLAs is strongly affected by the internal structure of tested polymer.

  19. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroteja Drobnič-Kovač

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consulting general practitioner. Little is known about etiology and pathogenesis of low back pain. General practitioner use different methods for the treatment of patients with low back pain. The choice of kind of therapy is not related with the used diagnostic method. A large variety of therapeutic interventions is available for the treatment of low back pain, but the effectiveness of most of them has not been demonstrated. The treatment of low back pain is mainly conservative and symptomatic.Conclusions. In the article are reviewed and critically evaluated different diagnostic and therapeutic methods used by physicians for the treatment of patients with low back pain. Results of existing studies suggest that applied therapeutic treatments mainly do not base on scientific based results.

  1. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  2. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  3. Pressure Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Mike Lawson briefly discussed pressure drop for aerospace applications and presented short stories about adventures experienced while working at NASA and General Dynamics, including exposure to technologies like the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) cart and the SWME.

  4. Pilates for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is low quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared with minimal

  5. Root-Contact/Pressure-Plate Assembly For Hydroponic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carlton E.; Loretan, Philip A.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydroponic system includes growth channels equipped with rootcontact/pressure-plate assemblies. Pump and associated plumbing circulate nutrient liquid from reservoir, along bottom of growth channels, and back to reservoir. Root-contact/pressure-plate assembly in each growth channel stimulates growth of roots by applying mild contact pressure. Flat plate and plate connectors, together constitute pressure plate, free to move upward to accommodate growth of roots. System used for growing sweetpotatoes and possibly other tuber and root crops.

  6. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  7. Low back pain in competitive rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, A; D'Alessandro, C; Evangelisti, I; Piazza, M; Galetta, F; Morelli, E

    2004-03-01

    It has been reported that rhythmic gymnasts are at risk of suffering from low back injuries, because of repetitive lumbar hyperextensions. On the other hand, this sport requires features of leanness, muscular strength and flexibility that should represent protective factors for back pain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of low back pain in 67 club-level competitive rhythmic gymnasts aged 13-19 years. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate back-pain symptoms. Anthropometric measurements, time spent in physical activity, psychological testing results, smoking habits and age of menarche were recorded. One hundred and four age-matched general females served as control group. Low back pain complaints were reported by 7 rhythmic gymnasts and by 27 controls (10.4% vs 26.0%, pgymnasts and central in controls. Gymnasts had lower body weight, body mass index, fat body mass and delayed menarche. The females with low-back pain displayed higher body weight, body mass index, fat body mass, age, a greater smoking habit and more anxious/depressive behaviour, both in the gymnast and in the control group. Competitive, club-level rhythmic gymnasts show a reduced prevalence of low back-pain. Being younger in age, having greater leanness, not smoking, displaying less anxious/depressive behaviour, and developing increased muscle strength and flexibility, all can represent preventive factors for low back pain. This study suggests that rhythmic gymnastics is not a discipline at increased risk of low back pain.

  8. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwick, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  9. Paracetamol for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragiotto, Bruno T; Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Manuela L; Pinheiro, Marina B; Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G

    2016-06-07

    Analgesic medication is the most frequently prescribed treatment for low back pain (LBP), of which paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended as the first choice medication. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of paracetamol for LBP. To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for non-specific LBP. We conducted searches on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, which includes the Back and Neck Review Group trials register), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, LILACS, and IPA from their inception to 7 August 2015. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and trial registry websites (WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov). We only considered randomised trials comparing the efficacy of paracetamol with placebo for non-specific LBP. The primary outcomes were pain and disability. We also investigated quality of life, function, adverse effects, global impression of recovery, sleep quality, patient adherence, and use of rescue medication as secondary outcomes. Two review authors independently performed the data extraction and assessed risk of bias in the included studies. We also evaluated the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We converted scales for pain intensity to a common 0 to 100 scale. We quantified treatment effects using mean difference for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. We used effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals as a measure of treatment effect for the primary outcomes. When the treatment effects were smaller than 9 points on a 0 to 100 scale, we considered the effect as small and not clinically important. Our searches retrieved 4449 records, of which three trials were included in the review (n = 1825 participants), and two trials were included in the meta-analysis. For acute LBP, there is high-quality evidence for no difference between paracetamol (4 g per day) and placebo at 1 week (immediate term), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks (short term) for

  10. Chinese energy demand falls back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1977-10-01

    China's growth in energy demand and production declined in 1976, partly because of difficulty of sustaining a rapid 5.4 percent growth and partly because of the disruptions caused by a major earthquake and the deaths of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai. The earthquake, which damaged all mines, the power station, refineries, and transportation lines in the Tangshan area, has had serious economic consequences. The failure to back up a growing coal industry with adequate investments and mechanization was recognized in 1975 and prompted a 10-year modernization program. Progress has been made with new mine shafts, pulverizing equipment, and the use of small mines for local industries. Oil and gas production increased after the discovery of new fields and the use of new technology in the hydrocarbon industries. Ports and terminal facilities to handle large tankers will increase China's oil export traffic. Electricity generation increased with new power facilities, although China's dependence on human and animal power is still a major factor. Changes in energy consumption patterns are developing, but industry still represents 50 percent and transportation less than 10 percent. (DCK)

  11. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  12. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  13. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people over age 85 as we have today. 5 More old people means more nursing homes. ... are high Prevention of back injuries is smart business. Management can save lots of money. Individual back ...

  14. Back care education on peasant farmers suffering from chronic mechanical low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Ayanniyi; Olusoji G. Ige

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem that cuts across various occupations. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of back care education on farmers suffering from chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Male peasant farmers suffering from chronic LBP were purposively recruited and randomly assigned to back care education group (BG) and control group (CG). The participants in the BG were trained in back care education five times within eight weeks while parti...

  15. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the top reasons for doctor visits. Back pain has many causes, including bad posture, excessive weight, poor workstation setup, lack of exercise and limited flexibility. Fortunately, many of them are preventable and ... can help prevent back pain. Depending on the cause, the pain can occur ...

  16. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department of...

  17. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  18. Backing warning sensors for tow plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Backup warning system devices were evaluated to determine if they would alert winter maintenance snow : plow drivers to obstacles directly behind the trailer and out of view of the driver when a unit is backed up. : When the sensors on the back of th...

  19. Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells.

  20. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Simons, E.; Riphagen, I.I.; Ammendolia, C.; Verhangen, A.P.; Laslett, M.; Devillé, W.; Deyo, R.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Aertgeerts, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care

  2. Specificity of a back muscle exercise machine in healthy and low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; DA Silva, Rubens A; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Nadeau, Sylvie; Plamondon, André; Vadeboncoeur, Roger

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether dynamic back muscle endurance exercises in a semisitting position induce more fatigue in back muscles than that in hip extensors in healthy controls as well as in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with nonspecific chronic low back pain performed trunk flexion-extension cycles until exhaustion at 60% of their strength in a machine designed for back exercise in a semisitting position with knees' angle at 135 degrees . The number of cycles and perceived muscle fatigue (Borg CR-10 scale) at five areas (upper and lower back, gluteus, hamstrings, and quadriceps) were used as fatigue criteria. EMG signals were recorded bilaterally on four back muscles, two hip extensors (gluteus maximus and biceps femoris), and the vastus medialis. The slope values of the instantaneous median frequency values computed over time were retained as EMG indices of fatigue. The number of cycles was equivalent in healthy controls (n = 23 +/- 13) and patients with back pain (n = 27 +/- 16). EMG indices of fatigue disclosed evidence of muscle fatigue in all the back muscles and the vastus medialis, contrary to hip extensors. EMG revealed significantly more muscle fatigue of lower back muscles, which was further corroborated by the Borg scale assessment. No between-group difference was obtained in any EMG comparison. These results showed that this type of exercise machine can specifically train the back muscles, and this as much in subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain as in healthy controls. This has implications for the training of back muscle endurance, especially in patients with back pain for whom poor back muscle endurance is sometimes of concern.

  3. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain Validade concorrente da unidade de biofeedback pressórico e eletromiografia de superfície na mensuração da atividade muscular do transverso abdominal em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro O. P. Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. RESULTS: Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A Unidade de Biofeedback Pressórico (UBP é uma ferramenta de avaliação usada na prática clínica e pesquisa científica para analisar indiretamente a atividade muscular do transverso abdominal (TrA. A validade concorrente da UBP em uma amostra clinicamente relevante ainda não está esclarecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade concorrente e acurácia diagnóstica da UBP em mensurar a atividade muscular do TrA em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado usando um delineamento de validação. Cinquenta pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica foram recrutados. Para testar a validade concorrente, ambas as medidas pressóricas (teste índice e eletromiográficas superficiais (teste padrão de referência foram comparadas e coletadas por um fisioterapeuta a partir de uma manobra de contração voluntária do músculo Tr

  4. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except a relief valve may vent to a common tank relief valve header if the back pressure is included in... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3...

  5. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 2,2018 Fighting back against the “ ... Doctor (PDF) Find More Resources and Fact Sheets High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  6. High-temperature stability of molybdenum (Mo) back contacts for CIGS solar cells: a route towards more robust back contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ju-Heon; Yoon, Kwan-Hee; Kim, Won Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Jeong, Jeung-hyun

    2011-10-01

    The thermal stability of Mo thin films is indispensable to Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells: CIGS films are deposited above 500 °C. The thermal stabilities of Mo thin films with dense to porous Mo microstructures, which are varied by controlling the sputtering pressure, are investigated. Interface failures are found to occur in buckling mode in denser Mo films, whereas cracking arises in less dense films. The failure modes are apparently dependent on the sign of the residual stress: the former is due to compressive stress, whereas the latter is due to tensile stress. Interestingly, the softening of soda-lime glass at high temperatures reconfigures the film stresses to be more compressive after annealing, which in turn triggers buckling even in films that are tensile-stressed in the as-deposited states. We conclude that the appropriate processing conditions for thermally stable back contacts cannot be obtained with the simple single layer approach. On the basis of this relationship between microstructure, residual stress and the failure modes, it is shown that improvements in film adhesion can widen the processing window for the preparation of robust back contacts, i.e. with a conventional bilayer approach and substrate roughening. Since the bilayer approach employed more compliant porous structures in the bottom layer, back contacts that are better suited to higher stress and temperature can be produced. Furthermore, substrate roughening might make the back contact more conductive as well as more stable because adhesion can be enhanced without the use of an electrically resistive buffer layer.

  7. Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Tschapek, Marika; Erlenwein, Joachim; Petzke, Frank

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated change in the distribution of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity and pressure pain sensitivity across the low back in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from multiple locations over the lumbar erector spinae muscle with a 13×5 grid of electrodes from 19 people with chronic nonspecific LBP and 17 control subjects as they performed a repetitive lifting task. The EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded before and after the lifting task over a similar area of the back. For the control subjects, the EMG RMS progressively increased more in the caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae during the repetitive task, resulting in a shift in the distribution of muscle activity. In contrast, the distribution of muscle activity remained unaltered in the LBP group despite an overall increase in EMG amplitude. PPT was lower in the LBP group after completion of the repetitive task compared to baseline (average across all locations: pre: 268.0±165.9 kPa; post: 242.0±166.7 kPa), whereas no change in PPT over time was observed for the control group (320.1±162.1 kPa; post: 322.0±179.5 kPa). The results demonstrate that LBP alters the normal adaptation of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity to exercise, which occurs in the presence of exercise-induced hyperalgesia. Reduced variability of muscle activity may have important implications for the provocation and recurrence of LBP due to repetitive tasks. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Which rehabilitation for which low back pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiraudeau, S; Lefèvre-Colau, M M; Mayoux-Benhamou, M A; Revel, M

    2000-10-15

    Many rehabilitation technics for low back pain are available. Their aims are short time pain decrease, muscular strengthening in flexion or extension, increased hip and lumbar spine mobility, improved lumbar and pelvic proprioceptive sensibility, improved general fitness. During the past ten years, studies meeting widely accepted validity and applicability for therapeutic trials have addressed the clinical efficacy of rehabilitation in low back pain patients. Most studies assessing the back school approach have found no benefit. Spinal extension and flexion programs have yielded short-time improvements, without difference between the two methods. There is now strong evidence that functional restoration programs provide long-term benefits including better social and occupational outcomes.

  9. Back Pain and Co-occurring Conditions: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Elizabeth M; Millstone, Dov B; Perruccio, Anthony V

    2018-02-16

    Cross-sectional population-level health survey. To describe the frequency of co-occurring conditions with back pain; to identify risk factors for back pain controlling for co-occurring conditions; and to examine the association between back pain and individual co-occurring conditions. Back pain shares risk factors with a range of other conditions. Most studies have considered risk factors for back pain without taking into account the potential influence of co-occurring conditions. Analysis of the 2013 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 61,854, age. ≥ 15 years). Back pain status and co-occurring conditions were determined from questions about long term health conditions diagnosed by a health profession. Multivariable log-Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the adjusted association of back pain with demographic and lifestyle characteristics and co-occurring conditions. The population prevalence of reported back pain was 19.3%. Most (71%) reported at least one co-occurring condition. Most frequently reported were arthritis (35%), high blood pressure (26%), migraine (18%), and mood disorders (14%). Following the addition of co-occurring condition count to the regression model, being female and being overweight/obese were no longer significantly associated with back pain, and the associations with ages 45-54 years and older, low income, smoking and being physical inactive were significantly attenuated. The highest prevalence ratio, 3.32 (95% CI: 3.06-3.59), was for 3+ co-occurring conditions. In multi-variable regression all but a few individual chronic conditions remained significant associated with back pain. Established risk factors for back pain may be largely a reflection of shared risk factors with co-occurring conditions. The high frequency of co-occurring conditions likely reflects diverse mechanisms related to heterogeneity of back pain. The extent of association of co-occurring conditions with back pain has implications for clinical

  10. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  11. Core strengthening exercises for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerga-Varela, Luis; Abréu Ramos, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    Core strengthening concepts have gained increased popularity in low back rehabilitation. Traditional low back pain rehabilitation is based on a static spine stability model and is composed mostly of modalities, stretching and strengthening exercises. More recent theories, however, include newer concepts of dynamic spinal stability, coordination and neuromuscular control. Core strengthening exercises incorporate these new concepts. Although more research is necessary, the best available evidence suggests that a core strengthening program may be beneficial in reducing pain scores, functional disability and recurrences of acute low back pain episodes. This article reviews "core" anatomy, physiologic models of spinal stability, effects, of low back pain on spinal stability, evidence-based reasoning behind core strengthening and the basic concepts involved in designing a core strengthening program.

  12. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam ... Keywords. Embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; reprogramming; differentiation; Nobel Prize 2012. ... National Centre for Cell Science University of Pune Campus Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007, India.

  13. The pharmacotherapy of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern imaging techniques have contributed significantly to getting to the correct diagnosis. The following conditions may cause lower back pain: Cancer, Cauda Equina Syndrome, Herniated intervertebral disc, severe or progressive neurological deficits, spinal stenosis, vertebral compression fracture or vertebral infection.

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  15. Generalized Back Propagation for Training Pattern Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (1994), s. 91-98 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:ALTEC(XE) IC-1000 Keywords : back propagation * smoothness constraints * multi-layered network * expert system * explicite kulle * trainning pattern derivatives * generalization

  16. Back Labor: Childbirth Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Although not widely used, some research suggests that shallow injections of sterile water to the lower back ... shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo ...

  17. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  18. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  19. Back to the energy crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, M.

    1987-02-06

    ''The United States and the rest of the world are being set up for a major oil price shock,'' says Interior Secretary Hodel. Waning US oil output, rising imports, and Middle East tensions are reheating energy policy debates of the 1970s. Gasoline is still cheap and there are no shortages at the pump, but increasingly, government officials and private energy analysts are sounding warnings about the nation's energy future. For the first time since 1980, US reliance on oil imports has gone up and will rise further by the early 1990s. This expanding dependence is reigniting the energy policy debates of the 1970s. At issue is not only national security, but economic concerns about inflation, slower growth, and a stifling of efforts to slash the nation's staggering $171-billion trade deficit. The drive to arouse the nation's energy conscience is led by battered domestic oil producers, oil exploration companies, and related service sectors. Wild swings in the price of oil during 1986 have knocked high-cost American production out of the market. Industry executives estimate that 360,000 oil field and related service industry workers lost their jobs in the last year. In response, some domestic producers are seeking tariffs and tax breaks to keep the industry from collapsing further. Thus far, the Reagan Administration has rejected pleas to impose import fees, noting that consumers have benefited from lower prices. With oil imports projected to supply 50% of US needs by the early 1990s, pressure is building in and outside Congress for an overhaul of Administration energy policy.

  20. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  1. People with chronic low back pain have poorer balance than controls in challenging tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Vieira, Edgar R; Fernandes, Karen B P; Andraus, Rodrigo A; Oliveira, Marcio R; Sturion, Leandro A; Calderon, Mariane G

    2018-06-01

    To compare the balance of individuals with and without chronic low back pain during five tasks. The participants were 20 volunteers, 10 with and 10 without nonspecific chronic low back pain, mean age 34 years, 50% females. The participants completed the following balance tasks on a force platform in random order: (1) two-legged stance with eyes open, (2) two-legged stance with eyes closed, (3) semi-tandem with eyes open, (4) semi-tandem with eyes closed and (5) one-legged stance with eyes open. The participants completed three 60-s trials of tasks 1-4, and three 30-s trials of task 5 with 30-s rests between trials. The center of pressure area, velocity and frequency in the antero-posterior and medio-lateral directions were computed during each task, and compared between groups and tasks. Participants with chronic low back pain presented significantly larger center of pressure area and higher velocity than the healthy controls (p tasks for all center of pressure variables (p tasks 3 and 4) and one-leg stance (task 5) were more sensitive to identify balance impairments in the chronic low back pain group than two-legged stance tasks 1 and 2 (effect size >1.37 vs. effect size tasks. Individuals with chronic low back pain presented poorer postural control using center of pressure measurements than the healthy controls, mainly during more challenging balance tasks such as semi-tandem and one-legged stance conditions. Implications for Rehabilitation People with chronic low back had poorer balance than those without it. Balance tasks need to be sensitive to capture impairments. Balance assessments during semi-tandem and one-legged stance were the most sensitive tasks to determine postural control deficit in people with chronic low back. Balance assessment should be included during rehabilitation programs for individuals with chronic low back pain for better clinical decision making related to balance re-training as necessary.

  2. Low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M R

    1999-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that blends the athleticism of a gymnast with the grace of a ballerina. The sport demands both the coordination of handling various apparatus and the flexibility to attain positions not seen in any other sport. To attain perfection and reproducibility of their routines, the athletes must practice and repeat the basic elements of their routines thousands of times. In so doing, the athlete places herself at risk of a myriad of overuse injuries, the most common being low back pain. To document the presence and severity of low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts, a prospective study of seven national team members was undertaken that documented injuries and complaints with daily medical reports over a 7-wk period. These findings were correlated with a retrospective review of 11 elite level gymnasts followed over a 10-month period whose complaints ultimately required evaluation by a physician. Eighty-six percent of the gymnasts in the prospective study complained of back pain at some point over the course of the study. The only injury recorded that required a time loss from sport was a low back injury. The most common complaint requiring a physician's evaluation was low back pain with the diagnoses varying from muscle strains to bony stress reaction or complete fracture of the pars inter-articularis (spondylolysis). No athlete had a spondylolisthesis or ruptured disk. Two had mild scolioses which did not appear to be associated with their low back pain. It would appear that rhythmic gymnasts are at relative increased risk of suffering low back complaints secondary to their sport.

  3. Low back pain recurrence in occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, William S; Ferguson, Sue A; Burr, Deborah; Schabo, Pete; Maronitis, Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Prospective assessment of return to work after low back pain. To determine which factors or combination of factors best predict recurrence of low back pain (defined 4 different ways) when returning to full-duty work. Recurrent back pain is one of the more costly health problems facing industry today. Few systematic evaluations of the various factors suspected of exacerbating low back pain have been reported in the literature. A total of 206 workers who reported low back pain were evaluated as they returned to full-duty work. Five types of assessments were performed including: 1) a low back kinematic functional assessments, 2) evaluation of job physical demands, 3) psychosocial assessment of the job environment, 4) self-reported impairment including perception of symptoms and psychological measures, and 5) personal (individual) factors. One year after return to full duty workers were interviewed to assess who had a recurrence of low back pain according to 4 different definitions of low back pain (symptom reports, medical visits, self-reported lost days, and employer-reported lost days due to back pain). Multiple logistic regression models were developed to assess the best combinations of predictors. The most liberal definition of recurrence, recurrent symptoms, had a significantly greater recurrence rate at 58% than all other outcome measures (P = 0.0001). The medical visit recurrence rate of 36% was significantly greater than the more conservative lost time measures (P = 0.0001). The recurrence rate for self-reported lost time was 15%, whereas the more conservative employer confirmed lost time measure was significantly lower at 10% (P = 0.0077). Multivariate predictive models associated with the various recurrence definitions yielded sensitivities varying between 78% and 80% and specificity between 73% and 80%. Recurrence is greatly dependent on how one defines recurrence with symptom reporting yielding 5.5 times as many recurrences compared with employer confirmed

  4. Somatosensory nociceptive characteristics differentiate subgroups in people with chronic low back pain: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Martin; Slater, Helen; OʼSullivan, Peter; Beales, Darren; Smith, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n = 294) based on the results of multimodal sensory testing and profile subgroups on demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and general health factors. Bedside (2-point discrimination, brush, vibration and pinprick perception, temporal summation on repeated monofilament stimulation) and laboratory (mechanical detection threshold, pressure, heat and cold pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation) sensory testing were examined at wrist and lumbar sites. Data were entered into principal component analysis, and 5 component scores were entered into latent class analysis. Three clusters, with different sensory characteristics, were derived. Cluster 1 (31.9%) was characterised by average to high temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 2 (52.0%) was characterised by average to high pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 3 (16.0%) was characterised by low temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Temporal summation occurred significantly more frequently in cluster 1. Subgroups were profiled on pain intensity, disability, depression, anxiety, stress, life events, fear avoidance, catastrophizing, perception of the low back region, comorbidities, body mass index, multiple pain sites, sleep, and activity levels. Clusters 1 and 2 had a significantly greater proportion of female participants and higher depression and sleep disturbance scores than cluster 3. The proportion of participants undertaking Low back pain, therefore, does not appear to be homogeneous. Pain mechanisms relating to presentations of each subgroup were postulated. Future research may investigate prognoses and interventions tailored towards these subgroups.

  5. Physical deconditioning in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ivan; Parra, José-Hernán; Duvallet, Alain

    2009-03-01

    To establish the level of cardiorespiratory fitness and the rate of decrease in maximal aerobic capacity according to age in patients with chronic low back pain and compare these with normative data. Prospective case series with historical controls. Seventy patients with chronic low back pain. A maximal cycle ergometer protocol was used to measure VO2max, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate levels. Seventy patients achieved absolute and normalized for weight VO2max values of 2.17 (standard deviation (SD) 0.65) l/min and 30.79 (SD 7.77) ml/kg/min, respectively. Absolute VO2max was poorly related to age in both men and women with chronic low back pain (r = -0.22 and r = -0.28, respectively). VO2max normalized for weight was also inversely related to age in both men and women (r = -0.36 and r = -0.42, respectively). The rate of VO2max decline between 20 and 59 years was -3.3 ml/kg/min/decade for the entire population and -1.2 and -5.4 ml/kg/min/decade in men and women, respectively. The level of physical fitness of patients with chronic low back pain is comparable to the physical fitness of healthy, but poorly conditioned subjects. Patients with chronic low back pain show a VO2max decline with ageing that is slower than of active subjects.

  6. Ergonomic Assessment of a Seat Back Support (Spine Fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kazemi1

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : In case of inappropriateness of the dimensions of chairs or when users feel pain and pressure in their lumbar region due to poor posture, damage to the spine can be prevented using some additional supports. The aim of this study was ergonomic evaluation of one of these supportive products named “Spine Fit”. Methods : In this descriptive and cross-sectional study, in the first stage, five ergonomists evaluated the product regarding its dimension, adjustability, material, conformity, and manufacturer claims. Then, three groups of workers including office workers, office workers with low back pain, and bus drivers filled out a self-administered questionnaire after using Spine Fit . Results : For the first stage, an acceptable adjustability and dimension was found. Conformity for different kinds of office and bus seats was mostly fair. Findings from the second stage revealed that the subjects in three groups were satisfied regarding seats comfort and ease of use. Concerning the conformity of Spine Fit, it was in good level among office workers, while different levels of conformity were observed by drivers of different models of bus . Conclusion : Spine Fit supports back region based on its supportive role in pelvis, lumbar vertebrae column and thoracic spine. Moreover, Spine Fit features that reduce sweating can improve individuals’ convenience.

  7. Analysis of lower back pain disorder using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritwik Kulkarni, K.; Gaonkar, Abhijitsingh; Vijayarajan, V.; Manikandan, K.

    2017-11-01

    Lower back pain (LBP) is caused because of assorted reasons involving body parts such as the interconnected network of spinal cord, nerves, bones, discs or tendons in the lumbar spine. LBP is pain, muscle pressure, or stiffness localized underneath the costal edge or more the substandard gluteal folds, with or without leg torment for the most part sciatica, and is characterized as endless when it holds on for 12 weeks or more then again, non-particular LBP is torment not credited to an unmistakable pathology such as infection, tumour, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, or inflammation. Over 70% of people usually suffer from such backpain disorder at some time. But recovery is not always favorable, 82% of non-recent-onset patients still experience pain 1 year later. Even though not having any history of lower back pain, many patients suffering from this disorder spend months or years healing from it. Hence aiming to look for preventive measure rather than curative, this study suggests a classification methodology for Chronic LBP disorder using Deep Learning techniques.

  8. Prediction Of Heart Disease Using Back Propagation MLP Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durairaj M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diagnosing the presence of heart disease is actually tedious processas it requires depth knowledge and rich experience. In general the prediction of heart disease lies upon the traditional way of examining medical report such as ECG The Electrocardiogram MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging Blood Pressure Stress tests by a medical practitioner. Now days a large volume of medical data is available in medical industry and acts as a great source of predicting useful and hidden facts in almost all medical problems. These facts would really in turn help the practitioners to make accurate predictions. The novel techniques of Artificial Neural Network concepts have also been contributing themselves in yielding highest prediction accuracy over medical data. This paper aims to predict the existence of heart disease using Back Propagation MLP Multilayer Perceptron of Artificial Nerual Network. The results are compared with the existing works carried out in the same domain.

  9. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  10. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim....... The body can never be understood merely as a biological entity, and therefore illness is far more than having symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment. The synthesis thus proposes an acknowledgment of this and a more holistic approach....... of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of back patients’ illness experiences and to identify, systematise and integrate the findings of different qualitative studies that may elucidate barriers, consequences or focal points in connection with the care and treatment. Methods: The methodology...

  11. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  12. Adipsin Concentrations Are Associated with Back Pain Independently of Adiposity in Overweight or Obese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmayne R. E. Brady

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare cardiometabolic risk factors including cytokine and adipokine concentrations between individuals with and without back pain.Methods: In 62 overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; 23F/39M, we collected data on: self-reported back pain; anthropometry [BMI, waist circumference, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry—DEXA]; metabolic parameters [fasting glucose; insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps]; cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, lipids; serum inflammation markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP; immunoturbidimetric-assay, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10 (multiplex-assay]; and adipokines [leptin, adipsin, resistin, and adiponectin (multiplex-assay].Results: Participants who reported having back pain in the past month (n = 24; 39% had higher BMI (mean ± SD = 33.8 ± 6.3 vs. 30.2 ± 4.1 kg/m2, p = 0.008, fat-mass (39.9 ± 12.3 vs. 33.9 ± 9.8%, p = 0.04, and waist circumference (109.6 ± 16.8 vs. 101.0 ± 9.3 cm, p = 0.01 compared to those without back pain (n = 38; 61%. No differences were observed in cardiometabolic parameters, inflammatory markers, or adiponectin or resistin concentrations. Those reporting back pain had higher adipsin concentrations compared to those without back pain [median (IQR = 744 (472–2,804 vs. 721 (515–867 ng/ml, p = 0.03], with a trend for higher leptin [5.5 (1.5–24.3 vs. 2.3 (1.5–6.7 ng/ml, p = 0.05], both of which persisted after adjustment for age and sex. Adipsin remained associated with back pain independently of adiposity (BMI, waist, fat-mass, or total %body fat; all p ≤ 0.03.Conclusions: Greater obesity, and higher adipsin and leptin concentrations were observed in those who reported back pain in the past month compared to those without back pain, and adipsin was associated with back pain independently of adiposity. Larger studies are needed to determine if adipsin could be a novel

  13. Clinical classification in low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom; Laslett, Mark; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical examination findings are used in primary care to give an initial diagnosis to patients with low back pain and related leg symptoms. The purpose of this study was to develop best evidence Clinical Diagnostic Rules (CDR] for the identification of the most common patho...... searching and citation tracking to identify eligible studies. Criteria for inclusion were: persons with low back pain with or without related leg symptoms, history or physical examination findings suitable for use in primary care, comparison with acceptable reference standards, and statistical reporting...

  14. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  15. Predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A; Johansen, J G; Hellesnes, J; Brox, J I

    1999-02-01

    Testing for trunk muscle strength was performed on 105 patients with chronic low back pain. To investigate prediction of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain. The clinical evaluation of patients with chronic low back pain often in difficult because of discrepancy between disability and impairment. The isokinetic trunk device was developed as a tool for objective assessment of back muscle strength. However, the performance of patients depends on radiologic abnormalities of the spine, conditions of the back muscles, and various psychosocial factors. Studies are warranted that address how these variables influence back muscle strength. The patients with chronic low back pain were tested by an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test (Cybex TEF, Ronkonkoma, NY). In addition, the following variables were recorded: gender, age, body mass index, emotional distress, pain on exertion, self-efficacy for pain, degenerative changes of the lumbar spine, cross-sectional area, and density of the erector spinae muscles. The three latter variables were estimated by computed tomography scans. The sum of the total work performed during isokinetic extension strength test was the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, and anthropometric, demographic, psychological, and radiologic factors were independent variables. Gender, cross-sectional muscle area, and pain on exertion were the most powerful predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength. The final regression model, which included these variables, could account for approximately 40% of the variability in back muscle strength. For assessing the results of an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test, cross-sectional muscle area, gender, and pain on exertion should be taken into account.

  16. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, E A

    1989-07-01

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the patient with arachnoiditis are discussed.

  17. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenbode, I. C. D.; Jellema, P.; van Poppel, M. N. M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar supports are used in the treatment of low-back pain patients, to prevent the onset of low-back pain (primary prevention) or to prevent recurrences of a low-back pain episode (secondary prevention). To assess the effects of lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of non-specific low-back

  18. Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP. Patients and Methods Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six. Results The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001. The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05. In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035 and MODQ score (P = 0.001 at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group. Conclusions The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

  19. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  20. Effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aourell, Moa; Skoog, Martina; Carleson, J

    2005-11-01

    Swedish massage technique includes mechanically activated muscular tissue and also skin, tendons, fascias, and connected tissue, which indirectly regulates the tonus of the autonomous nervous system. This study set out to examine the effects of Swedish massage on blood pressure. Healthy males were given massage treatment at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Treatment was over a 12-week period divided into three parts, each consisting of 4 weeks. Two treatment periods contained massage treatment either on back, neck and chest (BNC), or leg, arm and face (LAF), with an in between washout period. The first treatment period with massage decreased systolic blood pressure directly after treatment (BNC: Pmassage decreased systolic (Pmassage (Pmassage on the BNC resulted in a minor decrease in blood pressure possibly due to sympathetic inhibition. It may be suggested that massage may be tried as a complementary therapy in patients suffering from increased blood pressure due to stress.

  1. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  2. Low back pain (non-specific).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krismer, M.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is defined as pain localised between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain. Most cases are non-specific, but in about 10% of cases a specific cause is identified. Red flags are typical signs or symptoms that are frequently associated with specific

  3. Paschen-Back effect in dyonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A formulation of the Pashen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed to explain the recent evidence for a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e. The masses for isospin I = 0 mesons are estimated and compared with experiment

  4. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  5. Imaging in mechanical back pain: Anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A; Fournier, Gilles; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-08-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations of various lumbar spine imaging techniques with focus on new emerging technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  7. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst with back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [11]. Conclusion. A case of a 31-year-old man with congenital bronchogenic cyst associated with severe back pain has been presented. The diagnosis made by chest radiograph and chest CT was confirmed by pathology. The clinical presentation, radiologic features and treatment of bronchogenic cyst have been discussed.

  8. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  9. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  10. Non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peralta's "Operation Call Back": Demonstrating People Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Thomas W., Jr.; Mitchell, Beverly

    1975-01-01

    To avoid declining enrollments, Peralta identified 50,000 former students and launched a massive campaign to contact and re-recruit them. This, combined with the mailing of a brochure to all 190,000 local households, posters mounted on the backs of 50 local buses, and other advertising methods led to a second semester enrollment increase of over…

  12. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long...

  13. Looking back on 10 RESIM workshops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    This year sees the 10th RESIM workshop, which is a good moment to look back on this series of workshops. Partially, this will be a "trip down memory lane": remembering all the meetings and venues. Partially, it will be more serious. Can we see any trends in the topics discussed in the workshops? Are

  14. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical therapist says it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying ... Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, et al. Interventional therapies, surgery, and ... for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice ...

  15. Augmented Reality: Simulasi Terapi Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmi Khalida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini telah berkembang ilmu layanan kesehatan yang dilakukan dari jarak jauh atau telemedicine. Telemedicine adalah praktek kesehatan dengan memakai komunikasi audio, visual dan data. termasuk perawatan, diagnosis, konsultasi dan pengobatan serta pertukaran data medis dan diskusi ilmiah jarak jauh dengan melibatkan dokter, pasien dan pihak-pihak lain. Augmented Reality merupakan pemodelan simulasi virtual, Augmented Reality adalah teknologi yang menggabungkan antara dunia nyata dengan virtual. Teknologi Augmented Reality dapat diterapkan pada telemedicine, Secara sederhana, telemedicine sesungguhnya telah diaplikasikan ketika terjadi simulasi model virtual pada sebuah tindakan operasi. Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai media Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada bidang kesehatan yaitu pada penyakit low back pain dan penyembuhannya melalui terapi mandiri. Penyalit low back pain mempunyai prevalensi yang tinggi namun penyakit ini dapat sembuh dengan sendirinya. Tahapan pengerjaan dalam penelitian ini dimulai identifikasi kandidat prototype, lalu rancang bangun prototype. Tahap yang ketiga yaitu rancang bangun prototype yaitu proses pembuatan model 3D dan interface flash, proses rendering, dan integrasi antara model dan Augmented Reality. Tahap yang keempat adalah uji coba prototype yaitu Teknologi Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada terapi low back pain. Tahap yang terakhir adalah evaluasi dan diharapkan berhasil mencapai sasaran, maka peningkatan derajat kesehatan masyarakat dapat dipercepat. Implementasi aplikasi simulasi terapi Low Back Pain dengan metode Augmented Reality menunjukan dapat digunakan oleh seluruh masyarakat karena penggunaa merasa mudah mengoperasikannya, desain aplikasi menarik, dan mudah disebar-luaskan.

  16. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 2015 Approved by: Rudolph P. Darken Thesis Advisor Thomas Mackin, California Polytechnic State...critical infrastructure resilience CIRGP Critical Infrastructure Resilience Grant Program CMI Consequences Measurement Index COAG Council of Australian

  17. Differences in Pain Processing Between Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain, Recurrent Low Back Pain, and Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubert, Dorien; Danneels, Lieven; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Descheemaeker, Filip; Meeus, Mira

    2017-05-01

    The impairment in musculoskeletal structures in patients with low back pain (LBP) is often disproportionate to their complaint. Therefore, the need arises for exploration of alternative mechanisms contributing to the origin and maintenance of non-specific LBP. The recent focus has been on central nervous system phenomena in LBP and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the various symptoms and characteristics of chronic pain. Knowledge concerning changes in pain processing in LBP remains ambiguous, partly due to the diversity in the LBP population. The purpose of this study is to compare quantitative sensory assessment in different groups of LBP patients with regard to chronicity. Recurrent low back pain (RLBP), mild chronic low back pain (CLBP), and severe CLBP are compared on the one hand with healthy controls (HC), and on the other hand with fibromyalgia (FM) patients, in which abnormal pain processing has previously been reported. Cross-sectional study. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University, Belgium. Twenty-three RLBP, 15 mild CLBP, 16 severe CLBP, 26 FM, and 21 HC participated in this study. Quantitative sensory testing was conducted by manual pressure algometry and computer-controlled cuff algometry. A manual algometer was used to evaluate hyperalgesia as well as temporal summation of pain and a cuff algometer was used to evaluate deep tissue hyperalgesia, the efficacy of the conditioned pain modulation and spatial summation of pain. Pressure pain thresholds by manual algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC, RLBP, and severe CLBP. Temporal summation of pain was significantly higher in FM compared to HC and RLBP. Pain tolerance thresholds assessed by cuff algometry were significantly lower in FM compared to HC and RLBP and also in severe CLBP compared to RLBP. No significant differences between groups were found for spatial summation or conditioned pain modulation. No psychosocial issues were taken into account for this

  18. EFFECTS OF THE BACK-FILLING TO THE STABILITY OF A CAISSON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshiaki; Shinsha, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Kensuke; Eguchi, Shinya

    The back-filling improves the stability of a caisson used for breakwater against wave force. But, the extent of the improvement of the stability is affected by the interaction among the back-filling and the caisson and the foundation. A series of the model loading experiments was carried out to clarify the effects of the interaction to the stability. In this series of experiments, horizontal static load was applied to the model caisson having back-filling. Sliding failure surface was estimated from the deformation of rubble mound and back-filling. Passive earth pressure by back-filling calculated by wedge theory was compared with the experimental results. New stability evaluation method considering circular arc failure mode was developed and evaluated its validity. Followings are main conclusions in this research; 1) Increment of stability of a caisson against wave force can be estimated from wedge theory. 2) Both sliding and bearing capacity stability were considered in one time using newly developed evaluation method considering circular arc failure mode.

  19. Back pain as a lifestyle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Koszela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency in which back pain is diagnosed and treated has markedly increased in the recent years. At present, back pain and dysfunction syndrome is becoming a lifestyle disease, along with hypertension and diabetes. It affects more and more people. Low back pain is currently one of the most common complaints with which patients report to the doctor, including a primary care physician. Depending on the affected part of the spinal motion segment, we can distinguish: discogenic pain, radicular pain, facet joint pain and muscle pain. Unambiguous determination of its aetiology is generally difficult since, usually, several overlapping pathologies are involved. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the problems associated with back pain and the complexity of its pathomechanism as treatment is adjusted to the site of pathology. This article is based on data from international, broadly cited literature on spinal dysfunctions. Back pain is not usually a very severe condition and can be treated conservatively in most cases. Despite this, it affects a vast number of people and constitutes a considerable financial burden for the state budget. This is associated with costs of medical procedures, but most of all, with absence at work and early opinions of incapacity for work.

  20. The bra-line back lift: a simple approach to correcting severe back rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunstad, Joseph P; Khan, Phillip D

    2014-10-01

    Anatomic sequelae of the upper back that occur with age or weight loss have been somewhat underserved in the plastic surgery literature. Zones of adherence in the upper posterior trunk create overhanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue, which are disturbing to the patient both functionally and cosmetically. These adherence points prove challenging in that they prevent contouring of the upper back with procedures such as traditional abdominoplasty or lower body lift. The bra line back lift provides a reliable and consistent method of addressing these issues by eliminating excess redundant skin and adiposity from the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trauma attenuating backing improves protection against behind armor blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondén, Anders; Rocksén, David; Riddez, Louis; Davidsson, Johan; Persson, Jonas K; Gryth, Dan; Bursell, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2009-12-01

    Body armor is used by military personnel, police officers, and security guards to protect them from fatal gunshot injuries to the thorax. The protection against high-velocity weapons may, however, be insufficient. Complementary trauma attenuating backings (TAB) have been suggested to prevent morbidity and mortality in high-velocity weapon trauma. Twenty-four Swedish landrace pigs, protected by a ceramid/aramid body armor without (n = 12) or with TAB (n = 12) were shot with a standard 7.62-mm assault rifle. Morphologic injuries, cardiorespiratory, and electroencephalogram changes as well as physical parameters were registered. The bullet impact caused a reproducible behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) in both the groups. The TAB significantly decreased size of the lung contusion and prevented hemoptysis. The postimpact apnea, desaturation, hypotension, and rise in pulmonary artery pressure were significantly attenuated in the TAB group. Moreover, TAB reduced transient peak pressures in thorax by 91%. Our results indicate that ordinary body armor should be complemented by a TAB to prevent thoracic injuries when the threat is high-velocity weapons.

  2. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R.; Walker, B.

    2011-01-01

    compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were......Background: Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between...... pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90...

  3. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  4. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-05-23

    To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability

  5. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Simons, E.; Riphagen, I.I.; Ammendolia, C.; Verhagen, A.P.; Laslett, M.; Devillé, W.; Deyo, R.A.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Aertgeerts, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care

  6. 40 CFR 63.497 - Back-end process provisions-monitoring provisions for control and recovery devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., analyzer vents, open-ended valves or lines, and pressure relief valves needed for safety purposes are not... required. Any boiler or process heater in which all vent streams are introduced with primary fuel or are... a controlled back-end process vent using a vent system that contains bypass lines that could divert...

  7. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is computed...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  8. The effect of sex and chronic low back pain on back muscle reflex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Forget, Robert; Vadeboncoeur, Roger; Bilodeau, Martin; Mecheri, Hakim

    2010-07-01

    Different back muscle reflex assessment protocols have shown abnormally longer reflex latency responses of back muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, many confounding variables are difficult to control, such as the load magnitude and the preactivation of trunk muscles. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in 30 subjects with CLBP and 30 healthy controls, the activation levels of back muscles during pre-loading and their reflex responses to sudden loading. After subjected to six practice perturbations, 20 sudden and unexpected forward perturbations of the trunk were applied in 30 CLBP subjects (14 women) and 31 controls (17 women), while attempting to minimize the confounding effect of preactivation level and perturbation amplitude. Reflex latency and amplitudes were computed from the surface EMG signals of four back muscles (bilaterally at L5, L3, L1, T10 vertebral levels). EMG was also collected from abdominal muscles. Subjects with CLBP significantly increased the preactivation of back muscles (abdominal preactivation the same) relative to controls while no sex effect was observed. While adjusting statistically for these differences, reflex amplitude was significantly higher in subjects with CLBP and men, compared to healthy controls and women, respectively. Interestingly, contrary to most of the literature available, no between-group effects were detected for reflex latency, which could potentially be explained by an appropriate control of confounding variables, but this remains to be clarified in future research.

  9. Back pain and body posture evaluation instrument (BackPEI): development, content validation and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Tarragô Candotti, Cláudia; Vieira, Adriane; Fagundes Loss, Jefferson

    2013-08-01

    Following a search conducted in several databases, no instrument was found that jointly evaluates the prevalence of back pain and its associated demographic, social-economic, hereditary, behavioral and postural risk factors. Thus, the present study aims to develop the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument (BackPEI) for school-age children and verify its validity and reproducibility. Twenty-one questions were elaborated to compose the BackPEI instrument, eight experts checked the content validity, and its reproducibility was tested by applying the questionnaire to 260 primary schoolchildren, at two different times with a 7-day interval. The reproducibility data for the first 20 questions, analyzed using the kappa (k) coefficient, were classified as "very good" (k > 0.8) or "good" (0.6 pain intensity question, analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), demonstrated that there was no difference between the averages (p = 0.251) and the responses were highly correlated (ICC = 0.937) for these two tests. The BackPEI constitutes a valid and reproducible instrument which is relevant for the evaluation of back pain and its associated risk factors.

  10. ["Round back" in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflid, N; Fragnière, B; Dutoit, M

    2000-10-01

    The hyper-kyphosis or "the postural round back" is one of the most common complaints in orthopedic practice. In the majority of cases, the thoracic kyphosis are painless and flexible. The vertebral bodies are normal on radiograms. This is "the kyphotic attitude" or postural round-back. A medical treatment is not the necessary rule. Life hygiene, sports and simple supervision are needed. Nevertheless, there are still pathological fixed kyphosis, induced in the majority of cases by Scheuermann's disease. The other possible etiologies (congenital, paralytic, post-traumatic, Pott's disease, postradiation, or metabolic origin) are a lot rare ones and will be excluded by clinical examination and imaging studies. The structural hyper-kyphosis require treatment. We will approach successively steps of the diagnosis and treatment of the hyper-kyphosis of the adolescent.

  11. The Cernettes are back at the Hardronic!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN MusiClub

    2017-01-01

    Five years after their last epic performance, at the Hardronic Festival 2012, “Les Horribles Cernettes” (the rockin’ LHC) will be singing and dancing again on the planks of the CERN Festival on July 15th. The band’s comeback is a real challenge, since the four singers are scattered as far as Washington DC and Mauritius, passing through Glasgow and Montecarlo. The backing musicians too, live in Tenerife, Mauritius, London. So to make their comeback this summer, CERN’s favourite High Energy Band needs to raise funds for travel. The good news is, we’re half way there, and if you click on the donate button on their website, you can help make every fan’s dream come true. Get the Cernettes back at CERN!                      www.cernettes.com #cernettescomeback

  12. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...

  13. Cholelithiasis presented as chronic right back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobé-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Muñoz, Griselda; Llor-Vilà, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report presented with chronic right back pain, which is an atypical manifestation of biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. It is important to know about the atypical manifestations of the prevalent illnesses as well as the limits of the diagnostic tests, in order to avoid diagnostic delays which may cause complications that could worsen a patient's prognosis. This case should contribute to the medical knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice, especially in primary care.

  14. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure

    2014-01-01

    strategies were identified for each scenario. Appropriateness of the chosen management strategy was assessed using predetermined "best practice" for each scenario. Consensus was arbitrarily defined as "moderate" when 50- 69% of respondents agreed on the same management choice for a scenario, and "excellent......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investigate...... whether those findings could be reproduced among French chiropractors.Objectives: 1. To assess the level of consensus among French chiropractors regarding management strategies for nine different scenarios of low back pain. 2. To assess whether the management choices of the French chiropractors appeared...

  15. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  16. Back extrusion of vocadlo-type fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), , 45366-1-45366-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscosity * back extrusion * annular pumping * vocadlo model * Robertson-stiff model Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.592, year: 2013 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/23840225602.368/ApplRheol_23_45366.pdf

  17. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Antić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accept...

  18. BackTrack testing wireless network security

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step format, you will be able to get started in next to no time with minimal effort and zero fuss.BackTrack: Testing Wireless Network Security is for anyone who has an interest in security and who wants to know more about wireless networks.All you need is some experience with networks and computers and you will be ready to go.

  19. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  20. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed insi......, the management strategy of performing an MRI already at the start of the treatment did reduce the duration of treatment and number of contacts with clinicians, thus saving both time and money....

  1. Cholelithiasis Presented as Chronic Right Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bob?-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Mu?oz, Griselda; Llor-Vil?, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report pr...

  2. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  3. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  4. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  5. Muscle activity and low back loads under external shear and compressive loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, J P; McGill, S M

    1995-05-01

    This study analyzed anatomic and neural control characteristics of the trunk musculature. Subjects were exposed to external shear and compressive loads with equivalent moments to evaluate activation patterns and loading on the low back. The migration of activity between the thoracic and lumbar erector spinae muscle groups was examined to determine whether the motor control system chooses to minimize joint loading by recognizing differences in moment, compression, and shear support requirements and assigning muscle activation in the most appropriate way. Loads were applied either parallel or perpendicular to the low back to create compressive or shear forces. No previous study has attempted to isolate the response of the trunk musculature with the type of external load. Eleven male subjects isometrically held an external load that was altered to create either a compressive or an anterior shear load on the low back but with equal extensor (reaction) moments (experiment 1). In a second experiment four men repeated the task with an increased range of applied loads (5-25 kg) together with measurements of intra-abdominal pressure. The tasks with a compressive external load resulted in significantly higher levels of activation for all seven electromyographic channels recorded. Intraabdominal pressure, compressive and shear joint forces were all higher in the compression loading method when equal loads and low back moments were compared. It was concluded that the motor control system does not arrange muscle activation levels in a way to minimize lumbar spinal loading at least for the relatively low levels of this study. Biomechanical models that use the objective criterion of minimum joint load may not be representative of the motor control system, at least in the low back.

  6. Prevalence of low back pain in alpine ski instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nola; Walker, James A; Fogg, Reed; Dudley, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Mailed survey to random sample of a specific population. To examine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors. The lifetime prevalence for back pain is up to 60% among some athletes. Published literature documents back pain among athletes participating in many sports. However, the prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors has not been established. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America. The lifetime and point prevalence were determined by respondents' report regarding history of low back pain and current back pain. Two hundred four (75% of the 272 respondents) reported a history of low back pain. Eighty-five of those who responded (31%) reported current back pain. Over 9% of respondents missed 10 or more days of work because of back pain. The lifetime prevalence of back pain among respondents was similar to the general population. The respondents reported more lifetime prevalence of back pain than athletes of many other sports. The high prevalence of back pain among ski instructors may increase cost and decrease revenue for the employer. Prevention training in this population may decrease the prevalence of back pain and lessen costs to the employer and the alpine ski instructor.

  7. Exercise and arthritis. Exercise and the back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, W

    1990-11-01

    Some of the positive benefits from participating in aerobic activity have already been addressed. However, an individual's ability to participate in many aerobic activities may be contingent on the ability to maintain a neutral or a stabilized spine. For example, the individual for whom jogging has been painful may be able to jog after he or she has learned trunk stabilization and is able to keep the spine in his or her pain-free position. Although Williams contended that jogging was an inappropriate activity for the individual with a low-back problem, contrary to this notion, White believes that jogging is more apt to protect a person from low-back pain than to cause it. Although no association was found between mileage run and osteoarthritis, jogging is not for all individuals who present with LBP or related arthritic conditions. Moreover, poor biomechanics in running can exacerbate existing low-back problems as well as bring about new ones as compensatory adaptations are made. For example, poor running technique might include excessive forward lean; this must be counterbalanced by contraction of the back extensors, which then may become overly tired or produce high intersegmental forces on the discs. We advocate an upright posture with minimal forward lean. The biomechanics of running also are most important from the perspective of shock absorption. Factors to consider in addition to running within the neutral spine excursion include cushioning footstrike by "giving" at the ankle, knee, and hip joints. In addition to good biomechanics, it would also be important to use an excellent quality training shoe and to run on a soft track as opposed to harder surfaces; hills should probably be avoided for most symptomatic individuals until they become strong. Nachemson indicates that in addition to recommending jogging for LBP, he most commonly recommends backstroke swimming, brisk walking, and stairclimbing. Bicycle riding (stationary or actual) would be another good

  8. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICP monitoring; CSF pressure monitoring ... There are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is the most accurate monitoring method. To insert an intraventricular catheter, a ...

  9. Intracranial pressure monitoring (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intracranial pressure monitoring is performed by inserting a catheter into the head with a sensing device to monitor the pressure around the brain. An increase in intracranial pressure can cause a decrease in blood flow to ...

  10. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  11. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  13. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  14. Lower Back Tattoo: OK to Have an Epidural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and delivery, postpartum care Could a lower back tattoo keep me from having an epidural during labor? ... Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A lower back tattoo won't necessarily prevent you from having an ...

  15. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...... than 30 days with low back pain during the follow-up year. This was true for only 9% of the rest of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates correlations between low back pain in childhood/adolescence and low back pain in adulthood. This should lead to a change in focus from the adult...

  16. Measurements of intraperitoneal pressure and the development of a feedback control valve for regulating pressure during flexible transgastric surgery (NOTES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Maria; Swain, Paul; Park, Per-Ola

    2007-07-01

    High intraabdominal pressures during laparoscopy (greater than 15 mm Hg) are dangerous. Pressures developed during translumenal endosurgery when using flexible endoscopes without feed-back regulation are unknown. To measure and control intraabdominal pressures during transgastric endosurgery. In a blinded study, intraabdominal pressures during unregulated transgastric cholecystectomy and tubal ligation were measured by using Veress needles in 5 pigs (group 1). The accessory channel valve of a double-channel gastroscope was modified to allow measurement and control of intraabdominal pressures with a laparoscopic insufflator. This was tested prospectively in another blinded study in 5 pigs (group 2) that underwent identical procedures to those in group 1, with independent Veress needle pressure measurements. This ethically approved study was performed in an experimental surgical operating theater. Transgastric cholecystectomy (n=4) and tubal resection (n=6). Intraabdominal pressure measurements during transgastric endosurgery, with and without feed-back control. The mean (standard deviation) number of pressure measurements per procedure greater than 20 mm Hg was 11+/-1.41 in group 1 and 0+/-0 in group 2 (PFeedback pressure regulation through a modified valve prevented overinflation.

  17. Hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, G; Maribo, T

    2014-08-01

    An appropriate method to assess back extensor strength in clinical practice has not yet been described. Our results showed that a hand-held dynamometry fixated with a tripod is reliable for assessing back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis. Back strengthening exercises play an important role in the rehabilitation of patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Evaluation of the effect of back strengthening exercises requires a method suitable for use in clinical practice to measure back extensor strength. A hand-held dynamometer (HHD) is quick and easy to handle in clinical practice. Currently, there is a lack of evidence whether a HHD is reliable for assessment of back extensor strength in people with osteoporosis. When using a HHD, it may be difficult for the tester to provide a counter pressure corresponding to the effort of the patient. In order to accommodate this, we have developed a tripod and a belt system, which was used to fixate the HHD. This study examined the intra-tester reliability of back extensor strength assessment in women with osteoporosis using a HHD. Back extensor strength of the participants was measured on two events with 7-day intervals. Test procedures were standardized, and all tests were performed by the same tester. Forty-eight women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures were included in the analysis. The coefficient of variation was 22% using a HHD fixated by the tester and 17% using a HHD fixated with the tripod. ICC was 0.75 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.63 and 0.88) when using a HHD with fixated by the tester and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84 and 0.95) when using a HHD fixated with the tripod. A HHD fixated with a tripod is reliable for the assessment of back extensor strength in women with osteoporosis and vertebral fractures.

  18. Observation of radiation pressure shot noise on a macroscopic object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, T P; Peterson, R W; Regal, C A

    2013-02-15

    The quantum mechanics of position measurement of a macroscopic object is typically inaccessible because of strong coupling to the environment and classical noise. In this work, we monitor a mechanical resonator subject to an increasingly strong continuous position measurement and observe a quantum mechanical back-action force that rises in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty limit. For our optically based position measurements, the back-action takes the form of a fluctuating radiation pressure from the Poisson-distributed photons in the coherent measurement field, termed radiation pressure shot noise. We demonstrate a back-action force that is comparable in magnitude to the thermal forces in our system. Additionally, we observe a temporal correlation between fluctuations in the radiation force and in the position of the resonator.

  19. Back Analysis of Rock Hydraulic Fracturing by Coupling Numerical Model and Computational Intelligent Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is widely used to determine in situ stress of rock engineering. In this paper we propose a new method for simultaneously determining the in situ stress and elastic parameters of rock. The method utilizing the hydraulic fracturing numerical model and a computational intelligent method is proposed and verified. The hydraulic fracturing numerical model provides the samples which include borehole pressure, in situ stress, and elastic parameters. A computational intelligent method is applied in back analysis. A multioutput support vector machine is used to map the complex, nonlinear relationship between the in situ stress, elastic parameters, and borehole pressure. The artificial bee colony algorithm is applied in back analysis to find the optimal in situ stress and elastic parameters. The in situ stress is determined using the proposed method and the results are compared with those of the classic breakdown formula. The proposed method provides a good estimate of the relationship between the in situ stress and borehole pressure and predicts the maximum horizontal in situ stress with high precision while considering the influence of pore pressure without the need to estimate Biot’s coefficient and other parameters.

  20. Optimization of Tape Winding Process Parameters to Enhance the Performance of Solid Rocket Nozzle Throat Back Up Liners using Taguchi's Robust Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nayani Kishore

    2017-08-01

    The throat back up liners is used to protect the nozzle structural members from the severe thermal environment in solid rocket nozzles. The throat back up liners is made with E-glass phenolic prepregs by tape winding process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the optimization of process parameters of tape winding process to achieve better insulative resistance using Taguchi's robust design methodology. In this method four control factors machine speed, roller pressure, tape tension, tape temperature that were investigated for the tape winding process. The presented work was to study the cogency and acceptability of Taguchi's methodology in manufacturing of throat back up liners. The quality characteristic identified was Back wall temperature. Experiments carried out using L 9 ' (34) orthogonal array with three levels of four different control factors. The test results were analyzed using smaller the better criteria for Signal to Noise ratio in order to optimize the process. The experimental results were analyzed conformed and successfully used to achieve the minimum back wall temperature of the throat back up liners. The enhancement in performance of the throat back up liners was observed by carrying out the oxy-acetylene tests. The influence of back wall temperature on the performance of throat back up liners was verified by ground firing test.

  1. Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of vertical oscillatory pressure on disability of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain using Roland Morris Disability questionnaire. ... VOP was then administered to each patient twice in a week for 6 weeks making 12 treatment sessions. Pain intensity and disability were assessed regularly every week of ...

  2. Low back pain among patients attending rheumatology clinic in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, causes of back pain include osteoarthritis (spondylosis), disc degeneration, osteoporotic fracture, and non-specific low back pain. Objective: To determine the pattern of low back pain among the people living in the South West Nigeria. Design: Prospective study. Methods: All the patients that presented with low ...

  3. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated

  4. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    Exercise therapy is the most widely used type of conservative treatment for low back pain. Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. During the past 5 years, many additional trials have been published on chronic low back pain. This

  5. Occupational low back load assessment using a video analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bonger, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been performed on associations of physical exposures (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) with low back pain (LBP). However, information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP is lacking. Cumulative low back load is significantly

  6. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory fitness of Nigerians with Low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of Nigerians with low back pain (LBP) and apparently healthy counterparts. A total of Seventy (70) subjects participated in the study; 35 of them were low back pain patients, while the remaining 35 were apparently healthy adults. For low back pain ...

  7. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disability and absenteeism from work. Routine imaging is not required when making a diagnosis of non-specific or simple low back pain. A comprehensive history and physical examination usually suffice. This contrasts with back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis, or back pain associated with serious ...

  8. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology....... An open-switch fault in the NPC rectifier of the back-to-back converter leads to the distortion of the input current and torque vibration in the system. Additionally, an open-switch fault in the NPC inverter of the back-to-back converter causes the distortion of the output current. Furthermore, the WTG...... system can break down in the worst case scenario. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method for back-to-back converters using the NPC topology is required. This study analyzes effects of inner and outer open-switch faults of the NPC rectifier and inverter...

  9. Effects of back warming in cocoon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnison, J.R.; Williams, I.P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that dust shells frequently surround young stars, and attempts have been made to determine some of the properties of these shells. It is probable that the dust absorbs the outgoing radiation from the star and re-emits it in the infrared. If the dust shell does absorb radiation both its inner and outer surfaces will re-emit a certain proportion and some radiation will return to the central star, causing what amounts to 'warming of its own back'. It is interesting to consider how such a star evolves, compared with evolution of a normal pre-main-sequence star. A model for a contracting star that is receiving radiation from an external source has been developed by the authors in connection with the evolution of Jupiter within the radiation field of the Sun (Astrophys. Space Sci., 29:387 (1974)), and this model is here applied to the situation just described. It is emphasised that the discussion is concerned only with the evolution of the central star, the dust being regarded merely as a means of redirecting radiation back on to the surface of this star. Amongst conclusions reached is that a thin shell will cause no significant change in the structure and evolution of the central star, whilst the presence of a thick shell has a substantial effect on the star, slowing down is evolution. Whilst a dust shell is present the star cannot be seen, but only the dust shell emitting in the infrared, but once the dust shell clears the star is seen in a position and with an age that differs considerably from what it would have had if it had evolved without 'back warming' from the dust shell. (U.K.)

  10. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  11. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, B.; Hendricks, O.; Horslev-Petersen, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inflammatory back pain (IBP) characteristics and analyse the discriminative value of IBP relative to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. METHOD: Patients who had low back pain...... the pain characteristics included in the Calin, Berlin, and ASAS IBP definitions. RESULTS: Of the 759 included patients, 99% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98-100] had at least one IBP characteristic. The prevalence of the single IBP characteristics ranged from 10% (95% CI 7-12) for 'pain worst...... value was low, as IBP could not differentiate patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria from patients with other causes of back pain....

  12. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  13. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  14. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  15. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  16. Back to the Future of Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Our students are like beacons, a bright light on the horizon, but with some way to go. Our educational methods that bring them safely into harbour have seen the test of time, but do we allow them enough freedom and creativity to sail their boats in the climate change of the digital era? Our students are chosen because they are smart and capable and we hope will bring credit to our institutions, but do we maximize their potential educationally? We need to go back to the future to begin to consider this. PMID:27688345

  17. Effect of wafer bow on electrostatic chucking and back side gas cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Daniel L.

    2008-12-01

    Electrostatic chucks (ESCs) are used in the semiconductor industry to clamp wafers to a pedestal and combined with back side gas (BSG) cooling to control temperature during processing. The effect of wafer bow in an ESC/BSG system is studied theoretically and experimentally. An equilibrium model is developed that predicts the maximum allowed bow for initial chucking and the maximum BSG pressure once the wafer is chucked. Experimental chucking and BSG pressure data show the maximum initial bow that can be chucked agree with model predictions. Hysteresis in pressure versus flow data is also consistent with the model. The model does not predict some features of thin wafers with highly stressed films. However, deviations between the model and data in this nonlinear regime are expected. By combining the theory with the experimental data, a method to determine a safe BSG/ESC operating range is given.

  18. Excruciating Low Back Pain After Strenuous Exertion: Beware of Lumbar Paraspinal Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbrabant, Peter; Moke, Lieven; Meersseman, Wouter; Vanderschueren, Geert; Knockaert, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Low back pain is extremely common and usually a minor self-limiting condition. Rarely, however, it is a harbinger of serious medical illness. Paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, but its timely recognition is important to allow adequate treatment. A 16-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with severe low back pain, necessitating intravenous opioids. Laboratory results showed severe rhabdomyolysis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine showed diffuse edema and swelling in the paraspinal muscles. Aggressive fluid therapy was started but despite narcotic analgesia the pain persisted and creatine kinase (CK) levels increased. Compartment pressures of the erector spinae were found to be increased. The decision was made to proceed with bilateral paraspinal fasciotomies. Postoperatively, the patient noted immediate pain relief with rapid decrease of CK level. The patient is pain free and resumed running and swimming 3 months after admission in the ED. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although paraspinal compartment syndrome is a rare condition, its recognition is of paramount importance to allow adequate surgical treatment, preventing muscle necrosis. Although back pain most often has a benign course, a careful history and physical examination in patients presenting with low back pain allows determination of "red flags." Mandatory further diagnostic tests can identify underlying serious illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Low Back and Neck Pain and Disability of Interns at Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata Emel Taşvuran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tasks, high force, direct pressure, and awkward joint and prolonged constrained posture are cited as prime risk factors, making particularly younger adult physiotherapists vulnerable to musculoskeletal injury. Fourth-grade students (interns perform clinical practice at Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital. They apply hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, robotic therapy, virtual reality therapy and exercise therapy to patients (inpatient and outpatient at both orthopaedic and neurology units approximately twelve months. Because we think they are under the risk of low back and neck disorders therefore aim of the present study is to evaluate recent low back and neck pain and disability of them. 50.6% participants had recent low back pain; 52.9% participants reported mild and moderate low back disability. 21.8% participants had recent neck pain; 16% participants showed mild, moderate and severe neck disability. The difference between units related to low back and neck pain or disability wasn’t significant statistically (p>0.05. Most participants announced that they used the body biomechanics correctly (84.1% and took care of ergonomic conditions (91.5%. In conclusion, it is vital to identify prevalence of low back and neck pain among physiotherapy students and take necessary precautions to prevent further problems.

  20. [Low back pain and degenerative disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Slavica; Antić, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a) lumbalgia and b) lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required.

  1. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  2. Cholelithiasis presented as chronic right back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Bobé-Armant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report presented with chronic right back pain, which is an atypical manifestation of biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. It is important to know about the atypical manifestations of the prevalent illnesses as well as the limits of the diagnostic tests, in order to avoid diagnostic delays which may cause complications that could worsen a patient′s prognosis. This case should contribute to the medical knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice, especially in primary care.

  3. Low-back pain in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Christopher M

    2004-02-01

    While most occurrences of low-back pain in athletes are self-limited sprains or strains, persistent, chronic, or recurrent symptoms are frequently associated with degenerative lumbar disc disease or spondylolytic stress lesions. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of disc degeneration is higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes; however, it remains unclear whether this correlates with a higher rate of back pain. Although there is little peer-reviewed clinical information on the subject, it is possible that chronic pain from degenerative disc disease that is recalcitrant after intensive and continuous nonoperative care can be successfully treated with interbody fusion in selected athletes. In general, the prevalence of spondylolysis is not higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes, although participation in sports involving repetitive hyperextension maneuvers, such as gymnastics, wrestling, and diving, appears to be associated with disproportionately higher rates of spondylolysis. Nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis results in successful pain relief in approximately 80% of athletes, independent of radiographic evidence of defect healing. In recalcitrant cases, direct surgical repair of the pars interarticularis with internal fixation and bone-grafting can yield high rates of pain relief in competitive athletes and allow a high percentage to return to play. Sacral stress fractures occur almost exclusively in individuals participating in high-level running sports, such as track or marathon. Treatment includes a brief period of limited weight-bearing followed by progressive mobilization, physical therapy, and return to sports in one to two months, when the pain has resolved.

  4. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  5. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  6. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  7. Scintillation investigation of the straight back syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, M.; Serro Azul, L.G.; Kedor, H-H.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Mignone, C.A.; Carvalho, N. de

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphic study of the lungs was undertaken in 17 patients with the straight back syndrome divided in three groups: I. mild form; II. moderate form and III. severe form. The results showed that: a) there is a decreased flow through the pulmonary arteries; b) bilateral morphological alterations are most common (64.6%); c) the compression of the chest cause an increased cardiac silhouette in groups II (22.2%) and III (50%) besides widening of the mediastinum in all groups (25%, 44.4% and 75%, respectively); d. functional restriction is moderate in 61.5% and severe in 38.4% of the patients in the first two groups; in group III, moderate restriction is observed in 75% of the patients and severe restriction in 25%. Results indicate that the alterations observed in the scintigraphic study of the strainght back syndrome are caused by the effects of the deformed chest on the arterial perfusion of the lung. However, the severity of the anomaly and the decrease in the pulmonary circulation could not be correlated statistically [pt

  8. A hip abduction exercise prior to prolonged standing increased movement while reducing cocontraction and low back pain perception in those initially reporting low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiani, Daniel; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-12-01

    Persons who develop low back pain from prolonged standing exhibit increased muscle cocontraction, decreased movement and increased spine extension. However, it is unclear how these factors relate to pain development. The purpose of this study was to use hip abductor fatigue to manipulate muscle activity patterns and determine its effects on standing behaviours and pain development. Forty participants stood for two hours twice, once following a hip abductor fatigue exercise (fatigue), and once without exercise beforehand (control). Trunk and gluteal muscle activity were measured to determine cocontraction. Lumbo-pelvic angles and force plates were used to assess posture and movement strategies. Visual analog scales differentiated pain (PDs) and non-pain developers (NPDs). PDs reported less low back pain during the fatigue session, with females having earlier reductions of similar scale than males. The fatigue session reduced gluteal and trunk cocontraction and increased centre of pressure movement; male and female PDs had opposing spine posture compensations. Muscle fatigue prior to standing reduced cocontraction, increased movement during standing and reduced the low back pain developed by PDs; the timing of pain reductions depended on spine postures adopted during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NFP Investor Conference. Growth is back in sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, Richard

    2002-06-01

    In a whirlwind of high-stakes meetings in New York City in mid-May, two dozen of the nation's largest hospitals and health systems strutted their stuff with a single goal: securing their future. Their message was clear: back-to-basics works, and now it's time to grow the business. Executives from 23 providers outlined their work on increasing revenue, boosting margins and shoring up balance sheets. They presented their market positions, strategic initiatives and financial results for investment analysts, credit raters and bond traders. The third annual Non-Profit Healthcare Investor Conference was co-sponsored by the American Hospital Association, Health Forum, the Healthcare Financial Management Association and Salomon Smith Barney. The focus on growth doesn't come without challenges Several common themes emerged from the presentations, among them pressure on reimbursement, workforce shortages, liability insurance issues and capacity constraints. Yet executives agree: it all comes down to the basics, and building the strength to keep their missions alive. As Thomas Meier, vice president and treasurer of Oakland, Calif.-based Kaiser Permanente, put it: "No margin, no mission, no más."

  10. Low back pain and everyday activities : the influence of axial rotation on low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L.J.M. van Deursen (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLow back pain (LBP) is a major problem in the industrialized world. The aetiology of LBP is multicausal: heavy physical workload, sedentary work, whole body vibration, smoking, as well as minimal influence over work conditions, poor social relations and psychological factors all play

  11. Ring-Constraint High-Pressure Torsion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a constraint ring around a workpiece was employed in order to develop back pressure in addition to a compressive die pressure in high-pressure torsion (HPT) process. The influence of the constraint ring during the HPT process was analyzed using the finite element method and experimental analyses. Greater back pressure was developed when a ring of a stronger material enveloped the workpiece. In the experiments, fracture of a brittle material [ e.g., La-based bulk metallic glass (BMG)], was limited even at large shear strain (~315) during the ring-constraint HPT (RC-HPT) process due to reduced tensile stress at the edge of the deforming BMG workpiece. Furthermore, the RC-HPT process had beneficial effects on powder consolidation and bonding. The RC-HPT process exhibited smaller loss of material than did the conventional semi-constrained HPT process. The Cu disk produced by the powder RC-HPT had smaller grain sizes because back pressure generated more dislocations and finer grain size in the Cu workpiece.

  12. The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for high back pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.M.; Pak, H.Y. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    The application of hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures in a hermetic reciprocating compressor for dehumidifier is investigated. The selected refrigerants are R12, R134a, HC-Blend(R290/R600a), CX(R152a/R600a) and OS-12a. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have been performed for the selected refrigerants. The test results of hydrocarbon refrigerants have been compared to traditional refrigerant(R12) and R134a. The results show that hydrocarbon refrigerant mixtures(HC-Blend, CX and OS-12a) are very good alternatives in the refrigeration system for R12 and R134a. 11 refs., 3 fig., 12 tabs.

  13. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Gi Duck

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720, Biospace, Korea), which utilizes bioelectrical impedance analysis. Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment [Isomed 2000, Back system, (Germany)], peak torque/body weight, total work and average power of flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. For lumbar stabilization exercises, an air cushion (Germany), jumper (Germany), and aero step (Germany) were employed. First, warm-up exercise was conducted for 10 minutes, followed by 10 sets of the 3 main exercises using the above tools with 10-second rest intervals. The main exercise was done for 40 minutes in total. [Results] The paired sample t-test showed significant in the Togu exercise group peak torque of flexion, peak torque of extension, total work of flexion, total work of extension, average power of flexion, average power of extension, after the exercise showed a significant difference in the Togu exercise group. [Conclusion] The trunk muscle actiation program for middle-aged women had a significant effect on muscle strength and low back pain. Therefore the trunk muscle activation program is effective at increasing muscular strength of middle-aged women, and the results suggest improve muscle strength is effectively stabilizaties the lumbar region.

  14. Effect of dynamic muscular stabilization technique on low back pain of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suraj; Sharma, Vijai P; Aggarwal, Anoop; Shukla, Rakesh; Dev, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) has multi-factorial origin and its treatment varies considerably. Multidisciplinary pain programs have shown their effectiveness in the management of LBP but it is not documented whether subjects with difference in chronicity (duration) of pain will respond differently to these regimes. Dynamic muscular stabilization technique (DMST) is an active approach of stabilizing training for lumbar area which involves the training for the co-contraction of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles. This study determines the efficacy of Dynamic Muscular Stabilization Technique (DMST) in LBP of different durations. Follow-up, comparative study. Physical medicine and rehabilitation department (PMR) of university. Total 72 patients were categorized in 5 groups on the basis of duration (chronicity) of their low back pain. The documentation of chronicity was done on the basis of subjective questionnaire. All subjects were treated with DMST. Pain was the primary outcome measure while physical strength (back pressure change: BPC, abdominal pressure changes: APC), physical ability (walking, stair climbing, stand ups) and quality of life (QOL) were the secondary. Variables were assessed at baseline (day 0), 3 months (day 90) and at the end of the follow up (day 180). Variables (Pain, BPC, APC, Walking, Stair climbing, Stand ups and QOL) significantly improved on 90th and 180th day while compared to the baseline. Therefore irrespective of the chronicity of pain, all chronic pain patients will respond positively to the DMST treatment. This study concludes that DMST intervention is an effective rehabilitation technique for all chronic low back pain patients irrespective of the duration (chronicity) of their pain.

  15. A COMPARITIVE STUDY TO KNOW THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRONE BACK EXTENSION EXRECISES AND SWISS BALL EXERCISES ON BACK EXTENSOR MUSCLES PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Subhanjan Das; C. K. Senthil Kumar; Abhijit Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endurance of the back muscles is important for stability of the trunk and therefore essential for normal functioning of an individual. Prone back extension exercises are traditional measures to improve back endurance. More recently Swiss ball exercises have become popular as a means to improve back endurance. Purpose of this study is to compare Prone back extension exercises with back extension exercise on Swiss ball on the improvement of the back extensor muscles performance, and...

  16. Surface electromyography assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Gravel, Denis; Gagnon, Denis; Loisel, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the reliability and (2) the sensitivity to low back pain status and gender of different EMG indices developed for the assessment of back muscle weakness, muscle fiber composition and fatigability. Healthy subjects (men and women) and chronic low back pain patients (men only) performed, in a static dynamometer, maximal and submaximal static trunk extension tasks (short and long duration) to assess weakness, fiber composition and fatigue. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four (bilateral) pairs of back muscles and three pairs of abdominal muscles. To assess reliability of the different EMG parameters, 40 male volunteers (20 controls and 20 chronic low back pain patients) were assessed on three occasions. Reliable EMG indices were achieved for both healthy and chronic low back pain subjects when specific measurement strategies were applied. The EMG parameters used to quantify weakness and fiber composition were insensitive to low back status and gender. The EMG fatigue parameters did not detect differences between genders but unexpectedly, healthy men showed higher fatigability than back pain patients. This result was attributed to the smaller absolute load that was attributed to the patients, a load that was defined relative to their maximal strength, a problematic measure with this population. An attempt was made to predict maximal back strength from anthropometric measurements but this prediction was prone to errors. The main difficulties and some potential solutions related to the assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties were discussed.

  17. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. From vaccines to memory and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Araki, Koichi; Ahmed, Rafi

    2010-10-29

    Vaccines work by eliciting an immune response and consequent immunological memory that mediates protection from infection or disease. Recently, new methods have been developed to dissect the immune response in experimental animals and humans, which have led to increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control differentiation and maintenance of memory T and B cells. In this review we will provide an overview of the cellular organization of immune memory and underline some of the outstanding questions on immunological memory and how they pertain to vaccination strategies. Finally we will discuss how we can learn about antigen design from the interrogation of our memory T and B cells-a journey from vaccines to memory and back. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Getting Context Back in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Bucciarelli, Louis

    2013-01-01

    and it is in fact counterproductive to let tight disciplinary framings- and strict 'object world' perspectives - be the only avenue to 'problem solving'. By introducing cases from engineering and scientific practice we will illustrate how the perspectives of the Humanities and Social Sciences can be brought to bear......History reveals a number academically inclined engineers and others who have found engineering education lacking. The critics support their claim with diverse arguments and propose different reform initiatives (Buch 2012). Though the motivation varies the critics seems to agree on broadening...... engineering education. In this paper we will discuss issues of curriculum, pedagogics and - most importantly learning - in engineering education. We tend to agree with the critics that there is a need to broaden engineering education. We also suggest that this broadening of the curriculum should be backed up...

  20. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Psyc......INFO, PubMed, Web of Science, AMED, and Academic Search Premier) for the period from January 1, 1966, to April 30, 2015, in English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish languages. STUDY SELECTION: Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, or randomized controlled trials assessing psychological distress....... CONCLUSIONS: Based on the high consistency across studies using valid measures with a low to moderate risk of bias, there is strong evidence that psychological distress is elevated in acute LBP....

  1. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  2. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson's chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out...

  3. Procedure and apparatus for back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    (1) The procedure is for back projection in the form of a tomographic picture of a member, characterised in that the strip pictures are written onto the signal plate by a conversion pick-up unit; and that to the address inputs of the pick-up unit voltages are applied that represent a rotating coordinate system. (2) Procedure following claim 1 characterised by the fact that the voltages are respectively applied as sawtooth waveform horizontal and vertical television deflections. (3) Procedure following claims 1 and 2, characterised that in order to correct the television deflection voltages for the effect of a fan shaped radiation beam, first one and then the other of the amplitudes is modulated. (G.C.)

  4. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  5. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  6. Patient transfers and risk of back injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2017-01-01

    which type of assistive devices most efficiently prevent LBP, exposure assessments using technological advancements allow for quantification of muscle load and body positions during common work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to quantify low back and neck/shoulder muscle load...... in Danish nurses during patient transfers performed with different types of assistive devices, and (2) to combine the exposure profile for each type of assistive device with fortnightly questionnaires to identify the importance of muscle load (intensity and frequency of transfers) and body position (degree...... will be comprised of surface electromyography and accelerometers, with the aim of quantifying muscle load and body positions during various patient transfers, including different types of assistive devices throughout a workday. The study will thereby gather measurements during real-life working conditions...

  7. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  8. The hyperfine Paschen–Back Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentile, Mark A; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G; Knappe, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the 10 −4 level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilization at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for 87 Rb is found to be ∼40 kHz °C −1 . (paper)

  9. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Document Server

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  10. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful research method that potentially allows identification of the mechanisms through which treatments affect patient outcomes. This chapter reviews the theoretical framework, research designs and statistical approaches used in mediation analysis. It describes what can...... be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...... evidence about the role of some psychological factors as potential treatment mediators, such as self-efficacy and catastrophising. Mediation analysis can equally be applied to non-psychological factors. Pre-planned and appropriately conducted mediation analysis in adequately powered clinical trials would...

  11. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models......Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... extent expectations were associated with empirical prognostic factors.Summary of Background Data. Patients' recovery expectations have been associated with prognosis, but it is largely unknown why patients expect what they do, and how expectations relate to other prognostic factors.Methods. 1169...

  12. Reproducibility of postural control measurement during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duquet William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control tests like standing and sitting stabilometry are widely used to evaluate neuromuscular control related to trunk balance in low back pain patients. Chronic low back pain patients have lesser postural control compared to healthy subjects. Few studies have assessed the reproducibility of the centre of pressure deviations and to our knowledge no studies have investigated the reproducibility of three-dimensional kinematics of postural control tests in a low back pain population. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reproducibility of a seated postural control test in low back pain patients. Methods Postural control in low back pain patients was registered by a three dimensional motion analysis system combined with a force plate. Sixteen chronic low back pain patients having complaints for at least six months, were included based on specific clinical criteria. Every subject performed 4 postural control tests. Every test was repeated 4 times and lasted 40 seconds. The force plate registered the deviations of the centre of pressure. A Vicon-612-datastation, equipped with 7 infra-red M1 camera's, was used to track 13 markers attached to the torso and pelvis in order to estimate their angular displacement in the 3 cardinal planes. Results All Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC calculated for the force plate variables did not exceed 0.73 (ranging between 0.11 and 0.73. As for the torso, ICC's of the mean flexion-extension and rotation angles ranged from 0.65 to 0.93 and of the mean lateral flexion angle from 0.50 to 0.67. For the pelvis the ICC of the mean flexion-extension angle varied between 0.66 and 0.83, the mean lateral flexion angle between 0.16 and 0.81 and the mean rotation angle between 0.40 and 0.62. Consecutive data suggest that the low test-retest reproducibility is probably due to a learning effect. Conclusion The test-retest reproducibility of these postural control tests in

  13. Cyclic Sciatica and Back Pain Responds to Treatment of Underlying Endometriosis: Case Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Jaya; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Jenkins, Arthur L

    2017-01-01

    Multiple causes outside the spine can mimic spinal back pain. Endometriosis is an important gynecologic disorder, which commonly affects the lower region of the female pelvis and less frequently the spine and soft tissues. The lumbosacral trunk is vulnerable to pressure from any abdominal mass originating from the uterus and the ovaries. Therefore symptoms of endometriosis include severe reoccurring pain in the pelvic area as well as lower back and abdominal pain. We report on a 39-year-old gymnast with cyclic sciatica and back pain, whose initial presentation initially led to a spinal fusion at L4/5 and L5/S1, but that procedure did not change her symptoms. Her diagnosis of endometriosis was not made until 2 years after her spinal fusion. Ultimately, once diagnosed with endometriosis of the retroperitoneal spinal and neural elements, her back and leg pain responded completely to hormonal therapy and then to a hysterectomy and a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Because her true diagnosis of endometriosis was unknown and she had some degenerative changes in her spine, she underwent a spinal fusion that would probably not have been done if the diagnosis of endometriosis had been suggested. It is critical for any clinician who deals with back pain to at least consider the diagnosis of endometriosis in female patients who have a history of pelvic pain. The diagnosis of endometriosis should be considered in candidate patients by asking whether there is a significant hormonal cyclic nature to the symptoms, to prevent such unnecessary surgical adventures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Verification of aspheric contact lens back surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J; Douthwaite, William A

    2003-08-01

    To suggest a tolerance level for the degree of asphericity of aspheric rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and to find a simple method for its verification. Using existing tolerances for the vertex radius, tolerance limits for eccentricity and p values and were calculated. A keratometer-based method and a method based on sag measurements were used to measure the vertex radius and eccentricity of eight concave progressively aspheric surfaces and six concave ellipsoidal surfaces. The results were compared with a gold standard measurement made using a high-precision mechanical instrument (Form Talysurf). The suggested tolerance for eccentricity and p value and is +/-0.05. The keratometer method was very accurate and precise at measuring the vertex radius (mean deviation +/- SD from Talysurf results, -0.002 +/- 0.008 mm). The keratometer was more precise than and similar in accuracy to the sag method for measurement of asphericity (mean deviation of keratometer method results from Talysurf results, 0.017 +/- 0.018; mean deviation of sag method results from Talysurf results using five semichords, -0.016 +/- 0.032). Neither method was precise enough to verify the asphericity within the suggested tolerance. The keratometer can be efficiently used to verify the back vertex radius within its International Organization for Standardization tolerance and the back surface asphericity within an eccentricity/p value tolerance of +/-0.1. The method is poor for progressive aspheres with large edge blending zones. Deriving the eccentricity from sag measurements is a potential alternative if the mathematical description of the surface is known. The limiting factor of this method is the accuracy and precision of individual sag measurements.

  15. Methods to measure peripheral and central sensitization using quantitative sensory testing: A focus on individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Angela R; Heineman, Amy; Storey, Shannon; Rubia, Gil; Lyon, Debra E; Greenspan, Joel; Dorsey, Susan G

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative sensory testing can be used to assess peripheral and central sensitization; important factors that contribute to the individual's experience of pain and disability. Many studies use quantitative sensory testing in patients with low back pain to detect alterations in pain sensitivity, however, because investigators employ different protocols, interpretation of findings across studies can become problematic. The purpose of this article is to propose a standardized method of testing peripheral and central pain sensitization in patients with low back pain. Video clips are provided to demonstrate correct procedures for measuring the response to experimental pain using mechanical, thermal and pressure modalities. As nurse researchers and clinicians increase utilization of quantitative sensory testing to examine pain phenotypes, it is anticipated that more personalized methods for monitoring the trajectory of low back pain and response to treatment will improve outcomes for this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Combination of taping with Back School in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Tana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 70-85% of the general population suffers from back pain. Back School programs have being effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Taping may be useful in reducing pain and normalizing muscle function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of taping with Back School at short- and long-term. Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial. The experimental group used tape and made Back Scholl and the control group only made Back School. At the beginning and the end of treatment, pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, the flexibility determined with the Modified Finger Tip-to-Floor Test and functionality was calculated with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Depression was recorded with the Depression Beck Inventory just at the beginning. Results: 220 patients were enrolled, only 42 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group completed the treatment. The variation of pain between the first and the fifth session showed no differences between groups regardless of time (p = 0.329. There were no differences between groups in functionality (p = 0.75, flexibility (p = 0.20 and depression. Conclusion: The combination of taping and Back School compared with only Back School was not more effective in reducing pain, increasing functionality and flexibility in patients with chronic low back pain. Key words: Taping; chronic low back pain; spine school; therapy exercises; flexibility; depression.

  17. Compound Half-Backed Weave Design For Digital Jacquard Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Based on layered-combination design mode and compound structure, this paper presents a design method, named compound half-backed weave in order to achieve innovating weave structure and surface effect of fabric. This design method includes primary weaves chosen, half-backed technical points set up and half-backed weave databases established. The fabric produced using compound half-backed weave designed by this method can exhibit a unique half-backed effect that only half of the threads on the fabric surface remain in a state of being covered by adjacent wefts. Compound half-backed weave can not only meets the design need of jacquard fabric with different digital images and effectively improves the efficiency of structural design, but also puts forward new theory and method for innovative design of digital jacquard fabric.

  18. Low back pain in an urban population in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, Folashade O

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain in an urban community. A house-to-house enquiry was conducted using a questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. Four hundred and seventy-four respondents, 271 men (57%) and 203 women (43%) participated in the study. The 12-month prevalence of low back pain was 44%, while the point prevalence was 39%. Back pain was more prevalent among men (49%) than women (39%). It was also associated with a history of trauma and low educational status. The prevalence of back pain was highest among farmers (85%) and lowest among housewives (32%). The prevalence of low back pain in this community is comparable to levels recorded in industrialized countries. However, in this study low back pain did not feature as a main cause of morbidity, accounting for a mean of 3 days off work per person per year.

  19. [Descriptive epidemiology of low-back pain in Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A

    1992-02-01

    A survey by polling of households was undertaken in Algiers with the aim of measuring the incidence of ordinary low back pain and to assess its consequences from the standpoint of the handicap caused. 1,301 households were polled, i.e. 6,956 individuals aged 15 and over in whom the existence of low back pain was sought by questioning. The overall incidence rate of low back pain was 90.9 per thousand. The incidence of low back pain increased markedly with age, exceeding 250 per thousand in women aged 50 to 59. There was no significant difference in incidence between different socio-occupational groups. Almost 45% of cases of low back pain had been present for more than 5 years. More than 90% of low back pain sufferers were totally independent. The proportion of severe handicaps, partially possibly due to the advanced age of the individuals concerned, was relatively low.

  20. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  1. The Scope of Back Pain in Navy Helicopter Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Stigma on Pilots with Back and/or Neck Pain ....... 36  6.  Include Chiropractic Care and Message Therapy for Pilots...provides their suggestions regarding flight gear. 5. Reduce Stigma on Pilots with Back and/or Neck Pain Reduce the stigma of pilots going to see the...that the back pain just usually fatigues both myself and my co-pilot more quickly and that is what usually causes the break down in SA. I had to abort

  2. Low blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low blood pressure can usually be treated with success. Possible Complications Falls due to low blood pressure ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  3. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  4. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  5. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  7. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  8. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunosuppressant medicines Anxiety, depression and mental health Kidney rejection Lifestyle changes Donate a kidney Being a living ... take a blood pressure medicine. There are many types of blood pressure medicine and you may need to take ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be ... play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure sores among ...

  13. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  14. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... blood vessel of the kidney) In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  15. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Feb 19,2018 What do your ... this chart: English | Spanish | Traditional Chinese Enter Your Blood Pressure Systolic mm Hg (upper #) Diastolic mm Hg (lower #) ...

  16. Blueshifting the onset of optical UV absorption for water under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Andreas; Schwerdtfeger, Peter

    2011-05-06

    First-principles calculations show that the optical UV absorption onset of solid water is blueshifted with increasing pressure. Across several crystal structures and a wide pressure range, the optical gap increases almost linearly with external pressure, making solid water more transparent. The origin of this unusual effect can be traced back to an increased Stark shift caused by water's electrostatic environment at smaller volumes.

  17. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  18. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  19. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y; Yokota, S; Ono, F

    2012-01-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  20. Germination of vegetable seeds exposed to very high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Y.; Yokota, S.; Ono, F.

    2012-07-01

    Effects of high hydrostatic pressure were investigated on vegetable seeds in the GPa range to examine the potentialities of breed improvement by high-pressure processing. Specimens of several seeds of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), Turnip leaf (Brassica rapa var. perviridis) and Potherb Mustard (Brassica rapa var. nipposinica) were put in a teflon capsule with liquid high pressure medium, fluorinate, and inserted into a pyrophillite cube. By using a cubic anvil press a hydrostatic pressure of 5.5 GP a was applied to these seeds for 15 minutes. After being brought back to ambient pressure, they were seeded on humid soil in a plant pot. Many of these vegetable seeds began to germinate within 6 days after seeded.

  1. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  2. PRESSURE SYSTEM CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, W.H.; Kaplan, G.M.

    1961-06-20

    The control of pressure in pressurized liquid systems, especially a pressurized liquid reactor system, may be achieved by providing a bias circuit or loop across a closed loop having a flow restriction means in the form of an orifice, a storage tank, and a pump connected in series. The subject invention is advantageously utilized where control of a reactor can be achieved by response to the temperature and pressure of the primary cooling system.

  3. Tunable high pressure lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy CO2 lasers is considerably improved by high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening, permits tuning the laser lines off atmospheric absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. Applications of tunable high pressure CO2 lasers to energy transmission and to remote sensing are discussed along with initial efforts in tuning high pressure CO2 lasers.

  4. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated in the vast majority of all episodes. Yet, there is ample evidence that the symptom of back pain is recurrent, with one-year recurrence rates reported of more than 60%. In many industrial populatio...

  5. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  6. Fluorinated tin oxide back contact for AZTSSe photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Gunawan, Oki; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2017-03-28

    A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact comprising a stable low-work function material, a photovoltaic absorber material layer comprising Ag.sub.2ZnSn(S,Se).sub.4 (AZTSSe) on a side of the back contact opposite the substrate, wherein the back contact forms an Ohmic contact with the photovoltaic absorber material layer, a buffer layer or Schottky contact layer on a side of the absorber layer opposite the back contact, and a top electrode on a side of the buffer layer opposite the absorber layer.

  7. Low back pain in women before and after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Kozinoga, Mateusz; Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to “menopausal status, back pain”, 35 studies were found. Se...

  8. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, K

    1994-01-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain can present a treatment dilemma for the family physician. Low back pain is one of the most common symptoms bringing patients to physicians. Despite its high prevalence, low back pain is often difficult to treat. In most patients, the pain cannot be pinpointed at a specific anatomic lesion, and plain radiographs, computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging studies are not useful. While most people with low back pain improve regardless of the type of intervention, some evidence shows that McKenzie exercises, manipulation and injection therapy are helpful for patients who do not recover spontaneously.

  9. Predicting low back pain outcome following rehabilitation for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew J; Dew, Angela; Bridger, Robert; Etherington, John; Kilminster, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are known to play a key role in determining the progress of back pain patients. However, it is not known whether these factors are applicable to military personnel, who tend to be fitter than the general population. The aim was to identify physical and psychological predictors in a prospective study of the outcome of back pain rehabilitation over 6 months and a longer follow-up time of between 15 and 32 months. Two hundred and fifty military personnel reporting for a residential rehabilitation programme completed a battery of physical and psychological tests. The physical tests included 800 m run time and the Biering-Sorensen test. The psychological/psychosocial measures included items on fear avoidance, self efficacy, anxiety and depression and occupational psychosocial factors such as job satisfaction. Self efficacy and 800 m run time predicted self-reported functional ability at 6 months and medical discharge/return to full fitness at 15–32 months. Patients with 800 m run times of more than 3 minutes 31 seconds had a four times greater chance of medical discharge from the Armed forces. Eight hundred metre run time and self-efficacy were independent predictors of both self-reported functional ability at 6 months and return to full fitness/medical discharge at 15–32 months. Self-efficacy also predicted 40% of the variance in the intensity of back pain and 10% of other non-back pain. Rehabilitation should include greater emphasis on physical fitness and on improving self-efficacy.

  10. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  11. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  12. Exchange market pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, H.; Klaassen, F.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Currencies can be under severe pressure in the foreign exchange market, but in a fixed (or managed) exchange rate regime that is not fully visible via the change in the exchange rate. Exchange market pressure (EMP) is a concept developed to nevertheless measure the pressure in such cases. This

  13. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a pressure sore? play_arrow What are the causes of pressure sores in people with spinal cord injuries? play_arrow Why are pressure sores so serious? play_arrow What is "sepsis," and why is it dangerous? play_arrow How ...

  14. Positive airway pressure treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and depression and a better mood Normal sleep patterns Lower blood pressure (in people with high blood pressure) Your health care provider will prescribe the type of PAP machine that ... patterns. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP or BIPAP) has ...

  15. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on blood pressure. Finding out what genetic patterns contribute to high blood pressure risk. NHLBI-funded researchers identified dozens of ... whether a low-sodium and low-calorie eating pattern, along with aerobic exercise, can improve blood pressure in patients who do not respond to ...

  16. Conditioned pain modulation in patients with nonspecific chronic back pain with chronic local pain, chronic widespread pain, and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2017-03-01

    Findings considering conditioned pain modulation (CPM) in chronic back pain (CBP) are contradictory. This might be because many patients with CBP report pain in further areas of the body, and altered CPM might influence spatial extent of pain rather than CBP per se. Therefore, we compared CPM in patients with CBP with different pain extent. Patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), for whom CPM impairment is reported most consistently, were measured for comparison. Based on clinical evaluation and pain drawings, patients were categorized into chronic local back pain (CLP; n = 53), chronic widespread back pain (CWP; n = 32), and FMS (n = 92). Conditioned pain modulation was measured by the difference in pressure pain threshold (test stimuli) at the lower back before and after tonic heat pain (conditioning stimulus). We also measured psychosocial variables. Pressure pain threshold was significantly increased in CLP patients after tonic heat pain (P pain modulation in CLP was significantly higher than that in CWP and FMS (P painful areas (0-10) were associated with lower CPM (r = 0.346, P = 0.001) in CBP but not in FMS (r = -0.013, P = 0.903). Anxiety and depression were more pronounced in FMS than in CLP or CWP (P values pain inhibition seem to be more indicated the higher the pain extent.

  17. Vertebroplasty in the treatment of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Mario; Muto, Emanuale; Izzo, Roberto; Diano, Alvaro Antonio; Lavagna, Arcangelo; Di Furia, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to show the utility of vertebroplasty in the treatment of some types of back pain. Vertebroplasty is a venous embolisation of the vertebral body performed under computed tomography (CT) or fluoroscopy guidance with transpedicular, anterolateral, intercostovertebral or posterolateral approach with acrylic element. Materials and methods: We report our experience in 85 patients suffering from low back and thoracic pain and treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, vertebral haemangiomas or secondary lytic lesions of the spine. Patient selection was performed on the basis of physical examination, magnetic resonance or less frequently, with bone scan. CT has a minor role in selected cases to evaluate the integrity of the posterior wall. We treated 55 patients affected by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, 10 patients with vertebral haemangioma and 20 patients with metastatic lesions. The patients were placed in the prone position and the procedure was performed under fluoroscopy guidance in 80 patients and under CT guidance in 5 patients affected by metastatic lesions. In no case was phlebography performed before the treatment. The approach adopted was bilateral in 45 patients and unilateral in the remaining 30 cases. Injection with a low viscosity cement was performed under fluoroscopy guidance with extreme precision in all cases. The amount of cement injected ranged from 4 ml (thoracic level) up to 12 ml (lumbar level). Results: The results were better for osteoporotic cases (95%) and patients with vertebral haemangioma (90%) than with metastatic lesions (77%), with improvement within 24-72 hours after the treatment. We noted asymptomatic cement leakage in 39 cases but only in 2 cases was there an acute radiculopathy due to epidural cement leakage, which was treated and resolved medically in 1 month. At follow-up no cases were noted of fractures of vertebral bodies

  18. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  19. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilizatio...

  20. Glide back booster wind tunnel model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, M. V.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Stoica, C. I.; Niculescu, M. L.; Neculaescu, A. M.; Persinaru, A. G.; Boscoianu, M.

    2017-07-01

    Affordable space access requires partial or ideally full launch vehicle reuse, which is in line with clean environment requirement. Although the idea is old, the practical use is difficult, requiring very large technology investment for qualification. Rocket gliders like Space Shuttle have been successfullyoperated but the price and correspondingly the energy footprint were found not sustainable. For medium launchers, finally there is a very promising platform as Falcon 9. For very small launchers the situation is more complex, because the performance index (payload to start mass) is already small, versus medium and heavy launchers. For partial reusable micro launchers this index is even smaller. However the challenge has to be taken because it is likely that in a multiyear effort, technology is going to enable the performance recovery to make such a system economically and environmentally feasible. The current paper is devoted to a small unitary glide back booster which is foreseen to be assembled in a number of possible configurations. Although the level of analysis is not deep, the solution is analyzed from the aerodynamic point of view. A wind tunnel model is designed, with an active canard, to enablea more efficient wind tunnel campaign, as a national level premiere.

  1. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  2. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  3. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  4. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  5. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  6. Biomechanical aspects of nonspecific back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Harrianto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common problem in adult life, since despite its benign nature it is commonly associated with incapacity, productivity loss due to sick leave, and correspondingly high costs to the individual worker. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors and work-place exposures have been implicated in the onset of symptoms. Heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting and postural movements, repetitive work, and whole body vibrations are occupational factors associated with LBP. The usual classification of LBP is related to the duration of the complaints (acute, subacute, and chronic. However, these terms fail to take into account several clinically important aspects of the course of LBP, which is frequently recurrent and thus neither acute nor chronic. More realistically, LBP should be classified as specific and nonspecific. Approximately 90% of LBP cases have no identifiable cause and is designated nonspecific LBP. However, despite its high prevalence, the etiology and nature of nonspecific LBP are not yet well understood. Its pathophysiology remains complex and multifaceted. Multiple anatomic structures and elements of the lumbar spine (e.g. bones, ligaments, tendons, discs, and muscles are all suspected of playing a role. Many of these components of the lumbar spine have sensory innervations that can generate nociceptive signals in response to tissue-damaging stimuli. Other causes could be neuropathic (e.g. sciatica. Some cases of LBP most likely involve mixed nociceptive and neuropathic etiologies.

  7. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  8. Pressure (Or No Royal Road)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses how difficult the various problems of pressure, partial pressure, gas laws, and vapor pressure are for students. Outlines the evolution of the concept of pressure, the gas equation for a perfect gas, partial pressures, saturated vapor pressure, Avogadro's hypothesis, Raoult's law, and the vapor pressure of ideal solutions. (JR)

  9. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  10. Pressure locking test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, open-quotes Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.close quotes Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; we will publish the results of our thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions

  11. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  12. Dynamics of Viscous Back-Flow from a Network of Elastic Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Asaf; Zheng, Zhong; Peng, Gunnar G.; Stone, Howard A.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Ramon, Guy Z.

    2017-11-01

    We present a model for investigating the dynamics of back-flows caused by the elastic relaxation of a pre-strained medium. Namely, a model network with n bifurcated channel generations modeled as fluid confined between two rigid plates. The model uses a combination of lubrication theory for the flow and the equations of linear elasticity for the boundaries. The model assumes elastic deformation occurs only in channel aperture while the channel's length remains constant throughout the process. The asymptotic results show good agreement with numerical calculations in early and late times, when the aperture and back-flow rate tend to (-1/3) and (-4/3), respectively. This work presents a case where the pressure gradient along the network is steepest near the outlet while the bulk of the network serves as a `reservoir'. In addition, an asymptotic solution is derived for late times and large n. For a fixed total length, networks with larger n are less efficient at evicting fluids, manifested through a longer time required for evicting a given fractional reduction of the initial volume. The model can be used to investigate the back-flow dynamics of fractured rocks e.g., in hydraulic fracturing operations.

  13. A longitudinal assessment of myoelectric activity, postural sway, and low-back pain during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Luciana S; Elias, Leonardo A; Gomide, Adriane B; Vieira, Marcus F; DO Amaral, Waldemar N

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the control of upright quiet standing in pregnant women throughout pregnancy, and whether low-back pain exerts influence on this motor task. Myoelectric signals from postural muscles and stabilometric data were collected from 15 non-pregnant and 15 pregnant women during upright quiet standing. Electromyogram envelopes and center of pressure metrics were evaluated in the control group, as well as in pregnant women in their first and third trimester of pregnancy. A correlation analysis was performed between the measured variables and a low-back pain disability index. Pregnant women exhibited a decreased maximum voluntary isometric activity for all postural muscles evaluated. Additionally, the activity of lumbar muscles during the postural task was significantly higher in the pregnant women in comparison to the non-pregnant controls. The soleus muscle maintained its activity at the same level as the gestation progressed. Higher postural oscillations were observed in the anteroposterior direction while mediolateral sway was reduced in the third trimester of pregnancy. No correlation was detected between the lowback pain disability index and neuromechanical variables. This study provides additional data regarding the functioning and adaptations of the postural control system during pregnancy. Also, we provide further evidence that postural control during quiet standing cannot be used to predict the occurrence of low-back pain. We hypothesize that the modifications in the neural drive to the muscles, as well as in postural sway may be related to changes in the biomechanics and hormonal levels experienced by the pregnant women.

  14. Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) is based on history, physical findings and im- aging examination such as Computerized Tomography. (CT) scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In pa- tients with recurrent low back pain, reflex sciatica, strik- ing tenderness on spinal processes or ...

  15. Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identification of prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, the diagnostic procedure is obscure. Objective To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for ...

  16. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  17. Atypical back pain in a child: subcutaneous lumbar abscess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight-bear because of back pain and the left arm had become cellulitic from the elbow to the wrist. There was no evidence of a collection on admission, and the child was treated for systemic malaise secondary to chickenpox. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics failed to resolve the child's pyrexia, and his lower back ...

  18. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a desk job can contribute to back pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with ... can take steps to avoid and prevent back pain and injuries at work. For example: Pay attention to posture. When standing, balance your weight evenly on your ...

  19. Frequency Selective Surfaces for extended Bandwidth backing reflector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M.; Neto, A.; Monni, S.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to increase the Efficiency × Bandwidth product in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna arrays whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector is realized in one metal plane solution its location will be

  20. Students' Use of "Look Back" Strategies in Multiple Solution Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between both 9th-grade and 1st-year undergraduate students' use of "look back" strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, the difference in their use of look back strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, and the…

  1. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    204 patients with mechanical back pain were enrolled in the study, after screening all consecutive new adult patients referred with low back pain as the major complaint. A validated modified Oswestry instrument was used to collect data. Nine daily activities: sleep, sex, lifting, traveling, social and recreational activities, ...

  2. Atypical back pain in a child: subcutaneous lumbar abscess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potentially life-threatening musculoskeletal complications. We discuss the extremely unusual case of a child with an extensive subcutaneous lumbar abcess who presented with severe back pain associated with active chickenpox infection. Keywords: abscess, back pain, chickenpox, group A β-haemolytic streptococcus, ...

  3. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of ...

  4. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, ...

  5. Ethics and Epistemology: Giving Back in the Klamath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reid Sarna-Wojcicki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Giving Back Through Collaboration in Practice, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  6. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  7. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang

    1986-01-01

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  8. CONTROL AND ECOLOGY OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTROL AND ECOLOGY OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL. CANIS MESOMELAS IN THE TRANSVAAL. J. DU ~. BOTHMA. • Transvaal Nature Conservation Division. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas is the most important problem animal in sheep- farming areas of the Transvaal (Van ...

  9. Solidification with back-diffusion of irregular eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the α - parameter back-diffusion has been introduced in the work. The alternative models of solidification were describedtaking into consideration back-diffusion process. The possibility of using those models for eutectic alloys solidification is worthyof interest.

  10. Back pain during different sequential treatment regimens of teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyritis, George; Marin, Fernando; Barker, Clare

    2010-01-01

    To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment.......To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment....

  11. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  12. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnier, J.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.; Bombardier, C.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine compared with placebo, no intervention, or "standard/accepted/conventional treatments" for nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Low back pain is a common

  13. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    diet, known to include refuse and human excrement. However, with two Namibian reports of White- backed Vultures exhibiting this behaviour, it is possibly more likely the Cape Griffon, which has a diet similar to that of the White- backed Vulture. Anderson (1997), sceptical of the reports of vultures eating plant material ...

  14. Back School: The Development of A Nigerian Urban Model | Odebiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first part of the video documentary provides information on the epidemiology and causes of back pain, structures and functions of the back while the second and third parts consist of demonstrations of wrong and correct resting and working postures assumed during everyday life activities and simple exercises for the ...

  15. Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic.

  16. Aetiology of low back pain in Mulago Hospital, Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain exists in epidemic proportions in the western world and is on the increase. Its cause is mostly nonspecific. Not much is known about it in the developing world because the data is scanty. This study was set out to investigate the possible causes of low back pain and prevalence. Objective: To ...

  17. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is sufficiently disabling and a common cause of disability particularly during the productive middle years of adult life. Disability implies interference with daily activities. Objective: To assess and document the disability associated with low back pain in terms of sick leave days, interference with ...

  18. Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one procedure versus percutaneous spinal fixation alone .... unchanged; Fair: definite relief of some preoperative symptoms, while other symptoms were either .... spinal fixation procedure alone for management of pain and handicap after failed back spinal surgery ...

  19. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  20. Effects of backing board materials on wood combustion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew J. Hagge; Kenneth M. Bryden; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    Cone calorimeter tests show that backing board materials do not affect the ignition time, initial heat release rate, or the total heat released of combustion for redwood slabs. However, it has been observed that backing board materials alter combustion performance by altering the secondary heat release peak observed when the pyrolysis reaction front nears the unheated...

  1. Research Data Management - Back-up, Storage and Sharing presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This short (8 slide) presentation "Back-up, Storage and Sharing - Helping you out in practice what you know you ought to be doing" is aimed at researchers and covers information about and tips for backing up as well as cloud based storage and encryption. Created under a CC-BY-NC_SA in March 2013 it is still highly relevant

  2. Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Adolescent low back pain (ALBP) can be considered a signal or precursor of a serious organic disease or tell- tale sign of future incidence of low back pain in adulthood. Published articles on ALBP in Nigeria are not readily available. Objectives: The study's objectives were to investigate the ...

  3. The effect of back school integrated with core strengthening in patients with chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Park, Won-Beom; Shin, Hyung-Ik; Lim, Jae-Young

    2010-09-01

    To assess the effect of back school integrated with core-strengthening exercises on back-specific disability and pain-coping strategies and to examine how reactions to pain affect the outcomes of back school in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center prospective trial was conducted with 142 participants with chronic low-back pain (38 men and 104 women) who completed a back school program at the spine center of a university hospital. The subjects participated in a 4-wk program integrated with core-strengthening exercises. Back-specific disabilities were measured as a primary outcome before and after the program. Secondary outcomes were pain, Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, general health status assessed by the SF-36, and quantitative functional evaluations of factors, such as trunk muscle strength, endurance, and the back performance scale. A subgroup of 28 subjects (12 men and 16 women) of the total sample of 142 subjects was used to analyze the longitudinal association between coping strategies and the primary outcome in a long-term follow-up study. These participants were divided into three groups (much improved, slightly improved, and unimproved) based on changes in back-specific disability scores. Participants improved significantly in terms of back-specific disability, pain, general health, and quantitative functional tests according to the short-term evaluation. They used more relaxation and exercise/stretching techniques as coping strategies. Of the groups participating in the longer-term follow-up (T3), the much-improved group showed significant improvement between T1 (before back school) and T2 (after back school) in scores for relaxation (1.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.1), task persistence (2.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.7 +/- 1.2), and exercise (3.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 5.2 +/- 1.9), but the coping strategies of those in the slightly improved and unimproved groups did not change significantly at T2. Our back school program may help patients with chronic low back pain

  4. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...... in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly...... is compared with evaporation in the processing of back electrode. Laser beam induced current (LBIC) imaging is used to investigate the impact of the processing techniques on the current collection in the devices. We report that inkjet printing of back electrode delivers devices having photovoltaic performance...

  5. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  6. The effects of shiatsu on lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, L H; Henry, K; Luth, J F; Casper-Bruett, K K

    2001-03-01

    Shiatsu, a specific type of massage, was used as an intervention in this study of 66 individuals complaining of lower back pain. Each individual was measured on state/trait anxiety and pain level before and after four shiatsu treatments. Each subject was then called 2 days following each treatment and asked to quantify the level of pain. Both pain and anxiety decreased significantly over time. Extraneous variables such as gender, age, gender of therapist, length of history with lower back pain, and medications taken for lower back pain did not alter the significant results. These subjects would recommend shiatsu massage for others suffering from lower back pain and indicated the treatments decreased the major inconveniences they experienced with their lower back pain.

  7. Trunk kinematics and low back pain during pruning among vineyard workers—A field study at the Chateau Larose-Trintaudon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Rose-Dulcina, Kévin; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of low back disorders is dramatically high in viticulture. Field measurements that objectively quantify work exposure can provide information on the relationship between the adopted trunk postures and low back pain. The purposes of the present study were three-fold (1) to carry out a kinematics analysis of vineyard-workers’ pruning activity by extracting the duration of bending and rotation of the trunk, (2) to question separately the relationship between the duration of forward bending or trunk rotation with low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity and (3) to question the relationship between the combined duration of forward bending and trunk rotation on low back pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity. Fifteen vineyard-workers were asked to perform pruning activity for 12 minutes with a wireless triaxial accelerometer placed on their trunk. Kinematic analysis of the trunk showed that vineyard-workers spent more than 50% of the time with the trunk flexed greater than 30° and more than 20% with the trunk rotated greater than 10°. These results show that pruning activity lead to the adoption of forward bended and rotated trunk postures that could significantly increase the risk of work related musculoskeletal disorders in the low back. However, this result was mitigated by the observation of an absence of significant association between the duration of forward bending and trunk rotation with low back pain intensity or pressure pain sensitivity. Even if prospective field measurements and studies assessing the effects of low back pain confounders are needed, this field study provides new genuine information on trunk kinematics during pruning activity. PMID:28384277

  8. Back pain prevalence in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Müller, S; Stoll, J; Fröhlich, K; Otto, C; Mayer, F

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate back pain (BP) prevalence in a large cohort of young athletes with respect to age, gender, and sport discipline. BP (within the last 7 days) was assessed with a face scale (face 1-2 = no pain; face 3-5 = pain) in 2116 athletes (m/f 61%/39%; 13.3 ± 1.7 years; 163.0 ± 11.8 cm; 52.6 ± 13.9 kg; 4.9 ± 2.7 training years; 8.4 ± 5.7 training h/week). Four different sports categories were devised (a: combat sports, b: game sports; c: explosive strength sport; d: endurance sport). Analysis was described descriptively, regarding age, gender, and sport. In addition, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. About 168 (8%) athletes were allocated into the BP group. About 9% of females and 7% of males reported BP. Athletes, 11-13 years, showed a prevalence of 2-4%; while prevalence increased to 12-20% in 14- to 17-year olds. Considering sport discipline, prevalence ranged from 3% (soccer) to 14% (canoeing). Prevalences in weight lifting, judo, wrestling, rowing, and shooting were ≥10%; in boxing, soccer, handball, cycling, and horse riding, ≤6%. 95% CI ranged between 0.08-0.11. BP exists in adolescent athletes, but is uncommon and shows no gender differences. A prevalence increase after age 14 is obvious. Differentiated prevention programs in daily training routines might address sport discipline-specific BP prevalence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D.

    1995-01-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs

  10. Low back pain among Irish farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Cunningham, Caitriona; Blake, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Despite farming being regarded as a high-risk activity for low back pain (LBP), little LBP research exists for this work sector. To establish LBP prevalence, beliefs regarding LBP, perceived LBP risk factors, related health service utilization, awareness and participation in manual-handling training among farmers in Ireland. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed to 200 farmers in Ireland via five Irish veterinary practices. Data were entered onto the Statistical package for the Social Sciences (version 12.0.1) and analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were coded and analysed for common themes. The response rate was 52% (n = 104). Lifetime, annual and point prevalence of LBP was 74% (n = 77), 54% (n = 56) and 27% (n = 28), respectively. Of respondents with a history of LBP, 72% (n = 55) stated that farming had contributed to their problem. Sixty-three per cent (n = 31) identified lifting as a contributory factor to their LBP. The majority of respondents (86%, n = 66) with LBP sought some form of treatment, with 73% (n = 56) of these having attended a general practitioner (GP). Few respondents (13%, n = 14) had ever attended a manual-handling course. A high prevalence of LBP was found among farmers, with lifting being reported as the major contributing factor. GPs were the most commonly utilized healthcare practitioner for LBP. Farmers do not commonly attend manual-handling courses with many noting they were not widely accessible or adequately publicized. There is a need for high-quality studies to examine the effectiveness of different interventions to prevent LBP among the Irish farming population.

  11. Feed-Back Regulation of Haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Studies ate reported on the feed-back regulation of erythropoiesis by means of the intrasplenic cloning system of haemopoietic cells. Polycythaemia, produced by passive transfusion of synzeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic red blood cells, inhibited the formation of bone-marrow derived erythroid clones. Polycythaemia also inhibited the formation of erythroid clones of endogenous stem cells. Oxygen overloading was found to be a necessary factor in the suppression of erythroid clone formation: no suppression of erythroid colonies was observed when polycythaemic animals were kept under hypoxic conditions. Erythropoietin, either of exogenous or of endogenous origin, elicited a reformation of erythroid clones in 'suppressed' animals. Studies on the kinetics of reformation of erythroid clones after the administration of erythropoietin suggested that the colony-forming stem cell can replicate a few times in the absence of erythropoietin and the cell progeny thus formed are the target cells for erythropoietin action. If, indeed, the colony-forming cell replicates in the absence of the specific inducer, then the cells thus formed should themselves be stem cells. This was substantiated by demonstrating that the cloning efficiency of spleens of polycythaemic recipients was higher than that of non-polycythaemic animals. Experiments indicating that erythroid clones produced by erythropoietin in polycythaemic animals disappeared after the discontinuance of erythropoietin application demonstrated the distinction between the 'mitogenic' and the 'morphogenetic' effects of erythropoietin. The latter seemed to be operated by an early transcription of RNA for proteins necessary for the complete maturation of the red blood cell, Erythroid clones produced by foetal haemopoietic stem cells seemed to be regulated by a different mechanism from that which controls the formation of bone-marrow derived clones. Clones produced by foetal cells were only partially suppressed in the polycythaemic

  12. Back school programs. The young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J P; Drye, C D

    1992-01-01

    CC's treatment goals were all met with the exception of eliminating the AMNT sign. Slump-sit right knee extension (-15 degrees), right SLR (80 degrees coupled with dorsiflexion), and lumbar flexion (85% coupled with neck flexion) all continued to reproduce right buttock cramping and pain. Currently he is playing basketball without restriction, performing an individualized exercise program that emphasizes lower extremity muscle stretching, AMNT stretching, and advanced truncal stabilization exercises. He has a very good understanding of body mechanics and an awareness of safe SFP during activities of daily living and on the basketball court. His motivation, along with the motivation of parents, coaches, athletic trainer, and physical therapist, greatly assisted CC in returning to competitive basketball. CC is intermittently evaluated to monitor the AMNT sign and the effectiveness of the home exercise program. Currently CC's AMNT appears to regress if he is not monitored on a monthly basis; thus he warrants intermittent treatment. Monitoring of the patient is an integral aspect of long-term management of chronic discogenic disease that is often neglected. It can be hypothesized that monitoring may prevent serious complications in the future for many patients. CC is a patient who needed specific therapeutic intervention beyond rest, general instructions about body mechanics and exercise, modalities, and traditional back school. The history of this patient's problem revealed that rest and general exercises had failed, thus necessitating specific therapeutic treatment. This patient is an excellent example of how physical therapy in the form of manual therapy, specific therapeutic exercise, education through repetition of functional tasks, and the team approach to patient care can lead to a successful treatment outcome.

  13. Is your client's back pain "rapidly reversible"? Improving low back care at its foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    To convey a valuable and greatly misunderstood paradigm for evaluating and treating low back pain (LBP) and its extensive scientific evidence. Low back pain is a highly prevalent and very expensive health dilemma. But by using a paradigm called Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (a.k.a. McKenzie methods), it is now possible to identify a very large LBP subgroup whose pain is rapidly reversible, meaning that it can often be eliminated quickly, with return to full function using a single, patient-specific direction of simple, yet precise, end-range low back exercises and some posture modifications. This interesting subgroup includes patients with both acute and chronic LBP as well as both LBP-only and sciatica with neural deficits. This special form of clinical assessment can detect which patients are in this large, rapidly reversible subgroup and which ones are not. Of the numerous studies targeting Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT), three have focused on patients whose persisting pain had led to recommendations of disc surgery where 50% were then found to still have a rapidly reversible disc problem with high rates of nonsurgical rapid recovery. If patients are never assessed in this way, this reversibility remains undiscovered and these patients commonly undergo potentially unnecessary surgery. Armed with knowledge of this subgroup, how to identify it, the considerable supportive scientific evidence and strongly beneficial implications of utilizing this MDT paradigm, case managers are positioned to have an immensely positive impact on the care of LBP. Tremendous cost savings and greatly improved clinical outcomes are available by utilizing this form of evidence-based MDT care.

  14. Optical pressure/density measuring means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-09

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for rapidly and accurately determining the pressure of a fluid medium in either a static or dynamic state. The pressure is determined by making a measurement of the velocity of a light beam that is directed through the fluid medium along a pathway that enables an integrated pressure measurement to be made along the pathway, rather than making such a measurement only at a single point in the medium. A HeNe laser is configured to emit a beam of two frequencies separated by about 2 MHz. One of these beam frequencies is directed through the fluid medium and is reflected back through the medium to a non-linear diode detector. The other beam frequency is passed directly to a diode detector without traversing said medium. The diode detector is operated to determine the frequency shift or beat frequency between the two beam frequencies. Any variation in the frequency of said reflected beam that is caused by a change in its velocity as it is passed through the fluid medium causes a change in the beat frequency. This beat frequency change is then converted to an output signal value corresponding to the pressure of the medium. The measurement instrument apparatus is remotely positioned relative to the medium being measured, thus the apparatus is immune from electro-magnetic interference and can operate in conditions of high radiation, corrosion and extraordinarily high temperature. 4 figs.

  15. People with low back pain perceive needs for non-biomedical services in workplace, financial, social and household domains: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Louisa; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Urquhart, Donna M; Anthony, Shane N; Sullivan, Kaye; Seneviwickrama, Maheeka; Briggs, Andrew M; Wluka, Anita E

    2018-04-01

    What needs of non-biomedical services are perceived by people with low back pain? Systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies examining perceived needs of non-biomedical services for low back pain, identified through searching of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO (1990 to 2016). Adults with low back pain of any duration. Descriptive data regarding study design and methodology were extracted. The preferences, expectations and satisfaction with non-biomedical services reported by people with low back pain were identified and categorised within areas of perceived need. Twenty studies (19 qualitative and one quantitative) involving 522 unique participants (total pool of 590) were included in this systematic review. Four areas emerged. Workplace: people with low back pain experience pressure to return to work despite difficulties with the demands of their occupation. They want their employers to be informed about low back pain and they desire workplace accommodations. Financial: people with low back pain want financial support, but have concerns about the inefficiencies of compensation systems and the stigma associated with financial remuneration. Social: people with low back pain report feeling disconnected from social networks and want back-specific social support. Household: people with low back pain report difficulties with household duties; however, there are few data regarding their need for auxiliary devices and domestic help. People with low back pain identified work place, financial and social pressures, and difficulties with household duties as areas of need beyond their healthcare requirements that affect their ability to comply with management of their condition. Consideration of such needs may inform physiotherapists, the wider health system, social networks and the workplace to provide more relevant and effective services. [Chou L, Cicuttini FM, Urquhart DM, Anthony SN, Sullivan K, Seneviwickrama M, Briggs AM, Wluka AE (2018) People with

  16. Improved interoceptive awareness in chronic low back pain: a comparison of Back school versus Feldenkrais method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Zangrando, Federico; Iosa, Marco; De Angelis, Simona; Marzoli, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Feldenkrais method for relieving pain in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the improvement of interoceptive awareness. This study was designed as a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of CLBP for at least 3 months were randomly allocated to the Feldenkrais (mean age 61.21 ± 11.53 years) or Back School group (mean age 60.70 ± 11.72 years). Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), disability was evaluated with the Waddel Disability Index, quality of life was measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and mind-body interactions were studied using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Questionnaire (MAIA). Data were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. The two groups were matched at baseline for all the computed parameters. At the end of treatment (Tend), there were no significant differences between groups regarding chronic pain reduction (p = 0.290); VAS and MAIA-N sub scores correlated at Tend (R = 0.296, p = 0.037). By the Friedman analysis, both groups experienced significant changes in pain (p Feldenkrais method has comparable efficacy as Back School in CLBP. Implications for rehabilitation The Feldenkrais method is a mind-body therapy that is based on awareness through movement lessons, which are verbally guided explorations of movement that are conducted by a physiotherapist who is experienced and trained in this method. It aims to increase self-awareness, expand a person's repertoire of movements, and to promote increased functioning in contexts in which the entire body cooperates in the execution of movements. Interoceptive awareness, which improves with rehabilitation, has a complex function in the perception of chronic pain and should be investigated further in future research. The efficacy of the Feldenkrais method is

  17. Back strength predicts walking improvement in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Vincent, Kevin R; Seay, Amanda N; Conrad, Bryan P; Hurley, Robert W; George, Steven Z

    2014-05-01

    To compare the effects of 4 months of isolated lumbar resistance exercise and total body resistance exercise on walking performance in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain. A secondary analysis examined whether responsiveness to training modulated walking improvement. Randomized, controlled trial. Research laboratory affiliated with tertiary care facility. Participants (N = 49; 60-85 years) were randomized into a 4-month resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT), or a control group (CON). Walking performance, maximal low back strength and leg strength, and average resting and low back pain severity score (from an 11-point numerical pain rating scale; NRSpain) were collected at baseline and month 4. The TOTRX and LEXT improved lumbar extensor strength relative to CON, and the TOTRX (P vs 3.7 ± 2.6 points and 4.6 ± 2.4 points; P strength gains that achieved ≥20% greater than baseline values. Although the TOTRX demonstrated the greatest improvement in walking endurance among the intervention groups, this did not reach significance (10.1 ± 12.2% improvement in TOTRX vs 7.4 ± 30.0% LEXT and -1.7 ± 17.4% CON; P = .11). Gait speed increased most in the TOTRX (9.0 ± 13.5%) compared with the LEXT and CON groups (P strength explained 10.6% of the variance of the regression model for the change in walking endurance (P = .024). The use of LEXT and TOTRX produced similar modest improvements in patients' walking endurance. Lumbar extensor strength gain compared with leg strength gain is a moderate but important contributor to walking endurance in obese older adults with chronic low back pain. Responders to resistance exercise programs (event those with only lumbar extension exercise) who make at least a 20% improvement in strength can expect better improvement in walking endurance than those who do not achieve this strength improvement. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  18. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  19. Do illness perceptions of people with chronic low back pain differ from people without chronic low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; van Ittersum, Miriam W.; Kaptein, Ad A.

    Objectives To determine why some people develop chronic low back pain, and whether illness perceptions are an important risk factor in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Four hundred and two members of the general Dutch population, with and

  20. Cumulative Low Back Load at Work as a Risk Factor of Low Back Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Much research has been performed on physical exposures during work (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP), however results are inconsistent. Information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP may be more

  1. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players’ back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists. PMID:29410569

  2. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players' back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists' back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists.

  3. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); G.J.L.A. Nijeholt (Geert J. Lycklama A); B.F.W. van der Kallen (Bas); W.B. van den Hout (Wilbert); B.W. Koes (Bart); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. Methods: The study population

  4. Prevalence of Neck and Back Pain amongst Aircrew at the Extremes of Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    severe enough to require epidural, two required opiates, four required muscle relaxants, ten used non- steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and...exercises Back Stay fit (working out in the gym ) Neck and back Motrin Exercise Neck and back Push less pallets 40 Back or neck...Back Sleeping, driving Neck and Back Sleep, drive, run, and workouts at gym . Neck and Back Reduces ability to do certain activities/ need extra

  5. Back analysis of an earthquake-triggered submarine landslide near the SW of Xiaoliuqiu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Houh Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurred in the offshore of SW Taiwan on 26 December 2006 with a magnitude of 7, the Pingtung earthquake had triggered numbers of submarine landslides. This event provides an excellent opportunity to incorporate the back analysis approach to evaluate the in situ shear strength parameters. According to the chirp sonar images of the seabed near the SW Xiaoliuqiu obtained before and after the earthquake were adopted to establish the slope profile and identified the location of a circular sliding surface. Consequently, the in situ, effective strength parameters under the critical condition can be calculated by back slope stability analysis. Submarine sediment sampler was obtained via gravity sampling method and the laboratory tests were performed to determine the index properties and strength parameters. Test results indicate the cored sediment has the characteristics of normally consolidated (NC clay. The effective friction angle (φ’ is 15.3° with cohesion (c’ of 19.4 kPa. The effective and total stress methods were used to perform the back analysis. The strength parameters derived from back analysis of effective and total stress methods all indicate values approach the CIU triaxial tests results. Consequently, the representativeness of the marine sediment characteristics obtained from laboratory tests is identified. The total stress approach yields an undrained strength ratio cu/σ'vo of 0.26 which well fit the ratio used in geotechnical practice for estimating NC clay. According to the analytical approach, the landslide was applied seismic forces (seismic coefficient kh = 0.14 and generated excess pore pressure of 31 kPa at the sliding surface.

  6. Epidemiological Differences Between Localised and Non-Localised Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Walker-Bone, Karen; Palmer, Keith T; Felli, Vanda E; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, M Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath SP; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Sarquis, Leila M M; Marziale, Maria H; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V; Quintana, Leonardo A; Rojas, Marianela; Harris, E Clare; Serra, Consol; Martinez, J Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M; Pesatori, Angela C; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Freimann, Tiina; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Urquhart, Donna M; Derrett, Sarah; McBride, David; Herbison, Peter; Gray, Andrew; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.

    2017-01-01

    Study design Cross-sectional survey with longitudinal follow-up Objectives To test the hypothesis that pain which is localised to the low back differs epidemiologically from that which occurs simultaneously or close in time to pain at other anatomical sites Summary of background data Low back pain (LBP) often occurs in combination with other regional pain, with which it shares similar psychological and psychosocial risk factors. However, few previous epidemiological studies of LBP have distinguished pain that is confined to the low back from that which occurs as part of a wider distribution of pain. Methods We analysed data from a cohort study of musculoskeletal pain and associated disability in 47 occupational groups from 18 countries. Results Among 12,197 subjects at baseline, 609 (4.9%) reported localised LBP in the past month, and 3,820 (31.3%) non-localised LBP. Non-localised LBP was more frequently associated with sciatica in the past month (48.1% vs. 30.0% of cases), occurred on more days in the past month and past year, was more often disabling for everyday activities (64.1% vs. 47.3% of cases), and had more frequently led to medical consultation and sickness absence from work. It was also more often persistent when participants were followed up after a mean of 14 months (65.6% vs. 54.1% of cases). In adjusted Poisson regression analyses, non-localised LBP was differentially associated with female sex, older age, somatising tendency, poor mental health and report of time pressure at work,. There were also marked differences in the relative prevalence of localised and non-localised LBP by occupational group. Conclusions Future epidemiological studies should distinguish where possible between pain that is limited to the low back and LBP which occurs in association with pain at other anatomical locations. PMID:27820794

  7. High-pressure crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Malcolm I

    2012-01-01

    The ability of pressure to change inter-atomic distances strongly leads to a wide range of pressure-induced phenomena at high pressures: for example metallisation, amorphisation, superconductivity and polymerisation. Key to understanding these phenomena is the determination of the crystal structure using x-ray or neutron diffraction. The tools necessary to compress matter above 1 million atmospheres (1 Megabar or 100 GPa) were established by the mid 1970s, but it is only since the early 1990s that we have been able to determine the detailed crystal structures of materials at such pressures. In this chapter I briefly review the history of high-pressure crystallography, and describe the techniques used to obtain and study materials at high pressure. Recent crystallographic studies of elements are then used to illustrate what is now possible using modern detectors and synchrotron sources. Finally, I speculate as to what crystallographic studies might become possible over the next decade.

  8. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure piping...

  9. Thermistor Pressure Gauge Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanick, A. P.; Ainsworth, J. E.

    1961-01-01

    Thermistor pressure gauges are characterized by large pressure range, good accuracy and stability, fast measurement, insensitivity to over-pressure, negligible out-gassing, ease in cleaning, and physical and electrical simplicity and ruggedness. A number of excellent papers have been published describing these gauges. However, a detailed account of design procedure and characteristics for a specific gauge would eliminate much of the trial and error encountered in designing a gauge having prescribed range, sensitivity, and stability.

  10. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  11. High temperature pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtler, J. Paul; Scandrol, Roy O.

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  12. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  13. Pressure detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, V.N.; Long, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The pressure detection system described comprises a first bellows assembly that can be connected to a source of fluid under pressure, a pressure detection apparatus, a second bellows assembly connected to the first assembly and pipes with a coupling device connecting the second bellows assembly to the apparatus. The first and second assemblies can only be disconnected with difficulty from the source or not at all [fr

  14. Effect of back school protocol on the referral rate of patients with low back pain to an industrial physiotherapy clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Odebiyi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Back schools are educational programmes originally developed in a work place (Volvo factory in Sweden for patients with back pain, to enable them to manage their own back problems better. ‘Back school’ was originally aimed at modifying the behaviours of patients with low back pain (LBP, with the view to prevent relapses. In an effort to encourage and stimulate the use of ‘back school’ among health workers in Nigeria, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a back school protocol in a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110 workers of a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria,  participated in this study. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was employed. The participants were divided into two groups - office workers and factory workers for the purpose of the training in the content of the back school protocol. The ‘back school’ consisted of classroom teaching and the use of two videotapes titled “lifting technique” and “back pain”. Data on demographic information, knowledge of back structures and back care were collected using a questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was completed before, immediately after and 8 weeks after the administrations of the contents of the back school protocol (Akinpelu and Odebiyi, 2004. The records of the factory’s clinic were also reviewed for the 12-months before and 12 months after the study. The mean values of the participants’ age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI were 36.60 ± 9.10 years, 1.65 ± 0.10 m,69.13 ± 7.70 kg and 25.40 ± 3.30 kg/m2 respectively. The results showed that the 12-months prevalence of low back pain (LBP among the workers was 71%. The result also showed that over 50% of the participants never had any  information or lesson on back care, and those that had some form of information obtained it by chance. There was 23% reduction in referral for care of back pain 12 months after the administration of the back

  15. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back-propagatio......-propagation algorithms in the framework of recurrent back-propagation and present some numerical simulations of feed-forward networks on the NetTalk problem. A discussion of implementation in analog VLSI electronics concludes the paper.......The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card can help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for ... control your blood pressure before and during the pregnancy. Some women develop high blood pressure during pregnancy. ...

  17. Attachment Fitting for Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III (Inventor); Carrigan, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    This invention provides sealed access to the interior of a pressure vessel and consists of a tube. a collar, redundant seals, and a port. The port allows the seals to be pressurized and seated before the pressure vessel becomes pressurized.

  18. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) for Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Sebastian; Riecke, Jenny; Rief, Winfried; Schneider, Jessica; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2016-11-01

    Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical activities are central elements of the fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain. Pain-related fear has typically been measured by self-report instruments. In this study, we developed and validated a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) for chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with the aim of assessing pain-related avoidance behavior by direct observation. The BAT-Back was administered to a group of CLBP patients (N=97) and pain-free controls (N=31). Furthermore, pain, pain-related fear, disability, catastrophizing, and avoidance behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach α. Validity was assessed by examining correlation and regression analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the BAT-Back avoidance score was r=0.76. Internal consistency was α=0.95. CLBP patients and controls differed significantly on BAT-Back avoidance scores as well as self-report measures. BAT-Back avoidance scores were significantly correlated with scores on each of the self-report measures (rs=0.27 to 0.54). They were not significantly correlated with general anxiety and depression, age, body mass index, and pain duration. The BAT-Back avoidance score was able to capture unique variance in disability after controlling for other variables (eg, pain intensity and pain-related fear). Results indicate that the BAT-Back is a reliable and valid measure of pain-related avoidance behavior. It may be useful for clinicians in tailoring treatments for chronic pain as well as an outcome measure for exposure treatments.

  19. Sapphire tube pressure vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outwater, John O.

    2000-01-01

    A pressure vessel is provided for observing corrosive fluids at high temperatures and pressures. A transparent Teflon bag contains the corrosive fluid and provides an inert barrier. The Teflon bag is placed within a sapphire tube, which forms a pressure boundary. The tube is received within a pipe including a viewing window. The combination of the Teflon bag, sapphire tube and pipe provides a strong and inert pressure vessel. In an alternative embodiment, tie rods connect together compression fittings at opposite ends of the sapphire tube.

  20. High-pressure apparatus

    OpenAIRE

    Schepdael, van, L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which are oriented in the peripheral direction and are embedded in a matrix of epoxy resin or polyurethane. By applying the axial prestress to the pressure vessel (3), the tangential stress is distribut...

  1. Nuclear reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1976-01-01

    In nuclear power reactor systems which have a reactor core inside a pressure vessel, the feedwater inlet pipe and steam discharge nozzle usually require separate pressure vessel penetrations. This requirement involves a great deal of expensive high quality special machining, welding and weld joint testing. The invention overcomes most of these problems by nestling the feedwater inlet pipe inside the steam discharge nozzle. At the same time the individual heat exchanger modules are supported from the pressure vessel at the same location as the nested feedwater inlet pipe and steam discharge nozzle combination, thus eliminating the need to accomodate troublesome differential thermal expansion problems through special structures within the pressure vessel

  2. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions. (authors)

  4. Back-to-back heavy quark pair production in semi-inclusive DIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Peng

    2017-11-01

    The one-loop correction to heavy quark pair back-to-back production in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is given in this work in the framework of transverse momentum dependent(TMD) factorization. Both unpolarized and linearly polarized TMD gluon distribution functions are taken into account. A subtraction method based on diagram expansion is used to get finite hard coefficients. It is found the soft and collinear divergences of one-loop amplitude is proportional to tree level ones and can be expressed through several basic scalar triangle and bubble integrals. The subtraction of these divergences is spin independent. Beyond tree level an additional soft factor related to final heavy quark pair must be added into the factorization formula. This soft factor affects the azimuthal angle distribution of virtual photon in a nonperturbative way. Integrating over virtual photon azimuthal angle we construct three weighted cross sections, which depend on only three additional integrated soft factors. These weighted cross sections can be used to extract linearly polarized gluon distribution function. In addition, lepton azimuthal angle is unintegrated in this work, which provides more observables. All hard coefficients relevant to lepton and virtual photon azimuthal angle distributions are given at one-loop level.

  5. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC. First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in abc and d-q frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller.

  6. Effect of myofascial trigger point therapy with an inflatable ball in elderlies with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sejun; Kim, Minhee; Lee, Minyoung; Kim, Taeyeong; Lee, Dongshin; Yoon, Bumchul

    2018-02-06

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are related to low back pain and back muscle stiffening, and secondarily to movement impairment. MTrP therapy with an inflatable ball would improve clinical outcomes for chronic non-specific low back pain (CNSLBP) after 6 weeks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of MTrPs with an inflatable ball for the elderly with CNSLBP. Fifteen elderly patients with chronic non-specific low back pain were evaluated for pain, pressure sensitivity, and physical function at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 weeks of therapy. The visual analog scale (VAS) and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were used to measure pain intensity and sensitivity, respectively. Straight-leg-raise (SLR) test, back range of motion (BROM), and Oswestry disability index were used to assess physical function. Significant differences were observed between the 3- and 6-week VAS scores (-34.6%; p= 0.03); baseline and 1-week (7%; p= 0.02), 1- and 3-week (-14%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week PPTs (18%; p= 0.01); 3- and 6-week BROMs (Flexion, 7.1%; Extension, 41%; p= 0.048); baseline and 1-week (-6.9%; p= 0.02), 1- and 3-week (3%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week active SLR test scores (7%; p= 0.011); and baseline and 1-week (-2.6%; p= 0.03), 1- and 3-week (8.34%; p= 0.01), and 3- and 6-week passive SLR test scores (5.3%; p= 0.025). Myofascial trigger point therapy with an inflatable ball relieved pain and improved physical function in the elderly with CNSLBP.

  7. Active control of turbulent boundary layer-induced sound transmission through the cavity-backed double panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, A.; Alujević, N.; Pluymers, B.; Desmet, W.

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of active control of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) induced sound transmission through the cavity-backed double panels. The aerodynamic model used is based on the Corcos wall pressure distribution. The structural-acoustic model encompasses a source panel (skin panel), coupled through an acoustic cavity to the radiating panel (trim panel). The radiating panel is backed by a larger acoustic enclosure (the back cavity). A feedback control unit is located inside the acoustic cavity between the two panels. It consists of a control force actuator and a sensor mounted at the actuator footprint on the radiating panel. The control actuator can react off the source panel. It is driven by an amplified velocity signal measured by the sensor. A fully coupled analytical structural-acoustic model is developed to study the effects of the active control on the sound transmission into the back cavity. The stability and performance of the active control system are firstly studied on a reduced order model. In the reduced order model only two fundamental modes of the fully coupled system are assumed. Secondly, a full order model is considered with a number of modes large enough to yield accurate simulation results up to 1000 Hz. It is shown that convincing reductions of the TBL-induced vibrations of the radiating panel and the sound pressure inside the back cavity can be expected. The reductions are more pronounced for a certain class of systems, which is characterised by the fundamental natural frequency of the skin panel larger than the fundamental natural frequency of the trim panel.

  8. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  9. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. High-pressure hydrogen materials compatibility of piezoelectric films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, K. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, W. D.; Bonham, C. C.; Skorski, D.; Pitman, S. G.; Dahl, M. E.; Henager, C. H.

    2010-11-01

    Hydrogen is well known for materials compatibility issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals, which are challenges for its use as the next-generation "green" fuel. Beyond metals, hydrogen also degrades piezoelectric materials used as actuators used in direct injection hydrogen internal combustion engines. We present the materials compatibility studies of piezoelectric films in high-pressure hydrogen environments. Absorption of high-pressure hydrogen and composition changes were studied with an elastic recoil detection analysis and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry in lead zirconate titanate and barium titanate thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  11. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  12. [Nonspecific low back pain in young adults: associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Rita Neli Vilar; Ribeiro, Luiza Helena; Abdo, Bruno de Arruda; Descio, Fernanda Justo; Martucci, Celso Eduardo; Serruya, Débora Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors related to low back pain in the daily routines of two sets of youths: individuals complaining of chronic low back pain and a control group. The sample consisted of 198 university-age students (male and female) aged between 18 and 29. In accordance with back pain diagnoses, they were separated into two groups: with or without nonspecific chronic low back pain. Both groups were evaluated by a "blinded" observer with no knowledge to the presence or otherwise of lower back pain. Questionnaires concerning clinical-demographic characteristics, life style, quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire), pain visual analogical scales (VAS), and physical examination were applied. A univariate analysis showed a statistically significant association (P<0.05) with the presence of low back pain and some factors. There was a negative association between low back pain and the following variables: BMI, health self-assessment, VAS and some SF-36 domains (physical functioning, body pain, general health, vitality, social functioning). There was a positive correlation with the following variables: global pain by VAS, presence of diffuse pain and number of tender points. However, the multivariate analysis showed statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) between low back pain and few variables: global pain VAS and number of tender points. Some variables related to chronic diffuse pain and lower quality of life might be associated to chronic low back pain in young adults. However, longitudinal studies are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Low back pain and musculoskeletal symptoms among Kansas farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, John; Rodgers, Gina; Merlino, Linda

    2006-07-01

    Farming continues to rank as one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among the farmers and to examine the factors associated with occupational back pain. Farmers in a predominately corn and soybean growing region of Kansas served as the study sample. Questionnaires were mailed out to 499 active farmers of a Farmers' Cooperative in Southeast Kansas. The self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of back pain and other MSDs and to determine the strength of associations between back pain and work factors. The participation rate was 57.2%. The low back was the anatomical area with the highest prevalence of self-reported work-related pain (37.5%), followed by the shoulders (25.9%), knees (23.6%), and neck (22.4%). Close to 60% of the farmers reported that they experienced farm work-related MSD symptoms in at least one of the nine body areas in the previous year. Nearly one quarter of the farmers reported seeing a physician for their low back symptoms, and one in five farmers had to modify their work habits due to low back symptoms during the previous year. Low back pain and other musculoskeletal conditions are a significant problem for Kansas farmers. This group of Kansas farmers experienced low back pain at a much higher rate than the general working population and higher than other groups of farmers previously studied. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Looking Forwards and Looking Back (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the seventh volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. This is my first issue in my new role of Editor-in-Chief, and I’m honoured and delighted to take over the position. As many of you may know, I’ve been involved with the journal almost since its inception, primarily as Associate Editor (Articles. During that time, I’ve sincerely enjoyed working with the supportive EBLIP team, as well as many authors throughout the world, and I’m looking forward to continuing that work in my new role.Spring is traditionally a time of new growth and change, and the EBLIP journal is no different. In the last issue, Denise Koufogiannakis reflected on how the journal had grown and developed during its first 6 years, and I look forward to contributing to its continued success. There have been a number of changes in the editorial team. I welcome Wayne Jones from Carleton University, Canada, who has taken over as Associate Editor (Articles and brings a wealth of editorial experience. Heather Pretty has taken over as lead copyeditor and is joining our editorial meetings to help ensure the continued quality and consistency of the journal. As part of quality assurance and development, the editorial team is examining and revising our journal guidelines, so look for those in forthcoming months. Our former Editor-in-Chief, Denise Koufogiannakis, is developing a new role as Associate Editor (Reviews. As a keen advocate of reviews for providing evidence, developing skills for research and evidence based practice, and documenting and establishing an evidence base for our profession, I’m looking forward to the first review which is likely to be published in the next issue. Too much change can be disruptive, so I’m pleased that both Lorie Kloda and Jonathan Eldredge are maintaining their positions as Associate Editors for Evidence Summaries and Classics, respectively.When starting something new, it is often useful to look back (to build on

  15. Herbal medicine for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna; Robbins, Chris; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Gagnier, Joel J

    2014-12-23

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP. We searched the following electronic databases up to September 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinical Trials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal and PubMed; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic non-specific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines which we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. A library scientist with the Cochrane Back Review Group conducted the database searches. One review author contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. We downloaded full references and abstracts of the identified studies and retrieved a hard copy of each study for final inclusion decisions. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared to assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. We included 14 RCTs (2050 participants) in this review. One trial on Solidago chilensis M. (Brazilian arnica) (20 participants) found very low quality evidence of reduction in perception of pain and improved flexibility with application of Brazilian arnica-containing gel twice daily as compared

  16. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  17. Back to the basics: Birmingham, Alabama, measurement and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L.R.; Lockwood, C.M.; Handley, N.

    2005-01-01

    Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see Journal of Geography 103, 5: 226-230). Like its predecessor, the current exercise is modified from the Birmingham Back to the Basics workshop offered during the annual National Council for Geographic Education meeting. The focus of this exercise is on scale and measurement, foundational skills for spatial thinking and analysis. ?? 2005 National Council for Geographic Education.

  18. Patterns of Low Back Pain in children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. Purposes: The purposes of this presentation are to show the prevalence...... as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented as percentages. Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys. The three prevalence estimates...

  19. Prepayment and the Valuation of Danish Mortgage-Backed Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Svend

    Ph.D. thesis on prepayment modelling and valuation of Danish mortgage backed bonds. The thesis discusses several aspects of mortgage backed bonds including after-tax valuation, the special Danish delivery option, rational prepayment behavior, transaction costs and heterogenous borrowers. The thesis...... proposes a so-called required gain model with heterogenous borrowers, who differ with respect to the present value gain required for prepayment. The thesis shows how to perform arbitrage-free valuation of mortgage-backed bonds using a prepayment function estimated from Danish prepayment data. The thesis...

  20. Induction of die-back resistant mutation in mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Koitsu; Wada, Minoru; Nakajima, Kenji; Hazama, Kazuo; Fujita, Haruhiko.

    1980-01-01

    Two kinds of work for the induction of die-back resistant mutation were conducted. The first is mutation induction by chronic gamma irradiation using four varieties. Four resistant mutants were obtained from variety Kenmochi through the screening test for die-back resistance in heavy snowfall region. The second is mutation induction by colchicine treatments with variety Kenmochi. The mutants showing tetraploidy in inner layers, such as 2-4-4-4 and 4-4-4-4, were resistant as compared with those tetraploidy only in the outest layer. Gamma-rays and colchicine considered to be useful tools for induction of die-back resistant mulberry mutations. (author)

  1. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  2. High-pressure crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrusiak, A.

    2008-01-01

    The history and development of high-pressure crystallography are briefly described and examples of structural transformations in compressed compounds are given. The review is focused on the diamond-anvil cell, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, the principles of its operation and the impact it has had on high-pressure X-ray diffraction.

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in ... play_arrow What are the six stages of a pressure sore and how ...

  4. Clamp Restrains Pressure Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliberti, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Safety restraint protects people and property if a high-pressure fitting fails. As long as pressure line remains attached at the fitting, clamp exerts essentially no force on hose. If fitting fails, force of fluid leaving free end of hose causes the cam on the clamp to compress hose with a positive locking action.

  5. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...

  6. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a United States Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Delaney, Kristin; Rundell, Sean D; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-04-03

    To examine the predictive validity of the STarT Back tool for classifying people with back pain into categories of low, medium, and high risk of persistent disabling back pain, in US primary care. Secondary analysis of data from participants receiving usual care in a randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics. 1109 adults with back pain ≥18 years of age. Those with specific causes of back pain (pregnancy, disc herniation, vertebral fracture, spinal stenosis) and work-related injuries were not included. N/A MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The original 9-item version of the STarT Back tool, administered at baseline, stratified patients by their risk (low, medium, high) of persistent disabling back pain ('STarT Back risk group'). Persistent disabling back pain was defined as Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of ≥7 at 6-month follow-up. STarT Back risk group was a significant predictor of persistent disabling back pain (pSTarT Back risk groups successfully separated people with back pain into distinct categories of risk for persistent disabling back pain at 6-month follow-up in US primary care. These results were very similar to those seen in the original STarT Back validation study. This validation study is a necessary first step towards identifying whether the entire STarT Back approach, including matched/targeted treatment, can be effectively used for primary care in the US. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Getting back on track from electrical injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, L. [St. John' s Rehab Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Exposure to an electrical arc flash constitutes one of the most serious and fatal electrical injuries. The arc flash creates pressure waves that can damage hearing, eyesight and brain functions and can cause severe burns or death. Between 1998 and 2006, 39 per cent of critical electrical injuries involved burns from an arc flash. Not all electrical injuries are immediately visible, and don't always show up on traditional tests. This article cautioned that symptoms may arise slowly and unpredictably. Currently, Toronto's St. John's Rehab and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre are Canada's only specialized rehabilitation and acute care facilities working clinically and publishing research about electrical injuries. Patients from across Canada have been assessed and treated there since the electrical injury program began in 2003. Early intervention is considered to be the best opportunity for anyone who has been in an electrical contact accident. A specialized, comprehensive assessment by a multi-disciplinary team at the health centres results in a plan of care that minimizes future complications such as permanent disability or other long-term effects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  10. Facilitated Pronociceptive Pain Mechanisms in Radiating Back Pain Compared With Localized Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations at cPTT intensity), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain...

  11. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah el Barzouhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. METHODS: The study population contained patients with sciatica who underwent a baseline MRI to assess eligibility for a randomized trial designed to compare the efficacy of early surgery with prolonged conservative care for sciatica. Two neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon independently evaluated all MR images. The MRI readers were blinded to symptom status. The MRI findings were compared between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The presence of disabling back pain at baseline was correlated with perceived recovery at one year. RESULTS: Of 379 included sciatica patients, 158 (42% had disabling back pain. Of the patients with both sciatica and disabling back pain 68% did reveal a herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI, compared to 88% of patients with predominantly sciatica (P<0.001. The existence of disabling back pain in sciatica at baseline was negatively associated with perceived recovery at one year (Odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18-0.56, P<0.001. Sciatica patients with disabling back pain in absence of nerve root compression on MRI at baseline reported less perceived recovery at one year compared to those with predominantly sciatica and nerve root compression on MRI (50% vs 91%, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Sciatica patients with disabling low back pain reported an unfavorable outcome at one-year follow-up compared to those with predominantly sciatica. If additionally a clear herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI was absent, the results were even worse.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  13. Evolution of the bi-stable wake of a square-back automotive shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin; Sardu, Costantino

    2018-01-01

    Square-back shapes are popular in the automotive market for their high level of practicality. These geometries, however, are usually characterised by high drag and their wake dynamics present aspects, such as the coexistence of a long-time bi-stable behaviour and short-time global fluctuating modes that are not fully understood. In the present paper, the unsteady behaviour of the wake of a generic square-back car geometry is characterised with an emphasis on identifying the causal relationship between the different dynamic modes in the wake. The study is experimental, consisting of balance, pressure, and stereoscopic PIV measurements. Applying wavelet and cross-wavelet transforms to the balance data, a quasi-steady correlation is demonstrated between the forces and bi-stable modes. This is investigated by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the pressure and velocity data sets and a new structure is proposed for each bi-stable state, consisting of a hairpin vortex that originates from one of the two model's vertical trailing edges and bends towards the opposite side as it merges into a single streamwise vortex downstream. The wake pumping motion is also identified and for the first time linked with the motion of the bi-stable vortical structure in the streamwise direction, resulting in out-of-phase pressure variations between the two vertical halves of the model base. A phase-averaged low-order model is also proposed that provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of the switch between the bi-stable states. It is demonstrated that, during the switch, the wake becomes laterally symmetric and, at this point, the level of interaction between the recirculating structures and the base reaches a minimum, yielding, for this geometry, a 7% reduction of the base drag compared to the time-averaged result.

  14. Massage for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; Giraldo, Mario; Baskwill, Amanda; Irvin, Emma; Imamura, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly musculoskeletal problems in modern society. It is experienced by 70% to 80% of adults at some time in their lives. Massage therapy has the potential to minimize pain and speed return to normal function. To assess the effects of massage therapy for people with non-specific LBP. We searched PubMed to August 2014, and the following databases to July 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACS, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Proquest Dissertation Abstracts. We also checked reference lists. There were no language restrictions used. We included only randomized controlled trials of adults with non-specific LBP classified as acute, sub-acute or chronic. Massage was defined as soft-tissue manipulation using the hands or a mechanical device. We grouped the comparison groups into two types: inactive controls (sham therapy, waiting list, or no treatment), and active controls (manipulation, mobilization, TENS, acupuncture, traction, relaxation, physical therapy, exercises or self-care education). We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures and followed CBN guidelines. Two independent authors performed article selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. In total we included 25 trials (3096 participants) in this review update. The majority was funded by not-for-profit organizations. One trial included participants with acute LBP, and the remaining trials included people with sub-acute or chronic LBP (CLBP). In three trials massage was done with a mechanical device, and the remaining trials used only the hands. The most common type of bias in these studies was performance and measurement bias because it is difficult to blind participants, massage therapists and the measuring outcomes. We judged the quality of the evidence to be "low" to "very low", and the main reasons for downgrading the evidence were risk of bias and imprecision. There was no suggestion of publication bias. For acute LBP, massage

  15. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...... retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... and 3-6 had higher PP and blunted diurnal BP variation: night PP 55 +/- 10 mm Hg, 64 +/- 10 mm Hg, 61 +/- 15 mm Hg, P groups (45 normo-, 19 micro-, and 15...

  16. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masschelein Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low back, which is routinely performed in occupational medicine, predicts the development of low back pain (LBP. Methods This study is part of the Belgian Low Back Cohort (BelCoBack Study, a prospective study to identify risk factors for the development of low back disorders in occupational settings. The study population for this paper were 692 young healthcare or distribution workers (mean age of 26 years with no or limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion. At baseline, these workers underwent a standardised physical examination of the low back. One year later, they completed a questionnaire on the occurrence of LBP and some of its characteristics. To study the respective role of predictors at baseline on the occurrence of LBP, we opted for Cox regression with a constant risk period. Analyses were performed separately for workers without any back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('asymptomatic' workers and for workers with limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('mildly symptomatic' workers. Results In the group of 'asymptomatic' workers, obese workers showed a more than twofold-increased risk on the development of LBP as compared to non-obese colleagues (RR 2.57, 95%CI: 1.09 – 6.09. In the group of 'mildly symptomatic' workers, the self-reports of pain before the examination turned out to be most predictive (RR 3.89, 95%CI: 1.20 – 12.64. Conclusion This study showed that, in a population of young workers wh no or

  17. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Crombez, Geert; Burdorf, Alex; Verbeke, Geert; Masschelein, Raphael; Moens, Guido; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2009-01-05

    In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low back, which is routinely performed in occupational medicine, predicts the development of low back pain (LBP). This study is part of the Belgian Low Back Cohort (BelCoBack) Study, a prospective study to identify risk factors for the development of low back disorders in occupational settings. The study population for this paper were 692 young healthcare or distribution workers (mean age of 26 years) with no or limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion. At baseline, these workers underwent a standardised physical examination of the low back. One year later, they completed a questionnaire on the occurrence of LBP and some of its characteristics. To study the respective role of predictors at baseline on the occurrence of LBP, we opted for Cox regression with a constant risk period. Analyses were performed separately for workers without any back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('asymptomatic' workers) and for workers with limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('mildly symptomatic' workers). In the group of 'asymptomatic' workers, obese workers showed a more than twofold-increased risk on the development of LBP as compared to non-obese colleagues (RR 2.57, 95%CI: 1.09 - 6.09). In the group of 'mildly symptomatic' workers, the self-reports of pain before the examination turned out to be most predictive (RR 3.89, 95%CI: 1.20 - 12.64). This study showed that, in a population of young workers wh no or limited antecedents of LBP at baseline, physical examinations, as

  18. LOW BACK PAINS –THE ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON'S ENIGMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outcome and success rates. The none surgical modalities available include medications, injections preolytic. LOW BACK PAINS –THE ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON'S ENIGMA enzymes, laser therapy, radiofrequency denervation, intradiscal electro thermal therapy, percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermoregulation ...

  19. Interrelations of risk factors and low back pain in scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To assess with a cross sectional study the interrelations between physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors and different end points of low back pain. METHODS: In total, 229 scaffolders and 59 supervisors completed a questionnaire about manual

  20. RFI mitigating receiver back end for radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back...

  1. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Crevits, I.; Baert, A.L.; Casteels-Van Daele, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents 6 " ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  3. Picosecond supercontinuum generation with back seeding of different spectral parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    We study supercontinuum generation with picosecond pumping and the spectrum obtained when coupling back the part of the output around 1200-1700 nanometres or the part around 700-900 nanometres with a variable time delay....

  4. The Effects of Spiral Taping Treatment on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jae-Ok

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of spiral taping treatment on low back pain. Methods : 420 low back pain patients were treated with spiral taping or spiral taping plus herbal medicine, and no other treatments such as acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and chiropractic therapy were added. We evaluated the improvement by physical examination and pain. Results : 364 patients felt no pain or inconvenience of daily life and 43 patients showed improvement of pain or symptom after 1 month of treatment. 13 patients showed same pain with before treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest spiral taping treatments contribute to the improvement of low back pain. Further study is needed for the confirmation of this effect of spiral taping treatments on low back pain.

  5. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  6. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  7. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  8. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  9. Prevalence of low back pain in former rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, M; Di Cagno, A; Cupisti, A; Panicucci, E; Santoro, G

    2009-09-01

    It is still debated as to whether rhythmic gymnastics is a discipline at risk of low back pain, because the concern for the extreme and repetitive hyperextension of the column may be counteracted by protective factors which are distinctive of rhythmic gymnasts, namely: leanness, lumbar flexibility and muscle strength. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of low back pain in a cohort of former elite-level rhythmic gymnasts of the Rhythmic Gymnastics National Team. The Study Group included 60 adult females who were former rhythmic gymnasts of the Italian National Team. The Control Group included 60 adult females comparable for age, who were never involved in high level sport competitions. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate low back-pain symptoms. Low back pain complaints were reported by 22 former rhythmic gymnasts and by 28 controls (36.6% vs. 46.6%, p: n.s.); in the ex-gymnasts the age of onset of pain was earlier than in controls. The former rhythmic gymnasts complaining low back pain reported a higher prevalence of symptoms also during the time of competitions, and retired earlier than those without pain. Former elite rhythmic gymnasts reported a prevalence of low back-pain similar to sex and age matched general population. However, the rhythmic gymnasts who complained back pain during the sport activity are at risk of an early onset of symptoms after the retire from competitions. This study suggests that rhythmic gymnastics is not associated with increased risk of low back pain in the adult age.

  10. LOW BACK PAIN IN A COMPETITIVE CRICKET ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Merlino, Justin; Perisa, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapists treating adolescent and young adult athletes with low back pain complaints should have a high level of clinical suspicion of the possibility for spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or developing stress reactions of the pars interarticularis. This case outlines the use of conventional radiography, computerized tomography, and Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent cricket athlete with low back pain.

  11. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  12. $1000 Cash Back: Asymmetric Information in Auto Manufaturer Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan Busse; Florian Zettelmeyer; Jorge Silva-Risso

    2004-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers make frequent use of promotions that give cash-back payments. Two common types of cash-back promotions are rebates to customers, which are widely publicized to potential customers, and discounts to dealers, which are not publicized. While the payments nominally go entirely to one party or the other, the real division of the manufacturer-supplied surplus between dealer and customer depends on what price the two parties negotiate. These two types of promotions thus form...

  13. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  14. Pressure ulcers: treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Madhuri

    2015-12-11

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers in up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments in people with pressure ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 307 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 203 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 163 studies and the further review of 40 full publications. Of the 40 full articles evaluated, seven systematic reviews and two RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for 15 PICO combinations. In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for 15 interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of air-fluidised supports, alternating-pressure surfaces (including mattresses), debridement, dressings, electrotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen, low-air-loss beds, low-level laser therapy, low-tech constant-low-pressure supports, nutritional supplements, seat cushions, surgery, therapeutic ultrasound, topical negative pressure, and topical phenytoin.

  15. Pressure Ulcers Surveillance Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Esin Gencer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pressure ulcer is a chronic wound. It reduces the quality of life of the elderly and individuals with restricted range of motion. It prolongs hospital stay and increases the risk of complications. The cost is quite high. Preventive actions for the prevention of pressure ulcers should be developed. Planning protocols and standards of care are among the main targets. Material and Method: Research was conducted in one-year period between 2012 May and 2013 May on patients who were followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital clinics and intensive care unit with pressure ulcers. The research population consisted of 569 patients. Patient data were recorded in SPSS 16 for Windows program. Statistical analyzes were performed with retrospective methods. The demographic characteristics of patients with pressure ulcers were analyzed as frequency and descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence of one year were calculated. Results: Of the patients, 58% were males, 42% were females. Of the patients, 36% were in the age range of 61-80 years, and their average length of stay was 42,9 days. Of the patients, 70% were at stage 2 and 3. In 15% of patients pressure ulcers occurred on the first day of hospitalization. Pressure ulcers were developed between days 2 and 10 in 59% of the patients. Prevalence rate was 2.5%, the incidence was 1.9%, the prevalence rate was 5.9% in the intensive care unit. Conclusion: It is easier to prevent pressure ulcers than treating.

  16. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  17. [Low back pain: when and what to do].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, S Tamás

    2015-08-16

    The low back pain has become one of the greatest public health problems worldwide. The author based on the current international standards summarizes the knowledge necessary for every day treatment of low back pain. In acute low back pain the author underlines the necessity of the rapid, accurate diagnosis and separation for specific and non-specific low back pain. In specific acute low back pain the treatment should focus on to eliminate the root causes. In non-specific cases pain killing treatment and early active mobilization is the choice for the therapeutic process. Beside analgesia, the primary goal of the treatment is to prevent becoming chronic the symptomatology. Objectives of the management of chronic low back pain are effective pain reduction, continuous maintainance of physical activity, prevention of permanent disability, and restoration of working ability. Analgesics, non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants reduce pain, while multidisciplinary management programs, personalized and guided physiotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as short training programs will help to restore function. Surgical treatment is only indicated in degenerative cases and only after the failure of conservative therapy.

  18. Low back pain during pregnancy and Kinesio tape application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhan, Aycan Çakmak; Dereli, Elif Elçin; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain is a common problem during pregnancy. Although the pain usually occurs in the third trimester, it might be seen in the first trimester, too. There are various types of applications for the treatment of low back pain during pregnancy. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of each method. If there is not an obvious deficit, bed rest, exercise, conventional physiotherapy, using protective principles for the lumbar area are recommended, since the main and the only complaint is low back pain. It is aimed in the current review to investigate the use of Kinesio tape in the low back pain seen during pregnancy and to review the literature related to this subject. There are only a few studies investigating the effect of Kinesio tape during pregnancy in the literature and they mostly did not aim to study the low back pain, further evidence and studies are needed to investigate the use of Kinesio tape for the low back pain seen during pregnancy as there is not evidence strong enough. Kinesiotape application aims to increase circulation and mobility, and regarding these gains decreased pain and increased performance are expected.

  19. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  20. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.