WorldWideScience

Sample records for back pressure

  1. Deuterium cluster jet produced at moderate backing pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbin Wang; Tianshu Wen; Yingling He; Chunye Jiao; Shuanggen Zhang; Xiangxian Wang; Fangfang Ge; Hongjie Liu; Guoquan Ni; Xiangdong Yang; Yuqiu Gu; Xianlun Wen; Weimin Zhou; Guangchang Wang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A deuterium cluster jet produced in the supersonic expansion into vacuum of deuterium gas at liquid nitrogen temperature and moderate backing pressures are studied by Rayleigh scattering techniques. The experimental results show that deuterium clusters can be created at moderate gas backing pressures ranging from 8 to 23 bar, and a maximum average cluster size of 350 atoms per cluster is estimated. The temporal evolution of the cluster jet generated at the backing pressure of 20 bar demonstrates a two-plateau structure. The possible mechanism responsible for this structure is discussed. The former plateau with higher average atom and cluster densities is more suitable for the general laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  2. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    OpenAIRE

    Karoon Agrawal; Neha Chauhan

    2012-01-01

    Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is som...

  3. Pressure ulcers: Back to the basics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoon Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcer in an otherwise sick patient is a matter of concern for the care givers as well as the medical personnel. A lot has been done to understand the disease process. So much so that USA and European countries have established advisory panels in their respective continents. Since the establishment of these organizations, the understanding of the pressure ulcer has improved significantly. The authors feel that the well documented and well publicized definition of pressure ulcer is somewhat lacking in the correct description of the disease process. Hence, a modified definition has been presented. This disease is here to stay. In the process of managing these ulcers the basic pathology needs to be understood well. Pressure ischemia is the main reason behind the occurrence of ulceration. Different extrinsic and intrinsic factors have been described in detail with review of literature. There are a large number of risk factors causing ulceration. The risk assessment scales have eluded the surgical literature and mostly remained in nursing books and websites. These scales have been reproduced for completion of the basics on decubitus ulcer. The classification of the pressure sores has been given in a comparative form to elucidate that most of the classifications are the same except for minor variations. The management of these ulcers is ever evolving but the age old saying of "prevention is better than cure" suits this condition the most.

  4. A novel prediction method for back pressure based on fuzzy inference theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanghua; Zhang, Kunting; Qi, Hongyuan; Nan, Bingshen

    2017-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of back pressure set unreasonable in direct air-cooling unit, a back-pressure-fuzzy-inference machine is established in this paper, of which the environmental temperature and wind speed are the inputs, and the optimal back pressure is the output. The feasibility of the novel method is verified by simulation and experimental results, and the accuracy of back pressure fuzzy prediction can satisfy the operating requirements.

  5. Modeling, Parameters Identification, and Control of High Pressure Fuel Cell Back-Pressure Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxiang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactant pressure is crucial to the efficiency and lifespan of a high pressure PEMFC engine. This paper analyses a regulated back-pressure valve (BPV for the cathode outlet flow in a high pressure PEMFC engine, which can achieve precisely pressure control. The modeling, parameters identification, and nonlinear controller design of a BPV system are considered. The identified parameters are used in designing active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC. Simulations and extensive experiments are conducted with the xPC Target and show that the proposed controller can not only achieve good dynamic and static performance but also have strong robustness against parameters’ disturbance and external disturbance.

  6. Wafer back pressure control and optimization in the CMP process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Yanwu; Zhang Hui; Zhou Kai; Ye Peiqing

    2011-01-01

    Chemical mechanical polishing(CMP)is the most effective wafer global planarization technology.The CMP polishing head is one of the most important components,and zone back pressure control technology is used to design a new generation of polishing head.The quality of polishing not only depends on slurry,but also depends on the precise control of polishing pressures.During the CMP polishing process,the set pressure of each chamber is usually not the same and the presence of a flexible elastic diaphragm causes coupling effects.Because of the coupling effects,the identification of multi-chambers and pressure controls becomes complicated.To solve the coupling problem,this paper presents a new method of multi-chamber decoupled control,and then system identification and control parameter tuning are carried out based on the method.Finally,experiments of multichambers inflated at the same time are performed.The experimental results show that the presented decoupling control method is feasible and correct.

  7. Vane Back-Pressure of Vane Type Compressors and Its Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuta, Mitsuhiro; Yanagisawa, Tadashi; Ijiri, Makoto; Yoda, Seiichiro

    Vane type compressors pressurize a back-pressure chamber of the vane to keep a contact between a vane tip and a stator wall. It is important to apply appropriate pressure to the back-pressure chamber in order to prevent the excessive friction at the vane tip or the chattering phenomenon. However, the determination of the pressure is so complicated that it has been designed empirically or experimentally. In this study, the back-pressure is measured with visualizing a plate groove to which the back-pressure chamber is connected. The plate groove is filled with the mixture of oil and refrigerant gas, and the void fraction in it increases with the rotational speed. The back-pressure decreases with increasing the rotational speed and the influence of the discharge pressure on the back-pressure is larger than that of the suction pressure. It is found that the leakage through the rotor face is one of the dominant factors and it can be modeled by using the time averaged pressure distribution on the rotor circumference. The calculated results by the mathematical model developed in this study agree well with the experimental results under several conditions.

  8. Modeling novel back-pressure mechanisms for a 100 Gb/s switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of novel back-pressure mechanisms in a Clos-based 100 Gb/s switch system via OPNET modeler simulations. The effectiveness of the mechanisms under different switch configurations, as well as under different traffic patterns, is presented. Our results indicate...... that the proposed back-pressure techniques can effectively reduce the requirements for buffer space in the different stages of the Clos switch....

  9. Isometric Back Exercise Has Different Effect on Pressure Pain Thresholds in Healthy Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona;

    2016-01-01

    Biering-Soerensen back extension test. RESULTS: After exercise, PPT increased significantly at the hand in women, but not in men (P = 0.027). Moreover, PPT at the leg increased independently of sex (P ... and remote assessment sites, before and after an isometric back exercise in healthy women and men. METHODS: In a pre-posttest design, pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed at the lower back, biceps femoris muscle, and hand in 29 healthy subjects (17 women) before and after 120 seconds of the isometric...

  10. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, R.; Mandjes, M.; Scheinhardt, W.; van den Berg, H.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols - in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues, we deriv

  11. Design issues of a back-pressure-based congestion control mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra, Richa; Mandjes, Michel; Scheinhardt, Werner; Berg, van den Hans

    2010-01-01

    Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols – in this paper we assess the performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. Relying on our earlier results for feedback fluid queues,we derive

  12. High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects at high pressure in oriented ruby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, Marius; Broto, Jean-Marc; Gonzalez, Jesus

    2008-10-01

    High-field Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects have been observed in single crystals of ruby submitted to hydrostatic pressure up to 10 GPa. A specific setup with a miniature diamond-anvil cell has been developed to combine high pressure and pulsed magnetic fields and to perform magnetophotoluminescence measurements. Careful analysis of low-temperature (4.2 and 77 K) photoluminescence spectra with a 56 T magnetic field applied along the c axis allows for the rectification of the assignment of observed emission lines to corresponding Zeeman-split levels. Besides, the intrinsic Zeeman-splitting factors of excited states reveal a linear pressure-induced increase. This enhancement is a signature of an increase in trigonal distortion induced by hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, spectra with magnetic field perpendicular to crystallographic c axis exhibit a Paschen-Back effect reflecting the progressive alignment of Cr3+ ions spin along the applied field. However, no pressure modification is observed in this compound, contrarily to the Heisenberg-to-Ising spin character pressure-induced transition observed in alexandrite.

  13. Optical back-action in silicon nanowire resonators: bolometric versus radiation pressure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santos, E.; Ramos, D.; Pini, V.; Llorens, J.; Fernández-Regúlez, M.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.; San Paulo, A.

    2013-03-01

    We study optical back-action effects associated with confined electromagnetic modes in silicon nanowire resonators interacting with a laser beam used for interferometric read-out of the nanowire vibrations. Our analysis describes the resonance frequency shift produced in the nanowires by two different mechanisms: the temperature dependence of the nanowire's Young's modulus and the effect of radiation pressure. We find different regimes in which each effect dominates depending on the nanowire morphology and dimensions, resulting in either positive or negative frequency shifts. Our results also show that in some cases bolometric and radiation pressure effects can have opposite contributions so that their overall effect is greatly reduced. We conclude that Si nanowire resonators can be engineered for harnessing back-action effects for either optimizing frequency stability or exploiting dynamic phenomena such as parametric amplification.

  14. Effect of pore pressure on deformation and unstable snap-back for shear band and elastic rock system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin

    2007-01-01

    Fast Lagrangian analysis of continua(FLAC) was used to study the influence of pore pressure on the mechanical behavior of rock specimen in plane strain direct shear, the distribution of yielded elements, the distribution of displacement and velocity across shear band as well as the snap-back (elastic rebound) instability. The effective stress law was used to represent the weakening of rock containing pore fluid under pressure. Numerical results show that rock specimen becomes soft (lower strength and hardening modulus) as pore pressure increases, leading to higher displacement skip across shear band. Higher pore pressure results in larger area of plastic zone, higher concentration of shear strain, more apparent precursor to snap-back (unstable failure) and slower snap-back. For higher pore pressure, the formation of shear band-elastic body system and the snap-back are earlier; the distance of snap-back decreases; the capacity of snap-back decreases, leading to lower elastic strain energy liberated beyond the instability and lower earthquake or rockburst magnitude. In the process of snap-back, the velocity skip across shear band is lower for rock specimen at higher pore pressure, showing the slower velocity of snap-back.

  15. Analysis of Static Pressure in Area between Back Plate and Cylinder of a Carding Machine with CFD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xian-guo; SUN Peng-zi; ZHAO Ye-ping

    2009-01-01

    To analyze static pressure between back plate and cylinder in an A186 carding machine, a fluid model is established. The model takes into account static pressure of airflow near back plate with the numerical simulation method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in FLUENT software. The result of the simulation in the model shows that static pressure in this area quickly increases to its maximum then rapidly decreases to a lower fixed value from inlet to outlet along a zone between back plate and cylinder. Both rotating speeds of the cylinder and the taker-in affect static pressure from the inlet to the outlet, of which the cylinder rotating speed has more influence than that of taker-in.. Numerical simulations reveal that static pressure on surface of back plate are in good agreement with the former result of experimental analysis.

  16. Response of transonic diffuser flows to abrupt increases of back pressure: Wall pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogar, T. J.; Sajben, M.

    1986-10-01

    The propagation of compression pulses in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser was investigated by use of pressure measurements along the top wall of the model. The pulses were generated at the downstream end of the diffuser by the abrupt injection of a secondary flow of air. Two types of waves were observed: (1) an upstream-traveling acoustic wave and (2) a downstream-traveling convective wave which resulted from the impingement of the acoustic wave on the shock. Wave speeds were determined for a range of diffuser pressure ratios including separated, strong-shock flows and fully attached, weak-shock flows. Streamwise distributions of initial and reflected pulse amplitudes were determined for one weak and one strong-shock case over a 3-to-1 range of initial pulse strengths.

  17. High Back Pressure on Pressure Safety Valves (PSVs) in a Flare System. Developing the Simulation model, Identifying and analyzing the back-pressure build-up

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Muktikanta

    2013-01-01

    Process safety is a disciplined framework for managing the integrity of operating systems and processes handling hazardous substances. It is achieved by applying good design principles, engineering, and operating and maintenance practices. Flare systems play an important role in the safety of Oil and Gas installations by serving as outlets for emergency pressure relief in case of process upsets. Accurate and reliable estimation of system thermo-hydraulic parameters, especially system ...

  18. Back corona enhanced organic film deposition inside an Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rokibul; Xie, Shuzheng; Englund, Karl; Pedrow, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    A grounded screen with short needle-like protrusions has been designed to generate back corona in an Atmospheric Pressure Weakly Ionized Plasma (APWIP) reactor. The grounded screen with protrusions is placed downstream at a variable gap length from an array of needles that is energized with 60 Hz high voltage. The excitation voltage is in the range 0--10 kV RMS and the feed gas mixture consists of argon and acetylene. A Lecroy 9350AL 500 MHz digital oscilloscope is used to monitor the reactor voltage and current using a resistive voltage divider and a current viewing resistor, respectively. The current signal contains many positive and negative current pulses associated with corona discharge. Analysis of the current signal shows asymmetry between positive and negative corona discharge currents. Photographs show substantial back corona generated near the tips of the protrusions situated at the grounded screen. The back corona activates via bond scission acetylene radicals that are transported downstream to form a plasma-polymerized film on a substrate positioned downstream from the grounded screen. The oscillograms will be used to generate corona mode maps that show the nature of the corona discharge as a function of gap spacing, applied voltage and many other reactor parameters.

  19. Using hybrid models to predict blood pressure reactivity to unsupported back based on anthropometric characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gurmanik KAUR‡; Ajat Shatru ARORA; Vijender Kumar JAIN

    2015-01-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in epidemiological studies, screening programmes, and re-search studies as well as in clinical practice for the early detection and prevention of high BP-related risks such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Posture of the participant plays a vital role in accurate measurement of BP. Guidelines on measurement of BP contain recommendations on the position of the back of the participants by advising that they should sit with supported back to avoid spuriously high readings. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is fused with forward stepwise regression (SWR), artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) model for the prediction of BP reactivity to an unsupported back in normotensive and hypertensive participants. PCA is used to remove multi-collinearity among anthropometric predictor variables and to select a subset of com-ponents, termed‘principal components’ (PCs), from the original dataset. The selected PCs are fed into the proposed models for modeling and testing. The evaluation of the performance of the constructed models, using appropriate statistical indices, shows clearly that a PCA-based LS-SVM (PCA-LS-SVM) model is a promising approach for the prediction of BP reactivity in com-parison to others. This assessment demonstrates the importance and advantages posed by hybrid models for the prediction of variables in biomedical research studies.

  20. Effect of combining traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhen; Zhao, Meiya; Ma, Jian; Tian, Shan; Xiang, Pin; Yao, Wei; Fan, Yubo

    2014-11-01

    Eighty-five percent of the population has experienced low back pain (LBP), which may result in decreasing muscle strength and endurance, functional capacity of the spine, and so on. Traction and vibration are commonly used to relieve the low back pain. The effect of the combing traction and vibration on back muscles, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) was investigated in this study. Thirty healthy subjects participated in 12 trials lying supine on the spine-combing bed with different tilt angle (0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) and vibration modes (along with the sagittal and coronal axis with 0 Hz, 2 Hz and 12 Hz separately). EMG was recorded during each trial. Power spectral frequency analysis was applied to evaluate muscle fatigue by the shift of median power frequency (MPF). Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated from BP. HR and PP were used to estimate the effect of the combination of traction and vibration on the cardio-vascular system. It was shown that vibration could increase HR and decrease PP. The combination of traction and vibration (2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis) had no significant effect on the cardio-vascular system. The MPF of lumbar erector spinae (LES) and upper trapezius (UT) decreased significantly when the angle reached 20° under the condition of 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis compared with it of 0°. Furthermore, the MPF also decreased significantly compared with it of static mode at 20° for LES and at 30° for UT. However at 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis, the MPF had significant increase when the angle reached 20° in LES and 30° in UT compared to 0°. For LES, the MPF also had significant difference when the angle was increased from 10° to 20°. Therefore, combining 2 Hz vibration along Z-axis and traction (tilt angles that less than 20°) may to reduce muscle fatigue both for LES and UT compared with either vibration or traction alone. The combination of 12 Hz vibration along Y-axis and traction (tilt angles

  1. Experimental and Parametric Design of Petroleum Back-pressured Hydraulic Impactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guang-jie; YAO Zhen-qiang; CHEN Ping; HUANG Wan-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Percussive-rotary drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. It is a key for popularizing this technology on a large scale to design and make an impactor with excellent performance. This paper presents a suit of method to design the percussive parameters for the oil or gas field by introducing the working principle of back-pressured impactor, dividing the working periods of impactor into three phases and establishing the computer emulational model of percussive parameters. It draws a comparison between the results of model calculation and experiment on the basis of analyzing the experiment results of impactor.The conclude provides credible foundation for designing and further ameliorating the impactor.

  2. Influence of an Optimized Thermoelectric Generator on the Back Pressure of the Subsequent Exhaust Gas System of a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Roland; Koeppen, Olaf; Kitte, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Numerous research projects in automotive engineering focus on the industrialization of the thermoelectric generator (TEG). The development and the implementation of thermoelectric systems into the vehicle environment are commonly supported by virtual design activities. In this paper a customized simulation architecture is presented that includes almost all vehicle parts which are influenced by the TEG (overall system simulation) but is nevertheless capable of real-time use. Moreover, an optimized planar TEG with minimum nominal power output of about 580 W and pressure loss at nominal conditions of 10 mbar, synthesized using the overall system simulation, and the overall system simulation itself are used to answer a generally neglected question: What influence does the position of a TEG have on the back pressure of the subsequent exhaust gas system of the vehicle? It is found that the influence of the TEG on the muffler is low, but the catalytic converter is strongly influenced. It is shown that the TEG can reduce the back pressure of an exhaust gas system so much that its overall back pressure is less than the back pressure of a standard exhaust gas system.

  3. Pressure-induced Paschen-Back effect of R-lines in alexandrite under high magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Noritaka; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Kido, Giyuu; Takeda, Masayasu; Nishina, Yuichiro; Nakagawa, Yasuaki

    1992-06-01

    Magneto-luminescence of R-lines has been studied in alexandrite subjected to quasi-hydrostatic pressures near 8 GPa at 77 K. In contrast to the previous experiment under low pressures, the Zeeman spectrum exhibits Paschen-Back behavior if a magnetic field up to 15 T is applied parallel to the b- and c-axes of the crystal. This phenomenon reflects that the transverse moment of spins of the 2E term of Cr(3+) ions is significantly reduced by pressure. Pressure strengthens the Ising character of the spins by elevating axial symmetry of the crystal field.

  4. Characteristics of the Mach Disk in the Underexpanded Jet in which the Back Pressure Continuously Changes with Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Irie; T. Yasunobu; H. Kashimura; T. Setoguchi

    2003-01-01

    When the high-pressure gas is exhausted to the vacuum chamber from the nozzle, the underexpanded supersonic jet contained with the Mach disk is generally formed. The eventual purpose of this study is to clarify the unsteady phenomenon of the underexpanded free jet when the back pressure continuously changes with time. The characteristic of the Mach disk has been clarified in consideration of the diameter and position of it by the numerical analysis in this paper. The sonic jet of the exit Mach number Me=1 is assumed and the axisymmetric conservational equation is solved by the TVD method in the numerical calculation.The diameter and position of the Mach disk differs with the results of a steady jet and the influence on the continuously changing of the back pressure is evidenced from the comparison with the case of steady supersonic jet.

  5. Is there significant correlation between self-reported low back pain visual analogue scores and low back pain scores determined by pressure pain induction matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbain, David A; Lewis, John E; Gao, Jinrun

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS) low back pain (LBP) scores are valid against matched psychophysically induced pressure pain scores. Two hundred thirty-six chronic LBP patients (some with neck pain) reported their LBP and neck pain scores on a VAS immediately before psychophysical pressure pain induction used to determine pain threshold (PTHRE), pain tolerance (PTOL), and a psychophysical pressure pain score which matched (PMAT) their current LBP. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients were calculated between reported VAS neck scores, reported VAS LBP scores, and the psychophysically determined LBP PMAT scores. The PMAT scores were calculated utilizing PTOL only and both PTOL and PTHRE. There was a significant correlation between the LBP PMAT scores and the reported LBP VAS scores for both types of psychophysical LBP PMAT score calculations; however, there were insignificant correlations between the LBP PMAT scores and reported neck VAS scores. Chronic LBP patients can match their self-reported VAS LBP scores to psychophysically determined LBP PMAT scores. As such, self-reported VAS chronic LBP scores appear to be valid against one type of psychophysical measurement.

  6. 背压式硅压阻压差传感器的研制%Research on Back-pressure Silicon Piezoresisitive Differential Pressure Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王臻; 王伟; 杨明; 任海燕; 马亚军

    2016-01-01

    根据伺服系统高精度、高可靠性的测量需求,研制一种背压式硅压阻压差传感器.传感器基于硅的压阻效应,与目前硅压阻压差传感器使用薄膜隔离式敏感芯体不同,其感压芯片的背部直接接触被测介质感受压力,避免了硅油介质传递压力.因此,敏感芯体结构简单可靠,提高了传感器长期承压的可靠性.介绍背压式硅压阻压差传感器的原理及设计与实现,主要包括芯体设计、电路设计、结构设计等.传感器通过性能试验以及环境适应性试验的考核,并在伺服系统上进行相关试验,结果证明能够满足伺服系统使用要求.%According to the measurement requirements of servo system with high accuracy and high reliability, a kind of back-pressure type silicon piezoresistive differential pressure sensor is developed. The sensor is based on piezoresistive effect of silicon, unlike the current silicon piezoresistive differential pressure sensor using the thin-film isolation sensitive core, the back of the pressure sensing chip directly contacts the measured medium to sense pressure, so as to avoid the oil medium transferring pressure. Therefore, the sensitive core has a simple and reliable structure, and can improve the sensor's reliability of long-term pressure-bearing. The principle and the realization and design of back-pressure silicon piezoresistive differential pressure sensors are introduced in this paper, mainly including: the core design, circuit design, and structure design. The sensor passed through evaluation of the performance test and environmental adaptability test, and also was tested in the servo system, and the results proved the sensor can meet the application requirements of servo system.

  7. On the pathogenesis of bedsores. Skin blood flow cessation by external pressure on the back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, B; Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    -antipyrine mixed with histamine. The external pressure was measured by a small airfilled plastic cushion connected to a mercury manometer. In 11 normal subjects, eight patients with hypertension and seven patients with tetra- or paraplegia the "flow cessation external pressure" (FCEP) was strongly correlated...

  8. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells: Application to single-crystal X-ray diffraction high-pressure data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci;

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  9. Tactical mediatization and activist ageing: pressures, push-backs, and the story of RECAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sawchuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This case study examines the incorporation of digital media technologies and practices into Respecting Elders: Communities Against elder Abuse (RECAA, an organization of activist elders. By studying RECAA’s specific transition and following the work of Michel de Certeau (1988, I distinguish between tactical mediatization and strategic mediatization. Organizations such as RECAA must negotiate with political, ideological, administrative, and economic agendas that exert pressure and provide incentives for organizations “to mediatize” in order to survive in the current Canadian context. ‘Tactical mediatization’ is used to understand RECAA’s very deliberate and considered response to these pressures. This distinction provides a framework for conceptualizing how activist organizations such as RECAA struggle to exert agency within meta-processes that place mounting and insistent pressure on the organization to incorporate digital media technologies into its mandate and system of values.

  10. The Effect of Back Pressure on the Operation of a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    common use today. The snorkel was first fitted to submarines by the Royal Netherlands Navy in 1938, allowing the diesel engine to be operated while...for almost as long as submarines have existed, and are still in common use today. The snorkel was first fitted to the submarine-minelayers ‘019...van den Pol, E. (1987) The Simulation of the Dynamic Pressure Variations Inside Snorkeling Submarines. 3. Kirkman, E. T. F. and Hopper, R. A. (1990

  11. The Effect of Back Pressure on the Operation of a Disel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    common use today. The snorkel was first fitted to submarines by the Royal Netherlands Navy in 1938, allowing the diesel engine to be operated while...for almost as long as submarines have existed, and are still in common use today. The snorkel was first fitted to the submarine-minelayers ‘019...van den Pol, E. (1987) The Simulation of the Dynamic Pressure Variations Inside Snorkeling Submarines. 3. Kirkman, E. T. F. and Hopper, R. A. (1990

  12. Accuracy of Ceramic Mould Filling with Liquid AlSi9 Aluminium Alloy in the Process Using Back-pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karwiński

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of suction pressure exerted on the liquid AlSi alloy when it is introduced into a ceramic mould made in the investment process and the results compared with data obtained on gravity poured castings.The study used special pattern sets and ceramic moulds made with the alternately applied soluble silicate binder and ethyl silicate.Additionally, self-supported moulds based entirely on the Ekosil binder were used. In the analysis of castings, the following parameters were examined: a linear dimensional accuracy, the state of surface microgeometry and the possibility of metal penetration into a complex ceramic mould, allowing also for the presence of capillary phenomena. In the process of casting with back-pressure, the pressure values of 500 hPa, 600 hPa and 700 hPa were applied in the chamber where the ceramic mould was located, with the temperature of the said mould kept at a level of 150  10C.

  13. Phase Equilibrium Calculation of Mixtures:Use of the SAFT-BACK Equation of State for Binary Systems under Elevated Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志禹; 胡中桥; 杨基础; 李以圭

    2002-01-01

    The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-Boublík-Alder-Chen- Kreglewshi(BACK) equation of state is employed to correlate vapor-liquid equilibria of 16 binary mixtures composed of supercritical fluids with other fluids at elevated pressures. The van der Waals mixing rules are used and the binary parameters are adjusted to experimental data. The SAFT-BACK equation of state provides a better correlation of vapor-liquid equilibrium than the original BACK equation. Consequently, the binary parameters computed from the data sets can be used to accurately predict the saturated densities of the vapor and liquid phases.

  14. Reactive extraction of carboxylic acids from apolar hydrocarbons using aqueous solutions of sodium hydrogen carbonate with back-recovery using carbon dioxide under pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmanovic, Boris; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de Andre B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    A combination of using an aqueous solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate for forward-extraction of carboxylic acids from a dilute apolar organic solvent, and carbon dioxide under pressure for its back-recovery, is studied. Used in combination, these two steps might provide a technique for the recover

  15. 6MW Back Pressure Unit Technical Transformation in a Thermal Power Plant%某热电厂6 MW背压机组技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭峰; 胡庆兵; 何鹏

    2015-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of energy, a thermal power plant planned to build a 6MW medi-um temperature sub-high pressure back pressure turbine generator unit, which would replace two 3MW medium temperature and medium pressure back pressure turbine generator units. At the same time, a 3 MW extraction condensing unit in the first phase of the project was converted into a back pressure tur-bine with post machine connected with the exhaust steam pipe in order to solve the problem of poor system stability caused by the low heat load in the off-season in the company. It used the exhaust steam of the back pressure turbine as its steam admission to maintain the stable operation of the back pressure machine. This paper analyzed the technical transformation. Using the back pressure turbine with high parameters instead of the one with low parameters can improve energy efficiency; reduce pollutant emis-sions to achieve the aim of saving energy, protecting the environment and enhancing the area resident’ s quality of life.%某热电厂为提高能源利用率,拟新建一台6 MW中温次高压背压式汽轮发电机组,替代2台3 MW中温中压背压式汽轮发电机组,同时为解决公司淡季热负荷低造成系统稳定性差的问题,将一期1台3 MW抽凝机组改造成后置机接在背压机排汽管道后,利用背压机排汽作为它的进汽,起到维持背压机稳定运行的作用。本文对此技术改造进行了分析,以高参数的背压机组替代低参数的背压机组,提高能源利用率,减少污染物排放总量,达到节约能源、保护环境、提高区域内居民生活质量的目的。

  16. Pressure pain sensitivity maps of the neck-shoulder and the low back regions in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Pascal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Musculoskeletal pain in the low back and neck-shoulder regions is a major problem among the working population all over the world. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is found to be higher among women. Women also have lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs than men. Pressure pain topography aims at mapping the spatial distribution of PPT within a muscle in an attempt to track changes in mechanical sensitivity. In order to assess gender differences in the pain topography, it is necessary to map the distribution in both healthy men and women. The aim of this study was to assess PPT maps from the cervico-thoracic and lumbar regions in men and women. Methods Eleven men and eleven women without any known musculoskeletal disorders participated in the study. PPT was measured twice at 36 points over the trapezius muscle of the dominant arm, at 36 points over the trapezius muscle on the contralateral side and at 12 points over the spine between the left and right trapezius. Further, 11 points were measured over the erector spinae muscle on the left side of the spine between the first and the fifth lumbar vertebrae, 11 on the right side and 5 points on the spine itself. The measurements on each trapezius muscle were divided according to anatomical subdivisions. Three-way and two-way ANOVAs were used to analyse the differences in PPTs with the following factors: gender, locations and sub-divisions (only for cervico-thoracic region. Results There were no differences between left and right side in neither the cervico-thoracic nor the lumbar region, but there were (large effect differences between the subdivisions in the trapezius with the lowest values in the upper part (P 2 = 0.19. Women had (small effect lower PPT in both cervico-thoracic and lumbar regions (P ≤ 0.001; partial η2 = 0.02 for both regions, but gender had no effect on neither location nor subdivisions. Conclusions The pain topography was not found to be different

  17. Effect of the rider position during rising trot on the horse׳s biomechanics (back and trunk kinematics and pressure under the saddle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Cheze, L; Pourcelot, P; Desquilbet, L; Duray, L; Chateau, H

    2016-05-03

    Knowledge about the horse-saddle-rider interaction remains limited. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the rider׳s position at rising trot on the pressure distribution, spine movements, stirrups forces and locomotion of the horse. The horse׳s back movements were measured using IMUs fixed at the levels of thoracic (T6, T12, T16) and lumbar (L2, L5) vertebrae, the pressure distribution using a pressure mat and stirrups forces using force sensors. The horse׳s and rider׳s approximated centres of mass (COM) were calculated using 2D reflective markers. To compare both trot phases (rider seated/rider standing), three horses were trotted at the rising trot by the same rider. Means±SD of each parameter for sitting and standing were compared using a Student׳s t test (p=0.05). Stirrups forces showed two peaks of equal magnitude in every stride cycle for left and right stirrups but increased during the standing phase. Simultaneously, the pressure for the whole mat significantly increased by +3.1kPa during the sitting phase with respect to standing phase. The T12-T16 and T16-L2 angular ranges of motion (ROM) were significantly reduced (-3.2° -1.2°) and the T6-T12 and L2-L5 ROM were significantly increased (+1.7° +0.7°) during sitting phase compared to standing phase. During rising trot, the sitting phase does not only increase the pressure on the horse׳s back but also reduces the back motion under the saddle compared to the standing phase. These results give new insights into the understanding of horse-rider interactions and equine back pain management.

  18. Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extending from your neck to your pelvis. Back injuries can result from sports injuries, work around the house or in the garden, ... back is the most common site of back injuries and back pain. Common back injuries include Sprains ...

  19. Retrograde arterial leg blood flow during tilt-back from a head-up posture: importance of capacitive flows when arterial pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, Don D; Nådland, Inger Helene; Toska, Karin

    2010-03-01

    The windkessel function of the arterial system converts the intermittent action of the heart into more continuous microcirculatory blood flow during diastole via the return of elastic energy stored in the walls of the arteries during systole. Might the same phenomenon occur regionally within the arterial system during tilting owing to regional differences in local arterial pressure imposed by gravity? We sought to test the hypothesis that during tilt-back from a head-up posture, the return of stored elastic energy in leg arteries would work to slow, or perhaps transiently reverse, the flow of blood in the femoral artery. Femoral artery blood flow and arterial pressure were recorded during tilt back from a 30 degrees head-up posture to supine (approximately 0.5 G) in young, healthy subjects (n = 7 males and 3 females) before and during clonidine infusion. During control (no drug) conditions femoral artery blood flow ceased for an entire heart beat during tilt-back. During clonidine infusion femoral artery blood flow reversed for at least one entire heart beat during tilt-back, i.e., blood flow in the retrograde direction in the femoral artery from the leg into the abdomen. Thus substantial capacitive effects of tilting on leg blood flow occur in humans during mild changes in posture.

  20. Mechanical Modeling of Near-Fault Deformation Within the Dragon's Back Pressure Ridge, San Andreas Fault, Carrizo Plain, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2011-12-01

    This contribution uses field observations and numerical modeling to understand how slip along the variably oriented fault surfaces in the upper few km of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) zone produces near-fault deformation observed within a 4.5-km-long Dragon's Back Pressure Ridge (DBPR) in the Carrizo Plain, central California. Geologic and geomorphic mapping of this feature indicates that the amplitude of monoclinal warping of Quaternary sediments increases from southeast to northwest along the southwestern third of the DBPR, and remains approximately constant throughout the remaining two thirds of the landform. When viewed with other structural observations and limited near-surface magnetotelluric imaging, these geologic observations are most compatible with a scenario in which shallow offset of the SAF to the northeast creates a structural knuckle that is anchored to the North American plate. Thus, deformation accrues as right-lateral strike-slip motion along the SAF moves this obstruction along the fault plane through the DBPR block. We have used the Gale numerical model to simulate deformation expected for geometries similar to those inferred within the vicinity of the DBPR. This is accomplished by relating stresses and strains in the upper crust according to a Drucker-Prager (plastic yielding) constitutive rule. Deformation in the model is driven by applying 35 mm/yr of right-lateral strike-slip motion to the model boundary; this displacement rate is likewise applied to the base of the model. The model geometry of the SAF at the beginning of the loading was fashioned to produce the discontinuity in the geometry of the fault plane that is inferred from field observations. The friction and cohesion of crust on each side of the fault were changed between models to determine the parameter values that preserve the structural discontinuity along the SAF as finite deformation accrued. The structural discontinuity over the ~4.5 km of model displacement is maintained in

  1. Is One Trial Sufficient to Obtain Excellent Pressure Pain Threshold Reliability in the Low Back of Asymptomatic Individuals? A Test-Retest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of pressure pain threshold (PPT) provides a quantitative value related to the mechanical sensitivity to pain of deep structures. Although excellent reliability of PPT has been reported in numerous anatomical locations, its absolute and relative reliability in the lower back region remains to be determined. Because of the high prevalence of low back pain in the general population and because low back pain is one of the leading causes of disability in industrialized countries, assessing pressure pain thresholds over the low back is particularly of interest. The purpose of this study study was (1) to evaluate the intra- and inter- absolute and relative reliability of PPT within 14 locations covering the low back region of asymptomatic individuals and (2) to determine the number of trial required to ensure reliable PPT measurements. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were included in this study. PPTs were assessed among 14 anatomical locations in the low back region over two sessions separated by one hour interval. For the two sessions, three PPT assessments were performed on each location. Reliability was assessed computing intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimum detectable change (MDC) for all possible combinations between trials and sessions. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to assess potential bias in the dataset. Relative reliability for both intra- and inter- session was almost perfect with ICC ranged from 0.85 to 0.99. With respect to the intra-session, no statistical difference was reported for ICCs and SEM regardless of the conducted comparisons between trials. Conversely, for inter-session, ICCs and SEM values were significantly larger when two consecutive PPT measurements were used for data analysis. No significant difference was observed for the comparison between two consecutive measurements and three measurements. Excellent relative and absolute reliabilities were reported for both intra

  2. Randomized controlled pilot study: pain intensity and pressure pain thresholds in patients with neck and low back pain before and after traditional East Asian "gua sha" therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Wübbeling, Klaus; Lüdtke, Rainer; Cramer, Holger; Choi, Kyung-Eun; Rampp, Thomas; Michalsen, Andreas; Langhorst, Jost; Dobos, Gustav J

    2012-01-01

    Gua Sha is a traditional East Asian healing technique where the body surface is "press-stroked" with a smooth-edged instrument to raise therapeutic petechiae that last 2-5 days. The technique is traditionally used in the treatment of both acute and chronic neck and back pain. This study aimed to measure the effects of Gua Sha therapy on the pain ratings and pressure pain thresholds of patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) and chronic low back pain (CLBP). A total of 40 patients with either CNP or CLBP (mean age 49.23 ± 10.96 years) were randomized to either a treatment group (TG) or a waiting list control group (WLC). At baseline assessment (T1), all patients rated their pain on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). Patients' pressure pain thresholds (PPT) at a site of maximal pain (pain-maximum) and an adjacent (pain-adjacent) site were also established. The treatment group then received a single Gua Sha treatment. Post-intervention measurements were taken for both groups at T2, seven days after baseline assessment (T1), using the same VAS and PPT measurements in precisely the same locations as at T1. Final analysis were conducted with 21 patients with CNP and 18 patients with CLBP. The study groups were equally distributed with regard to randomization. Patients in both the CNP and the CLBP treatment groups reported pain reduction (p treatment, as compared to the waiting list group. Pain sensitivity improved in the TG in CNP, but not in CLBP patients, possibly due to higher pressure sensitivity in the neck area. No adverse events were reported. These results suggest that Gua Sha may be an effective treatment for patients with chronic neck and low back pain. Further study of Gua Sha is warranted.

  3. Influence of pressure conditions and back-filling materials on the durability of bore-hole ground loops; Lebensdauer von Erdwaermesonden in Bezug auf Druckverhaeltnisse und Hinterfuellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohner, R. [E. Rohner, Arnegg (Switzerland); Rybach, L.; Salton, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ), Institut fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the influence of the relatively high pressures found in ground loops at depths of more than 200 metres and the effects caused by overloading the ground loops. The latter can cause the back-filling between the ground loop and the surrounding rock to freeze. The report describes tests carried out on 70-metre and 265-metre deep test bore-hole installations. The results of investigations into the influence of such pressure conditions on the materials of the ground loop and their service life are presented. The results are also compared with simulations using the FRACTure and EED calculation programmes. Details are given on the bore-holes with respect to their geology and construction. The report concludes that bore-hole ground loops can be considered as being very robust components with a long service life, provided they are designed and installed according to accepted professional standards.

  4. Cortical sensorimotor processing of painful pressure in patients with chronic lower back pain – An optical neuroimaging study using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Vrana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin (O2Hb and HHb in the supplementary motor area (SMA and primary somatosensory cortex (S1 compared to healthy controls (HC. Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6.1 years; range: 24 – 44 years; 9 women and twenty HCs (33.5 ± 10.7 years; range 22-61 years; 8 women participated in the study. Painful and non-painful pressure stimulation was exerted with a thumb grip perpendicularly to the spinous process of the lumbar spine. A force sensor was attached at the spinous process in order control for pressure forces. Tactile stimulation was realized by a one-finger brushing. Hemodynamic changes in the SMA and S1 were measured bilaterally using a multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS imaging system and a multi-distant probe array. Patients with CLBP showed significant stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in O2Hb only in the right S1, while the healthy controls exhibited significant O2Hb changes bilaterally in both, SMA and S1. However, the group comparisons revealed no significant different hemodynamic responses in O2Hb and HHb in the SMA and S1 after both pressure stimulations. This non-significant result might be driven by the high inter-subject variability of hemodynamic responses that has been observed within the patients group. In conclusion, we could not find different stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in patients with CLBP compared to HCs. This indicates that neither S1 nor the SMA show a specificity for CLBP during pressure stimulation on the lower back. However, the results point to a potential subgrouping regarding task-related cortical activity within the CLBP group; a

  5. Cortical Sensorimotor Processing of Painful Pressure in Patients with Chronic Lower Back Pain—An Optical Neuroimaging Study using fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, Andrea; Meier, Michael L.; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Humphreys, Barry K.; Scholkmann, Felix

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated sensorimotor processing of painful pressure stimulation on the lower back of patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) by using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to measure changes in cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation. The main objectives were whether patients with CLBP show different relative changes in oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb] and [HHb]) in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary somatosensory cortex (S1) compared to healthy controls (HC). Twelve patients with CLBP (32 ± 6.1 years; range: 24–44 years; nine women) and 20 HCs (33.5 ± 10.7 years; range 22–61 years; eight women) participated in the study. Painful and non-painful pressure stimulation was exerted with a thumb grip perpendicularly to the spinous process of the lumbar spine. A force sensor was attached at the spinous process in order to control pressure forces. Tactile stimulation was realized by a one-finger brushing. Hemodynamic changes in the SMA and S1 were measured bilaterally using a multi-channel continuous wave fNIRS imaging system and a multi-distant probe array. Patients with CLBP showed significant stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in [O2Hb] only in the right S1, while the HC exhibited significant [O2Hb] changes bilaterally in both, SMA and S1. However, the group comparisons revealed no significant different hemodynamic responses in [O2Hb] and [HHb] in the SMA and S1 after both pressure stimulations. This non-significant result might be driven by the high inter-subject variability of hemodynamic responses that has been observed within the patients group. In conclusion, we could not find different stimulus-evoked hemodynamic responses in patients with CLBP compared to HCs. This indicates that neither S1 nor the SMA show a specificity for CLBP during pressure stimulation on the lower back. However, the results point to a potential subgrouping regarding task-related cortical activity within the CLBP group; a finding worth

  6. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oh, my aching back!", you are not alone. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems, ... 10 people at some point during their lives. Back pain can range from a dull, constant ache to ...

  7. [Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a caesarean with epidural anaesthesia after bringing the cerebrospinal fluid pressure back to normal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Rodríguez, M; de Carlos Errea, J; Dorronsoro Auzmendi, M; Batllori Gastón, M

    2013-12-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is diagnosed by exclusion. Because of its uncertain physiopathology and infrequent occurrence, its anaesthetic management is not well defined. The patient in this case is a pregnant woman with this disease with no lumbar-peritoneal shunt who was referred for non-urgent caesarean section, consisting of CSF drainage and pressure normalisation before the administration of epidural anaesthesia. We believe this technique can de effective to achieve adequate blockage and increased patient comfort, as well as improving postoperative recovery.

  8. First application of tsunami back-projection and source inversion for the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake using tsunami data recorded on a dense array of seafloor pressure gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusman, A. R.; Satake, K.; Sheehan, A. F.; Mulia, I. E.; Heidarzadeh, M.; Maeda, T.

    2015-12-01

    Adaption of absolute or differential pressure gauges (APG or DPG) to Ocean Bottom Seismometers has provided the opportunity to study tsunamis. Recently we extracted tsunami waveforms of the 28 October 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake recoded by the APG and DPG of Cascadia Initiative program (Sheehan et al., 2015, SRL). We applied such dense tsunami observations (48 stations) together with other records from DARTs (9 stations) to characterize the tsunami source. This study is the first study that used such a large number of offshore tsunami records for earthquake source study. Conventionally the curves of tsunami travel times are drawn backward from station locations to estimate the tsunami source region. Here we propose a more advanced technique called tsunami back-projection to estimate the source region. Our image produced by tsunami back-projection has the largest value or tsunami centroid that is very close to the epicenter and above the Queen Charlotte transform fault (QCF), whereas the negative values are mostly located east of Haida Gwaii in the Hecate Strait. By using tsunami back-projection we avoid picking initial tsunami phase which is a necessary step in the conventional method that is rather subjective. The slip distribution of the 2012 Haida Gwaii earthquake estimated by tsunami waveform inversion shows large slip near the trench (4-5 m) and also on a plate interface southeast the epicenter (3-4 m) below QCF. From the slip distribution, the calculated seismic moment is 5.4 × 1020 N m (Mw 7.8). The steep bathymetry offshore Haida Gwaii and the horizontal movement caused by the earthquake possibly affects the sea surface deformation. The potential tsunami energy calculated from the sea-surface deformation of pure faulting is 2.20 × 1013 J, while that from the bathymetry effect is 0.12 × 1013 J or about 5% of the total potential energy. The significant deformation above the steep slope is confirmed by another tsunami inversion that disregards fault

  9. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  10. Investigation of the on-axis atom number density in the supersonic gas jet under high gas backing pressure by simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supersonic gas jets from conical nozzles are simulated using 2D model. The on-axis atom number density in gas jet is investigated in detail by comparing the simulated densities with the idealized densities of straight streamline model in scaling laws. It is found that the density is generally lower than the idealized one and the deviation between them is mainly dependent on the opening angle of conical nozzle, the nozzle length and the gas backing pressure. The density deviation is then used to discuss the deviation of the equivalent diameter of a conical nozzle from the idealized deq in scaling laws. The investigation on the lateral expansion of gas jet indicates the lateral expansion could be responsible for the behavior of the density deviation. These results could be useful for the estimation of cluster size and the understanding of experimental results in laser-cluster interaction experiments.

  11. The influence of a transmembrane pH gradient on protonation probabilities of bacteriorhodopsin: the structural basis of the back-pressure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calimet, Nicolas; Ullmann, G Matthias

    2004-06-01

    Bacteriorhodopsin pumps protons across a membrane using the energy of light. The proton pumping is inhibited when the transmembrane proton gradient that the protein generates becomes larger than four pH units. This phenomenon is known as the back-pressure effect. Here, we investigate the structural basis of this effect by predicting the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient on the titration behavior of bacteriorhodopsin. For this purpose we introduce a method that accounts for a pH gradient in protonation probability calculations. The method considers that in a transmembrane protein, which is exposed to two different aqueous phases, each titratable residue is accessible for protons from one side of the membrane depending on its hydrogen-bond pattern. This method is applied to several ground-state structures of bacteriorhodopsin, which residues already present complicated titration behaviors in the absence of a proton gradient. Our calculations show that a pH gradient across the membrane influences in a non-trivial manner the protonation probabilities of six titratable residues which are known to participate in the proton transfer: D85, D96, D115, E194, E204, and the Schiff base. The residues connected to one side of the membrane are influenced by the pH on the other side because of their long-range electrostatic interactions within the protein. In particular, D115 senses the pH at the cytoplasmic side of the membrane and transmits this information to D85 and the Schiff base. We propose that the strong electrostatic interactions found between D85, D115, and the Schiff base as well as the interplay of their respective protonation states under the influence of a transmembrane pH gradient are responsible for the back-pressure effect on bacteriorhodopsin.

  12. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can increase your flexibility, strengthen your back and abdominal muscles, and improve your posture. Regular use of these ... best for you. Build muscle strength and flexibility. Abdominal and back muscle exercises (core-strengthening exercises) help condition these muscles ...

  13. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that ...

  14. The back-diffusion effect of air on the discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges using bare metal electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Ting; Liang, Tian-Ran; Wang, Hua-Bo; Li, He-Ping; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2007-05-01

    Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform α mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.

  15. The back-diffusion effect of air on the discharge characteristics of atmospheric-pressure radio-frequency glow discharges using bare metal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Wenting; Liang Tianran; Wang Huabo; Li Heping; Bao Chengyu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-05-15

    Radio-frequency (RF), atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) plasmas using bare metal electrodes have promising prospects in the fields of plasma-aided etching, deposition, surface treatment, disinfection, sterilization, etc. In this paper, the discharge characteristics, including the breakdown voltage and the discharge voltage for sustaining a stable and uniform {alpha} mode discharge of the RF APGD plasmas are presented. The experiments are conducted by placing the home-made planar-type plasma generator in ambient and in a vacuum chamber, respectively, with helium as the primary plasma-forming gas. When the discharge processes occur in ambient, particularly for the lower plasma-working gas flow rates, the experimental measurements show that it is the back-diffusion effect of air in atmosphere, instead of the flow rate of the gas, that results in the obvious decrease in the breakdown voltage with increasing plasma-working gas flow rate. Further studies on the discharge characteristics, e.g. the luminous structures, the concentrations and distributions of chemically active species in plasmas, with different plasma-working gases or gas mixtures need to be conducted in future work.

  16. Investigation on Propagation of Back-Pressure in Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engine%吸气式脉冲爆震发动机反压传播规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭畅新; 王治武; 郑龙席; 卢杰; 陈星谷

    2013-01-01

    With gasoline as fuel and air as oxidizer, experiments were performed to investigate the propagation of back-pressure in an air-breathing pulse detonation engine (PDE) with inner diameter 60mm, The back-pressure was measured at different operation frequencies ranging from 10 Hz to 30 Hz. The experimental results show that the back-pressure approximately increases linearly with increasing frequency. The ratio that the time of pressure fluctuation to a cycle time increases with increasing frequency. The pressure oscillation has a maximum value with operation frequency of 20Hz. The numerical model was developed and the characteristic of formation and propagation of the back-pressure was numerically investigated. The simulation results confirm that the back-pressure is induced by the retonation wave. The experimental and numerical results agree well, indicating that the method of simulation can reasonably reflect the propagation process of back-pressure.%以汽油为燃料,空气为氧化剂,在内径为60mm的吸气式脉冲爆震发动机上进行了反压传播规律实验研究.测量了10 ~30Hz频率范围内进气道内的反传压力.实验结果表明,进气道内的反压峰值随着工作频率的增加而增加,两者基本呈线性关系.随着工作频率的增加,压力波动的时间占每个工作循环时间的比例增加.压力脉动比在20Hz时达到最大.建立了数值模型,采用小能量点火及温度梯度自适应方法,计算得到了反压的形成及传播特性.计算结果印证了反压是由于回传爆震引起的.将计算结果与实验结果进行了比较,结果表明两者符合地较好.

  17. 背压下旋转分配器间隙流场特性分析%Analysis for gap flow field characteristics of rotary distributor under back pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐华存; 陈占福

    2011-01-01

    Keeping the oil return path of rotary distributor under a certain back pressure can improve the working life. The formula of flow, pressure, loading capacity and oil film stiffness in gap flow field is derived in this paper, the variation characteristics of fluid in the gap flow field is obtained when the back pressure increases, and then the finite element analysis of gap flow field is adopted with Fluent to verify the theoretical formula. The conclusion is that the back pressure can be properly increased while the variable load of rotary distributor is satisfied.%旋转分配器工作时保持回油通路一定的背压能够提高其使用寿命.本文首先推导出间隙流场中流量、压力、承载能力和油膜刚度的计算公式,得出在增加背压的情况下间隙流场内流体特性的变化,然后运用fluent对间隙流场进行有限元分析,验证了理论公式.在满足旋转分配器工作变载荷的情况下,可以适当增加背压.

  18. Development and Application of Pressure-Equalizing Back-Up Roll Contour in Hot Strip Mill%宽带钢热连轧机组均压支承辊辊形开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓东; 李飞; 李本海; 张宝辉; 王磊; 陈超超

    2012-01-01

    CVC(Continuous Variable Crown) work roll contour technology since its invention was applied in more than 150 hot rolling mills throughout the world for controlling strip shape.However,in actual application,there were uneven wear on rolls or even roll spalling problems because contact pressure concentrations existed between work and back-up rolls when flat or CVC back-up roll was used for configuration with CVC work roll during the rolling.For solving these defects,a pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour with combination of VCR(Variable Crown Back-up Roll) and CVC back-up roll contours was designed and applied on a hot rolling mill.It not only has the feature of VCR back-up roll contour,but also can improve the contact condition between work and back-up roll.After the application of pressure-equalizing back-up roll contour,roll spalling problem was solved,and strip profile quality was also improved.%CVC工作辊辊形自发明以来在全球150多条热连轧生产线上得到应用,以控制带钢的板形。实际应用中,与CVC工作辊配对使用的支承辊无论采用平辊还是CVC辊形均存在非均匀磨损甚至轧辊剥落失效的问题,主要原因是CVC支承辊辊形和平支承辊与CVC工作辊配置时存在接触压力集中。为了解决此问题,设计并应用了一种均压支承辊辊形与CVC工作辊配置使用。此辊形是变接触支承辊辊形(VCR)与CVC支承辊辊形的组合,具有变接触辊形的优点,同时又能更好地与CVC工作辊配置使用。均压支承辊辊形应用后,改善了CVC工作辊与支承辊辊间接触状态,解决了轧辊剥落问题,并改善了带钢凸度质量。

  19. 200 MW汽轮机多背压运行的热经济性分析%An Analysis of the The rmodynamic Effectiveness of a 200 MW Steam Turbine with Mu ltiple Back-pressure Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 曹祖庆

    2001-01-01

    通过对某200 MW汽轮机采用三背压凝汽器运行相对于单压运 行的凝结水温度、1号低压加热器抽汽量、各排汽缸最末级相对内效率及整机功率的变化 情况的计算,定量分析了200 MW汽轮机采用三背压运行的经济性,并给出了200 MW汽轮机采 用三背压运行冷却水温应满足的条件。%A calculation was conducted of the variation of parameters when a 200 MW steam t urbine employs a triple back-pressure condenser instead of a single back-press ur e one. Such parameters include the condensate temperature, the steam extraction rate of No.1 low-pressure heater, the relative inner efficiency of the last sta g e of various exhaust cylinders and the power output of the turbine unit as a who le. On this basis a quantitative analysis was performed of the thermodynamic eff ectiveness of the 200 MW steam turbine employing the triple back-pressure conde n ser. In addition, also given are the cooling water temperature requirements to b e met by the above-mentioned 200 MW steam turbine unit.

  20. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or ...

  1. Valve Timing Based Optimization of Diesel Engine with High Exhaust Back Pressure%基于配气正时的柴油机高排气背压性能优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玉红; 卢勇; 裴普成

    2014-01-01

    针对目前柴油机在高排气背压下泵气功损失增加、残余废气系数升高、燃油经济性下降等性能恶化的问题,提出通过优化配气正时来解决此类问题的方案。利用GT‐Power软件对LD1110单缸柴油机建立仿真计算模型,对上述解决方案进行了分析研究。计算结果表明:排气背压为0.3 M Pa、进气提前角保持不变、喷油量为45 mg时,柴油机在转速2200 r/min下通过优化排气晚关角可以使平均有效压力提高28.33%,有效燃油消耗率降低22.08%;排气背压由0.1 M Pa增大到0.3 M Pa时,通过配气正时优化,柴油机在转速2000 r/min下平均有效压力的损失可减小12.8%,有效燃油消耗率的增加可降低27.1%。%For the problems of larger pump loss ,higher residual gas coefficient and worse fuel economy at high exhaust back pressure ,the scheme of optimizing the valve timing was put forward .With GT‐Power software ,the model of LD1110 single‐cylinder diesel engine was built and the optimization of valve timing was analyzed .The results showed that the brake mean ef‐fective pressure (BMEP) and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) improved by 28 .33% and 22 .08% respectively by optimizing the exhaust late close angle at 2 200 r/min with 0 .3 MPa exhaust back pressure ,45 mg fuel injection per cycle and constant intake valve timing .When the exhaust back pressure increased from 0 .1 MPa to 0 .3 MPa at 2 000 r/min ,the BMEP loss and the BSFC increase could decrease by 12 .8% and 27 .1% respectively .

  2. A global radiosonde and tracked balloon archive on 16 pressure levels (GRASP back to 1905 – Part 2: Homogeneity adjustments for PILOT and radiosonde wind data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramella Pralungo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the comprehensive homogenization of the GRASP wind records. Many of those records suffer from artificial shifts that need to be detected and adjusted before they are suitable for climate studies. Time series of departures between observations and the National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration 20th century (NOAA-20CR surface pressure only reanalysis have been calculated offline by first interpolating the observations to pressure levels and standard synoptic times, if needed, and then interpolating the gridded NOAA-20CR standard pressure level data horizontally to the observation locations. These difference time series are quite sensitive to breaks in the observation time series and can be used for both automatic detection and adjustment of the breaks. Both wind speed and direction show a comparable number of breaks, roughly one break in three stations. More than hundred artificial shifts in wind direction could be detected at several US stations in the period 1938/1955. From the 1960s onward the wind direction breaks are less frequent. Wind speed data are not so much affected by measurement biases but one has to be aware of a large fair weather sampling bias in early years when high wind speeds were much less likely to be observed than after 1960 when RADAR tracking was already common practice. It has to be taken into account when calculating trends or monthly means from wind speed data. Trends of both wind speed and direction look spatially more homogeneous after adjustment. With the exception of a widespread wind direction bias found in the early US network no signs of pervasive measurement biases could be found. The adjustments can likely improve observation usage when applied during data assimilation. Alternatively they can serve as basis for validating variational wind bias adjustment schemes. Certainly they are expected to improve estimates of global wind trends. All the homogeneity adjustments are available in the

  3. 汽车座椅靠背压陷量的调整研究%Adjustment Study on Pressure of Automobile Seat Back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄昊旻; 宋景

    2012-01-01

    本文根据人体解剖学的观点,通过研究调整汽车座椅的日点和R点来改变汽车座椅靠背的压陷量不足的问题,使其达到舒适性的最佳范围,从而提高座椅的舒适性。%According to the anatomy of human body, the problem of pressure shortage was solved by the study on adjusting points H and R of auto seats to achieve the best range for improvement of seat comfort.

  4. Chiropractic management of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, M

    1983-05-01

    The vast majority of those with back pain respond extremely well to chiropractic spinal manipulation. There are several hundred procedures available to a well trained chiropractor, including high velocity manipulation, mobilisation, soft tissue techniques and pressure point therapy, which may be used to eliminate the need for manipulation under anaesthesia or surgery.

  5. Lead-phase and red-stripe color morphs of red-backed salamanders Plethodon cinereus differ in hematological stress indices: A consequence of differential predation pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. DAVIS, Joseph R. MILANOVICH

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the animal kingdom there are species that have two or more phenotypic forms or ‘morphs’, and many of these are amphibians. In North America, the red-backed salamander Plethodon cinereus can have either a red dorsal stripe or no dorsal stripe (lead-phase form, and evidence to date indicates the lead-phase form incurs a greater number of attacks from predators. In a recent collection of 51 P. cinereus, blood smears of both color morphs (35 red-stripe, 16 lead-phase were examined to obtain numbers of circulating leukocytes (via light microscopy, which can be used to indirectly estimate levels of stress hormones in vertebrates via a ‘hematological stress index’, which is the ratio between the number of two leukocyte types (neutrophils and lymphocytes. Our results showed that lead-phase salamanders tended to have greater numbers of circulating neutrophils and lower numbers of circulating lymphocytes than red-stripe morphs, leading to higher average neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios in lead-phase individuals. Since the salamanders were held (refrigerated for 7 days before sampling, we cannot be certain if this effect is a stress reaction to the captivity or the normal level for this morph. However comparison with two sets of related salamanders that were captured and sampled immediately indicates the red-stripe salamanders were either not stressed from the captivity at all, or their white blood cell distributions had returned to normal after 7 days of captivity. Taken together, our results indicate that lead-phase forms of P. cinereus have higher stress levels than the red-stripe forms, which may be a consequence of their higher exposure to, and/or attacks from, predators. They may also indicate that the lead-phase form is less-suited to captivity than the red-stripe form of this species [Current Zoology 56 (2: 238–243, 2010].

  6. Test and Analysis on Performance of Condenser after High Back Pressure Reconstruction for Heat Supply%凝汽器高背压改造后性能的试验研究与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学栋; 成渫畏; 郑威

    2013-01-01

    The condenser reconstruction of 150MW unit for meeting the need of high back pressure circulating water heat supply is introduced. Economical characteristics of the reconstructed condenser are calculated using the experimental data of high and low back pressure operational conditions. The results show that the condenser terminal temperature difference is 2. 354℃ which is lower than design value 4℃. ,when the unit operating in high pressure mode. As the unit operating in low pressure mode, the condenser terminal temperature difference is 6.535℃, 5.358℃, 5. 148℃ , the corrected condenser terminal temperature difference is 8.721℃ , 7. 179℃ , 6. 724℃ ,both of them are all higher than design value 41 and that of condenser before reconstruction. The whole heat-transfer coefficient of condenser is 2. 183kW/(m2 · ℃ ) lower than the value 3. 388kW/(m2 · ℃) before reconstruction. The analysis shows that, by reconstruction of the condenser, the safety can be guaranteed during the whole year. But the economical characteristics do not reach to design value, being lower than that of condenser before reconstruction. At 125MW power load condition, the condenser back pressure after reconstruction is 0.9kPa higher than that before reconstruction.%介绍了150MW高背压供热机组,凝汽器高背压供热改造的内容.由机组高背压供热改造后,凝汽器高、低背压运行的试验数据,计算了凝汽器在两种运行状态下的性能指标.高背压供热工况下,凝汽器端差较小,为2.354℃;3个低背压凝汽工况,凝汽器端差为6.535℃、5.358℃、5.148℃,经循环水流量和进水温度修正后的凝汽器端差为8.721℃、7.179℃、6.724C,都高于通常的凝汽器设计端差4℃和改造前的数值,改造后的总体传热系数为2.183kW/(m2·℃),小于改造前的平均值3.388kW/(m2·℃).凝汽器高背压改造后,满足常年安全运行的要求,但性能指标没有达到设计

  7. Thermodynamic characteristics of a 200 MW unit with high back pressure circulating water heating%200 MW高背压循环水供热机组热力特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江浩; 黄嘉驷; 王浩

    2015-01-01

    After retrofitting on high back pressure circulating water heating for a 200 MW unit,thermodynamic cal-culation was performed.The results show that,the heat net circulating water quantity and steam extraction amount (for heat supply)has little effects unit parameters such as heat consumption rate,unit output,heat load and circu-lating water outlet temperature.Under each working condition,the fuel utilization coefficient can reach about 90%, implying the energy comprehensive utilization effect is great.However,the unit back pressure is greatly affected by the heat net circulating water quantity and steam extraction amount.Moreover,the unit's operation regulating flexi-bility got poor and the retrofitting work capacity is pretty huge.The rotor changing time must be carefully selected after the retrofitting,and the units with very small heat load are not suitable for transformation.Due to small out-put of the 200 MW unit's low pressure (LP)cylinder,it suggests that the LP cylinder be split to reduce the modifi-cation range and simplify the steps.%通过对200 MW机组高背压循环水供热改造后的系统进行热力计算分析发现:热网循环水流量及采暖抽汽流量的变化对机组热耗率、出力、对外热负荷、循环水出水温度等参数的影响相对较小,各种运行工况下燃料利用系数均可达到90%左右,能源综合利用效果好;但对机组背压的影响较大,机组运行调整灵活性差,改造工作量大,改造后需把握好更换转子时机,对外供热热负荷较小的机组不宜实施改造;200 MW机组改造后低压缸做功量小,建议采用低压缸解列方案,以缩小改造范围和难度。

  8. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hurting your back when you exercise. How can pregnancy hormones contribute to back pain? To prepare for the ... of the baby through the birth canal, a hormone relaxes the ligaments in the ... back pain during pregnancy? To help prevent back pain, be aware of ...

  9. A global radiosonde and tracked balloon archive on 16 pressure levels (GRASP) back to 1905 - Part 1: Merging and interpolation to 00:00 and 12:00 GMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella Pralungo, L.; Haimberger, L.; Stickler, A.

    2014-05-01

    Many observed time series of the global radiosonde or PILOT networks exist as fragments distributed over different archives. Identifying and merging these fragments can enhance their value for studies on the three-dimensional spatial structure of climate change. The Comprehensive Historical Upper-Air Network (CHUAN version 1.7), which was substantially extended in 2013, and the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) are the most important collections of upper-air measurements taken before 1958. CHUAN (tracked) balloon data start in 1900, with higher numbers from the late 1920s onward, whereas IGRA data start in 1937. However, a substantial fraction of those measurements have not been taken at synoptic times (preferably 00:00 or 12:00 GMT) and on altitude levels instead of standard pressure levels. To make them comparable with more recent data, the records have been brought to synoptic times and standard pressure levels using state-of-the-art interpolation techniques, employing geopotential information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 20th Century Reanalysis (NOAA 20CR). From 1958 onward the European Re-Analysis archives (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim) available at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are the main data sources. These are easier to use, but pilot data still have to be interpolated to standard pressure levels. Fractions of the same records distributed over different archives have been merged, if necessary, taking care that the data remain traceable back to their original sources. If possible, station IDs assigned by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have been allocated to the station records. For some records which have never been identified by a WMO ID, a local ID above 100 000 has been assigned. The merged data set contains 37 wind records longer than 70 years and 139 temperature records longer than 60 years. It can be seen as a useful basis for further data processing steps, most

  10. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  11. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadok Benmebarek; Samir Attallaoui; Naïma Benmebarek

    2016-01-01

    Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs) are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline un-derestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  12. Army Back Complaint Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-13

    pain as there are doctors, 4 from chiropractic approaches through hypnotism and acupuncture . In the vast majority of cases, low back pain will disappear...initiatives to dispel fears and amc .!ticns about back pain , prmpt recognition and medical zwvaemet of affected aployees, and reduclM back complaints through...installation of ABC Programs. It is designed to be an educational tool to prevent injuries to the back, shoulder, or neck areas primarily as a result of

  13. Medications for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back pain often goes away on its own over several weeks. In some people, back pain persists. It may not go away completely or ... at times. Medicines can also help with your back pain. OVER-THE-COUNTER PAIN RELIEVERS Over-the-counter ...

  14. Nephrolithiasis in "back-to-back" kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; King, Ray S; King, Sherita A; Bates, William B; Madi, Rabii

    2013-12-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of left lower quadrant pain and nausea and vomiting. Computed tomography without contrast demonstrated a left 2.3-cm calculus at the ureteropelvic junction and a 6-mm lower pole calculus. The kidneys were in the pelvis and oriented "back-to-back," with the lateral portions of the kidneys fused in the midline. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this renal fusion anomaly. The patient underwent robotic pyelolithotomy of the ureteropelvic junction calculus and subsequent flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy of the lower pole calculus and ureteral stent placement through the assistant working port.

  15. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  16. Low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delitto, Anthony; George, Steven Z; Van Dillen, Linda R; Whitman, Julie M; Sowa, Gwendolyn; Shekelle, Paul; Denninger, Thomas R; Godges, Joseph J

    2012-04-01

    The Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) has an ongoing effort to create evidence-based practice guidelines for orthopaedic physical therapy management of patients with musculoskeletal impairments described in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The purpose of these low back pain clinical practice guidelines, in particular, is to describe the peer-reviewed literature and make recommendations related to (1) treatment matched to low back pain subgroup responder categories, (2) treatments that have evidence to prevent recurrence of low back pain, and (3) treatments that have evidence to influence the progression from acute to chronic low back pain and disability.

  17. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evidence that back belts use reduces spine range of motion, however the studies about intra-abdominal pressure and muscle activity presented contradictory results, as the epidemiologic studies, not allowing the recommendation of its use in the prevention of occupational low back pain. Based on this literature review it is suggested therefore, the implementation of new studies, to confirm or not the effectiveness of back belts as personal protective equipment, in the prevention of occupational low back disorders.

  18. Back pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stumbo, Jessica R

    2013-06-01

    This article provides a summary of the many causes of back pain in adults. There is an overview of the history and physical examination with attention paid to red flags that alert the clinician to more worrisome causes of low back pain. An extensive differential diagnosis for back pain in adults is provided along with key historical and physical examination findings. The various therapeutic options are summarized with an emphasis on evidence-based findings. These reviewed treatments include medication, physical therapy, topical treatments, injections, and complementary and alternative medicine. The indications for surgery and specialty referral are also discussed.

  19. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... to be a back patient and what back patients consider important when dealing with the healthcare system. Methods: The method draws on James Thomas' and Angela Hardens approach in "Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews" (2008). The thematic synthesis aims to systematise...

  20. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... core strengthening. Ask your health care provider or physical therapist about these strengthening exercises. If you had a ... the stress off your back include: Ask your physical therapist about the best posture and technique for your ...

  1. Optical cavity back action on an AFM microlever

    CERN Document Server

    Jourdan, Guillaume; Chevrier, Joël

    2008-01-01

    Two back action processes generated by an optical cavity based detection device can deeply transform the dynamical behavior of an AFM microlever: the photothermal force or the radiation pressure. Whereas noise damping or amplifying depends only on the detuning inside the cavity for radiation pressure back action, we present experimental results carried out under vacuum and at room temperature on the photothermal back action process which appears to be much more complex. We show for the first time that it can simultaneously act on two vibration modes in opposite direction: noise on one mode is amplified whereas it is damped on another mode. Modelisation of this effect leads us to conclude that indeed it is specific to photothermal back action and cannot be observed in case of radiation pressure back action.

  2. Back pain and parenthood.

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelstein, M M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To test the hypothesis that reports of back pain in a working population are associated with parenthood. METHODS--A questionnaire survey of back pain in municipal fire fighters and police officers in a municipality in Ontario, Canada. The questionnaire was distributed to current employees of fire and police departments. The survey was completed by 129 fire fighters (68% of the active force) and 346 police officers (74% of the force). RESULTS--36% of the respondents complained of a ...

  3. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... be pregnant What medicines you are taking, including herbs, supplements, and other drugs you bought without a ...

  4. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache - MRI; Low back pain - MRI; Lumbar pain - MRI; Back strain - MRI; Lumbar radiculopathy - MRI; Herniated intervertebral disk - MRI; Prolapsed intervertebral disk - MRI; Slipped disk - MRI; Ruptured ...

  5. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argue for a more process-oriented patient......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre......, Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical...

  6. Myofascial low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsook, Ryan R; Malanga, Gerard A

    2012-10-01

    Low back pain is a common condition that is encountered by both primary care physicians as well as various specialists, which include: orthopedic surgeons, physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, neurologists, rheumatologists, and pain management specialists. Associated muscular pain is very common and often a reactive response from nociception from other structures. Myofascial pain may arise, which is characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) that are located in fascia, tendons, and/or muscle. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, assessment, and recommended treatment options for myofascial low back pain.

  7. Decontamination: back to basics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Susan J; Sjorgen, Geoff

    2008-07-01

    My invitation from this Journal's Editor, Felicia Cox, to provide a paper for this themed issue, included the sentence 'I was wondering if you or a colleague would like to contribute a back to basics article on the relevant standards and guidelines for decontamination, including what is compliance?'. The reason it is so interesting to me is that the term 'back to basics' implies reverting to a simpler time in life - when by just sticking to the rules, life became easier. However, with decontamination this is not actually true.

  8. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise;

    and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge...

  9. Rect-O-Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Garg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This document presents an approach towards developing an electronics device and a software application to maintain the correct body posture which is a mobile solution to keep our back strong and healthy. It presents the designing and functioning of equipment and software.

  10. Back to Normal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Xinjiang officials speed up the investigation of July 5 riot suspects and restore social order Life in Urumqi has gone back to normal one month after the July 5 riot that killed nearly 200 people in the capital city of China’s northwestern

  11. Alternative backing up pump for turbomolecular pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2003-04-22

    As an alternative to the use of a mechanical backing pump in the application of wide range turbomolecular pumps in ultra-high and extra high vacuum applications, palladium oxide is used to convert hydrogen present in the evacuation stream and related volumes to water with the water then being cryo-pumped to a low pressure of below about 1.e.sup.-3 Torr at 150.degree. K. Cryo-pumping is achieved using a low cost Kleemenco cycle cryocooler, a somewhat more expensive thermoelectric cooler, a Venturi cooler or a similar device to achieve the required minimization of hydrogen partial pressure.

  12. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  13. /Au Back Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Naba R.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-08-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of CdTe thin-film solar cells with Cu-free MoO3- x /Au back contacts. CdTe solar cells with sputtered CdTe absorbers of thicknesses from 0.5 to 1.75 μm were fabricated on Pilkington SnO2:F/SnO2-coated soda-lime glasses coated with a 60- to 80-nm sputtered CdS layer. The MoO3- x /Au back contact layers were deposited by thermal evaporation. The incorporation of MoO3- x layer was found to improve the open circuit voltage ( V OC) but reduce the fill factor of the ultrathin CdTe cells. The V OC was found to increase as the CdTe thickness increased.

  14. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  15. 多管脉冲爆震发动机压力反传特性试验与数值研究%Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Propagation of Back-Pressure Waves of a Four-Tube Pulse Detonation Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢杰; 郑龙席; 王治武; 彭畅新; 陈星谷

    2014-01-01

    为了研究多管脉冲爆震发动机的压力反传特性,采用数值模拟和试验相结合的方法对四管爆震室的压力反传特性进行研究,测量了四管爆震室同时点火和分时点火这两种工作模式下的压力反传规律,利用数值模拟对四管爆震室共用进气道进行研究,分析了共用进气道长度以及在共用进气道内加装分流板对压力反传的影响。试验结果表明,四管爆震室同时工作时,共用进气道产生一道很强的压力扰动波,其峰值压力接近0.12MPa;四管爆震室分时工作时,共用进气道在一个循环内出现四次压力扰动,但扰动波的峰值压力较小。数值模拟的结果表明,在两种工作模式下,爆震室产生的反传压力使发动机入口产生高速倒流,四管分时工作时倒流的速度较小。随着共用进气道的长度增大,反传压力的峰值降低,但发动机入口处仍然存在倒流现象,倒流的速度随着共用进气道的长度增大而减小。共用进气道内加装分流板对反传压力的峰值并没有削弱作用。%In order to investigate the propagation characteristics of back-pressure waves in multi-tube pulse detonation engine, a series of experiments and numerical simulations were carried out. The propagation characteristics of back-pressure waves of four-tube pulse detonation combustors were measured when the com⁃bustors operated at two firing patterns:all tubes firing simultaneously and all tubes firing sequentially. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the flow characteristics in the air buffer chamber. The length of the air buffer chamber was varied and a splitter was installed in the air buffer chamber numerically to study their effects on the propagation of back-pressure waves. The experimental results show that a strong back-pressure wave was observed in the air buffer chamber when all tubes were fired simultaneously and the peak value was

  16. Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiographic Assessment for Back Pain What are Radiographic Assessments? When Should I get an X-ray for Low Back Pain? Other Reasons for Having an X-ray What ... What are Radiographic Assessments? Radiographic assessments for low back pain involve the use of X-rays to determine ...

  17. Back complaints in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Scheele (Jantine)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWith the aging of the Dutch population, the number of older aged back pain patients is also expected to increase. However, information on the course and prognosis of older patients with back pain in general practice is very scarce. Back pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder, also in

  18. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  19. Paschen is Partially Back

    CERN Document Server

    Stift, M J

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  20. Paschen is Partially Back

    OpenAIRE

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-01-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden ``ghost lines'' appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeII 6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB reg...

  1. Paschen is partially Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stift, M. J.; Leone, F.

    2008-04-01

    We present a discussion of the partial Paschen-Back (PB) effect in magnetic Ap stars. An overview of the theory is illustrated with examples of how splittings deviate non-linearly from the simple Zeeman picture; normally forbidden "ghost lines" appear in strong fields. Resulting asymmetric stellar Stokes profiles for a dipolar magnetic geometry are shown for the FeI λ6149 line and it is established that PB lines may be subject to wavelength shifts. Modelling of Stokes profiles in the PB regime opens exciting new diagnostics.

  2. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; jordan, alan; mikkelsen, connie

    . Many of these patients will become free of pain and disability! This book provides readers with a thorough review of the latest information regarding Modic changes that the Danish research group was primarily responsible for after 10 years of intensive research. The book explains what the research...... results can mean for back pain patients and information is provided as to how Modic changes take place and develop as well developments that took place such that we are now able to provide effective treatment for more than 50% of patients that have been diagnosed with Modic changes type 1. Readers...

  3. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  4. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  5. [Obesity and low back pain--biology, biomechanics and epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, C H

    2005-07-01

    Aim of the following paper is to describe the impact of obesity on low back pain. The mature disc is one of the most sparsely cellular tissues in the body, water content and concentration of proteoglycan decreases with increasing age. Both, static compressive loading and increased pressures, may result in damage of the integrity of the disc like tears of the anulus, followed by mechanical compression or chemical damage of the nerve roots. The intradiscal pressure is dependent on the body position and increases in the following order: prone, standing, upright sitting. In addition, bending and weight lifting increases the intradiscal pressure. For asymptomatic subjects, reported prevalences of disc degenerations in MRI studies are often quite high. Several studies report a significant association between body weight and low back pain, some do not. Recent research indicates that heredity has a dominant role in disc degeneration and low back pain, although the complex distributions and interactions of genetic factors are currently unknown.

  6. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  7. Back pain during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Carol C

    2013-01-08

    It is wrong to believe that back pain only burdens adults: the yearly incidence during growth ranges from 10-20%, continuously increasing from childhood to adolescence. Rapid growth-related muscular dysbalance and insufficiency, poor physical condition in an increasingly sedentary adolescent community or - vice versa - high level sports activities, account for the most prevalent functional pain syndromes. In contrast to adults the correlation of radiographic findings with pain is high: the younger the patient, the higher the probability to establish a rare morphologic cause such as benign or malignant tumours, congenital malformations and infections. In children younger than 5 years old, the likelihood is more than 50%. The following red flags should lower the threshold for a quick in-depth analysis of the problem: Age of the patient 4 weeks, history of tumour, exposition to tuberculosis, night pain and fever. High level sport equals a biomechanical field test which reveals the biologic individual response of the growing spine to the sports-related forces. Symptomatic or asymptomatic inhibitory or stimulatory growth disturbances like Scheuermann disease, scoliosis or fatigue fractures represent the most frequent pathomorphologies. They usually occur at the disk-growth plate compound: intraspongious disk herniation, diminuition of anterior growth with vertebral wedging and apophyseal ring fractures often occur when the biomechanical impacts exceed the mechanical resistance of the cartilaginous endplates. Spondylolysis is a benign condition which rarely becomes symptomatic and responds well to conservative measures. Associated slippage of L5 on S1 is frequent but rarely progresses. The pubertal spinal growth spurt is the main risk factor for further slippage, whereas sports activity - even at a high level - is not. Therefore, the athlete should only be precluded from training if pain persists or in case of high grade slips. Perturbance of the sagittal profile with

  8. Myofascial low back pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Rajkumar, Joshua Samuel; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar

    2014-09-01

    Myofascial pain is a common musculoskeletal problem, with the low back being one of the commonest affected regions. Several treatments have been used for myofascial low back pain through physical therapies, pharmacologic agents, injections, and other such therapies. This review will provide an update based on recently published literature in the field of myofascial low back pain along with a brief description of a sequenced, multidisciplinary treatment protocol called Skilled Hands-on Approach for the Release of myofascia, Articular, Neural and Soft tissue mobilization (SHARANS) protocol. A comprehensive multidisciplinary approach is recommended for the successful management of individuals with myofascial low back pain.

  9. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11 000 cm2/V·s

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Casey

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11 000 cm 2/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low t ox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  10. Low-voltage back-gated atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based graphene-striped channel transistor with high-κ dielectric showing room-temperature mobility > 11,000 cm(2)/V·s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Casey; Qaisi, Ramy; Liu, Zhihong; Yu, Qingkai; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-07-23

    Utilization of graphene may help realize innovative low-power replacements for III-V materials based high electron mobility transistors while extending operational frequencies closer to the THz regime for superior wireless communications, imaging, and other novel applications. Device architectures explored to date suffer a fundamental performance roadblock due to lack of compatible deposition techniques for nanometer-scale dielectrics required to efficiently modulate graphene transconductance (gm) while maintaining low gate capacitance-voltage product (CgsVgs). Here we show integration of a scaled (10 nm) high-κ gate dielectric aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with an atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD)-derived graphene channel composed of multiple 0.25 μm stripes to repeatedly realize room-temperature mobility of 11,000 cm(2)/V·s or higher. This high performance is attributed to the APCVD graphene growth quality, excellent interfacial properties of the gate dielectric, conductivity enhancement in the graphene stripes due to low tox/Wgraphene ratio, and scaled high-κ dielectric gate modulation of carrier density allowing full actuation of the device with only ±1 V applied bias. The superior drive current and conductance at Vdd = 1 V compared to other top-gated devices requiring undesirable seed (such as aluminum and poly vinyl alcohol)-assisted dielectric deposition, bottom gate devices requiring excessive gate voltage for actuation, or monolithic (nonstriped) channels suggest that this facile transistor structure provides critical insight toward future device design and process integration to maximize CVD-based graphene transistor performance.

  11. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  12. Physics Back in TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Recently, I came into possession of an unusual item: a collection of 1928 TIME magazines. I began flipping through the pages out of sheer curiosity—and was soon astonished by the scale and the depth of their physics coverage. Back then, TIME had a special "Science" section in almost every issue and devoted quite a bit of space to the events that would hardly be mentioned in any popular magazine these days. Some of them were fleeting and merely curious, some truly timeless. Many of the articles and notes were devoted to physics: the people, the discoveries, the inventions, the conventions. I found the reading both entertaining and enlightening and would like to offer a sampler here. I hope that these little tidbits of history will lighten up the classroom discussions and help inspire your students by reminding them that physics is a dynamic, ever-changing field to which they may well contribute one day. I have found that my own students love it when a little bit of history is brought up; it always generates interesting questions and seems to spark the students' interest in the topic.

  13. Low Back Pain Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day in a chair with inadequate back support. Mental health factors : Pre-existing mental health issues such as anxiety and depression can influence ... is particularly important for persons with skeletal irregularities. Health care ... benefits of yoga to ease chronic low back pain. Physical therapy ...

  14. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  15. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  16. Prevention of occupational Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews scientific research on occupational back pain and focuses on prevention of this problem. It discusses some of the challenges of translating the evidence of this multi-factorial condition into policy. Medical science is currently unable to clearly distinguish between back pain caused by work and that possibly due to other causes but which affects the individual′s capacity to work. Back pain affects the vast majority of people at some point in their lives and is very costly to both the health care system and the industry. Evidence suggests that heavy lifting, driving, and vibration of the whole body are linked to occupational back pain. Once the risk factors for occupational back pain are identified, an otherwise chronic and disabling condition can be prevented in the majority of patients. As explained in this article, three levels of prevention for occupational back pain have been reported as effective. Failure to implement preventive measures may lead to a high incidence of occupational back pain.

  17. Rigorously Assessing Whether the Data Backs the Back School

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous between-subjects methodology employing independent random samples and having broad clinical applicability was designed and implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of back safety and patient transfer training interventions for both hospital nurses and nursing assistants. Effects upon self-efficacy, cognitive, and affective measures are assessed for each of three back safety procedures. The design solves the problem of obtaining randomly assigned independent controls where all expe...

  18. Facilitated pro-nociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... pressure pain threshold (cPPT), tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations at cPTT intensity), and conditioning pain modulation (CPM: increase in cPPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain...

  19. Back Bay Wilderness area description

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a description of the lands located within the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Within these lands, it designates which area is suitable for...

  20. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  1. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A;

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem...... and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations...... to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings...

  2. Chiropractic care for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...

  3. Back pain - when you see the doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007494.htm Back pain - when you see the doctor To use the ... you first see your health care provider for back pain, you will be asked about your back pain, ...

  4. Lower Back Pain Symptom Checker Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the back. Some causes and treatment of back pain are described in this chart.Our trusted Symptom ... Problems Hip Problems Knee Problems Leg Problems Lower Back Pain Menstrual Cycle Problems Mouth Problems Mouth Problems in ...

  5. Complete Localization of HVDC Back-to-Back Project Realized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xinqiang; Liang Xuming; Wang Zuli; Ye Qing

    2006-01-01

    The first completely localized DC back-to-back project for asynchronous interconnection between Northwest and Central China plays an important role in realizing national power grid interconnection, spurring indigenous manufacturing industries and promoting DC transmission equipment. Insisting on the principle of autonomous innovation, this project was based on domestic forces in every aspect, from engineering organization, system design, equipment completion, engineering design, equipment manufacturing and procurement to construction and debugging. By passing through strict quality control, intermediate supervision and acceptance test and assessment, the project has been proved up to world advanced level.

  6. Low Back Pain in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovere, G D

    1987-01-01

    In brief: Low back pain in seasoned athletes is not common, but when present it can limit participation. While direct blows or hyperlor-dotic positions can cause low back pain in certain sports, the most common cause is overuse and resultant strains or sprains of the paravertebral muscles and ligaments. Such injuries cause acute pain and spasm, which sometimes do not appear for 24 hours or longer. Diagnosis is based on history, ruling out of systemic maladies, physical examination, and, if necessary, supplemental tests such as x-rays, myelograms, and bone scans. Treatment of low back pain due to overuse is, sequentially, bed rest and ice for 24 to 36 hours, heat and massage, analgesics as needed, and a lumbosacral support until flexion and strengthening exercises have returned the damaged part to normal.

  7. Initial Back-to-Back Fission Chamber Testing in ATRC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin Chase; Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe

    2014-06-01

    Development and testing of in-pile, real-time neutron sensors for use in Materials Test Reactor experiments is an ongoing project at Idaho National Laboratory. The Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility has sponsored a series of projects to evaluate neutron detector options in the Advanced Test Reactor Critical Facility (ATRC). Special hardware was designed and fabricated to enable testing of the detectors in the ATRC. Initial testing of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors and miniature fission chambers produced promising results. Follow-on testing required more experiment hardware to be developed. The follow-on testing used a Back-to-Back fission chamber with the intent to provide calibration data, and a means of measuring spectral indices. As indicated within this document, this is the first time in decades that BTB fission chambers have been used in INL facilities. Results from these fission chamber measurements provide a baseline reference for future measurements with Back-to-Back fission chambers.

  8. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  9. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to discuss in serious terms a statement made in the late 1980ies by Danish film director Lars von Trier—that Danish pop-duo Laid Back for him, at the time, should be considered a prominent example of contemporary avant-garde art. At the time, von Triers’ statement was deliberately...... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...

  10. Golf and low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    村田, 豊

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar spinal disease is one of the“locomotive syndrome”. Most common disease for advanced people is lumbar spinal canal stenosis(LSCS), on the other hand, most common disease for young adult people is lumbar disc herniation(LDH). Both LSCS and LDH can cause low back pain and severe sciatica of lower extremities. Golf is one of the most favorite sports for any generation worldwide. Sometimes golf can cause low back pain, however we can prevent the injuries of lumbar from playing golf. The ach...

  11. Steam regulation for 5 MW back-pressure units when a failure occurs in the Los Humeros, Pue., field, Mexico; Regulacion del vapor en caso de falla a unidades a contrapresion de 5 MW en el campo de Los Humeros, Pue., Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Lopez, Cesar [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: cesar.rosales@cfe.gob.mx

    2006-07-15

    Four out of the seven back-pressure power units of 5 MW operating in the Los Humeros geothermal field, State of Puebla, Mexico, are fed by one steam pipe gathering the steam produced by nine wells. When a failure occurred in any of the units and the excedence valve had to be open to deviate the steam, a decrease in the steam flow for the remaining units was noted, along with lower electrical generation. The cause for that is analyzed and explained in this paper by comparing the interconnected steam supply system to an electric circuit. A way to maintain a uniform and continuous supply of steam in the Los Humeros field has been found. It was implemented several months ago and the problem has not reoccurred. [Spanish] Cuatro de las siete unidades de 5 MW a contrapresion que operan en el campo geotermico de Los Humeros, Puebla, son alimentadas por un solo vaporducto que reune el vapor de nueve pozos productores. Cuando ocurria una falla en alguna de estas unidades y se abria por completo la valvula de excedencia para desviar el vapor, se observaba una reduccion en el flujo de vapor que llegaba a las otras tres unidades, lo que a su vez ocasionaba que la generacion de electricidad se redujera notoriamente. En este trabajo se analiza y explica la causa de ello, mediante la comparacion de este sistema interconectado de suministro de vapor con un circuito electrico, y se explica la solucion que se encontro e implemento en el campo de Los Humeros para regular el suministro continuo y uniforme de vapor, con resultados satisfactorios a varios meses de su implementacion en las cuatro unidades interconectadas.

  12. Condensers for measuring steam quality at the inlet of back-pressure units of the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Condensadores para medir la calidad del vapor a la entrada de las turbinas a contrapresion del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Medina, Fernando; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Rubi; Reyes Delgado, Lisette; Medina Martinez, Moises [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia de Los Azufres (Mexico)]. E-mail: fernando.sandoval@cfe.gob.mx

    2007-01-15

    Electrical conductivity is an indirect measurement of the quality of the steam supplied to power units. In the Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field, the electrical conductivity once was measured in a discrete and periodic way by condensing steam samples through a water-cooled condenser. In an attempt to continuously measure conductivity, conductivity meters were installed where the units discharged, but the values proved unstable and unrepresentative. Thereafter, taking into account that steam quality should be measured at the steam delivery-reception point, equipment was designed and tested for continuously condensing steam. Finally it was possible to get an air-cooled condenser able to condense 500 milliliters per minute, enough to collect a representative flow of the steam and to measure its electrical conductivity. The equipment was installed in all seven back-pressure units operating in the field and to date has been operating in an optimal manner. [Spanish] La conductividad electrica es una medida indirecta de la calidad del vapor que se suministra a las unidades turbogeneradoras. En el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich., la conductividad electrica se media en forma puntual y periodica, condensando muestras de vapor por medio de un serpentin enfriado con agua. Despues, ante la necesidad de medirla en forma continua, se instalaron conductivimetros en las descargas de las unidades, pero los valores resultaron muy inestables y poco representativos. Considerando, ademas, que la calidad del vapor debe medirse en el punto de entrega-recepcion, se disenaron y probaron equipos para condensar vapor de manera continua, lograndose construir un condensador enfriado por aire que logra condensar un flujo de 500 mililitros por minuto, cantidad suficiente para tener un flujo representativo del vapor que alimenta a las turbinas y medirle su conductividad electrica. Se instalaron estos equipos en las siete unidades turbogeneradoras a contrapresion que funcionan en el campo

  13. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  14. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  15. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  16. Research on the Features of Pre-start Back Kick Time-pressure Curve of Sprint——Based on the Sample of the 100-metre Male Sprinters in the 16th Asian Games%短跑起跑后蹬时间-压力曲线的特征研究——以第16届亚运会男子100m跑运动员为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗江南; 谢洪昌; 杜少武

    2012-01-01

    To provide theoretical support for the sprint technique of China's sprinters,with the 100-metre male sprinters in the 16th Asian Games as subjects,this article compared and analyzed the structure of the pre-start back kick time-pressure curve of 54 person-time and obtained two curve types i.e.double-peak curve and three-peak curve.The result of the research proved that the advantage of double-peak curve was shorter back kick time with stronger force,which was a more reasonable structure of pre-start back kick time and pressure curve.In the training for the start of sprint,we should emphasize the coordination of back kick force.If the three-peak curve can be changed into double-peak curve in the training process,Lao Yi's score for 100-metre sprint can be improved from 10.24s to 10.21s.%为提高我国短跑运动技术水平提供理论支持,以第16届亚运会100 m跑男运动员为研究对象,通过对54人次的起跑后蹬时间-压力曲线结构进行对比分析,得出了双波峰与三波峰两种曲线类型。研究结果表明:双波峰结构优势在于双脚后蹬时间短和双脚后蹬力量更大,是一种更为合理的起跑后蹬时间-压力曲线结构。在起跑训练中,我们应重点加强双脚后蹬用力协同性的训练。如果劳义在起跑训练中将其起跑后蹬时间-压力曲线由三波峰结构转变为双波峰结构,将使他的100 m成绩由10.24 s提高到10.21s的水平。

  17. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  18. Interdigitated back contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrom, M. S.; Schwartz, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    The interdigitated back contact solar cell (IBC cell) was shown to possess a number of advantages for silicon solar cells, which operate at high concentration. A detailed discussion of the factors which need to be considered in the analysis of semiconducting devices which utilize heavily doped regions such as those which are found in solar cells in both the emitter and in the back surface field regions is given. This discussion covers the questions of: how to handle degeneracy, how to compute carrier concentrations in the absence of knowledge of the details of the band structure under heavily doped conditions, and how to reconcile the usual interpretation of heavy doping as a rigid shift of the bands with the band tailing and impurity level conduction models. It also discusses the reasons for the observed discrepancies between various experimental measurements of bandgap narrowing.

  19. [Back ache in helicopter pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, S; Jovelić, S; Manojlović, J

    1992-01-01

    Due to low back pain (LBP) and harmful effects of flying, questionnaires were sent to 71 helicopter pilots of the experimental group, 22 mechanics helicopter flyers and to the control group of 28 air-traffic controllers. The prevalence of LBP was the highest in helicopter pilots, then in helicomechanics and air-traffic controllers (53%, 50% and 36%). Effects of exposure to vibration, body posture and working load have not contributed significantly to the occurrence of LBP. LBP has not lead to an important difference in the strength of the back musculature, body mass index and spondylosis, that is, scoliosis. The necessity of further study of LBP and maintaining of specific preventive measures are indicated.

  20. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  1. Improvement of chronic back pain or failed back surgery with vitamin D repletion: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalfenberg, Gerry

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews 6 selected cases of improvement/resolution of chronic back pain or failed back surgery after vitamin D repletion in a Canadian family practice setting. Pub Med was searched for articles on chronic back pain, failed back surgery, and vitamin D deficiency. Chronic low back pain and failed back surgery may improve with repletion of vitamin D from a state of deficiency/insufficiency to sufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency is common; repletion of vitamin D to normal levels in patients who have chronic low back pain or have had failed back surgery may improve quality of life or, in some cases, result in complete resolution of symptoms.

  2. Forward-Thinking Tips for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163118.html Forward-Thinking Tips for Back Pain Certain behaviors can reduce your risk, doctor says ... 19, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Back pain is common but not inevitable, an orthopedist says. ...

  3. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO Video Library Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain Page Content A n estimated 50 million Americans ... natural tendency toward self-healing. Tips to Minimize Back Pain Here are some tips for preventing or minimizing ...

  4. Low Back Pain Common Among Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163320.html Low Back Pain Common Among Kids Sports injuries are ... 30, 2017 MONDAY, Jan. 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Low back pain is common in school-age American ...

  5. Fast Facts: What Is Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Chinese 繁體中文 ) What Is Back Pain? (in Korean 한국어 ) What Is Back Pain? (in Vietnamese bằng ... type of back pain. Behavior Changes You can learn to lift, push, and pull with less stress ...

  6. [My Back is Still Hurting!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Jäckel, Kristian; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A; Öhlschlegel, Christian

    2015-05-20

    We present the case of a 39-year-old man who reported to the primary care physician for low back pain. Pain persisted despite extensive assessment and therapy. During the course, bilateral femoral neck fractures occurred and due to multiple enrichments in scintigraphy chronic multifocal (sterile) osteomyelitis was suspected. In the further follow-up the appropriate diagnosis of osteomalacia was established in bone biopsy and adequate treatment with Vitamin D was initiated. During therapy, the patient was free of pain or discomfort.

  7. Self pressuring HTP feed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-14

    Hydrogen peroxide tanks can be pressurized with decomposed HTP (high test hydrogen peroxide) originating in the tank itself. In rocketry, this offers the advantage of eliminating bulky and heavy inert gas storage. Several prototype self-pressurizing HTP systems have recently been designed and tested. Both a differential piston tank and a small gas-driven pump have been tried to obtain the pressure boost needed for flow through a gas generator and back to the tank. Results include terrestrial maneuvering tests of a prototype microsatellite, including warm gas attitude control jets.

  8. Biomechanical effects of sitting with adjustable ischial and lumbar support on occupational low back pain: evaluation of sitting load and back muscle activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to standing posture, sitting decreases lumbar lordosis, increases low back muscle activity, disc pressure, and pressure on the ischium, which are associated with occupational LBP. A sitting device that reduces spinal load and low back muscle activities may help increase sitting comfort and reduce LBP risk. The objective of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effect of sitting with a reduced ischial support and an enhanced lumbar support (Off-Loading on load, interface pressure and muscle activities. Methods A laboratory test in low back pain (LBP and asymptomatic subjects was designed to test the biomechanical effect of using the Off-Loading sitting posture. The load and interface pressure on seat and the backrest, and back muscle activities associated with usual and this Off-Loading posture were recorded and compared between the two postures. Results Compared with Normal (sitting upright with full support of the seat and flat backrest posture, sitting in Off-Loading posture significantly shifted the center of the force and the peak pressure on the seat anteriorly towards the thighs. It also significantly decreased the contact area on the seat and increased that on the backrest. It decreased the lumbar muscle activities significantly. These effects are similar in individuals with and without LBP. Conclusion Sitting with reduced ischial support and enhanced lumbar support resulted in reduced sitting load on the lumbar spine and reduced the lumbar muscular activity, which may potentially reduce sitting-related LBP.

  9. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  10. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis;

    2006-01-01

    Low Back Pain is a major public health problem all over the western world. Active approaches including exercise in the treatment of low back pain results in better outcomes for patients, but it is not known exactly which types of back exercises are most beneficial or whether general physical....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...

  11. Classical Pendulum Feels Quantum Back-Action

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Gen; Aso, Yoichi; Tsubono, Kimio

    2013-01-01

    Quantum mechanics, which has agreed with every experimental test, predicts superposition of position states even for macroscopic objects. Because of the massiveness, such states might have a key to investigate both quantum measurement problem and quantum gravity. Recently, the use of quasi-freely suspended mirror combined with a laser field was proposed to prepare such states. One of the key milestones for the quantum-optomechanical effects such as the generation of the entanglement state and a squeezed state of light is the observation of quantum back-action, which identifies the connection between the objects and quantumness of the light. Until now, this effect has been observed below the meso-scopic mass scale. However, it has not been observed yet in the macroscopic scale beyond Planck mass. This is partially due to a technical limitation-the radiation pressure of light will expose a free mass to instability such as anti-torsional spring effect. Also, there is the fundamental compromise between tolerance ...

  12. DBMSs Should Talk Back Too

    CERN Document Server

    Simitsis, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    Natural language user interfaces to database systems have been studied for several decades now. They have mainly focused on parsing and interpreting natural language queries to generate them in a formal database language. We envision the reverse functionality, where the system would be able to take the internal result of that translation, say in SQL form, translate it back into natural language, and show it to the initiator of the query for verification. Likewise, information extraction has received considerable attention in the past ten years or so, identifying structured information in free text so that it may then be stored appropriately and queried. Validation of the records stored with a backward translation into text would again be very powerful. Verification and validation of query and data input of a database system correspond to just one example of the many important applications that would benefit greatly from having mature techniques for translating such database constructs into free-flowing text. ...

  13. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  14. When looking back to nothing goes back to nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Martarelli, Corinna S; Mast, Fred W

    2016-02-01

    Previous research showed that the eyes revisit the location in which the stimulus has been encoded when visual or verbal information is retrieved from memory. A recent study showed that this behavior still occurs 1 week after encoding, suggesting that visual, spatial and linguistic information is tightly associated with the oculomotor trace and stored as an integrated memory representation. However, it is yet unclear whether looking behavior simply remains stable between encoding and recall or whether it changes over time in a more fine-tuned manner. Here, we investigate the time course of looking behavior during recall in multiple sessions across 1 week. Participants encoded visual objects presented in one of the four locations on the computer screen. In five sessions during the week after encoding, they performed on a visual memory recall task. During retrieval, participants looked back to the encoding location, but only in the recall sessions within 1 day of encoding. We discuss different explanations for the temporal dynamics of looking behavior during recall, searching for the role of eye movements in memory.

  15. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly.

  16. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  17. Acute and chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Nathan; Emanski, Eric; Knaub, Mark A

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain is an extremely common presenting complaint that occurs in upward of 80% of persons. Treatment of an acute episode of back pain includes relative rest, activity modification, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and physical therapy. Patient education is also imperative, as these patients are at risk for further future episodes of back pain. Chronic back pain (>6 months' duration) develops in a small percentage of patients. Clinicians' ability to diagnose the exact pathologic source of these symptoms is severely limited, making a cure unlikely. Treatment of these patients should be supportive, the goal being to improve pain and function.

  18. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  19. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  20. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T.

    1984-10-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  1. Screen printed interdigitated back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraona, C. R.; Mazaris, G. A.; Chai, A. T. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Interdigitated back contact solar cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. These dopant materials are then diffused into the substrate to form junctions having configurations corresponding to these patterns. Contacts having configurations which match the patterns are then applied over the junctions.

  2. Put It Back in the Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A little boy and his grandfather are raking (用耙子耙) leaves in the yard.The little boy finds an earthworm (蚯蚓) trying to get back into its hole.He says,"Grandpa,I bet I can put that worm back in that hole."

  3. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  4. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  5. Back Channelling, Repair, Pausing, and Private Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on differences in back channelling, repair, repetition, pausing, and private speech among Japanese and American study participants, based on sales negotiations. Findings indicate that differences in the deployment of such features as back channelling and pausing can result in pragma-linguistic breakdown, which is linked to culturally…

  6. Cumulative mechanical low-back load at work is a determinant of low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reported associations of physical exposures during work (eg, lifting, trunk flexion or rotation) and low-back pain (LBP) are rather inconsistent. Mechanical back loads (eg, moments on the low back) as a result of exposure to abovementioned risk factors have been suggested to be important

  7. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experience...... is maintained over long periods: for example, people with pain continue to have it on and off for years, and people without pain do not suddenly develop long-term pain. A number of factors predict back pain presence in epidemiological studies, and these are often present, and predictive, at different life...... stages. There are also factors present at particular life stages, such as childhood or adolescence, which predict back pain in adulthood. However, there are little published data on long-term pain patterns or predictors over the life course. Such studies could improve our understanding of the development...

  8. Yoga to treat nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Catherine; Stratton, Carol; Mallory, Debra

    2011-08-01

    Low back pain is common and poses a challenge for clinicians to find effective treatment to prevent it from becoming chronic. Chronic low back pain can have a significant impact on an employee's ability to remain an active and productive member of the work force due to increased absenteeism, duty restrictions, or physical limitations from pain. Low back pain is the most common cause of work-related disability among employees younger than 46 years. Advancing technology and less invasive surgical procedures have not improved outcomes for employees who suffer from low back pain. Most continue to experience some pain and dysfunction after conventional treatments such as injections and surgery. An alternative treatment that could reduce nonspecific chronic low back pain would benefit both employees and employers. Exercising and remaining active are part of most guidelines' routine care recommendations but are not well defined.

  9. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, E. L.; Scheuring, R. A.; Barnes, M. G.; DeKorse, T. B.; Saile, L. G.

    2008-01-01

    Back pain is frequently reported by astronauts during the early phase of space flight as they adapt to the microgravity environment. However, the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain has not been well defined. The purpose of this retrospective study was to develop a case definition of space adaptation back pain, determine the incidence of space adaptation back pain, and determine the effectiveness of available treatments. Medical records from the Mercury, Apollo, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Skylab, Mir, International Space Station (ISS), and Shuttle programs were reviewed. All episodes of in-flight back pain that met the criteria for space adaptation back pain were recorded. Pain characteristics, including intensity, location, and duration of the pain were noted. The effectiveness of specific treatments also was recorded. The incidence of space adaptation back pain among astronauts was determined to be 53% (384/722). Most of the affected astronauts reported mild pain (85%). Moderate pain was reported by 11% of the affected astronauts and severe pain was reported by only 4% of the affected astronauts. The most effective treatments were fetal positioning (91% effective) and the use of analgesic medications (85% effective). This retrospective study aids in the development of a case definition of space adaptation back pain and examines the epidemiology of space adaptation back pain. Space adaptation back pain is usually mild and self-limited. However, there is a risk of functional impairment and mission impact in cases of moderate or severe pain that do not respond to currently available treatments. Therefore, the development of preventive measures and more effective treatments should be pursued.

  10. Back to consumption and production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Kos Koklic, Mateja; Bajde, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature that explores the increasingly blurred divide separating production and consumption. Within this stream of work, digital environments are commonly depicted as sites of consumer empowerment, participation, co-creation and prosumption, the intertwined process...... of production and consumption. Yet, in response to the mounting commercial and legal pressures, Web 2.0 companies pro-actively regulate prosumption, deploying advanced technological devices and innovative contractual arrangements. Exploring the case of Warner Music Group lockdown on YouTube, we investigate...... the role of a content-sharing platform in (re)formatting prosumption. We draw from prosumption theory and Ritzer's “prosumption continuum” to highlight how shifting arrangements of rights and content regulation shape prosumption of corporate content (in our case music owned by record labels). In contrast...

  11. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are unsure of themselves, new to the group, or inexperienced with peer pressure may also be more likely to give in. ... stand that makes you look uncool to your group. But these situations can be ... up to peer pressure, but it does take courage — yours: Listen to ...

  12. Aluminum–Titanium Alloy Back Contact Reducing Production Cost of Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yu Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, metal films are fabricated by using an in-line reactive direct current magnetron sputtering system. The aluminum–titanium (AlTi back contacts are prepared by changing the pressure from 10 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The optical, electrical and structural properties of the metal back contacts are investigated. The solar cells with the AlTi had lower contact resistance than those with the silver (Ag back contact, resulting in a higher fill factor. The AlTi contact can achieve a solar cell conversion efficiency as high as that obtained from the Ag contact. These findings encourage the potential adoption of AlTi films as an alternative back contact to silver for silicon thin-film solar cells.

  13. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  14. [Acupuncture and tuina clinical thoughts of "treating the back from abdomen" for low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinlong; Li, Rui

    2015-07-01

    In clinical treatment, it is found that certain patients always have some positive reaction points those are relevant with low back pain in the abdomen area. When the simple treatment on the low back is ineffective, the efficacy could be significantly improved if acupuncture or tuina is performed at the abdomen areas, which is called "regulating yin to treat yang", or "treating the back from abdomen". In this paper, with the diagnosis and treatment method of "treating the back from abdomen" for low back pain as principal line, the detailed manipulation is explained for low back pain that is induced by TCM meridian diseases or modern anatomy, which could open the methods for clinical treatment of low back pain and enrich the therapeutic options.

  15. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Simons, E.; Riphagen, I.I.; Ammendolia, C.; Verhangen, A.P.; Laslett, M.; Devillé, W.; Deyo, R.A.; Bouter, L.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Aertgeerts, B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care c

  16. Back Work Ratio of Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaver de la Fuente M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analizes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational soft ware helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine in let temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle.

  17. High-temperature stability of molybdenum (Mo) back contacts for CIGS solar cells: a route towards more robust back contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ju-Heon; Yoon, Kwan-Hee; Jeong, Jeung-hyun [Solar Cell Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Mok; Park, Jong-Keuk; Baik, Young-Joon [Electronic Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: jhjeong@kist.re.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-26

    The thermal stability of Mo thin films is indispensable to Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells: CIGS films are deposited above 500 deg. C. The thermal stabilities of Mo thin films with dense to porous Mo microstructures, which are varied by controlling the sputtering pressure, are investigated. Interface failures are found to occur in buckling mode in denser Mo films, whereas cracking arises in less dense films. The failure modes are apparently dependent on the sign of the residual stress: the former is due to compressive stress, whereas the latter is due to tensile stress. Interestingly, the softening of soda-lime glass at high temperatures reconfigures the film stresses to be more compressive after annealing, which in turn triggers buckling even in films that are tensile-stressed in the as-deposited states. We conclude that the appropriate processing conditions for thermally stable back contacts cannot be obtained with the simple single layer approach. On the basis of this relationship between microstructure, residual stress and the failure modes, it is shown that improvements in film adhesion can widen the processing window for the preparation of robust back contacts, i.e. with a conventional bilayer approach and substrate roughening. Since the bilayer approach employed more compliant porous structures in the bottom layer, back contacts that are better suited to higher stress and temperature can be produced. Furthermore, substrate roughening might make the back contact more conductive as well as more stable because adhesion can be enhanced without the use of an electrically resistive buffer layer.

  18. Reduced task-induced variations in the distribution of activity across back muscle regions in individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Tschapek, Marika; Erlenwein, Joachim; Petzke, Frank

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated change in the distribution of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity and pressure pain sensitivity across the low back in individuals with low back pain (LBP) and healthy controls. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from multiple locations over the lumbar erector spinae muscle with a 13×5 grid of electrodes from 19 people with chronic nonspecific LBP and 17 control subjects as they performed a repetitive lifting task. The EMG root mean square (RMS) was computed for each location of the grid to form a map of the EMG amplitude distribution. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded before and after the lifting task over a similar area of the back. For the control subjects, the EMG RMS progressively increased more in the caudal region of the lumbar erector spinae during the repetitive task, resulting in a shift in the distribution of muscle activity. In contrast, the distribution of muscle activity remained unaltered in the LBP group despite an overall increase in EMG amplitude. PPT was lower in the LBP group after completion of the repetitive task compared to baseline (average across all locations: pre: 268.0±165.9 kPa; post: 242.0±166.7 kPa), whereas no change in PPT over time was observed for the control group (320.1±162.1 kPa; post: 322.0±179.5 kPa). The results demonstrate that LBP alters the normal adaptation of lumbar erector spinae muscle activity to exercise, which occurs in the presence of exercise-induced hyperalgesia. Reduced variability of muscle activity may have important implications for the provocation and recurrence of LBP due to repetitive tasks.

  19. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injury. Some chronic diseases, such as diabetes and hardening of the arteries, make it hard for pressure ... Use a mild soap and warm (not hot) water. Apply moisturizers so your skin doesn’t get ...

  20. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain Validade concorrente da unidade de biofeedback pressórico e eletromiografia de superfície na mensuração da atividade muscular do transverso abdominal em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro O. P. Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. RESULTS: Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A Unidade de Biofeedback Pressórico (UBP é uma ferramenta de avaliação usada na prática clínica e pesquisa científica para analisar indiretamente a atividade muscular do transverso abdominal (TrA. A validade concorrente da UBP em uma amostra clinicamente relevante ainda não está esclarecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade concorrente e acurácia diagnóstica da UBP em mensurar a atividade muscular do TrA em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado usando um delineamento de validação. Cinquenta pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica foram recrutados. Para testar a validade concorrente, ambas as medidas pressóricas (teste índice e eletromiográficas superficiais (teste padrão de referência foram comparadas e coletadas por um fisioterapeuta a partir de uma manobra de contração voluntária do músculo Tr

  1. Back Bay Wilderness study : Public hearing analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis of the public hearing that took place on May 15th, 1974 which discussed the Back Bay Wilderness. The analysis shows that there is...

  2. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for the administration of hunting activity and for the development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Back...

  3. Back Bay Stormwater Monitoring Project Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this project was to assess the influx of nutrients and solid material into Back Bay and its tributaries during and immediately following such storm...

  4. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a collection of regulations pertaining to the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Most of the regulations concern motor vehicle use on the refuge.

  5. Back Bay Wilderness study : Proposed recommendations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a list of recommendations for the proposed wilderness area on the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The recommendations come as a result of the...

  6. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  7. Herniated Disk in the Lower Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... two components: Healthy intervertebral disk (cross- section view). • Annulus fibrosus. This is the tough, flexible outer ring ... the Lower Back cont. Surgical Treatment Only a small percentage of patients with lumbar disk herniations require ...

  8. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  9. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Master Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, located in the city of Virginia Beach, Virginia, comprises 4,608 acres of barrier beach, fresh and brackish marsh, small...

  10. Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 164250.html Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice Elderly rodents treated with cellular therapy regained lost fur, became ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Aging mice became more youthful following a new cellular therapy ...

  11. Approach to low back pain - acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Carolyn

    2014-05-01

    This article forms part of our allied health series for 2014, which aims to provide information about the management approach of different allied health professionals, using the case example of uncomplicated, mechanical low back pain.

  12. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  13. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE NONSPECIFIC LOWER BACK PAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Lvovich Kukushkin

    2010-01-01

    The causes, manifestations, and principles of diagnosis of acute nonspecific lower back pain (nLBP) are considered. Symptoms and complaints, the emergence of which is associated with the presence of dangerous disease, are singled out in patients with back pain. Emphasis is placed on the treatment of nLBP with currently available unselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and myorelaxants. It is also noted that multimodality therapy in such patients should include therapeutic exercises, ...

  14. Low Back Pain≠下腰痛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秉文

    2005-01-01

    近来在医学杂志上频频出现“下腰痛(low back pain)”的字样,给读者的印象是:low back pain即等于下腰痛,仔细推敲起来,其中有不同语言文字的误解。为此笔者进行了一些考察。

  15. Mechanical therapy for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, Donald Grant

    2012-09-01

    Physical therapy and manual medicine for low back pain encompass many different treatment modalities. There is a vast variety of techniques that physical therapists commonly use in the treatment of low back pain. Some of the therapies include, but are certainly not limited to, education, exercise, lumbar traction, manual manipulation, application of heat, cryotherapy, and ultrasonography. Many of these approaches are discussed specifically in this article.

  16. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  17. Screen-printed back-to-back electroanalytical sensors: heavy metal ion sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruas de Souza, Ana P; Foster, Christopher W; Kolliopoulos, Athanasios V; Bertotti, Mauro; Banks, Craig E

    2015-06-21

    Screen-printed back-to-back microband electroanalytical sensors are applied to the quantification of lead(II) ions for the first time. In this configuration the electrodes are positioned back-to-back with a common electrical connection to the two working electrodes with the counter and reference electrodes for each connected in the same manner as a normal "traditional" screen-printed sensor. Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electroanalytical sensing of lead(II) ions utilising square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry where an increase in the electroanalytical sensitivity is observed by a factor of 5 with the back-to-back microband configuration at a fixed lead(II) ion concentration of 5 μg L(-1) utilising a deposition potential and time of -1.2 V and 30 seconds respectively, compared to a conventional (single) microband electrode. The back-to-back microband configuration allows for the sensing of lead(II) ions with a linear range from 5 to 110 μg L(-1) with a limit of detection (based on 3σ) corresponding to 3.7 μg L(-1). The back-to-back microband configuration is demonstrated to quantify the levels of lead(II) ions within drinking water corresponding to a level of 2.8 (±0.3) μg L(-1). Independent validation was performed using ICP-OES with the levels of lead(II) ions found to correspond to 2.5 (±0.1) μg L(-1); the excellent agreement between the two methods validates the electroanalytical procedure for the quantification of lead(II) ions in drinking water. This back-to-back configuration exhibits an excellent validated analytical performance for the determination of lead(II) ions within drinking water at World Health Organisation levels (limited to 10 μg L(-1) within drinking water).

  18. The Effects of BU Herbal Acupuncture on Low Back Pain of Sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Bo-myung

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to estimate the effects of BU herbal acupuncture theraphy on low back pain of sprain patients by using Visual Analogue Scale(VAS and pressure algometer. Methods : 13 volunteers were applied to BU herbal acupuncture stimulation on the BL23, BL24, BL25 and BL26 acupoints. The degree of improvement of low back pain of sprain was evaluated by VAS and pain pressure threshold(at the points of BL23 and BL24 before treatment, before 3rd treatment(after herbal acupuncture. Results : In VAS scores, there were significant differences between before and after herbal acupuncture stimulation. But there was no significant difference between before and after herbal acupuncture stimulation in pain threshold. Conclusions : The effectiveness of BU herbal acupuncture theraphy on low back pain of sprain was shown through VAS and pressure algometer. These imply that BU herbal acupuncture theraphy may be useful for low back pain of sprain. Further study is needed about BU herbal acupuncture.

  19. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  20. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  1. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. Experimentally induced pain perception is acutely reduced by aerobic exercise in people with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Shepanski, Melissa A; Mackenzie, Sean P; Clifford, Philip S

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether subjects with chronic low back pain demonstrate exercise-induced analgesia to experimentally induced pressure pain. We employed a repeated measures design to study eight subjects with chronic low back pain (mean +/- standard deviation age = 40 +/- 10, duration of pain = 7 +/- 4 years). Pain ratings were measured immediately before and 2 minutes and 32 minutes after 25 minutes of cycle ergometry (5 minutes at 50% peak oxygen uptake, then 20 minutes at 70% peak oxygen uptake). We based the pain ratings on subject input on a visual analog scale at 10-second intervals during the 2-minute pressure pain stimulus to the nondominant index finger. Compared with preexercise values, pain ratings were significantly (p exercise at both 2 and 32 minutes postexercise. We conclude that pressure pain perception can be reduced for more than 30 minutes following aerobic exercise from leg cycling among people with chronic low back pain.

  3. An Optical Pressure Sensor Based on MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong Zhang; Sheng Qiang; Frank Lewis; Yalin Wu; Xiaozhu Chi

    2006-01-01

    An optical fiber pressure sensor has been developed for the measurement in human body. The sensing element is possessed of a membrane structure, which is fabricated by micromachining. The fabrication process includes anisotropic wet etching on the silicon wafer. For the transmitting source and signal light, a multimode optical fiber 50/125 μm (core/clad) in diameter was used. The intensity of the light reflected back into the fiber varies with the membrane deflection, which is a function of pressure. The deflection of the membrane by applied pressure can be mathematically described.

  4. Optical emission spectroscopy of point-plane corona and back-corona discharges in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, T.; Sobczyk, A. T.; Jaworek, A.

    2011-12-01

    Results of spectroscopic investigations and current-voltage characteristics of corona discharge and back discharge on fly-ash layer, generated in point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure are presented in the paper. The characteristics of both discharges are similar but differ in the current and voltage ranges of all the discharge forms distinguished during the experiments. Three forms of back discharge, for positive and negative polarity, were investigated: glow, streamer and low-current back-arc. In order to characterize ionisation and excitation processes in back discharge, the emission spectra were measured and compared with those obtained for normal corona discharge generated in the same electrode configuration but with fly ash layer removed. The emission spectra were measured in two discharge zones: near the tip of needle electrode and near the plate. Visual forms of the discharge were recorded with digital camera and referred to current-voltage characteristics and emission spectra. The measurements have shown that spectral lines emitted by back discharge depend on the form of discharge and the discharge current. From the comparison of the spectral lines of back and normal discharges an effect of fly ash layer on the discharge morphology can be determined. The recorded emission spectra formed by ionised gas and plasma near the needle electrode and fly ash layer are different. It should be noted that in back arc emission, spectral lines of fly ash layer components can be distinguished. On the other hand, in needle zone, the emission of high intensity N2 second positive system and NO γ lines can be noticed. Regardless of these gaseous lines, also atomic lines of dust layer were present in the spectrum. The differences in spectra of back discharge for positive and negative polarities of the needle electrode have been explained by considering the kind of ions generated in the crater in fly ash layer. The aim of these studies is to better

  5. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of back patients’ illness experiences and to identify, systematise and integrate the findings of different qualitative studies that may elucidate barriers, consequences or focal points in connection with the care and treatment. Methods: The methodology......Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim...... and translates into a certain way of perceiving and explaining illnesses and symptoms. Results: The thematic analysis shows that it is through experiences and memories that we create our identity and consciousness. Ignoring the illness experiences can therefore be seen as disregarding, the patient as a human...

  6. [Physical therapy in low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, L; Stucki, G

    1996-09-10

    We report on physical measures in the treatment of patients with lower back pain due to mechanical factors. Acute low back pain improves mostly without specific measures. Intervention for this condition is useful for prevention of relapses. More demanding and difficult is the treatment of chronic lumbar back pain. After an exact diagnosis, information about the disease, the therapeutic procedure and the prognosis follow in order to agree on a common therapeutic goal. To this goal, a close cooperation between physician, physiotherapist, possibly a psychologist and a social worker, is optimal. The employer should be involved in the rehabilitation on the workplace. Patients should become mobilized inspite of pain, and the return to their workplace should be prepared step by step. The most important physiotherapeutic modalities are demonstrated.

  7. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investigate...... whether those findings could be reproduced among French chiropractors.Objectives: 1. To assess the level of consensus among French chiropractors regarding management strategies for nine different scenarios of low back pain. 2. To assess whether the management choices of the French chiropractors appeared...... reasonable for the low back pain scenarios. 3. To compare French management patterns with those described in the previous survey of Swedish chiropractors. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was sent to a randomly selected sample of 167 French chiropractors in 2009. The questionnaire described a 40-year old man...

  8. Sources and mitigation of interharmonics in back-to-back controllable drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    The theme here is to identify the sources of interharmonics that can affect back-to-back controllable drives and make non-characteristic interharmonic components in the grid side currents when the motor currents are unbalanced. A new control methodology then is formulated and proposed to compensa...

  9. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14) pa

  10. Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, J.J.; Sluijs, E.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Knibbe, H.J.J.; Hermans, I.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. Subjects: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132

  11. Investigation potential flow about swept back wing using panel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WakkasAli Rasheed, NabeelAbdulhadiGhyadh, Sahib Shihab Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation Low order panel method with Dirichlet boundary condition conjugated with Kutta condition, was used to calculate pressure coefficients for potential flow about isolated swept back wings at different aspect ratios and different angles of attack. Also both local and total lift coefficients were calculated for the same wings, with detailed streamline behavior on both upper and lower surface. Constant strength quadrilateral doublet element and Constant strength quadrilateral source element were placed on each panel, except on wake sheet only constant strength quadrilateral doublets were placed to satisfy Kutta condition at trailing edge. A set of linear algebraic equations were established by setting inner potential equals to free stream potential. These equations were solved using Gauss-elimination to determine quadrilateral doublet singularity strength distribution. Finally finite difference formula was used to predict aerodynamic loads calculation.

  12. The quadratus lumborum and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franca, G G; Levine, L J

    1991-02-01

    Two cases of low back pain from quadratus lumborum myofascial trigger points are presented. One of the patients suffered from an acute episode while the other had a chronic condition. This condition may be more common than previously believed. The quadratus lumborum should be examined in patients presenting with flank pain as well as low back, buttock and lateral hip pain. Thoracolumbar joint dysfunction may often coexist with quadratus lumborum myofascitis and must be treated for optimal results. Myofascial therapy directed at restoring muscle length and function, coupled with joint manipulation to related dysfunctional areas, was implemented. Diagnosis and treatment are outlined.

  13. Paschen-Back Effect in Dyonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, David

    1987-05-01

    A formulation of the Pashen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed to explain the recent evidence for a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g=(137/2) e. The masses for isospin I=0 mesons are estimated and compared with experiment.

  14. Winning Students Back from McDonald's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hean, Lim Lee; Tin, Low Guat

    1996-01-01

    Describes a Singapore principal's turnaround strategy to improve his secondary students' academic performance and study habits. Principal Tong Pak Goh won students back from McDonald's and other distractions by creating an atmosphere of care and casual comfort, holding afterschool tutoring sessions for problem and latchkey kids, and counseling…

  15. Computer Programming Goes Back to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Burke, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    We are witnessing a remarkable comeback of programming. Current initiatives to promote computational thinking and to broaden participation in computing signal a renewed interest to bring programming back into K-12 schools and help develop children as producers and not simply consumers of digital media. This essay explores the re-emergence of…

  16. Turkey's two elections : The AKP comes back

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Şakir Ziya

    2016-01-01

    In power since 2002, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan seemed as if it might be losing its hold when Turkish voters went to the polls in June 2015. Yet that “hung election” gave way to another contest in November, and the AKP came roaring back.

  17. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create a safe sleep environment in your home, family child care home, or child care center: Always place babies on their backs to sleep, even for short naps. Place babies on a firm sleep surface that meets current safety standards. For ...

  18. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  19. Ginzburg deserved Nobel prize 50 years back

    CERN Multimedia

    Golovchansky, V

    2003-01-01

    "Vitali Ginzburg deserved a Nobel prize fifty years back, Leonid Keldysh, academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, who was Ginzburg's disciple, told Tass. "The Ginzburg-Landau phenomenal theory of superconductivity deserved a Nobel prize right upon being produced. It was a work of intransient importance" (1/2 page).

  20. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long...

  1. Welcoming Grammar Back into the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devet, Bonnie

    2002-01-01

    Describes three approaches with which grammar may be welcomed back into the composition classroom. Considers how the teaching of grammar is making a comeback, with scholars acknowledging that the objections raised by process theories were valid but also investigating how to use grammar in writing classrooms, how to answer old process objections,…

  2. Neuropathic pain, back to the patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Seventer (Robert)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Pain can be classified in several ways. The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommends describing pain according to five categories or axes, namely its anatomical location (neck, lower back, etc.), the body system involved (gastrointestinal, nervo

  3. Pregnancy-related low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katonis, P; Kampouroglou, A; Aggelopoulos, A; Kakavelakis, K; Lykoudis, S; Makrigiannakis, A; Alpantaki, K

    2011-07-01

    Pregnancy related low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It can potentially have a negative impact on their quality of life. The aim of this article is to present a current review of the literature concerning this issue.By using PubMed database and low back pain, pelvic girdle pain, pregnancy as keywords, abstracts and original articles in English investigating the diagnosis treatment of back pain during pregnancy were searched and analyzedLow back pain could present as either a pelvic girdle pain between the posterior iliac crest and the gluteal fold or as a lumbar pain over and around the lumbar spine. The source of the pain should be diagnosed and differentiated early.The appropriate treatment aims to reduce the discomfort and the impact on the pregnant womans quality of life. This article reveals the most common risk factors, as well as treatment methods, which may help to alleviate the pain. Some suggestions for additional research are also discussed.

  4. Physical therapy for patients with back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, R.W.A. van der; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physical therapy diagnosis and treatment in patients with back pain. More specifically, the relationship between the duration of the complaint and the diagnosis and treatment was analysed. Data were used from a representative survey of physical therapeutic p

  5. Comparison of Trunk Stabilization Exercises Using a Gym Ball and Conventional Back Care Exercises for Patients With Chronic Lower Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The trunk muscles are vital for the maintenance of spinal stability. Training of specific muscles surrounding the lumbar spine, which provide dynamic and segmental stability, is one of the major goals in the management of patients with chronic low back pain (LBP. However, more investigation of lumbar stabilization training using a ball is required before making any strong conclusions about its efficacy. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the effect of trunk stabilization exercises and conventional back care exercises for patients with chronic LBP. Patients and Methods Thirty male subjects with chronic LBP were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group received trunk stabilization exercise using a gym ball whereas the control group received conventional back care exercises for six weeks. The abdominal muscle endurance, pain intensity, and functional disability were measured using pressure biofeedback, visual analogue scale (VAS, and modified Oswestry disability questionnaire (MODQ, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline and during week two, four and six. Results The results of the study demonstrated significant improvements in abdominal muscle endurance and reduction in VAS and MODQ score of both groups (P = 0.001. The trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater gains in abdominal muscle endurance during weeks two to six compared to the conventional back care exercise group (P < 0.05. In addition, the trunk stabilization exercise group showed greater reduction in the VAS score (P = 0.035 and MODQ score (P = 0.001 at week six compared to the conventional back care exercise group. Conclusions The trunk stabilization exercises are more effective than conventional back care exercises in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic LBP.

  6. Challenges of the pregnant athlete and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Megan L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2012-01-01

    Low back pain during pregnancy is a common problem with a high prevalence among pregnant athletes. The etiology of pregnancy-related low back pain remains unclear, although more evidence is supporting a biomechanical/musculoskeletal origin. This article will review the causes of low back pain in athletes and pregnant women, differentiate low back from pelvic girdle pain, and discuss the treatment and prevention of pregnancy-related low back and pelvic girdle pain.

  7. Chronic low back pain in housewives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bulut

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate low back pain of housewives and to deteremine relationships between psychological status, education and physical health in housewives.Materials and methods: Thirty premenopausal housewives aged 33-45 years with chronic low back pain were included and the control group consisted of 30 healthy premenopausal housewives. Physical examinations were performed. Age, height, weight, educational level, number of children, consumption of cigarettes and alcohol were recorded. The body mass index (BDI was measured. The severity of back pain was measured by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, psychological status was evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and muscle strength by manual technique.Results: There was no difference between demographic data of patients and controls. BDI scores of patients were significantly higher than the controls (p<0,01. Abdominal and dorsal muscle strength were higher in the control group but different was not significant. OBAS values in the patient group, were positively correlated with BDI and BMI (p= 0.011; p= 0.001, respectively, and negatively correlated with abdominal and dorsal muscle strength (p= 0.006 and p= 0.001. Significant correlations were found between abdominal and dorsal muscle strength and the BMI, ODI and BDI scores and high educational level positively affected the ODI and the BDI scores in patients.Conclusion: The housewives with chronic back pain and do not exercise regularly limit activities of daily living. Because of higher BDI scores of patients with chronic low back pain, these patients should also undergo psychiatric examination. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 295-298.

  8. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  9. Comparison between kinesiotherapy and back school in the treatment of low back pain in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini; Maria Lúcia Ziroldo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy treatment involving kinesiotherapy and back school in older adults’ lowback pain. Methods: study of the case-series type. The pain visual analog scale and the WHOQOL-bref were used for assessingquality of life, and the Timed Up and Go Test was used for testing agility. A total of 21 older adults, who had had low back painfor over three months, participated in the study. The sample was divided in two groups (kinesiotherapy and back school).Th...

  10. Aspects of designing an optimized molybdenum back contact in CIGS-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, Michael; Goetz, Stefan; Haarstrich, Jakob; Metzner, Heinrich; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}(CIGS)-solar cell and module production, the sputtering of the molybdenum back contact is the first step in nearly all process lines. We present our results of experiments to elucidate the different aspects which have to be kept in mind when depositing the molybdenum back contact by dc-magnetron sputtering. These aspects include: I) The adhesion of the molybdenum to the glass substrate as well as the adhesion of the CIGS-layer to the molybdenum, II) electrical conductivity, III) sodium diffusion and IV) the specific contact resistance of the molybdenum to the aluminium doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) window layer. We present our three layer design of the back contact which combines an optimized adhesion to both the substrate and the absorber and also a high electrical conductivity. X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD) are employed to characterize each single layer. We also discuss I-U-measurements of CuInSe{sub 2}-solar cells made in a sequential absorber layer process in order to study the sodium transport behaviour of molybdenum back contacts sputtered at different argon sputter pressures. The sodium content in the absorber and the different back contact layers is measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). A lowest value of the specific contact resistance between the Mo and the Al:ZnO of (1.37{+-}0.14).10{sup 5} {omega}cm{sup 2} was determined.

  11. The Critical Flow back Velocity in Hydraulic-Fracturing Shale Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The loss of prop pant during the flow back process in hydraulic fracturing treatments has been a problem for many years. The effectiveness of the fracture treatment is reduced. A well cleanup is often required to remove the unwanted proppant from the wellbore to re-establish production. Among several techniques available to reduce the prop pant loss, controlling flow back velocity within a critical range is an essential measure. The objective of this study is to determine the critical flow back velocity under different confining pressures in the propped fractures of different thicknesses. This objective is achieved based experimental studies conducted in a specially designed apparatus. For a fracture with a given width, the closure stress helps hold the proppant in place. This is due to the friction force that is proportional to the normal force created by the closure stress. The critical flow back velocity necessary to mobilize the proppant therefore increases with closure stress. However, the stress effect may be influenced by the shape of solid particles and friction coefficient of solid. Under the condition of constant closure stress, a narrow fracture holds proppant better than a wide fracture, resulting in increased critical flow back velocity. This is interpreted to be due to the “tighter” packing of proppant in narrow fractures.

  12. Spray characteristics of high-pressure swirl injector fueled with alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xibin; CHEN Wansheng; GAO Jian; JIANG Deming; HUANG Zuohua

    2007-01-01

    The spray characteristics of methanol and ethanol with high-pressure swirl injector were explored experimentally and numerically.Experimental results show that the spray characteristics of methanol and ethanol had displayed the same trends as that of gasoline.Under the low back pressure ambient conditions,the spray behavior exhibited a hollow cone with wide spray angle and initial spray slug at the tip,while the spray presented a solid cone in the case of high back-pressure.Vortexes in the opposite direction existed in the rear part of the spray under low back-pressure ambient conditions while the vortexes formed in the middle part under high back-pressure ambient conditions.Experiments also showed that methanol had the largest cone angle,while ethanol and gasoline presented almost the same cone angle.Simulation results indicated that methanol and ethanol had a slightly larger Sauter mean diameter (SMD) than that of gasoline with swirl injector..The SMD profile of methanol coincided well with that of ethanol under low back-pressure ambient conditions,but displayed a slightly larger value under high back-pressure due to fuel evaporation.Numerical simulation could successfully demonstrate the spray charac teristics of high-pressure swirl injector for methanol and ethanol fuels.

  13. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  14. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable clinician and researcher interest in whether the outcomes for patients with low back pain, and the efficiency of the health systems that treat them, can be improved by 'subgrouping research'. Subgrouping research seeks to identify subgroups of people who have clinically impo...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies.......There is considerable clinician and researcher interest in whether the outcomes for patients with low back pain, and the efficiency of the health systems that treat them, can be improved by 'subgrouping research'. Subgrouping research seeks to identify subgroups of people who have clinically...... important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...

  15. ["Round back" in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflid, N; Fragnière, B; Dutoit, M

    2000-10-01

    The hyper-kyphosis or "the postural round back" is one of the most common complaints in orthopedic practice. In the majority of cases, the thoracic kyphosis are painless and flexible. The vertebral bodies are normal on radiograms. This is "the kyphotic attitude" or postural round-back. A medical treatment is not the necessary rule. Life hygiene, sports and simple supervision are needed. Nevertheless, there are still pathological fixed kyphosis, induced in the majority of cases by Scheuermann's disease. The other possible etiologies (congenital, paralytic, post-traumatic, Pott's disease, postradiation, or metabolic origin) are a lot rare ones and will be excluded by clinical examination and imaging studies. The structural hyper-kyphosis require treatment. We will approach successively steps of the diagnosis and treatment of the hyper-kyphosis of the adolescent.

  16. Universal quantum back-action evasion

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics is potentially advantageous for certain information-processing tasks, but its probabilistic nature and requirement of measurement back action often limit the precision of conventional classical information-processing devices, such as sensors and atomic clocks. Here we show that by engineering the dynamics of coupled quantum systems, it is possible to construct a subsystem that evades the measurement back action of quantum mechanics, at all times of interest, and obeys any classical dynamics, linear or nonlinear, that we choose. We call such a system a quantum-mechanics-free subsystem (QMFS). All of the observables of a QMFS are quantum-nondemolition (QND) observables; moreover, they are dynamical QND observables, thus demolishing the widely held belief that QND observables are constants of motion. QMFSs point to a new strategy for designing classical information-processing devices in regimes where quantum noise is detrimental. Potential applications include gravitational-wave detection, opto...

  17. Shock Analysis of Water Backed Perforated Plate Subjected to Underwater Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopan, Obla Ramanandam; Ranjithkumar, Santharam; Nandakumar, Chirayil Gopalakrishnannair

    2016-07-01

    Perforated plates are essential structural components of sonar acoustic domes of the submarines and underwater platforms. The sonar acoustic domes are considered as `water backed condition' for structural analysis. It is of utmost importance to study the structural response of sonar acoustic domes subjected to noncontact underwater explosion since it has wide scope in defence application. It is intended to investigate the free field pressure due to the underwater explosion and structural response of perforated plate using ANSYS LS-DYNA software for plastic explosive kirkee (PEK), Tri Nitro Toluene (TNT) and Composition 4 explosives. The free field pressure from TNT explosion is validated with the Cole's expression available for this explosive. The time history plots for free field pressure, displacement and principal stress are plotted for all the three explosives. The free field pressure is validated with Cole's formula and found 18 % variation for TNT and 14 % for PEK explosive.

  18. VALUING AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Jeffrey R.; Brinch, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    A model to value Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation (Farmer Mac) agricultural mortgage-backed securities (AMBS) is developed and numerically solved. The results suggest prepayment penalties currently being used by Farmer Mac reduce yields on AMBS considerably. Even with prepayment penalties, it can be advantageous for profit maximizing mortgagors to optimally prepay or even default on agricultural mortgages. The model is used to quantify prepayment and default risk by valuing the embed...

  19. The hyperfine Paschen-Back Faraday effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zentile, Mark A.; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Knappe, Svenja; Adams, Charles S.; Hughes, Ifan G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a Tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive i...

  20. Looking Back on the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Looking back at the ups and downs of China's stock market in 2007,it is clear that it has developed far beyond people's expectation. While the stock index constantly reaches new highs and the size of the market becomes larger and larger, the Chinese financial market has also reintegrated. A multi-level revolution occurred in 2007, involving changes in stock structure, the variety of core composition, chip cost of the capital market, investor makeup, as well as trade rules and operational methods.

  1. DIAGNOSTICS AND TREATMENT OF LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Askhatovich Altunbaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an update on the principles of diagnosis and medical and surgical treatments in patients with low back pain (LBP, by taking into account the clinical phenomenology of pain manifestations. It considers the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and other agents. The data of clinical trials of meloxicam used in LBP are presented. The currently available surgical treatments for LBP are described.

  2. BackTrack testing wireless network security

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step format, you will be able to get started in next to no time with minimal effort and zero fuss.BackTrack: Testing Wireless Network Security is for anyone who has an interest in security and who wants to know more about wireless networks.All you need is some experience with networks and computers and you will be ready to go.

  3. SINOPEC TO BUY BACK FOUR LISTED SUBSIDIARIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Sinopec will buy back its four listed subsidiaries - Sinopec Qilu Petrochemical Co, Sinopec Yangzi Petrochemical Co, Sinopec Zhongyuan Petroleum Co, and Sinopec Shengli Oilfield Dynamic Group Co - at a cash offer of 14.3 billion yuan (US$1.78 billion), the company announced in mid-February. This transaction is a move made by Sinopec to deliver their promises at IPO in 2000 which include restructuring its assets in order to strengthen the competence of its core business.

  4. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring.

  5. Approach to low back pain. Chiropractic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simon; Werth, Peter; Walker, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Case study. A man aged 42 years, who works as a police officer, presented with severe lower back pain, which he had experienced for 24 hours after spending the previous day helping his brother to move house. He had difficulty ambulating and most movements aggravated the pain. There were no lower limb symptoms and no red flags present on history or examination. He was otherwise well and was not taking any regular medications.

  6. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  7. BACK PAIN SYNDROME: MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shostak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe management tactics in patients with back pain syndrome and to give recommendations for the choice of non-drug and drug treatments (with main drug groups and the duration of a treatment cycle. Materials and methods. The paper considers the basic mechanisms and causes of back pain syndromes (dorsalgias. It introduces the concept “dorsopathy” that characterizes the appearance of nonvisceral pain syndrome in the extremities and trunk, which is caused by degenerative processes in the vertebral motion segment. The authors provide a description of spondyloarthrosis, one of the main degenerative diseases of the spine, and give current principles of treatment for the major symptoms of the disease. Results. The main goal of treatment in patients with back pain is to relieve pain syndrome. Selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the medicaments of choice. Conclusion. This paper covers current approaches to managing patients with spondyloarthrosis and gives recommendations regarding the treatment of the major disease manifestation – pain syndrome. 

  8. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  9. Analysis Of Scoliosis By Back Shape Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Harris, John D.

    1983-07-01

    The use of surface topography for the assessment of scoliotic deformity in the clinic depends firstly on the quality of measures which reliably characterise deformity of the back, and secondly on the ease and speed with which these measures can be applied. A method of analysis of back shape measurements is presented which can be applied to any topographic measurement system. Measures presented are substantially independent of minor changes in the patient's posture in rotation and flexion from one clinic to the next, and yet sensitive enough to indicate significant improvement or degeneration of the disease. The presentation shows (1) horizontal cross-sections at ten levels up the back from sacrum to vertebra prominens, (2) angles of rotation of the surface over a small region about the spine, (3) three vertical profiles following the line of the spine, and (4) measures of maximum kyphosis and lordosis. Dependence on the operator has been reduced to a minimum. Extreme care in positioning the patient is unnecessary and those spinous processes which are easily palpable, the vertebra prominens and the two dimples over the posterior superior iliac spines are marked. Analysis proceeds entirely automatically once the basic shape data have been supplied. Applications of the technique to indirect moire topography and a television topographic measurement system are described.

  10. Helicopter pilot back pain: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, D F; Reading, T E

    1984-02-01

    Because of the high prevalence of back pain experienced by U.S. Army helicopter pilots, a study was conducted to ascertain the feasibility of reproducing these symptoms in the laboratory. A mock-up of a UH-1H seat and control configuration was mounted to a multi-axis vibration simulator (MAVS). Eleven subjects were tested on the apparatus for two 120-min periods. During one period, the MAVS was programmed to reproduce vibrations recorded from a UH-1H in cruise flight. The subjects received no vibration during the other test period. All subjects reported back pain which they described as identical to the pain they experience during flight, during one or more of their test periods. There was no statistical difference between the vibration and nonvibration test conditions (p greater than 0.05) in terms of time of onset of pain or intensity of pain as measured by a visual analog scale. It appears the vibration at the frequencies and amplitudes tested plays little or no role in the etiology of the back symptoms reported by these pilots. It is proposed that the primary etiological factor for these symptoms is the poor posture pilots are obliged to assume for extended periods while operating helicopters.

  11. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  12. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhe, A.; Fejer, R.; Walker, B.

    2011-01-01

    pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less) with non-specific low back pain. Methods: Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90...... compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were......Background: Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between...

  13. Backrest Shape Affects Head–Neck Alignment and Seated Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Ukita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unstable back support against gravity results in a forward head posture and contributes to buttocks pressure ulcers. However, the association between these health problems and a wheelchair backrest is unclear. Our newly developed wheelchair (N-WC supports the back of the pelvis and thorax from obliquely underneath. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different backrest shapes on head–neck alignment and seated pressure. Data from 28 healthy subjects were analyzed. Outcome measures were head–neck alignment angles, support angles of the backrest, and pressure distributions on the supporting surfaces. Compared with a typical wheelchair that has a flat backrest, the seat pressure decreased and the center of pressure was located in the middle of both the seat and backrest in the N-WC. Moreover, the head–neck alignment when seated in the N-WC was upright. These results highlight the importance of the shape of the wheelchair backrest.

  14. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, D.A.W.M.; Simons, E.; Riphagen, I.I.; Ammendolia, C.; Verhagen, A.P.; Laslett, M.; Devillé, W.; Deyo, R.A.; Bouter, L.M.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Aertgeerts, B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care cl

  15. Study of back reflectors for thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, H.; Mai, Y. [Baoding Tianwei Solarfilms Co., Ltd., Baoding 071051 (China); Wan, M. [Department of Chemistry and Material Science, Hunan Institute of Humanities, Science and Technology, Loudi 417000 (China); Gao, J.; Wang, Y.; He, T.; Feng, Y.; Yin, J.; Du, J.; Wang, J.; Sun, R. [Baoding Tianwei Solarfilms Co., Ltd., Baoding 071051 (China); Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@btw-solarfilms.com [Baoding Tianwei Solarfilms Co., Ltd., Baoding 071051 (China)

    2013-07-31

    In this study, the reflection properties of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) films i.e. aluminum doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) and boron doped zinc oxide (ZnO:B) films plus aluminum (Al) films or white polyvinyl butyral (PVB) foils, which are usually used as the combined back reflectors of thin film silicon solar cells, are investigated. Sputtered ZnO:Al films were etched in diluted hydrochloric acid (1%) to achieve rough surface structures while textured ZnO:B films were directly prepared by a low pressure chemical vapor deposition technique. It is found that the rough TCO/Al reflectors show a low total reflection, which is mainly due to the parasitic absorption by the surface plasmons at the rough TCO/Al interfaces as well as the absorption in the TCO films. Differently, the rough TCO/white PVB foil reflectors display a slightly high light reflection regardless of the influence of the rough interface without the excitation of surface plasmons. Thus, the TCO/white PVB foil back reflectors could be a good candidate with respect to light utilization when they are applied in thin film silicon solar cells. - Highlights: • White polyvinyl butyral and transparent conductive oxide materials are used. • The reflection properties of TCO/Al and TCO/white PVB foil reflectors are studied. • The ZnO:Al and ZnO:B films are used as two types of TCO materials. • TCO/white PVB foil reflector shows a high reflection compared to TCO/Al reflector.

  16. A technique to prevent Ender nail back-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, V; Marya, K M

    2003-12-01

    Ender nails are advantageous in the treatment of certain fractures; however, inadequate fixation and back-out are frequent complications. This article presents a simple looping technique that prevents Ender nail back-out.

  17. Fishery Management Program Progress Report: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary of fishery biologist's visit to Back Bay to remove carp from impoundments at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge.

  18. Effect of Temperature Set-Back on Heat Pump Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    This report documents an analysis which shows that energy savings and corresponding cost savings could be realized by employing set-back strategies dependent on location, heat pump capacity and amount of set-back. (Author)

  19. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...... than 30 days with low back pain during the follow-up year. This was true for only 9% of the rest of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates correlations between low back pain in childhood/adolescence and low back pain in adulthood. This should lead to a change in focus from the adult...

  20. A Benefit of Back Pain Surgery: Better Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html A Benefit of Back Pain Surgery: Better Sex Operation often leads to more comfortable lovemaking, study ... Surgery for back pain can often improve patients' sex lives, researchers report. "The impetus behind our study ...

  1. Study on Manganin High Pressure Array Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jianhua; DU Xiaosong; YANG Bangchao; ZHOU Hongre

    2003-01-01

    A new kind of thin film manganin aray gauge is fabricated by adopting a new sensor fabrication technique. The sensitive materials (manganin thin films) are first deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused silica substrates, and then covered by a layer of SiO2 thin films by electron beam evaporation. Based on impedance match method of "back configuration", the highest pressure measured in Al target is 51.68 Gpa, the highest pressure in SiO2 package is 35.396 Gpa and the piezoresistance coefficient k is 0.026 Gpa-1. The upper limit and measure precision of sensor is improved.

  2. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  3. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  4. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  5. Comparison between kinesiotherapy and back school in the treatment of low back pain in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Maria Marques Gomes Bertolini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to compare the efficacy of physiotherapy treatment involving kinesiotherapy and back school in older adults’ lowback pain. Methods: study of the case-series type. The pain visual analog scale and the WHOQOL-bref were used for assessingquality of life, and the Timed Up and Go Test was used for testing agility. A total of 21 older adults, who had had low back painfor over three months, participated in the study. The sample was divided in two groups (kinesiotherapy and back school.The older adults were assessed before and after the therapeutic interventions. Results: both groups obtained better scoresin all the variables analyzed in the post-test in relation to the pre-test, and as a result, in the inter-group comparison, theresults did not reveal statistically significant differences (p>0.05. Conclusion: back school and conventional kinesiotherapywere effective in improving the pain, quality-of-life and agility of older adults with low back pain.

  6. Back surface studies of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchi, Hamed

    Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells have attracted a lot of interest because they have shown the highest achieved efficiency (21%) among thin film photovoltaic materials, long-term stability, and straightforward optical bandgap engineering by changing relative amounts of present elements in the alloy. Still, there are several opportunities to further improve the performance of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices. The interfaces between layers significantly affect the device performance, and knowledge of their chemical and electronic structures is essential in identifying performance limiting factors. The main goal of this research is to understand the characteristics of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2-back contact interface in order to design ohmic back contacts for Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based solar cells with a range of band gaps and device configurations. The focus is on developing either an opaque or transparent ohmic back contact via surface modification or introduction of buffer layers in the back surface. In this project, candidate back contact materials have been identified based on modeling of band alignments and surface chemical properties of the absorber layer and back contact. For the first time, MoO3 and WO 3 transparent back contacts were successfully developed for Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells. The structural, optical, and surface properties of MoO 3 and WO3 were optimized by controlling the oxygen partial pressure during reactive sputtering and post-deposition annealing. Valence band edge energies were also obtained by analysis of the XPS spectra and used to characterize the interface band offsets. As a result, it became possible to illuminate of the device from the back, resulting in a recently developed "backwall superstrate" device structure that outperforms conventional substrate Cu(In,Ga)Se2 devices in the absorber thickness range 0.1-0.5 microm. Further enhancements were achieved by introducing moderate amounts of Ag into the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 lattice during the co-evaporation method

  7. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated

  8. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  9. A patient with back pain: therapy possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Kamchatnov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common clinical syndromes associated with the high rate of temporary disability and sizable material costs. The choice of adequate therapy for LBP requires that primary diseases that can be responsible for the occurrence of pain should be excluded. While choosing an analgesic, there must be a balance between its efficacy and the possible risk for undesirable side effects. One of the drugs that have proven effective in treating patients with LBP is ketoprofen (ketonal, the diversity of whose formulations allows maximally individualized therapy.

  10. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  11. [Low back pain of unfavourable progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña Parra, E; Calle Romero, Y; García Sánchez, V C; Sanz Pozo, B

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with chronic low back pain with an unfavourable progression despite the prescribed pharmacological treatment. The patient had symptoms associated with compression of the sciatic nerve in an atypical area. As it passed through the piriformis muscle, it was diagnosed as piriformis muscle syndrome. This diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and symptoms and the determination of the tests performed, with the imaging tests being absolutely normal. Treatment is basically with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants and stretching exercises of this muscle.

  12. Adiabatic Quantum Computation: Coherent Control Back Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Debabrata

    2013-01-01

    Though attractive from scalability aspects, optical approaches to quantum computing are highly prone to decoherence and rapid population loss due to nonradiative processes such as vibrational redistribution. We show that such effects can be reduced by adiabatic coherent control, in which quantum interference between multiple excitation pathways is used to cancel coupling to the unwanted, non-radiative channels. We focus on experimentally demonstrated adiabatic controlled population transfer experiments wherein the details on the coherence aspects are yet to be explored theoretically but are important for quantum computation. Such quantum computing schemes also form a back-action connection to coherent control developments. PMID:23788822

  13. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  14. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology...... system can break down in the worst case scenario. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method for back-to-back converters using the NPC topology is required. This study analyzes effects of inner and outer open-switch faults of the NPC rectifier and inverter....... An open-switch fault in the NPC rectifier of the back-to-back converter leads to the distortion of the input current and torque vibration in the system. Additionally, an open-switch fault in the NPC inverter of the back-to-back converter causes the distortion of the output current. Furthermore, the WTG...

  15. Optimization of Tape Winding Process Parameters to Enhance the Performance of Solid Rocket Nozzle Throat Back Up Liners using Taguchi's Robust Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Nayani Kishore

    2016-06-01

    The throat back up liners is used to protect the nozzle structural members from the severe thermal environment in solid rocket nozzles. The throat back up liners is made with E-glass phenolic prepregs by tape winding process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the optimization of process parameters of tape winding process to achieve better insulative resistance using Taguchi's robust design methodology. In this method four control factors machine speed, roller pressure, tape tension, tape temperature that were investigated for the tape winding process. The presented work was to study the cogency and acceptability of Taguchi's methodology in manufacturing of throat back up liners. The quality characteristic identified was Back wall temperature. Experiments carried out using L{9/'} (34) orthogonal array with three levels of four different control factors. The test results were analyzed using smaller the better criteria for Signal to Noise ratio in order to optimize the process. The experimental results were analyzed conformed and successfully used to achieve the minimum back wall temperature of the throat back up liners. The enhancement in performance of the throat back up liners was observed by carrying out the oxy-acetylene tests. The influence of back wall temperature on the performance of throat back up liners was verified by ground firing test.

  16. Method for growing a back surface contact on an imaging detector used in conjunction with back illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacksberg, Jordana (Inventor); Hoenk, Michael Eugene (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method is provided for growing a back surface contact on an imaging detector used in conjunction with back illumination. In operation, an imaging detector is provided. Additionally, a back surface contact (e.g. a delta-doped layer, etc.) is grown on the imaging detector utilizing a process that is performed at a temperature less than 450 degrees Celsius.

  17. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. Diagnosis. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a lumbalgia and b lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Treatment. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required. .

  18. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  19. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  20. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  1. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  2. Chiropractors and the treatment of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, A C

    1977-02-01

    In a survey of British chiropractors and their practices, it was found that the majority of their patients attended for back pain. The average age of patients was 47 years, the sex ratio was equal, and most had had their complaints for longer than three months and had access to the chiropractor within a few days. They were largely housewives and persons from the executive and managerial occupations. The main investigative procedures used were static and motion palpation of the spine, and vital systems, orthopaedic, neurological, and radiological examination. Treatment was mostly manual and directed at the spinal column, and the benefit obtained, as assessed by the chiropractors, was comparable to that reported in other studies. Maximum benefit was usually recorded within seven attendances, although 39% of patients made further visits for maintenance treatment. The chiropractors are seen to be a young, growing, and largely male group, and their new patient numbers are at present likely to be at least one-twentieth that of hospital out-patient departments which deal with back pain.

  3. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  4. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  5. Back-action evasion as an alternative to impedance matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurke, B

    1991-04-26

    Back-action evasion is a measurement technique originally devised to overcome certain limits imposed by quantum mechanics on the sensitivity of gravitational radiation detectors. The technique is, however, more generally applicable and can be used to improve the sensitivity of instrumentation with noise floors much greater than the quantum noise floor. The principle of back-action evasion is described here by means of a simple example. A comparison of back-action evasion with impedance matching is made to clarify when back-action evasion may be useful. Back-action evasion allows one to achieve a sensitivity comparable to that achieved by impedance matching.

  6. Human scalp irritation compared to that of the arm and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongbo; Fautz, Rolf; Fuchs, Anne; Bhandarkar, Sulochana; Maibach, Howard I

    2004-10-01

    Large-scale data comparing reactions to surfactants between scalp and back and arm are lacking. The sensitivity of responses between scalp and back and arm were explored utilizing an open-application model for testing the potential irritancy of sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). 10 bald male Caucasians (mean age 56 +/- 9 years) were enrolled. We conducted 5 successive washings: for each wash, the technician pipetted 1 ml of 20% SLS solution into a glass cylinder placed on the designated area with hand pressure that prevented the cylinder leaking. The test area was then rubbed with a Teflon Policeman scrubber for 1 min. Post scrubbing, the solution was absorbed dry with a plastic pipette and blotted by gently applying paper tissues. After a 5-min rest, the procedure was repeated for 4 more times for a total of 5 times. Skin-irritancy assessments by visual scoring and instrumental measurements were made at 30 min and 24 h thereafter and squamometry at the end of last washing. Results indicated that most param- eters revealed that the back was most sensitive to the SLS challenge. Thus, these data support the current standard skin-compatibility testing procedure, employing the back for potential irritation testing of hair care products.

  7. Study on the Back Rest System of Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈革; 毛立民; 周亚勤; 袁立新

    2004-01-01

    Periodic variations of warp tension during a weaving cycle result in corresponding change of back rest position, and the oscillation of back rest affects the fluctuation of warp yarn in return. A mechanical model of back rest system of looms is presented on basis of auto control theory, and the factors affecting the dynamic performance of the back rest are analyzed. In the model, warp yarn is regarded as a viscoelastic medium, and the adjustable parameters and the adjusting range of the back rest system are increased, so the ioom's applicability for the fabric's variety is enlanced.Finally, the methods of designing and adjusting the back rest are discussed, and a trend of back rest system development is given.

  8. Nonlinear inverse modeling of sensor based on back-propagation fuzzy logical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Liu Junhua

    2007-01-01

    Objective To correct the nonlinear error of sensor output, a new approach to sensor inverse modeling based on Back-Propagation Fuzzy Logical System (BP FS) is presented. Methods The BP FS is a computationally efficient nonlinear universal approximator, which is capable of implementing complex nonlinear mapping from its input pattern space to the output with fast convergence speed. Results The neuro-fuzzy hybrid system, i.e. BP FS, is then applied to construct nonlinear inverse model of pressure sensor. The experimental results show that the proposed inverse modeling method automatically compensates the associated nonlinear error in pressure estimation, and thus the performance of pressure sensor is significantly improved. Conclusion The proposed method can be widely used in nonlinearity correction of various kinds of sensors to compensate the effects of nonlinearity and temperature on sensor output.

  9. Back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrèges, Stanis; Lacroix, Benjamin; Amadjikpe, Arnaud; Phillips, Stan; Zhao, Zhiyong; Choi, Kwang; Hunt, Andrew; Papapolymerou, John

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents the design and the fabrication of two low-loss X-band back-to-back tunable ferroelectric resonator filters on flexible liquid crystal polymer substrates using wire-bonded BST capacitors as analog tuning elements. The back-to-back topology consists of three resonators on both sides of the substrate coupled by apertures in their common ground plane, allowing the overall size of the filter to be reduced. BST varactors made on a sapphire substrate are easily diced and mounted on the polymer substrates to achieve the desired tuning. Both 3-pole tunable filters show a 1-dB bandwidth of 8 to 10%, low insertion loss (3.6 to 1.95 dB for the best one) with bias voltages from 0 to 35 V, a better compactness compared with classical tunable structures (reduced footprint area by 30% for the best filter) and a frequency tuning of about 11 to 13% at 8 GHz. The demonstrated feasibility opens interesting prospects for the fabrication of compact tunable filters with more resonators.

  10. Who's Not Going Back to School? How Sequestration Is Scaling Back Early Childhood Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, in many communities across the country, some children will not be showing up for school this year (2013). Classrooms will shut down and teachers will look for other employment opportunities. This school year, approximately 57,000 of our youngest children in the Head Start program will not be going back to school. The cuts are the…

  11. Back Pain and Endurance Training of Back Muscles: Justification for Further Study in Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    clinical trial [see comments]. Spine 1990Dec;15(12):1317-1320. 17. Dul J, Hildebrandt VH. Ergonomie guidelines for the prevention of low back pain at...Congress 1962;XI Congress, Madrid: 145-151. 56. Singh R. Backache in Chetak Crew and Suggested Ergonomie Improvements in Aircraft Seat Design

  12. The Role of Front-Back Features in Children's 'Front', 'Back', and 'Beside' Placements of Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lauren; Strommen, Ellen

    1970-01-01

    In a study of spatial orientation, 40 boys and 40 girls from kindergarten and first grade placed a series of objects in front, behind, and beside themselves, and in front, behind, and beside other objects. Some objects had distinguishable front and back sides; others lacked such features. Placements were highly consistent within and across…

  13. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of electron back diffusion in argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmilović, M.; Stojanović, V.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    1999-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to study the back-diffusion of electrons in argon at low and moderate values of E/N from 10Td to 10 kTd. Simulations were performed for gaps of 1 cm and for pressures corresponding to the breakdown voltages taken from experimental Paschen curves. Effects of inelastic collisions, ionization, reflection of electrons and anisotropic scattering as well as anisotropic initial and reflected angular distributions of electrons were included. A complete and detailed set of electron scattering cross sections that describes well electron transport in argon was used. We found a very good agreement of the results of simulations with the experimental data for well defined initial conditions, and with several models available in the literature.(A.V. Phelps and Z.LJ. Petrović), Plasma Sources Sci. Tehnol. 8, R21 (1999). While effect of reflection may be large, for realistic values of reflection coefficient and for realistic secondary electron productions the effect may be neglected for the accuracy required in gas discharge modeling.

  15. Step back! Niche dynamics in cave-dwelling predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Isaia, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The geometry of the Hutchinson's hypervolume derives from multiple selective pressures defined, on one hand, by the physiological tolerance of the species, and on the other, by intra- and interspecific competition. The quantification of these evolutionary forces is essential for the understanding of the coexistence of predators in light of competitive exclusion dynamics. We address this topic by investigating the ecological niche of two medium-sized troglophile spiders (Meta menardi and Pimoa graphitica). Over one year, we surveyed several populations in four subterranean sites in the Western Italian Alps, monitoring monthly their spatial and temporal dynamics and the associated physical and ecological variables. We assessed competition between the two species by means of multi regression techniques and by evaluating the intersection between their multidimensional hypervolumes. We detected a remarkable overlap between the microclimatic and trophic niche of M. menardi and P. graphitica, however, the former -being larger in size- resulted the best competitor in proximity of the cave entrance, causing the latter to readjust its spatial niche towards the inner part, where prey availability is scarcer ("step back effect"). In parallel to the slight variations in the subterranean microclimatic condition, the niche of the two species was also found to be seasonal dependent, varying over the year. With this work, we aim at providing new insights about the relationships among predators, demonstrating that energy-poor environments such as caves maintain the potential for diversification of predators via niche differentiation and serve as useful models for theoretical ecological studies.

  16. Putting the 'care' back into aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadnell, Cathy

    2006-04-01

    Aged care is well and truly back on the political agenda in Australia. While the mainstream media has recently exposed a number of horrific cases of alleged abuse in aged care facilities it has done little to highlight the failings of social policy over time or to foster debate on how to improve the care of older Australians. What are the barriers to providing safe and quality aged care to a growing number of our citizens and how do we overcome them? If you relied on the recent media coverage for your impression of aged care you could be forgiven for thinking it is all bad news. But there are facilities providing high quality care and stories of nurses working wonders in the face of adversity. Cathy Beadnell considers some of the broader cultural and workforce issues in aged care.

  17. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women.

  18. The Molecular Paschen-Back Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Fluri, D. M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    The molecular Paschen-Back effect (PBE) lacks a detailed description since the problem was first addressed by Hill in 1929. However, many diatomic molecules exhibit the PBE at field strengths typical of sunspots and active cool stars. Recently we have presented a complete theoretical description of the molecular PBE in Hund's cases (a), (b), and all intermediate cases. This description allows us to compute the splitting of levels of any multiplicity and the transitions between them. We find that in the partial PBE regime strongly asymmetric Stokes profiles are produced, whose strengths and asymmetries depend sensitively on the magnetic field. Also, the strength of the forbidden and satellite transitions increases rapidly with field strength, while the strength of the main branch transitions decreases. These signatures hold promise to form the basis of new diagnostics of solar and stellar magnetic fields.

  19. The hyperfine Paschen-Back Faraday effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zentile, Mark A; Weller, Lee; Knappe, Svenja; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a Tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the $10^{-4}$ level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilisation at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for $^{87}$Rb is found to be $\\sim 40$ kHz/$^\\circ$C.

  20. The hyperfine Paschen-Back Faraday effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentile, Mark A.; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Knappe, Svenja; Adams, Charles S.; Hughes, Ifan G.

    2014-04-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen-Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the 10-4 level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilization at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for 87Rb is found to be ˜40 kHz °C-1.

  1. From nature to computing and back

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke TANG; Xin YAO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nature has been the source of inspiration for many computational algorithms and promoted the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field called nature inspired computation, which studies computational systems and methodologies that are inspired by and/or borrow ideas from natural systems. In the past decades, scientific research in nature inspired computation has evolved substantially and diverse field of research topics have arisen.On one hand, a variety of novel computational techniques haven been developed via mimicking the behaviors of natural systems, e.g., evolutionary computation, neural computation, swarm intelligence, etc. On the other hand,the developments of these computational techniques result in powerful tools for understanding the nature, and thus benefit the advance of related fields, such as biology, chemistry and material science. This special section aims at bringing together some of the latest results that have been obtained in both directions, i.e., from nature to computing and back.

  2. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  3. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Multimedia

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  4. From pertussis to meningococcal disease and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorringe, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    From pertussis to meningococcal disease and back represents nearly 30 years of research at Porton, first at the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research and latterly as part of the Health Protection Agency. I joined the group lead by Andy Robinson developing an acellular pertussis vaccine and was part of an exciting period that encompassed basic antigen characterisation and pathogenesis studies with the development of an acellular vaccine containing fimbriae. Research then changed to focus on serogroup B meningococcal disease, studying the vaccine potential of iron-regulated proteins and then Neisseria lactamica. The resurgence of pertussis seen in some countries alerted me to the lack of understanding of protective immune responses to Bordetella pertussis infection and disease and this is now an active area of research.

  5. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed...... insight into the pathological changes in LBP patients may affect the management of patients. However, this has never been tested. Until June 2006, all patients at our specialized public out-patient clinic, were referred to MRI on the basis of clinical indications, economic constraints, and availability...... of MRI (the "old" group). As a new approach, all patients with certain criteria are now referred to MRI before the clinical examination (the "new" group).   Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate if the two different MRI approaches, the "old" and "new", resulted in differences in relation...

  6. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  7. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...... functional ability permanently’. Key words: intermediate care, older people, discharge, interview, phenomenology...

  8. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful research method that potentially allows identification of the mechanisms through which treatments affect patient outcomes. This chapter reviews the theoretical framework, research designs and statistical approaches used in mediation analysis. It describes what can...... be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...... evidence about the role of some psychological factors as potential treatment mediators, such as self-efficacy and catastrophising. Mediation analysis can equally be applied to non-psychological factors. Pre-planned and appropriately conducted mediation analysis in adequately powered clinical trials would...

  9. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... extent expectations were associated with empirical prognostic factors.Summary of Background Data. Patients' recovery expectations have been associated with prognosis, but it is largely unknown why patients expect what they do, and how expectations relate to other prognostic factors.Methods. 1169...... participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models...

  10. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Psyc......INFO, PubMed, Web of Science, AMED, and Academic Search Premier) for the period from January 1, 1966, to April 30, 2015, in English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish languages. STUDY SELECTION: Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, or randomized controlled trials assessing psychological distress...... (study populations, definitions of LBP, distress measures) were systematically extracted and reviewed for risk of bias. Distress measures were described, and data were pooled in cases of identical measures. Reported levels of distress were contextualized using available population norms, clinical...

  11. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth;

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson's chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out...

  12. Getting Context Back in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Bucciarelli, Louis

    2013-01-01

    engineering education. In this paper we will discuss issues of curriculum, pedagogics and - most importantly learning - in engineering education. We tend to agree with the critics that there is a need to broaden engineering education. We also suggest that this broadening of the curriculum should be backed up...... and it is in fact counterproductive to let tight disciplinary framings- and strict 'object world' perspectives - be the only avenue to 'problem solving'. By introducing cases from engineering and scientific practice we will illustrate how the perspectives of the Humanities and Social Sciences can be brought to bear......History reveals a number academically inclined engineers and others who have found engineering education lacking. The critics support their claim with diverse arguments and propose different reform initiatives (Buch 2012). Though the motivation varies the critics seems to agree on broadening...

  13. Back diffusion from thin low permeability zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minjune; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W

    2015-01-06

    Aquitards can serve as long-term contaminant sources to aquifers when contaminant mass diffuses from the aquitard following aquifer source mass depletion. This study describes analytical and experimental approaches to understand reactive and nonreactive solute transport in a thin aquitard bounded by an adjacent aquifer. A series of well-controlled laboratory experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional flow chamber to quantify solute diffusion from a high-permeability sand into and subsequently out of kaolinite clay layers of vertical thickness 15 mm, 20 mm, and 60 mm. One-dimensional analytical solutions were developed for diffusion in a finite aquitard with mass exchange with an adjacent aquifer using the method of images. The analytical solutions showed very good agreement with measured breakthrough curves and aquitard concentration distributions measured in situ by light reflection visualization. Solutes with low retardation accumulated more stored mass with greater penetration distance in the aquitard compared to high-retardation solutes. However, because the duration of aquitard mass release was much longer, high-retardation solutes have a greater long-term back diffusion risk. The error associated with applying a semi-infinite domain analytical solution to a finite diffusion domain increases as a function of the system relative diffusion length scale, suggesting that the solutions using image sources should be applied in cases with rapid solute diffusion and/or thin clay layers. The solutions presented here can be extended to multilayer aquifer/low-permeability systems to assess the significance of back diffusion from thin layers.

  14. Low back pain: a twentieth century health care enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, G

    1996-12-15

    Despite greater knowledge, expertise, and health care resources for spinal pathologies, chronic disability resulting from nonspecific low back pain is rising exponentially in western society. Medical care certainly has not solved the everyday symptom of low back pain and even may be reinforcing and exacerbating the problem. An historic review shows that there is no change in the pathology or prevalence of low back pain: What has changed in our understanding and management. There are striking differences in health care for low back pain in the United States and the United Kingdom, although neither delivers the kind of care recommended by recent evidence-based guidelines. Medical care for low back pain in the United States is specialist-oriented, of high technology, and of high cost, but 40% of American patients seek chiropractic care for low back pain instead. National Health Service care for low back pain in the United Kingdom is underfunded, too little and too late, and 55% of British patients pay for private therapy instead. Despite the different health care systems, treatment availability, and costs, there seems to be little difference in clinical outcomes or the social impact of low back pain in the two countries. There is growing dissatisfaction with health care for low back pain on both sides of the Atlantic. Future health care for patients with nonspecific low back pain should be designed to meet their specific needs.

  15. Preventing pressure ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000147.htm Preventing pressure ulcers To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pressure ulcers are also called bedsores, or pressure sores. They ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  17. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  18. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  19. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  20. Navigating Earthquake Physics with High-Resolution Array Back-Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingsen

    Understanding earthquake source dynamics is a fundamental goal of geophysics. Progress toward this goal has been slow due to the gap between state-of-art earthquake simulations and the limited source imaging techniques based on conventional low-frequency finite fault inversions. Seismic array processing is an alternative source imaging technique that employs the higher frequency content of the earthquakes and provides finer detail of the source process with few prior assumptions. While the back-projection provides key observations of previous large earthquakes, the standard beamforming back-projection suffers from low resolution and severe artifacts. This thesis introduces the MUSIC technique, a high-resolution array processing method that aims to narrow the gap between the seismic observations and earthquake simulations. The MUSIC is a high-resolution method taking advantage of the higher order signal statistics. The method has not been widely used in seismology yet because of the nonstationary and incoherent nature of the seismic signal. We adapt MUSIC to transient seismic signal by incorporating the Multitaper cross-spectrum estimates. We also adopt a "reference window" strategy that mitigates the "swimming artifact," a systematic drift effect in back projection. The improved MUSIC back projections allow the imaging of recent large earthquakes in finer details which give rise to new perspectives on dynamic simulations. In the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, we observe frequency-dependent rupture behaviors which relate to the material variation along the dip of the subduction interface. In the 2012 off-Sumatra earthquake, we image the complicated ruptures involving orthogonal fault system and an usual branching direction. This result along with our complementary dynamic simulations probes the pressure-insensitive strength of the deep oceanic lithosphere. In another example, back projection is applied to the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake recorded at regional distance. The

  1. Reproducibility of postural control measurement during unstable sitting in low back pain patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duquet William

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control tests like standing and sitting stabilometry are widely used to evaluate neuromuscular control related to trunk balance in low back pain patients. Chronic low back pain patients have lesser postural control compared to healthy subjects. Few studies have assessed the reproducibility of the centre of pressure deviations and to our knowledge no studies have investigated the reproducibility of three-dimensional kinematics of postural control tests in a low back pain population. Therefore the aim of this study was to assess the test-retest reproducibility of a seated postural control test in low back pain patients. Methods Postural control in low back pain patients was registered by a three dimensional motion analysis system combined with a force plate. Sixteen chronic low back pain patients having complaints for at least six months, were included based on specific clinical criteria. Every subject performed 4 postural control tests. Every test was repeated 4 times and lasted 40 seconds. The force plate registered the deviations of the centre of pressure. A Vicon-612-datastation, equipped with 7 infra-red M1 camera's, was used to track 13 markers attached to the torso and pelvis in order to estimate their angular displacement in the 3 cardinal planes. Results All Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC calculated for the force plate variables did not exceed 0.73 (ranging between 0.11 and 0.73. As for the torso, ICC's of the mean flexion-extension and rotation angles ranged from 0.65 to 0.93 and of the mean lateral flexion angle from 0.50 to 0.67. For the pelvis the ICC of the mean flexion-extension angle varied between 0.66 and 0.83, the mean lateral flexion angle between 0.16 and 0.81 and the mean rotation angle between 0.40 and 0.62. Consecutive data suggest that the low test-retest reproducibility is probably due to a learning effect. Conclusion The test-retest reproducibility of these postural control tests in

  2. Combination of taping with Back School in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Tana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 70-85% of the general population suffers from back pain. Back School programs have being effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Taping may be useful in reducing pain and normalizing muscle function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of taping with Back School at short- and long-term. Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial. The experimental group used tape and made Back Scholl and the control group only made Back School. At the beginning and the end of treatment, pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, the flexibility determined with the Modified Finger Tip-to-Floor Test and functionality was calculated with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Depression was recorded with the Depression Beck Inventory just at the beginning. Results: 220 patients were enrolled, only 42 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group completed the treatment. The variation of pain between the first and the fifth session showed no differences between groups regardless of time (p = 0.329. There were no differences between groups in functionality (p = 0.75, flexibility (p = 0.20 and depression. Conclusion: The combination of taping and Back School compared with only Back School was not more effective in reducing pain, increasing functionality and flexibility in patients with chronic low back pain. Key words: Taping; chronic low back pain; spine school; therapy exercises; flexibility; depression.

  3. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  4. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  5. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  6. Dynamic Performance of a Back-to-Back HVDC Station Based on Voltage Source Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Mohamed; Zidi, Sid-Ahmed; Hadjeri, Samir; Fellah, Mohammed-Karim

    2010-01-01

    The recent developments in semiconductors and control equipment have made the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) feasible. This new DC transmission is known as "HVDC Light or "HVDC Plus by leading vendors. Due to the use of VSC technology and pulse width modulation (PWM) the VSC-HVDC has a number of potential advantages as compared with classic HVDC. In this paper, the scenario of back-to-back VSC-HVDC link connecting two adjacent asynchronous AC networks is studied. Control strategy is implemented and its dynamic performances during disturbances are investigated in MATLAB/Simulink program. The simulation results have shown good performance of the proposed system under balanced and unbalanced fault conditions.

  7. Back seeding of picosecond supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter M.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    with picosecond pumping in photonic crystal fibers with two closely spaced zero dispersion wavelengths. We couple parts of the output spectrum of the supercontinuum source back to the input in order to produce a gain of over 15 dB at some wavelengths. We use a variable time delay to optimize the overlap between...... the pump and the back seeded pulses and investigate how the delay and spectrum of the back seeded pulse affects the resulting supercontinuum spectrum....

  8. "Low back pain"--下腰痛?腰痛?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗军; 夏群

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Low back pain"一词在国内绝大多数译文或译著中被译为"下腰痛",也有作者将其译为"下背痛".笔者认为这些译法不妥,曲解了"low back pain"的原意.此词翻译的关键在于对"low back"一词解剖部位的理解上.

  9. Hyperfine interaction versus strong laser field-optical Back-Goudsmit (Paschen-Back) effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik, Wojciech

    1991-08-01

    Strong laser perturbation of an atom with fine or hyperfine structure is analyzed in the context of a level-crossing experiment. The effect of sufficiently powerful, detuned, and/or spectrally broad light is to produce ``hyperfine uncoupling,'' which can be regarded as the optical Back-Goudsmit effect. It is easily understood in terms of an analogy between the level-crossing effect and double-slit experiment.

  10. Comparative Analysis for NN-Based Adaptive Back-stepping Controller and Back-stepping Controller

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Gjonaj; BetimÇiço; ArnisaMyrtellari

    2016-01-01

    This work primarily addresses the design and implementation of a neural network based controller for the trajectory tracking of a differential drive mobile robot. The proposed control algorithm is an NN-based adaptive controller which tunes the gains of the back-stepping controller online according to the robot reference trajectory and its initial posture. In this method, a neural network is needed to learn the characteristics of the plant dynamics and make use of it to determine the future i...

  11. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  12. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated in the vast majority of all episodes. Yet, there is ample evidence that the symptom of back pain is recurrent, with one-year recurrence rates reported of more than 60%. In many industrial populatio...

  13. Fluorinated tin oxide back contact for AZTSSe photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Gunawan, Oki; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2017-03-28

    A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact comprising a stable low-work function material, a photovoltaic absorber material layer comprising Ag.sub.2ZnSn(S,Se).sub.4 (AZTSSe) on a side of the back contact opposite the substrate, wherein the back contact forms an Ohmic contact with the photovoltaic absorber material layer, a buffer layer or Schottky contact layer on a side of the absorber layer opposite the back contact, and a top electrode on a side of the buffer layer opposite the absorber layer.

  14. Deep geodynamics of far field intercontinental back-arc extension:Formation of Cenozoic volcanoes in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石耀霖; 张健

    2004-01-01

    There are three cases of variation of trench location possible to occur during subduction: trench fixed, trench advancing, and trench retreating. Retreat of trench may lead to back-arc extension. The Pacific plate subducts at low angle beneath the Eurasia plate, tomographic results indicate that the subducted Pacific slab does not penetrate the 670 km discontinuity, instead, it is lying flat above the interface. The flattening occurred about 28 Ma ago. Geodynamic computation suggests: when the frontier of the subducted slab reaches the phase boundary of lower and upper mantle, it may be hindered and turn flat lying above the boundary, facilitates the retreat of trench and back-arc extension. Volcanism in northeastern China is likely a product of such retreat of subduction, far field back-arc extension, and melting due to reduce of pressure while mantle upwelling.

  15. Methods to measure peripheral and central sensitization using quantitative sensory testing: A focus on individuals with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, Angela R; Heineman, Amy; Storey, Shannon; Rubia, Gil; Lyon, Debra E; Greenspan, Joel; Dorsey, Susan G

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative sensory testing can be used to assess peripheral and central sensitization; important factors that contribute to the individual's experience of pain and disability. Many studies use quantitative sensory testing in patients with low back pain to detect alterations in pain sensitivity, however, because investigators employ different protocols, interpretation of findings across studies can become problematic. The purpose of this article is to propose a standardized method of testing peripheral and central pain sensitization in patients with low back pain. Video clips are provided to demonstrate correct procedures for measuring the response to experimental pain using mechanical, thermal and pressure modalities. As nurse researchers and clinicians increase utilization of quantitative sensory testing to examine pain phenotypes, it is anticipated that more personalized methods for monitoring the trajectory of low back pain and response to treatment will improve outcomes for this patient population.

  16. Improvement to thin film CdTe solar cells with controlled back surface oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Rugen-Hankey, S.L.; Clayton, Andrew J; Barrioz, Vincent; Kartopu, Giray; Irvine, Stuart J; McGettrick, J.D.; Hammond, D.

    2015-01-01

    Thin film CdTe solar cells were produced by MOCVD, at atmospheric pressure, under a hydrogen atmosphere (i.e. oxygen-free). Window layer alloying with zinc (forming Cd1−xZnxS) and extrinsic p-type doping with arsenic (giving CdTe:As) have been used to improve photovoltaic solar cell performances, but as-grown MOCVD-CdTe PV cells are still typically characterised by low Voc (~620–690 mV). Post-deposition annealing in air for 30 min at low temperature (170 °C) prior to evaporation of the back c...

  17. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  18. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  19. Curcumin: getting back to the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2005-11-01

    The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for treatment of different inflammatory diseases has been described in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules. Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies. Interestingly, 6-gingerol, a natural analog of curcumin derived from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), exhibits a biologic activity profile similar to that of curcumin. The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots."

  20. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  1. Low back pain during labor and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Su, Tsann-Juu

    2008-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women in labor suffer from low back pain, yet this issue has only been specifically evaluated in a few Western studies. The purpose of this research was to (1) describe the following characteristics of low back pain during labor: prevalence, anatomic region(s) affected, type, pattern, intensity trend, effective interventions, and exacerbating factors; (2) identify the factors relating to intrapartum low back pain in Taiwan women. A correlational design with repeated measures was used to conduct this investigation. Ninety-three low-risk women in labor were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Low back pain was repeatedly measured during the latent phase (cervix dilated 2-4 cm), early active phase (cervix dilated 5-7 cm), and late active phase (cervix dilated 8-10 cm) of labor. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measurement ANOVA, and logistic regression. The results showed as many as 75.3% of the participants suffered episodes of low back pain during labor. The mean pain scores were 36.66-76.20 in the various stages of labor. Pain intensified as labor progressed. The location of the pain also changed with the progression of labor. The type of low back pain in 54.29% of women in labor was "muscle soreness and pain"; The pattern of pain in 45.71% women was continuous. Massage was chosen as the most effective intervention to alleviate low back pain by 65.3% of women. The women in labor who suffered from low back pain during pregnancy (OR = 3.23; p low back pain group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates low back pain intensified with the progression of labor, suggesting early prevention is necessary, especially in the case of women who had low back pain during pregnancy and heavier body weight when hospitalized.

  2. Bringing molecules back into molecular evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus O Wilke

    Full Text Available Much molecular-evolution research is concerned with sequence analysis. Yet these sequences represent real, three-dimensional molecules with complex structure and function. Here I highlight a growing trend in the field to incorporate molecular structure and function into computational molecular-evolution work. I consider three focus areas: reconstruction and analysis of past evolutionary events, such as phylogenetic inference or methods to infer selection pressures; development of toy models and simulations to identify fundamental principles of molecular evolution; and atom-level, highly realistic computational modeling of molecular structure and function aimed at making predictions about possible future evolutionary events.

  3. High pressure technology 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, J.A.; Picqueuer, L.M. (eds.)

    1994-01-01

    This volume is divided into four sessions: fracture mechanics applications to high pressure vessels; high pressure code issues; high pressure design, analysis, and safety concerns; and military and other high pressure applications. Separate abstracts were prepared for eleven papers of this conference.

  4. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  5. 精细控压钻井控压响应时间浅析%Analysis on pressure controlling response time of delicate controlled pressure drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余金海; 孙宁; 刘健

    2011-01-01

    精细控压钻井通过PWD随钻测压、计算机控制、回压泵和节流阀等闭环调节井口回压,精细控制井底压力,以满足安全、快速钻井的需要.判断精细控压钻井系统性能高低的一个重要指标就是压力控制的响应时间.短的控压响应时间可以很快平衡井底压力变化,维持钻进在井底压力基本恒定下进行.以回压从井口传到井底的时间为研究对象,建立了回压在环空传播速度的计算模型,分析了影响回压传播速度的主要因素钻井液密度、气体含量和岩屑含量,并以控压钻井实例数据计算为例、分析了精细控压钻井的控压响应时间,为精细控压钻井提供理论支持.%Through PWD, surface computer control system, back pressure pump and choke etc., delicate controlled pressure drilling system could adjust the wellhead back pressure and delicately controls the bottom hole pressure to meet the needs of safe and fast drilling.The important index reflecting the performance level of delicate controlled pressure drilling system is the response time.Short time can quickly balance off bottom hole pressure variation and keep drilling basically under constant bottom-hole pressure.The pressure controlling response time is consisted of three parts: PWD signal transmission time, the time from analyzing signal to adjusting wellhead back pressure by surface control system and the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom.This paper regarded the third part-the time of back pressure propagating from wellhead to bottom, as the research object.The computational mode of back pressure propagation velocity in annular was established, and the main factors affecting the velocity were analyzed, which were drilling fluid density, gas content and cutting content.Field data were used to calculate and analyze the pressure controlling response time.Finally theoretical supports were provided for delicate controlled pressure drilling.

  6. Constant-pressure Blowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, E

    1940-01-01

    The conventional axial blowers operate on the high-pressure principle. One drawback of this type of blower is the relatively low pressure head, which one attempts to overcome with axial blowers producing very high pressure at a given circumferential speed. The Schicht constant-pressure blower affords pressure ratios considerably higher than those of axial blowers of conventional design with approximately the same efficiency.

  7. 13 CFR 120.612 - Loans eligible to back Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans eligible to back Certificates. 120.612 Section 120.612 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... necessary for the successful operation of the Secondary Market program. (b) The loans that back a Pool...

  8. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  9. Back pain and backpacks in children : Biomedical or biopsychosocial model?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, M.F.; Poels, B.J.J.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Dijkstra, P.U.

    2006-01-01

    Public press, professional organisations and journals have been sending alarming messages about the rising prevalence of back pain in school age children. Carrying backpacks has been suggested as one of the key factors contributing to back pain in children. The basic assumption based on the biomedic

  10. Back pain during different sequential treatment regimens of teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyritis, George; Marin, Fernando; Barker, Clare;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment.......To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment....

  11. Back pain is a reason to think about osteoporosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vertkin, A.L.; Anton Vyacheslavovich Naumov; S R Shakirova; D M Zaichenko; N N Vladimirova; E. V. Adonina

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives information on osteoporosis (OP) as a cause of back pain. In OP the latter is stated to be induced by not only osteoporotic fractures, but also other pathological changes associated with bone mineral density loss. Data on the management of back pain due to OP are presented and the efficacies of alendronate and vitamin D3 are noted

  12. Territorial Entanglements: Ambiguities of Giving Back in Northwestern Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Benjamin Dwyer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Limits to Giving Back, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  13. Identifying intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drunen, P.; Maaswinkel, E.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Van Dieën, J.H.; Happee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been suggested as potential cause and/or effect of a-specific chronic low-back pain and its recurrent behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study is to identify motor control in low-back stabilization by simultaneously quantifying the intrinsic and reflexive contributions

  14. Back-analysis for Determining the Rheological Parameter of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Wenhuan; Zhu Dayong

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,a new method of back analysis for determmning the parameters of rheological surrounding rock is proposed. This method is based on the elasticviscoelastic correspondence principle, and the theological parameters are back analyzed from the measured displacemenrs during construction of the tunnel.A numerical exampie proves that the proposed method is applicanle to engineering practice.

  15. Backing up and Moving forward in Fractional Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Angela T.; Lischka, Alyson E.; Willingham, James C.; Hartland, Kristin S.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process called "Backing Up" which is a way to preassess student understanding of a topic and gauge student readiness to move forward in the learning process. This process of backing up begins with using responses to a word problem to identify categories of students' understandings in relation to the expectations…

  16. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  17. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: A modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froud, Robert; Eldridge, Sandra; Kovacs, Francisco;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common and expensive health complaint. Many low back pain trials have been conducted, but these are reported in a variety of ways and are often difficult to interpret. AIM: To facilitate consensus on a statement recommending reporting methods for future low back pain...... commonly used in back pain trials, are reported using between-group mean differences (accompanied by minimally important difference (between-group/population-level) thresholds where these exist), the proportion of participants improving and deteriorating according to established and relevant minimally...... pain experts reached a high level of consensus on a statement recommending reporting methods for patient-reported outcomes in future low back pain trials. The statement has the potential to increase interpretability and improve patient care....

  18. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  19. Influence of a Viscoelastic Insole on Foot, Knee and Back Pain among Members of the United States Army Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    band members by providing them shoes with some favorable properties such as outsoles with built in compression pads in the heel and forefoot as well...compared to a no insole condition49 and that peak pressure generated at the forefoot and heel have been reduced by 24 percent and 37 percent...relation between low back pain and occupation. Industrial Medicine and Surgery . 1972;41(12):5-9. 9. Hansen L, Winkel J, Jorgensen K. Significance of

  20. Aspects Regarding the Beneficial Effect of Reflexology in Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serban GLIGOR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology is based on the digital pressure on certain reflex points situated on the sole of the foot, which represents a “map” of the entire body. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflexology in low back pain treatment. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, a lot of 12 patients, of both genders, with low back pain, was formed. Out of these patients, 66.67% were male and 33.33% were female, the majority coming from an urban area (75%. The average age ± the standard deviation of the patients was 43.58±13.02 years. The group of patients was subdivided into an experimental group, composed of 7 patients (58.33%, who, besides the classic drug treatment, also underwent reflexology, and a control group, composed of 5 patients (41.67%, who underwent only drug treatment. The treatment linked to reflexology was conducted by a single practitioner of reflexology, using the Morrell technique. Both in the case of the experimental group and in the control one there was a statistically significant reduction in finger to ground index (p < 0.01, respectively p< 0.05. Also, there was a highly statistically significant reduction of pain (p<0.01. Due to the small number of patients involved in the study, the data obtained cannot be generalised, as further studies are required to highlight the beneficial effect of reflexology in the case of low back pain.

  1. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  2. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); G.J.L.A. Nijeholt (Geert J. Lycklama A); B.F.W. van der Kallen (Bas); W.B. van den Hout (Wilbert); B.W. Koes (Bart); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. Methods: The study population

  3. Do illness perceptions of people with chronic low back pain differ from people without chronic low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; van Ittersum, Miriam W.; Kaptein, Ad A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine why some people develop chronic low back pain, and whether illness perceptions are an important risk factor in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Four hundred and two members of the general Dutch population, with and

  4. Movement control tests of the low back; evaluation of the difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kool Jan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether there is a difference between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in a test battery score for movement control of the lumbar spine. Methods This was a case control study, carried out in five outpatient physiotherapy practices in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Twelve physiotherapists tested the ability of 210 subjects (108 patients with non-specific low back pain and 102 control subjects without back pain to control their movements in the lumbar spine using a set of six tests. We observed the number of positive tests out of six (mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of the mean. The significance of the differences between the groups was calculated with Mann-Whitney U test and p was set on 0.8 was considered a large difference. Results On average, patients with low back pain had 2.21(95%CI 1.94–2.48 positive tests and the healthy controls 0.75 (95%CI 0.55–0.95. The effect size was d = 1.18 (p 0.7. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating a significant difference between patients with low back pain and subjects without back pain regarding their ability to actively control the movements of the low back. The effect size between patients with low back pain and healthy controls in movement control is large.

  5. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  6. Response of cyanobacteria to low atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Yu, Qingni; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Ren, Jin; Guo, Shuangsheng

    2014-10-01

    Maintaining a low pressure environment in a controlled ecological life support system would reduce the technological complexity and resupply cost in the course of the construction of a future manned lunar base. To estimate the effect of a hypobaric environment in a lunar base on biological components, such as higher plants, microbes, and algae, cyanobacteria was used as the model by determining their response of growth, morphology, and physiology when exposed to half of standard atmospheric pressure for 16 days (brought back to standard atmospheric pressure 30 minutes every two days for sampling). The results indicated that the decrease of atmospheric pressure from 100 kPa to 50 kPa reduced the growth rates of Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia sp., Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The ratio of carotenoid to chlorophyll a content in the four tested strains increased under low pressure conditions compared to ambient conditions, resulting from the decrease of chlorophyll a and the increase of carotenoid in the cells. Moreover, low pressure induced the reduction of the phycocyanin content in Microcystis aeruginosa, Anabaena sp. PCC 7120, and Anabaena flos-aquae. The result from the ultrastructure observed using SEM indicated that low pressure promoted the production of more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) compared to ambient conditions. The results implied that the low pressure environment of 50 kPa in a future lunar base would induce different effects on biological components in a CELSS, which must be considered during the course of designing a future lunar base. The results will be a reference for exploring the response of other biological components, such as plants, microbes, and animals, living in the life support system of a lunar base.

  7. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back-propagatio......-propagation algorithms in the framework of recurrent back-propagation and present some numerical simulations of feed-forward networks on the NetTalk problem. A discussion of implementation in analog VLSI electronics concludes the paper.......The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  8. Effect of back school protocol on the referral rate of patients with low back pain to an industrial physiotherapy clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Odebiyi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Back schools are educational programmes originally developed in a work place (Volvo factory in Sweden for patients with back pain, to enable them to manage their own back problems better. ‘Back school’ was originally aimed at modifying the behaviours of patients with low back pain (LBP, with the view to prevent relapses. In an effort to encourage and stimulate the use of ‘back school’ among health workers in Nigeria, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a back school protocol in a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110 workers of a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria,  participated in this study. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was employed. The participants were divided into two groups - office workers and factory workers for the purpose of the training in the content of the back school protocol. The ‘back school’ consisted of classroom teaching and the use of two videotapes titled “lifting technique” and “back pain”. Data on demographic information, knowledge of back structures and back care were collected using a questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was completed before, immediately after and 8 weeks after the administrations of the contents of the back school protocol (Akinpelu and Odebiyi, 2004. The records of the factory’s clinic were also reviewed for the 12-months before and 12 months after the study. The mean values of the participants’ age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI were 36.60 ± 9.10 years, 1.65 ± 0.10 m,69.13 ± 7.70 kg and 25.40 ± 3.30 kg/m2 respectively. The results showed that the 12-months prevalence of low back pain (LBP among the workers was 71%. The result also showed that over 50% of the participants never had any  information or lesson on back care, and those that had some form of information obtained it by chance. There was 23% reduction in referral for care of back pain 12 months after the administration of the back

  9. High efficiency back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells from the porous silicon process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, F.; Kajari-Schröder, S.; Brendel, R.

    2013-11-01

    This work demonstrates the fabrication of a 45 μm thick back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cell from the porous silicon process with an energy conversion efficiency of 18.9%. We demonstrate an efficiency improvement of 5.4% absolute compared to our prior record of 13.5% for back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells. This increase in efficiency is achieved by reducing the recombination at the base contact using a back surface field and by increasing the generation with a front texture. We investigate the loss mechanisms in the cell using finite element simulations. A free energy loss analysis based on experiments and simulations determines the dominating loss mechanisms. The efficiency loss by base recombination is 0.8% absolute and the loss by base contact recombination is 0.5% absolute in the 18.9% efficiency cell.

  10. A model to determine the behaviour of a pressure measurement equipment during non-static operations of gasturbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmer, K.-U.; Hass, J.

    1987-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the behavior of a pressure measurement equipment of gas-turbine engines during nonstatic operations. The model determines the influence of the components of the measuring chain: a pressure measuring transducer, a hose pipe, and a pressure probe. It performs back calculations from the measured pressure signals to the real measuring value. The model was verified by pressure measurements with a calibrating device. The pressure measurements during the transition between different operating points of a gas-turbine engine and the adjustment of these pressure values with the help of the measuring-chain model are described.

  11. Hysteria after Charcot: back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2011-01-01

    The studies on hysteria and hypnotism probably constitute the most important long-term work of Jean-Martin Charcot and his school, starting around 1870 until Charcot's death in 1893. Désiré Bourneville, Charcot's sixth interne at La Salpêtrière, was probably instrumental in stimulating his mentor's interest in hysteria, while Charles Richet's 1875 article on somnambulism was the trigger for Charcot to introduce hypnotism into the management of hysterics. Albert Pitres, Paul Richer, Georges Gilles de la Tourette, Paul Sollier, Joseph Babinski, Sigmund Freud and Pierre Janet became the most famous of Charcot's collaborators on hysteria, either as 'guardians of the temple' (Richer, Gilles de la Tourette, who defended their mentor's concepts against Hippolyte Bernheim and the Nancy school in the dispute during the 1880-1890s), or in renewing the field in psychology (Janet and Freud, in the 1890s) or clinical neurology (Babinski in the 1900s). In 1908, a 'quarrel of hysteria' led several of Charcot's pupils into opposition with each other, from which Babinski was considered victorious against Charcot's successor Fulgence Raymond, despite the weaknesses of his theory on 'pithiatism'. During World War I, there was a new surge of interest in hysteria associated with war psycho-neuroses, and several students of Charcot became actively involved in medical military care (Sollier, Babinski, Gilbert Ballet, Achille Souques). Babinski's pupil Clovis Vincent developed a treatment called torpillage (torpedoing) against war hysteria, associating painful galvanic current discharges with 'persuasion', but this was dismissed after the soldiers, considering it as torture, rebelled. After World War I, the neurological and psychiatric interest in hysteria again faded away, and this condition largely went back to the no-man's land, where it had been before Charcot initiated his studies. A comprehensive look at the evolution of ideas on hysteria in the followers of Charcot shows that

  12. Loss analysis of back-contact back-junction thin-film monocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, F.; Eidelloth, S.; Horbelt, R.; Bothe, K.; Garralaga Rojas, E.; Brendel, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate power losses in back-contact back-junction monocrystalline thin-film silicon solar cells fabricated using the porous silicon layer transfer process. Our loss analysis combines two-dimensional finite element modeling and resistance network simulations. The input parameters of the finite element modeling are determined experimentally by measuring saturation current densities and sheet resistances on test samples prepared identically to the solar cells. Characteristic solar cell parameters such as short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency of measured and network simulated current voltage characteristics investigated in this study match within an uncertainty of 5%. Free energy loss analysis serves as comparison of all losses in units of power per area at the maximum power point. The largest loss is bulk recombination due to a carrier lifetime of 2 μs in the epitaxial Si layer. Further significant losses result from recombination at the base contacts characterized by a diode saturation current density of 50 000 fA cm-2 as well as resistive losses due to lateral majority carrier current flows within the solar cell base and contact resistance losses.

  13. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC. First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in abc and d-q frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller.

  14. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakian H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS, with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  15. Band-selective heteronuclear dipolar recoupling with dual back-to-back pulses in rotating solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Chen, Yanke; Yang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We propose a robust band-selective heteronuclear 15N-13C recoupling method using dual back-to-back (BABA) pulses (DBP). It contains four 90° pulses in each rotor period and corresponding phase cycling on each channel (13C and 15N). DBP aims at rapid band-selective heteronuclear magnetization transfer between 15N and 13Cα/13C‧, whose efficiency is close to that of the well-known SPECIFIC CP in membrane proteins with relatively short relaxation time in rotating frame (T1ρ). Compared to SPECIFIC CP, DBP is very simple to set up and highly robust to RF variations. Thus, it can reduce the efforts in experimental optimization, especially for low-sensitive samples, and is very suitable for long-time or quantitative experiments. The efficacy of DBP is demonstrated by the E. coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) proteoliposome. We anticipate that DBP would be useful for (segments of) membrane proteins that undergo the μs-ms timescale motions in magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR.

  16. Miniaturization Design for 8 × 8 Butler Matrix Based on Back-to-Back Bilayer Microstrip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost, compact 8 × 8 Butler matrix based on a novel bilayer microstrip configuration is presented and implemented for 4.3 GHz telecommunication application. A back-to-back placed bilayer microstrip structure has been proposed to avoid using crossover. To expand operational bandwidth of the Butler matrix, a three-branch line directional coupler has been employed as 3 dB/90° bridge, and a kind of improved two-order Schiffman phase shifter has been adopted as fixed phase shifter. For application of indoor wireless communication, a compact broadband 8 × 8 Butler matrix has been designed and fabricated. The measured results show that the return loss of the matrix is lower than −10 dB, the isolation is better than 17 dB, the power distribution error is less than ±2.0 dB, the phase error is less than ±15°, and the relative bandwidth is more than 23%.

  17. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  18. Looking Forwards and Looking Back (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the seventh volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. This is my first issue in my new role of Editor-in-Chief, and I’m honoured and delighted to take over the position. As many of you may know, I’ve been involved with the journal almost since its inception, primarily as Associate Editor (Articles. During that time, I’ve sincerely enjoyed working with the supportive EBLIP team, as well as many authors throughout the world, and I’m looking forward to continuing that work in my new role.Spring is traditionally a time of new growth and change, and the EBLIP journal is no different. In the last issue, Denise Koufogiannakis reflected on how the journal had grown and developed during its first 6 years, and I look forward to contributing to its continued success. There have been a number of changes in the editorial team. I welcome Wayne Jones from Carleton University, Canada, who has taken over as Associate Editor (Articles and brings a wealth of editorial experience. Heather Pretty has taken over as lead copyeditor and is joining our editorial meetings to help ensure the continued quality and consistency of the journal. As part of quality assurance and development, the editorial team is examining and revising our journal guidelines, so look for those in forthcoming months. Our former Editor-in-Chief, Denise Koufogiannakis, is developing a new role as Associate Editor (Reviews. As a keen advocate of reviews for providing evidence, developing skills for research and evidence based practice, and documenting and establishing an evidence base for our profession, I’m looking forward to the first review which is likely to be published in the next issue. Too much change can be disruptive, so I’m pleased that both Lorie Kloda and Jonathan Eldredge are maintaining their positions as Associate Editors for Evidence Summaries and Classics, respectively.When starting something new, it is often useful to look back (to build on

  19. Laser fired back contact for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, M. [ENEA Research Center Casaccia via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: mario.tucci@casaccia.enea.it; Talgorn, E.; Serenelli, L.; Salza, E.; Izzi, M.; Mangiapane, P. [ENEA Research Center Casaccia via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Roma (Italy)

    2008-08-30

    To get high efficiency c-Si solar cells reduction of surface recombination losses and good surface passivation and/or Back Surface Field (BSF) formation are needed. Most industrial solar cells are made covering the back area with screen-printed Al, forming an Al-BSF upon firing step, with a Back Reflectance of 65% and a Back Surface Recombination Velocity (BSRV) of 1000 cm/s on 1 {omega}cm Si wafer. Simulations reveal that PV efficiency can increase up to 18% after improving the BSRV to {<=} 200 cm/s and the BR to > 95%. The aim of this work is to get these goals by a laser fired back contact with low temperature passivation of the remainder of the back. This can be obtained by a double layer of PECVD Amorphous Silicon and Silicon Nitride, on which a spin-on Boron dopant layer is deposited. The structure is completed by 2 {mu}m thick e-beam evaporated Al. The formation of an improved local BSF is obtained using a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, which promotes an Al and B simultaneous diffusion trough the passivation layers. Several cells, using this structure, have been fabricated on different substrates. By fitting procedure of cell Internal Quantum Efficiency we have extracted several parameters as surface recombination velocity, diffusion length and internal reflection that are comparable with the state of art of the cells having effective back surface field.

  20. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  1. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Michael; Duarte, Fernanda; Paudel, Naba; Yan, Yanfa; Wang, Weining

    Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) solar cell is one of the most promising thin film solar cells and its highest efficiency has reached 21%. To keep improving the efficiency of CdTe solar cells, a few issues need to be addressed, one of which is the back contact. The back contact of CdTe solar cells are mostly Cu-base, and the problem with Cu-based back contact is that Cu diffuses into the grain boundary and into the CdS/CdTe junction, causing degradation problem at high temperature and under illumination. To continue improving the efficiency of CdTe/CdS solar cells, a good ohmic back contact with high work function and long term stability is needed. In this work, we report our studies on the potential of conducting polymer being used as the back contact of CdTe/CdS solar cells. Conducting polymers are good candidates because they have high work functions and high conductivities, are easy to process, and cost less, meeting all the requirements of a good ohmic back contact for CdTe. In our studies, we used poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) with different conductivities and compared them with traditional Cu-based back contact. It was observed that the CdTe solar cell performance improves as the conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS increase, and the efficiency (9.1%) is approaching those with traditional Cu/Au back contact (12.5%). Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells with PEDOT:PSS Back Contact.

  3. Quantum toy model for black-hole back-reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, Clovis

    2007-01-01

    We propose a simple quantum field theoretical toy model for black hole evaporation and study the back-reaction of Hawking radiation onto the classical background. It turns out that the horizon is also ``pushed back'' in this situation (i.e., the interior region shrinks) but this back-reaction is not caused by energy conservation but by momentum balance. The effective heat capacity and the induced entropy variation can have both signs -- depending on the parameters of the model. PACS: 04.62.+v, 04.70.Dy.

  4. Patterns of Low Back Pain in children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars;

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. Purposes: The purposes of this presentation are to show the prevalence...... as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented as percentages. Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys. The three prevalence estimates...

  5. The Elimination of Fire Hazard Due to Back Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Freeman, Ira M

    1933-01-01

    A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.

  6. Experience with the chondroprotector Arthra in patients with back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Vyacheslavovich Chebykin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors presents his experience in managing 1430 patients (858 men and 572 women aged 22 to 65 years, mean age 61.3 years with back pain who used Arthra as a chondroprotector in addition to standard therapy (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants, manual therapy, reflex therapy, therapeutic exercises. A comparison group consisted of 118 patients with back pain who received only standard therapy. It is noted that the incorporation of the chondroprotector Arthra into combination therapy can improve quality of life in patients with back pain.

  7. Signature of a back contact barrier in DLTS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauwaert, J.; Khelifi, S.; Decock, K.; Burgelman, M.; Vrielinck, H.

    2011-03-01

    The DLTS signal induced by a back contact barrier is studied both theoretically and through experiments on model circuits. A nonideal back contact is modeled either by a resistor and a capacitor, or by a germanium diode inversely polarized with respect to the junction diode. Depending on the back contact properties, this may result in a positive or negative capacitance transient. For these model circuits the capacitance transient time constants and amplitudes are studied as a function of voltage pulse height and compared with signals originating from emission and slow capture from a defect level. These two origins of DLTS signals present very different properties, which opens possibilities to distinguish between them.

  8. Prevalence and causes of back pain syndromes in children

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, A. A.; O.L. Lapochkin; M.A. Lobov; M.N. Borisova

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases); neck pain was observed in 29.5% of ...

  9. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have tax advantages for you. Workplace giving Workplace giving Find a list of the most common ... pressure and cholesterol. Exercise can also help relieve stress, another common cause of high blood pressure. To ...

  10. Atmospheric Pressure Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzsieder, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses observable phenomena related to air pressure. Describes a simple, unobtrusive, semiquantitative device to monitor the changes in air pressure that are associated with altitude, using a soft-drink bottle and a balloon. (JRH)

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Pressure vessel design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    Pressure vessels are closed containers designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure. They have a variety of applications in industry, including in oil refineries, nuclear reactors, vehicle airbrake reservoirs, and more. The pressure differential with such vessels is dangerous, and due to the risk of accident and fatality around their use, the design, manufacture, operation and inspection of pressure vessels is regulated by engineering authorities and guided by legal codes and standards. Pressure Vessel Design Manual is a solutions-focused guide to the many problems and technical challenges involved in the design of pressure vessels to match stringent standards and codes. It brings together otherwise scattered information and explanations into one easy-to-use resource to minimize research and take readers from problem to solution in the most direct manner possible. * Covers almost all problems that a working pressure vessel designer can expect to face, with ...

  13. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  14. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making.

  15. Relative microvascular pressure sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min; Zemp, Roger

    2016-03-01

    Microcirculation may be characterized by the vascular pressure as it is influenced by pressure-driven perfusion. Crosssections of blood vessels can be visualized by photoacoustic imaging and compressing on vessels causes deformation. The photoacoustic signals of blood, when compressed to the point of vessel collapse, may or may not vanish depending on the buckling process it undergoes. We form relative pressure images of microvessels by tracking vessel collapse as a function of externally applied pressure using photoacoustic imaging.

  16. Influence of back-gate stress on the back-gate threshold voltage of a LOCOS-isolated SOI MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅博; 毕津顺; 李多力; 刘思南; 韩郑生

    2012-01-01

    The performance of a LOCOS-isolated SOI MOSFET heavily depends on its back-gate characteristic, which can be affected by back-gate stress,A large voltage stress was applied to the back gate of SOI devices for at least 30 s at room temperature,which could effectively modify the back-gate threshold voltage of these devices.This modification is stable and time invariant.In order to improve the back-gate threshold voltage,positive substrate bias was applied to NMOS devices and negative substrate bias was applied to PMOS devices,These results suggest that there is a leakage path between source and drain along the silicon island edge,and the application of large backgate bias with the source,drain and gate grounded can strongly affect this leakage path.So we draw the conclusion that the back-gate threshold voltage,which is directly related to the leakage current,can be influenced by back-gate stress.

  17. Effects of active rehabilitation therapy on muscular back strength and subjective pain degree in chronic lower back pain patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hea-Kyung; Gwon, Hak-ju; Kim, Seon-Rye; Park, Chan-Seok; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied active rehabilitation therapy to muscular back strength and assessed the subjective pain degree in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (n=8) and control (n=8). The experimental group performed two types of rehabilitation therapy programs four times per week for eight weeks. The rehabilitation program was based on the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency’s program. There were several types of stretching and strengthening. Back strength was measured using the Back Muscle Dynamometer TKK-5402. The visual analog scale score, selected to measure degrees of subjective pain, was used to assess treatment efficacy. [Results] For the experimental group, muscular back strength increased from 133.90 ± 11.84 kg before exercise to 145.59 ± 14.49 kg after exercise. In the control group, muscular back strength decreased from 133.92 ± 3.84 kg before exercise to 133.90 ± 5.81 kg after exercise. In the experimental group, the visual analog scale score for subjective pain decreased from 6.63 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.75 ± 0.46 after exercise; in the control group, it decreased from 5.61 ± 0.52 before exercise to 5.61 ± 0.52 after exercise. [Conclusion] Active rehabilitation therapy is a positive intervention that can provide relief from back pain. PMID:27821917

  18. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  19. High-pressure apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepdael, van L.J.M.; Bartels, P.V.; Berg, van den R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a high-pressure device (1) having a cylindrical high-pressure vessel (3) and prestressing means in order to exert an axial pressure on the vessel. The vessel (3) can have been formed from a number of layers of composite material, such as glass, carbon or aramide fibers which

  20. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  1. Water permeation and electrical properties of pottants, backings, and pottant/backing composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehotsky, J.

    It is reported that the interface between plastic film back covers and ethylene vinyl acetates (EVA) or polyvinyl butyral (PVB) in photovoltaic modules can influence water permeation, and electrial properties of the composites such as leakage current and dielectric constant. The interface can either be one of two dissimilar materials in physical contact with no intermixing, or the interface can constitute a thin zone which is an interphase of the two materials having a gradient composition from one material to the other. The former condition is described as a discrete interface. A discrete interface model was developed to predict water permeation, dielectric strength, and leakage current for EVA, ethylene methyl acrylate (EMA), and PVB coupled to Tedlar and mylar films. Experimental data was compared with predicted data.

  2. Alkaptonuria, a rare cause for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Muralidhar Haridas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria is a very rare disease that can cause premature degenerative arthritis of the spine and peripheral large joints. I present here a case of middle-aged woman who developed low back pain secondary to alkaptonuria.

  3. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  4. Theory of back-surface-field solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonroos, O.

    1979-01-01

    Report describes simple concise theory of back-surface-field (BSF) solar cells (npp + junctions) based on Shockley's depletion-layer approximation and cites superiority of two-junction devices over conventional unijunction cells.

  5. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  6. Trapping Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a...

  7. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fur Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Fur Management Plan directs the management and regulation of trapping. The furbearer management program directly supports the...

  8. Final wilderness proposal : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum announcing completion of the wilderness study for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. It details the results of the study and...

  9. Vehicular regulations announced for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an announcement pertaining to regulations published in the Federal Register concerning the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The regulations all...

  10. Fact sheet : Wilderness proposal [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a fact sheet of information about the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Pertinent information such as the area of the refuge, information on the...

  11. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  12. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  13. Study of Back Contacts for CdTe Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu layer is used as a complex back contact. The parameters of CdTe solar cells with and without the complex back contacts are compared. The effects of un-doped layer thickness, doped concentration and post-deposition annealing temperature of the complex layer on solar cells performance are investigated.The results show that ZnTe/ZnTe∶Cu layer can improve back contacts and largely increase the conversion efficiency of CdTe solar cells. Un-doped layer and post-deposition annealing of high temperature can increase open voltage. Using the complex back contact, a small CdTe cell with fill factor of 73.14% and conversion efficiency of 12.93% is obtained.

  14. Narrative report : Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge : Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  15. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Croplands Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations at...

  16. Species List for Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a species list of fish, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are either common to the Back Bay area or have ranges that extend into this region. This list...

  17. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  18. Environmental Assessment: Impoundment Rehabilitation on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to rehabilitate the wetland impoundments of Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. The environmental assessment describes the...

  19. Results of Back Bay Nutrient Sampling, April 1986 - March 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To determine nutrient levels in Back Bay, water samples were collected monthly from April, 1986 through March, 1987. Surface water samples were collected at six...

  20. Letter to President [Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Interior to the President regarding the establishment of the Back Bay Wilderness area. The letter...

  1. Best Way to Beat Back Zika a Matter of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162423.html Best Way to Beat Back Zika a Matter of Debate Analysis found conflicting evidence ... methods for controlling the mosquitoes that can transmit Zika and other diseases. The researchers, from the University ...

  2. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn;

    2013-01-01

    in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly......Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  3. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling and injuring your back. Consider tai chi, yoga and weight-bearing exercises that challenge your balance. For most healthy adults, the Department of Health and Human Services recommends at least 150 minutes ...

  4. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Back Bay NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  5. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  6. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Fire Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses...

  7. The Trail Inventory of Back Bay NWR [Cycle 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are eligible...

  8. Migratory Bird Disease Contingency Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1938 to provide habitat and protection for migratory birds. Management objectives have since been expanded to...

  9. Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Anuran Data Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Species richness, average call index, and total number of calls recorded for each anuran species detected at Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge from 2000-2004.

  10. The Effects of Spiral Taping Treatment on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jae-Ok

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of spiral taping treatment on low back pain. Methods : 420 low back pain patients were treated with spiral taping or spiral taping plus herbal medicine, and no other treatments such as acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and chiropractic therapy were added. We evaluated the improvement by physical examination and pain. Results : 364 patients felt no pain or inconvenience of daily life and 43 patients showed improvement of pain or symptom after 1 month of treatment. 13 patients showed same pain with before treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest spiral taping treatments contribute to the improvement of low back pain. Further study is needed for the confirmation of this effect of spiral taping treatments on low back pain.

  11. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU. 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling/validation of the system in the DTU lab is done, to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads by simulation and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple...... with less components and that the performance can be enhanced. Also problems with long term degradation of glycol collector loops are totally avoided. A combination of the drain back and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. It is very important to achieve a continuous slope for the pipes...

  12. Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Great Swamp Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  13. Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents 6 " ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  14. Valium May Be Useless for Acute Lower Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in New York City. "Despite how common this complaint is, there has never been much agreement on ... Back Pain Medicines About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  15. Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the back-end data file for the Island Bay Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use (see...

  16. Risk Factors for Restricting Back Pain in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Una E.; Fraenkel, Liana; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Gill, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for back pain leading to restricted activity (restricting back pain) in older persons. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants 731 men and women aged 70 years or older, who were community-living and non-disabled in essential activities of daily living at baseline. Measurements Candidate risk factors were ascertained every 18 months for 108 months during comprehensive home-based assessments. Restricting back pain was assessed during monthly telephone interviews for up to 126 months. Incident episodes of: (1) short-term (one episode lasting one month) restricting back pain; and (2) persistent (one episode lasting two or more months) or recurrent (two or more episodes of any duration) restricting back pain were determined during each 18-month interval. The associations between the candidate risk factors and short-term and persistent/recurrent restricting back pain, respectively, were evaluated using a multivariable Cox model. Results The cumulative incidence was 21.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.6%, 23.1%) for short-term restricting back pain and 20.6% (CI 18.6%, 22.9%) for persistent/recurrent restricting back pain over a median follow-up of 109 months. In a recurrent event multivariable analysis, female sex (HR 1.30; 1.07, 1.58), weak grip strength (HR 1.24; 1.01,1.52), and hip weakness (HR 1.19; 1.07,1.32) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of having short-term restricting back pain, while female sex (HR 1.48; CI 1.13,1.94), depressive symptoms (HR 1.57; 1.23, 2.00), 2 or more chronic conditions (HR 1.38; 1.08, 1.77), and arthritis (HR1.66; 1.31, 2.09) were independently associated with persistent/recurrent restricting back pain. Conclusion In this prospective study, several factors were independently associated with restricting back pain, including some that may be modifiable and therefore potential targets for interventions to reduce this common and

  17. Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low-back pain (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, S.M.; Terwee, C. B.; Assendelft, W J J; Boer, M.R.M. de; van Tulder, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many therapies exist for the treatment of low-back pain including spinal manipulative therapy (SMT), which is a worldwide, extensively practised intervention. This report is an update of the earlier Cochrane review, first published in January 2004 with the last search for studies up to January 2000. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of SMT for acute low-back pain, which is defined as pain of less than six weeks duration. SEARCH METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on 31 ...

  18. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING OF BACK PAIN IN YOUNG POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low back pain in young patients represents an area of particular challenge and importance to referring physicians. Although plain radiography remains initial imaging tool, MRI due to its inherent high quality soft tissue contrast resolution, lack of ionizing radiation and rare requirement of contrast media remains invaluable modality to evaluate back pain in young patients. AIMS: The role of MRI in evaluation of various lesions of spine, inter vertebral discs and spinal canal in young patients (3–17 years of age. MATERIALS & METHODS: This was a prospective study done from on young patients (total 35 patients who presented with back pain are evaluated with MRI. Patients advised MRI spine for complaints other than back pain and uncooperative patients were excluded from the study. The study was performed using GE 1.5T and Siemen’s 3.0T MRI machines. RESULTS: Although significant number of children and adolescents who presented with back pain did not show any significant abnormality on MRI, the most common etiology in this study was disc disease and herniation. This was immediately followed by second most common cause as sacroilitis and spondylolysis with or without listhesis. Scoliosis, spinal trauma and infective etiologies were third most common cause of back pain in this study. Neoplastic conditions and congenital anomalies were found among the rare causes of back pain in children and adolescents in our study. CONCLUSION: Back pain is common in children and adolescents and its incidence increases with age. MRI remains main stay of spinal imaging to evaluate various pathologies of vertebrae, bone marrow, discs, ligaments, spinal cord and sacroiliac joints.

  19. A Reassessment of the SIDS Back to Sleep Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Pelligra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Back to Sleep Campaign was initiated in 1994 to implement the American Academy of Pediatrics' (AAP recommendation that infants be placed in the nonprone sleeping position to reduce the risk of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS. This paper offers a challenge to the Back to Sleep Campaign (BTSC from two perspectives: (1 the questionable validity of SIDS mortality and risk statistics, and (2 the BTSC as human experimentation rather than as confirmed preventive therapy.

  20. Electromagnetic back-reaction from currents on a straight string

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Jeremy M

    2014-01-01

    Charge carriers moving at the speed of light along a straight, superconducting cosmic string carry with them a logarithmically divergent slab of electromagnetic field energy. Thus no finite local input can induce a current that travels unimpeded to infinity. Rather, electromagnetic back-reaction must damp this current asymptotically to nothing. We compute this back-reaction and find that the electromagnetic fields and currents decline exactly as rapidly as necessary to prevent a divergence. We briefly discuss the corresponding gravitational situation.

  1. Back and neck pain : factors of importance for the prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Back pain and neck pain are very common and among the most frequent causes of sick-leave and disability pension, thereby greatly affecting the individual and the community. This stresses the need for prognostic research regarding these conditions. Aim: The main aim of the present work was to study prognostic factors, including manual therapy, for back and neck pain. The specific aims were, to investigate the influence of regular leisure physical activity and the body mass index (BMI) on...

  2. Trunk flexion measurement for the assessment of low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    MILJKOVIC NADICA S.; BIJELIC GORAN S.; DJORDJEVIC OLIVERA C.; KONSTANTINOVIC LJUBICA M.; ZABALETA HARITZ R.; SEKARA TOMISLAV B.

    2015-01-01

    Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the most common incidences all over the world. For the assessment of LBP, descriptive medical scores are widely used. Nevertheless, there is a need for the quantitative assessment of LBP by appropriate physiological and kinematic measurements. Quantitative assessment methods are of interest since they might provide reliable and repeatable measures related to low back pain in both everyday clinical practice and at home or work. In this paper, we proposed simple me...

  3. Back-Contacted Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells With Efficiency >21%

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasi, Andrea; Paviet-Salomon, Bertrand Yves Paul; Lachenal, Damien; Martin de Nicolas Agut, Silvia; Descoeudres, Antoine; Geissbühler, Jonas; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ballif, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of back-contacted silicon heterojunction solar cells with conversion efficiencies above 21%. Our process technology relies solely on simple and size-scalable patterning methods, with no high-temperature steps. Using in situ shadow masks, doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layers are patterned into two interdigitated combs. Transparent conductive oxide and metal layers, forming the back electrodes, are patterned by hot melt inkjet printing. With this process, we ...

  4. Back view of beauty: a bias in attractiveness judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, Keiichi; Ono, Fuminori; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Attractiveness judgment based on visual appearance seems easy and almost automatic. However, it becomes difficult when we need to rely on glances of a person's back view (eg while passing on the street). How is attractiveness judgment from the back view consistent with that from full-front view? In experiment 1 participants rated the attractiveness of human heads photographed from behind and from the front. Attractiveness ratings between the back and front views were weakly but significantly correlated. However, on average, the back-view photographs were rated more attractive than the front-view photographs. The tendency was most conspicuous when the male participants viewed the photographs of women. In experiment 2 participants were explicitly asked to predict the facial attractiveness of each head's front view based on the back view. Again, the predicted attractiveness based on the back view was higher than the actual rating of the front-view photographs, and the difference reached significance when the male participants viewed the women photographs. These biases in attractiveness judgment would be related to attractiveness judgments in everyday situations where straight full-frontal encounters are rare.

  5. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  6. Mediators of yoga and stretching for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Karen J; Wellman, Robert D; Cook, Andrea J; Cherkin, Daniel C; Ceballos, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week), cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy), affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep), and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA) mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ)). For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators). For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators). In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups), relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga), benefits of regular practice (stretching). Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  7. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  8. Pressure locking test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; McKellar, M.G.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, is funding the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in performing research to provide technical input for their use in evaluating responses to Generic Letter 95-07, {open_quotes}Pressure Locking and Thermal Binding of Safety-Related Power-Operated Gate Valves.{close_quotes} Pressure locking and thermal binding are phenomena that make a closed gate valve difficult to open. This paper discusses only the pressure locking phenomenon in a flexible-wedge gate valve; the authors will publish the results of their thermal binding research at a later date. Pressure locking can occur when operating sequences or temperature changes cause the pressure of the fluid in the bonnet (and, in most valves, between the discs) to be higher than the pressure on the upstream and downstream sides of the disc assembly. This high fluid pressure presses the discs against both seats, making the disc assembly harder to unseat than anticipated by the typical design calculations, which generally consider friction at only one of the two disc/seat interfaces. The high pressure of the bonnet fluid also changes the pressure distribution around the disc in a way that can further contribute to the unseating load. If the combined loads associated with pressure locking are very high, the actuator might not have the capacity to open the valve. The results of the NRC/INEL research discussed in this paper show that the relationship between bonnet pressure and pressure locking stem loads appears linear. The results also show that for this valve, seat leakage affects the bonnet pressurization rate when the valve is subjected to thermally induced pressure locking conditions.

  9. Influence of black silicon surfaces on the performance of back-contacted back silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes; Haschke, Jan; Käsebier, Thomas; Korte, Lars; Sprafke, Alexander N; Wehrspohn, Ralf B

    2014-10-20

    The influence of different black silicon (b-Si) front side textures prepared by inductively coupled reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) on the performance of back-contacted back silicon heterojunction (BCB-SHJ) solar cells is investigated in detail regarding their optical performance, black silicon surface passivation and internal quantum efficiency. Under optimized conditions the effective minority carrier lifetime measured on black silicon surfaces passivated with Al(2)O(3) can be higher than lifetimes measured for the SiO(2)/SiN(x) passivation stack used in the reference cells with standard KOH textures. However, to outperform the electrical current of silicon back-contact cells, the black silicon back-contact cell process needs to be optimized with aspect to chemical and thermal stability of the used dielectric layer combination on the cell.

  10. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results...... is also studied. The developed ANN algorithm has been implemented in a Digital Signal Processor (DSP) in order to have a proof of concept of the proposed method....

  11. Effects of active rehabilitation therapy on muscular back strength and subjective pain degree in chronic lower back pain patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hea-Kyung; Gwon, Hak-ju; Kim, Seon-Rye; Park, Chan-Seok; Cho, Byung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study applied active rehabilitation therapy to muscular back strength and assessed the subjective pain degree in chronic low back pain patients. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (n=8) and control (n=8). The experimental group performed two types of rehabilitation therapy programs four times per week for eight weeks. The rehabilitation program was based on the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency’s program. There were seve...

  12. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    OpenAIRE

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine and assess harmonic emission in the point of common coupling. Different modelling methods of power electronic devices installed in wind turbines are presented. Harmonic load flow analysis and impedance...

  13. Long-term experience with implanted intrathecal drug administration systems for failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treharne GJ

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous intrathecal drug delivery has been shown in open studies to improve pain and quality of life in those with intractable back pain who have had spinal surgery. There is limited data on long term effects and and even less for patients with mechanical back pain without prior spinal surgery. Methods We have investigated spinal drug administration systems for patients with failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain by patient questionnaire study of the efficacy of this therapy and a case notes review. Results 36 patients (97% of 37 approached completed questionnaires, 24 with failed back syndrome and 12 with chronic mechanical low back pain. Recalled pre-treatment levels with current post-treatment levels of pain and a range of quality of life measures (recorded on 11-point numerical rating scales were compared. Pain improved significantly in both groups (Wilcoxan signed ranks test, p 0.005, Wilcoxan signed ranks test with Bonferroni correction. Diamorphine was used in all 37 patients, bupivacaine in 32, clonidine in 27 and baclofen in 3. The mean dose of diamorphine increased for the first 2 years but did not change 2–6 years post implant, averaging 4.5 mg/day. Revision surgery was required in 24% of cases, but reduced to 12% in the later years of our experience. Conclusions We conclude that spinal drug administration systems appear to be of benefit in alleviating pain in the failed back syndrome and chronic mechanical low back pain but need to be examined prospectively.

  14. PELATIHAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 20 METER ENAM REPETISI EMPAT SET DAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 30 METER EMPAT REPETISI EMPAT SET MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 80 METER SISWA PUTRA SMP DHARMA PRAJA BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimbar Adiputra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Type of 80 meters ran is one of the numbers on athletics competed in early age of child. In early age, the physical condition and mind can still be developed continuously and systematically. The exercise in early age should be an element of play and competition, thus this exercise is attempted to develop the speed by two types of exercise: back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps four sets and back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. The aim of research is to know the increasing of 80 meters speed of run. The exercise was conducted for six weeks with a frequency of three times a week with the aim to increasing the speed. The numbered of sample was 24 people selected randomly from junior high school students of Dharma Praja Badung that meets the requirements of inclusion and exclusion. The numbered of each group consists of twelve people. Each group was given a different treatment i.e. group I was treated by back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps and four sets and group II treated by back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. Data derived from the duration time of 80 meters ran before and after exercise, with t paired test to determine the difference average speed of duration time before and after exercise in each group. The t Unpaired test for the difference average of increased speed between two groups with significance limit of 0.05. The differences of speed in 80 meters ran after exercise in both groups showed significant differences, i.e. p = 0.000 (p <0.05. The average of duration time of 80 meters ran in Group I before exercise was 13.51 sec and after exercise was 12.31 sec by difference of 1.16 seconds show significant differences, while Group 2 the average of duration time in 80 meters ran before exercise and after exercise was 13.66 and after 12, 67 by a difference of 0.98 seconds showed significant differences due to differences in distance and number of repetitions between Group I and Group II

  15. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  16. Design of a Fractional Order Phase Shaper for Iso-damped Control of a PHWR under Step-back Condition

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Ratna; Goswami, Bhaswati; Balasubramanian, R; Chandra, A K; Das, Shantanu; Gupta, Amitava; 10.1109/TNS.2010.2047405

    2012-01-01

    Phase shaping using fractional order (FO) phase shapers has been proposed by many contemporary researchers as a means of producing systems with iso-damped closed loop response due to a stepped variation in input. Such systems, with the closed loop damping remaining invariant to gain changes can be used to produce dead-beat step response with only rise time varying with gain. This technique is used to achieve an active step-back in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) where it is desired to change the reactor power to a pre-determined value within a short interval keeping the power undershoot as low as possible. This paper puts forward an approach as an alternative for the present day practice of a passive step-back mechanism where the control rods are allowed to drop during a step-back action by gravity, with release of electromagnetic clutches. The reactor under a step-back condition is identified as a system using practical test data and a suitable Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (PID) contro...

  17. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n=28 or the sham laser acupuncture group (n=28. Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  18. Short-Term Effect of Laser Acupuncture on Lower Back Pain: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Young; Ku, Boncho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Lee, Yu Jung; Kang, Jae Hui; Heo, Hyun; Choi, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Jun-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This trial was performed to investigate the efficacy of laser acupuncture for the alleviation of lower back pain. Methods. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to either the laser acupuncture group (n = 28) or the sham laser acupuncture group (n = 28). Participants in both groups received three treatment sessions over the course of one week. Thirteen acupuncture points were selected. The visual analogue scale for pain, pressure pain threshold, Patient Global Impression of Change, and Euro-Quality-of-Life Five Dimensions questionnaire (Korean version) were used to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture treatment on lower back pain. Results. There were no significant differences in any outcome between the two groups, although the participants in both groups showed a significant improvement in each assessed parameter relative to the baseline values. Conclusion. Although there was no significant difference in outcomes between the two groups, the results suggest that laser acupuncture can provide effective pain alleviation and can be considered an option for relief from lower back pain. Further studies using long-term intervention, a larger sample size, and rigorous methodology are required to clarify the effect of laser acupuncture on lower back pain.

  19. Effects of the CORE Exercise Program on Pain and Active Range of Motion in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hwi-Young; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify the effects of the CORE exercise program on pain and active range of motion (AROM) in patients with chronic low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to two groups: the CORE group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The CORE group performed the CORE exercise program for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks, while the control group did not perform any exercise. The visual analog scale (VAS) and an algometer were used to measure pain, and pain-free AROM in the trunk was measured before and after the intervention. [Results] The CORE group showed significantly decreased VAS scores at rest and during movement and had a significantly increased pressure pain threshold in the quadratus lumborum and AROM in the trunk compared with those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that the CORE exercise program is effective in decreasing pain and increasing AROM in patients with chronic low back pain. Thus, the CORE exercise program can be used to manage pain and AROM in patients with chronic low back pain.

  20. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Pfascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (Pfascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia.

  1. Is there a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in patients with non-specific low back pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fejer René

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased center of pressure excursions are well documented in patients suffering from non-specific low back pain, whereby the altered postural sway includes both higher mean sway velocities and larger sway area. No investigation has been conducted to evaluate a relationship between pain intensity and postural sway in adults (aged 50 or less with non-specific low back pain. Methods Seventy-seven patients with non-specific low back pain and a matching number of healthy controls were enrolled. Center of pressure parameters were measured by three static bipedal standing tasks of 90 sec duration with eyes closed in narrow stance on a firm surface. The perceived pain intensity was assessed by a numeric rating scale (NRS-11, an equal number of patients (n = 11 was enrolled per pain score. Results Generally, our results confirmed increased postural instability in pain sufferers compared to healthy controls. In addition, regression analysis revealed a significant and linear increase in postural sway with higher pain ratings for all included COP parameters. Statistically significant changes in mean sway velocity in antero-posterior and medio-lateral direction and sway area were reached with an incremental change in NRS scores of two to three points. Conclusions COP mean velocity and sway area are closely related to self-reported pain scores. This relationship may be of clinical use as an objective monitoring tool for patients under treatment or rehabilitation.

  2. Developmental trajectories in primary schoolchildren using n-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica eLópez-Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropsychological instruments to assess cognitive trajectories during childhood in epidemiological studies are needed. This would improve neurodevelopment characterization in order to identify its potential determinants. We aimed to study whether repeated measures of n-back, a working memory task, detect developmental trajectories in schoolchildren during a one-year follow-up.Methods: We administered the n-back task to 2,897 healthy children aged 7-11 years old from 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain. The task consisted of 2 levels of complexity or loads (2- and 3-back and 2 different stimuli (numbers and words. Participants performed the task four times from January 2012 to March 2013. To study the trajectories during the follow-up, we performed linear mixed-effects models including school, individual and age as random effects.Results: We observed improvements related to age in n-back outcomes d’, HRT and accuracy, as well as reduced cognitive growth at older ages in d’ and HRT. Greater improvements in performance were observed at younger ages, in 2-back, in verbal rather than numerical stimuli and in girls compared to boys. Boys responded faster at baseline, while girls showed increased growth in 2-back numbers. Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms (15% of boys and 6% of girls had a lower working memory at baseline, but they showed similar cognitive growth trajectories in numbers variants of the task, as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. However, the age-related improvement in response speed was not observed in children with ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Changes in n-back outcomes reflected developmental trajectories in one-year follow-up. The present results suggest that the repeated administration of this task can be used to study the factors that may alter the cognitive development during childhood.

  3. 46 CFR 197.462 - Pressure vessels and pressure piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels and pressure piping. 197.462 Section... Diving Equipment § 197.462 Pressure vessels and pressure piping. (a) The diving supervisor shall ensure that each pressure vessel, including each volume tank, cylinder and PVHO, and each pressure...

  4. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  5. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  6. Internationalization and migration pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultalahti, O

    1994-01-01

    The author first develops the concept of migration pressure, which is defined as the growth in the number of people wishing to migrate and the barriers preventing them from so doing. Both macro- and micro-level factors affecting migration pressure are identified. Historical trends in migration pressure in Finland are then discussed. The author then applies this concept to the analysis of current Finnish migration trends. The primary focus is on international migration.

  7. High Pressure Hydrogen Materials Compatibility of Piezoelectric Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Bonham, Charles C.; Skorski, Daniel C.; Pitman, Stan G.; Dahl, Michael E.; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-02

    Abstract: Hydrogen is being considered as a next-generation clean burning fuel. However, hydrogen has well known materials issues, including blistering and embrittlement in metals. Piezoelectric materials are used as actuators in hydrogen fuel technology. We present studies of materials compatibility of piezoelectric films in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Absorption of high pressure hydrogen was studied with Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) in lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and barium titanate (BTO) thin films. Hydrogen surface degradation in the form of blistering and Pb mixing was also observed.

  8. Tensile Strength of Water Exposed to Pressure Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Mørch, Knud Aage

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that pressurization for an extended period of time increases the tensile strength of water, but little information is available on the effect of pressure pulses of short duration. This is addressed in the present paper where we first measure the tensile strength of water at an ex...... the compressive pulse, but the effect is shortlived. We presume that diffusion of non-condensable gas from the cavitation nuclei into the liquid at compression, and back again later, is responsible for the changes of tensile strength....

  9. Prevalence and causes of back pain syndromes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases; neck pain was observed in 29.5% of cases; while thoracic pain syndromes were observed in 18.1% of cases. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was diagnosed in 16.19% of children; congenital abnormalities of the spine, in 15.2%; scoliosis (idiopathic and secondary, in 8.6%; and Scheuermann-Mau's disease, in 5.71%. The conclusion has been made about the high prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren. Muscular tonic syndromes were prevailing in the clinical structure in children; radicular syndromes were less frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders were the main causes of back pain. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was often observed, which was revealed as functional instability of the vertebral motor segment, spondylolisthesis due to weak ligaments, and disc protrusions. Congenital abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, and Scheuermann-Mau' disease were observed less often. 

  10. Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Chronic Back Pain Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, Abd Jalil

    2011-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a regional musculoskeletal pain disorder that is caused by myofascial trigger points. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients, as well as to identify risk factors and the outcome of this disorder. Methods This was a prospective observational study involving 126 patients who attended the Pain Management Unit for chronic back pain between 1st January 2009 and 31st December 2009. Data examined included demographic features of patients, duration of back pain, muscle(s) involved, primary diagnosis, treatment modality and response to treatment. Results The prevalence of MPS among chronic back pain patients was 63.5% (n = 80). Secondary MPS was more common than primary MPS, making up 81.3% of the total MPS. There was an association between female gender and risk of developing MPS (χ2 = 5.38, P = 0.02, O.R. = 2.4). Occupation, body mass index and duration of back pain were not significantly associated with MPS occurrence. Repeated measures analysis showed significant changes (P pain patients was significantly high, with female gender being a significant risk factor. With proper diagnosis and expert management, MPS has a favourable outcome. PMID:21716607

  11. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  12. Back analysis of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In view of the diversity and complexity of mechanical parameters of roller compacted concrete dam(RCCD),the uniform design method,partial least-squares regression(PLS)and least squares support vector machine(LSSVM)were applied to the back analysis of RCCD with the use of the complex nonlinear relationship between dam mechanical parameters and dam displacements.During the process of back analysis,the initial samples of parameters were designed with uniform design method.Then,a transversely isotropic model of RCCD was established by MSC.Marc software.Through this model,training samples of LSSVM model could be obtained.And then,the complex nonlinear relationship between relative values of hydraulic components of dam displacements and mechanical parameters was established.Finally,actual relative values of dam hydraulic components are isolated from the measured data of dam displacements by using PLS.By inputting the isolated relative values into LSSVM model,the back analysis values of RCCD mechanical parameters can be obtained.The example analysis showed that mechanical parameters obtained by the above-mentioned back analysis method are reasonable,and the back analysis method is feasible.

  13. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  14. Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.

  15. Distinct quantitative sensory testing profiles in nonspecific chronic back pain subjects with and without psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Gerhardt, Andreas; Leisner, Sabine; Janke, Susanne; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Eich, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Psychological trauma is associated with an increased risk for chronification of nonspecific chronic back pain (nsCLBP) independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of psychological trauma in nsCLBP are less clear than in PTSD. Therefore, this study considered whether psychological trauma exposure (TE) is accompanied by specific alterations in pain perception. The study included 56 participants with nsCLBP and TE (nsCLBP-TE), 93 participants with nsCLBP without TE (nsCLBP-W-TE), and 31 pain-free controls. All participants underwent a thorough clinical evaluation. The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was used to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory functions in painful (back) and non-painful areas (hand). The protocol consisted of thermal and mechanical detection as well as pain thresholds, vibration thresholds, and pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli. Psychological trauma was validated by structured clinical interview. Trauma-associated symptom severity, anxiety, and depressive symptomatology were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Differences in somatosensory function were seen only for pressure pain thresholds. Compared with controls, nsCLBP-TE revealed hyperalgesia generalized in space with lower thresholds in painful and non-painful areas, whereas nsCLBP-W-TE demonstrated localized alterations with decreased thresholds only in the pain-affected area of the back (P ≤ 0.006). Our findings suggest an augmented central pain processing in nsCLBP-TE (alterations in painful and non-painful areas), whereas nsCLBP-W-TE show only local changes (alterations only in the painful area) suggesting regional sensitization processes. This finding might explain why TE without PTSD is associated with an increased prevalence of chronic pain.

  16. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  17. Behavior of interdigitated back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L. J.; Leung, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data concerning operation mechanisms of two versions of interdigitated back-contact solar cells: the tandem junction cell and the front-surface field cell. It is shown that a photogenerated forward bias at the front junction of a tandem junction cell is a critical parameter for cell performance which not only causes photogenerated carriers to migrate to the back junction, but also eliminates the reduction in photoresponse over back p(+) metallization regions. However, no similar light effects are observed in the performance of front-surface field cells. Finally, a discussion on mechanisms concerning the performance of front-surface field and tandem junction cells along with their merits is given.

  18. Stochastic back analysis of permeability coefficient using generalized Bayesian method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Guilan; Wang Yuan; Wang Fei; Yang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Owing to the fact that the conventional deterministic back analysis of the permeability coefficient cannot reflect the uncertainties of parameters, including the hydraulic head at the boundary, the permeability coefficient and measured hydraulic head, a stochastic back analysis taking consideration of uncertainties of parameters was performed using the generalized Bayesian method. Based on the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) for a seepage field, the variable metric algorithm and the generalized Bayesian method, formulas for stochastic back analysis of the permeability coefficient were derived. A case study of seepage analysis of a sluice foundation was performed to illustrate the proposed method. The results indicate that, with the generalized Bayesian method that considers the uncertainties of measured hydraulic head, the permeability coefficient and the hydraulic head at the boundary, both the mean and standard deviation of the permeability coefficient can be obtained and the standard deviation is less than that obtained by the conventional Bayesian method. Therefore, the present method is valid and applicable.

  19. Management of patients with back pain in outpatient practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O N Gerasimova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficiency of drug therapy using the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID meloxicam (Movalis for nonspecific back pain and radiculopathy in the outpatient practice (without physio-, reflex, and manual therapies. Examination of 156 patients revealed a specific cause of back pain only in 6 (3.8%. Drug therapy using Movalis in 150 patients with acute, subacute, chronic nonspecific back pain at various sites or radiculopathy resulted in a considerable reduction in pain (as high as 1-3 VAS scores and its complete regression in 97.3% of cases within 2-3 weeks of treatment. Movalis therapy was found to be well tolerated and caused a low frequency of side effects (1.7% as mild gastrointenstinal disorders; Movalis used in combination with antiepileptic agents (pregabalin and gabapentin, myorelaxants (Midocalm and Milgamma in some patents was ascertained to be also well tolerated.

  20. Gravitational back reaction on piecewise linear cosmic string loops

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the metric and affine connection due to a piecewise linear cosmic string loop, and the effect of gravitational back reaction for the Garfinkle-Vachaspati loop with four straight segments. As expected, back reaction reduces the size of the loop, in accord with the energy going into gravitational waves. The "square" loop whose generators lie at right angles evaporates without changing shape, but in all other cases, the kinks become less sharp and segments between kinks become curved. If the loop is close to the square case, the loop will evaporate before its kinks are significantly changed; if it is far from square, the opening out of the kinks is much faster than evaporation of the loop. In more realistic loops, the curvature of the straight segments due to gravitational back reaction may lead to cusps which did not exist in the original shape with the bending of the string concentrated at kinks.

  1. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  2. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Trivedi

    2012-11-01

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, to show that some lower bound on is necessary. We also give a bound on the instability degree of the Frobenius pull back of in terms of the instability degree of and well defined invariants of .

  3. Is it all about a pain in the back?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Natvig, Bard; Ferreira, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    Multisite musculoskeletal pain is common among people suffering from low back pain. Although the mechanisms behind co-occurrence of multiple somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain are still unknown, patients with co-morbidities and co-occurring musculoskeletal symptoms tend to have worse...... and treatment of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders such as neck pain and lower limb osteoarthritis are very similar. In this chapter, we discuss the prevalence, consequences, and implications of commonalities between low back pain, pain in other sites and co-occurring pain. In addition, we...... functional status, a poorer prognosis and respond less favourably to treatment. Evidence also suggests that the more pain sites a patient reports, the more reduced their physical and mental function will be regardless of location of pain. At the same time, evidence suggests that strategies for diagnosis...

  4. Individual development in Low Back Pain during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Lars; Kjær, Per; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte;

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. The purposes of this presentation is to show how early LBP predicts later...... LBP. Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was carried out between 1997 and 2005, collecting interview data from children at age 10, 13, and 16. The children were sampled to be representative of Danish school children. LBP was defined as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month....... The prevalence estimates are presented as percentages and the trend over time is tested by logistic regression. The risks from various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented with odds ratios (ORs). Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys...

  5. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  6. Lumbar motion changes in chronic low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Several therapies have been used in the treatment of chronic low back pain, including various exercise strategies and spinal manipulative therapy. A common belief is that spinal motion changes in particular ways in direct response to specific interventions, such as exercise....../SETTING: Secondary analysis of a subset of participants from a randomized clinical trial. PATIENT SAMPLE: 199 study participants with low back pain of more than six weeks' duration who had spinal motion measures obtained before and after the period of intervention. OUTCOME MEASURES: Lumbar region spinal kinematics......, the motion parameters included in the analysis. The spinal manipulation group changed to a smoother motion pattern (reduced jerk index) while the exercise groups did not. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that spinal motion changes can occur in chronic low back pain patients over a 12-week period...

  7. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming;

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine...... model whether implant cavities prepared with compaction had spring back. Before killing the animals, we used one of two surgical techniques to make implant cavities of identical dimensions in both lateral femoral condyles of 7 dogs. One side had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  8. [Low Back Pain in Pregnancy: Diagnosis, Treatment Options and Outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, Daniel; Mühlemann, Malin B

    2015-05-20

    Low back pain in pregnancy is a common occurrence and is mainly caused by hormonal and biomechanical changes. Patients with pregnancy-induced low back pain (PILBP) frequently complain of moderate to severe and disabling pain often restricting their daily activities. In these cases, a “watch and wait” approach cannot be the best solution. On the basis of anamnesis and examination PILBP can be divided into three subgroups: pregnancy-related low back pain (PLBP), pelvic girdle pain (PGP) and the combination of PLBP and PGP. The three entities ask for different diagnostic workups and therapeutic modalities. There are many possible treatments for PLBP, however, only a few are based on sound evidence. Information and advice, exercise and training programs, acupuncture, stabilizing belts and analgesic medication can have a positive impact on pain and disability. PGP und PLBP respond well to chiropractic interventions.

  9. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  10. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  11. A life under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Microvessels live 'a life under pressure' in several ways. In a literal sense, vessels of the microcirculation are exposed to high levels of stress caused primarily by the intravascular pressure head. In a figurative sense, the individual vessel and the microvascular network as a whole must...

  12. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  13. Pricing and Inventory Control Strategy for a Periodic-Review Energy Buy-Back System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jihong; CHEN Hongqiao; DING Xiaosong; LI Xian

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of economics and enhancement of industrialization,the power demand keeps rising and frequently creates mismatch between demand and supply in electricity.This provides miscellaneous energy buy-back programs with great opportunities.Such programs,when activated,offer certain amount of financial compensations to participants for reducing their energy consumption during peak time.They aim at encouraging participants to shift their electricity usage from peak to non-peak time,and thereby release the demand pressure during peak time.This paper considers a periodic-review joint pricing and inventory decision model under an energy buy-back program over finite planning horizons,in which the compensation levels,setup cost and additive random demand function are incorporated.The objective is to maximize a manufacturer's expected total profit.By using Veinott's conditions,it is shown that the manufacturer's optimal decision is a state dependent (s,S,P) policy under a peak market condition,or partly an (s,S,A,P) policy under the normal market condition.

  14. Back Analysis of Geomechanical Parameters Using Hybrid Algorithm Based on Difference Evolution and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ping Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the geological bodies where tunnels are located have uncertain and complex characteristics, the inverse problem plays an important role in geotechnical engineering. In order to improve the accuracy and speed of surrounding rock identification, the back analysis objective function with usage of the displacement and stress monitoring data has been constructed, with a hybrid algorithm proposed. An extreme learning machine (ELM is employed with optimal architecture trained by the difference evolution (DE arithmetic. First, the three-dimensional numerical simulation is used in the creation of training and testing samples for ELM model construction. Second, the nonlinear relationship between rock parameters and displacement is constructed by numerical simulation. Finally, the geophysics parameters are obtained by DE optimization arithmetic taking into consideration the monitoring data including both displacement and pressure. This method had been applied in the Fusong highway tunnel in Fusong City of China’s Jilin Province, with a good effect obtained. It takes full advantage of DE and ELM and has both calculation speed and precision in the back analysis.

  15. Reconstructing the Guitar: Blowing Bubbles with a Pulsar Bow Shock Back Flow

    CERN Document Server

    van Kerkwijk, Marten H

    2008-01-01

    The Guitar Nebula is an H-alpha nebula produced by the interaction of the relativistic wind of a very fast pulsar, PSR B2224+65, with the interstellar medium. It consists of a ram-pressure confined bow shock near its head and a series of semi-circular bubbles further behind, the two largest of which form the body of the Guitar. We present a scenario in which this peculiar morphology is due to instabilities in the back flow from the pulsar bow shock. From simulations, these back flows appear similar to jets and their kinetic energy is a large fraction of the total energy in the pulsar's relativistic wind. We suggest that, like jets, these flows become unstable some distance down-stream, leading to rapid dissipation of the kinetic energy into heat, and the formation of an expanding bubble. We show that in this scenario the sizes, velocities, and surface brightnesses of the bubbles depend mostly on observables, and that they match roughly what is seen for the Guitar. Similar instabilities may account for feature...

  16. Displacement noise from back scattering and specular reflection of input optics in advanced gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B; Genin, E; Vajente, G; Marque, J

    2013-05-06

    The second generation of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors are currently being built and installed. They are designed to be better in strain sensitivity by about a factor 10 with respect to the first generation. Light originating from the laser and following unintended paths, called stray light, has been a major problem during the commissioning of all of the first generation detectors. Indeed, stray light carries information about the phase of the emitting object. Therefore, in the next generation all the optics will be suspended in the vacuum in order to mitigate their associated stray light displacement noise. Despite this additional precaution, the challenging target sensitivity at low frequency which is partially limited by quantum radiation pressure combined with up-conversion effects, requires more detailed investigation. In this paper, we turn our attention to stray light originating from auxiliary optical benches. We use a dedicated formalism to compute the re-coupling of back-reflected and back-scattered light. We show, in particular, how much care should be taken in designing and setting requirements for the input bench optics.

  17. Rock Mass Characteristics Modification Using Back Analysis Method for Isfahan Subway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Habibbeygi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the construction of tunnels has been increased vastly in all over the world. Despite all the efforts have been put into the geotechnical investigation, determining the precise and reliable design parameters is a difficult task to accomplish. Therefore, using back analysis techniques to modify geotechnical parameters and optimize the design of initial and final supports is more effective and even less expensive nowadays. In this paper, the results of monitoring and instrumentation of Isfahan subway have been investigated. Moreover, two important parameters for stability analysis, the modulus of elasticity of rock mass and the coefficient of the lateral earth pressure, are modified based on the measured convergence by using the direct method. Results show the Young modulus of rock mass and the lateral earth coefficient are less than the initial values from geotechnical investigation.

  18. Tutorial: Opto-mechanical cooling by the back-action of cavity photons

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple classical analysis of light interacting with a Fabry-Perot cavity consisting of a fixed (dielectric) front mirror and a vibrating rear mirror. In the adiabatic approximation, the returning light exhibits sideband symmetry, which will go away once the photon lifetime becomes comparable to or longer than the oscillation period of the rear mirror. When the oscillation period is short compared to the cavity photon lifetime, one must approach the problem differently, treating the vibrating mirror as a scatterer which sends a fraction of the incident light into sideband frequencies. With proper detuning, the cavity's internal radiation pressure could either dampen or amplify the vibrations of the mirror; the former is the physical principle behind opto-mechanical cooling by the back-action of cavity photons.

  19. Pseudophakia and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Schultz, K; Sobocinski, K; Schultz, R O; Easom, H

    1984-06-01

    We studied the change in intraocular pressure in 373 consecutive eyes undergoing cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation between Jan. 1, 1981, and May 31, 1982. There was a mean increase in intraocular pressure of 0.1 mm Hg following this surgery. This increase, however, was not statistically significant (P greater than .5). There was a mean rise in pressure of 0.8 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing intracapsular surgery and a mean fall in pressure of 0.6 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing extracapsular surgery (P less than .05). The change in pressure was unrelated to age, surgeon, or lens type. The results of a separate analysis of 16 eyes with a preoperative diagnosis of glaucoma and eight eyes with ocular hypertension were similar.

  20. Imaging-guided hyperstimulation analgesia in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenberg, Miguel; Schwartz, Kobi

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain in patients with myofascial pain syndrome is characterized by painful active myofascial trigger points (ATPs) in muscles. This article reviews a novel, noninvasive modality that combines simultaneous imaging and treatment, thus taking advantage of the electrodermal information available from imaged ATPs to deliver localized neurostimulation, to stimulate peripheral nerve endings (Aδ fibers) and in turn, to release endogenous endorphins. "Hyperstimulation analgesia" with localized, intense, low-rate electrical pulses applied to painful ATPs was found to be effective in 95% patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, in a clinical validation study.