WorldWideScience

Sample records for back injuries

  1. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Health and Safety - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Exercises for Your Back - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin ...

  2. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  3. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people over age 85 as we have today. 5 More old people means more nursing homes. ... are high Prevention of back injuries is smart business. Management can save lots of money. Individual back ...

  4. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a desk job can contribute to back pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with ... can take steps to avoid and prevent back pain and injuries at work. For example: Pay attention to posture. When standing, balance your weight evenly on your ...

  5. Getting back on track from electrical injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, L. [St. John' s Rehab Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Exposure to an electrical arc flash constitutes one of the most serious and fatal electrical injuries. The arc flash creates pressure waves that can damage hearing, eyesight and brain functions and can cause severe burns or death. Between 1998 and 2006, 39 per cent of critical electrical injuries involved burns from an arc flash. Not all electrical injuries are immediately visible, and don't always show up on traditional tests. This article cautioned that symptoms may arise slowly and unpredictably. Currently, Toronto's St. John's Rehab and Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre are Canada's only specialized rehabilitation and acute care facilities working clinically and publishing research about electrical injuries. Patients from across Canada have been assessed and treated there since the electrical injury program began in 2003. Early intervention is considered to be the best opportunity for anyone who has been in an electrical contact accident. A specialized, comprehensive assessment by a multi-disciplinary team at the health centres results in a plan of care that minimizes future complications such as permanent disability or other long-term effects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  6. Patient transfers and risk of back injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2017-01-01

    which type of assistive devices most efficiently prevent LBP, exposure assessments using technological advancements allow for quantification of muscle load and body positions during common work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to quantify low back and neck/shoulder muscle load...... in Danish nurses during patient transfers performed with different types of assistive devices, and (2) to combine the exposure profile for each type of assistive device with fortnightly questionnaires to identify the importance of muscle load (intensity and frequency of transfers) and body position (degree...... will be comprised of surface electromyography and accelerometers, with the aim of quantifying muscle load and body positions during various patient transfers, including different types of assistive devices throughout a workday. The study will thereby gather measurements during real-life working conditions...

  7. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  8. The Neuropsychology of Traumatic Brain Injury: Looking Back, Peering Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Levin, Harvey S; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-10-01

    The past 50 years have been a period of exciting progress in neuropsychological research on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuropsychologists and neuropsychological testing have played a critical role in these advances. This study looks back at three major scientific advances in research on TBI that have been critical in pushing the field forward over the past several decades: The advent of modern neuroimaging; the recognition of the importance of non-injury factors in determining recovery from TBI; and the growth of cognitive rehabilitation. Thanks to these advances, we now have a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI and how recovery from the injury is also shaped by pre-injury, comorbid, and contextual factors, and we also have increasing evidence that active interventions, including cognitive rehabilitation, can help to promote better outcomes. The study also peers ahead to discern two important directions that seem destined to influence research on TBI over the next 50 years: the development of large, multi-site observational studies and randomized controlled trials, bolstered by international research consortia and the adoption of common data elements; and attempts to translate research into health care and health policy by the application of rigorous methods drawn from implementation science. Future research shaped by these trends should provide critical evidence regarding the outcomes of TBI and its treatment, and should help to disseminate and implement the knowledge gained from research to the betterment of the quality of life of persons with TBI. (JINS, 2017, 23, 806-817).

  9. Flight Bags as a Cause of Back Injuries Among Commercial Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanumuri, Vamsi S R; Zautke, John L; Dorevitch, Samuel

    2015-06-01

    Pilots of fixed wing commercial aircraft face numerous occupational hazards. Low back pain is among the most common and costly workplace injury, though relatively little is known about causes of back injuries among pilots. The awkward lifting and twisting maneuvers in the flight deck to position flight bags has not been described as a cause of occupational back injury among pilots. A case series of low back injuries among pilots was identified and described by a retrospective review of charts at an airport-based clinic. Circumstances of occupational back injury, initial direct medical costs, treatment, and work status following evaluation were described. Over a 6-yr period, 37 occupational low back injuries among 35 pilots were evaluated and treated. Of these, 24 (65%) involved flight bags. Only 27% of pilots with flight bag-associated injuries were returned to work after initial evaluation; medications with sedating properties were frequently required for treatment. Injuries due to slips, trips, and falls, typically in jet bridges or associated with hotel shuttles, were common among pilots with back injuries not related to flight bags. The majority of occupational low back injuries seen among pilots in an airport based clinic were attributable to use of flight bags. Substituting electronic flight bags for traditional flight bags could contribute to back injury prevention among pilots.

  10. Back-Calculating Baseline Creatinine with MDRD Misclassifies Acute Kidney Injury in the Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, John W.; Endre, Zoltán H.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of back-calculation with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to determine baseline creatinine on the basis of acute kidney injury (AKI) metrics, RIFLE criteria, and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria for the purpose of clinical trial outcomes or epidemiology.

  11. Is a history of work-related low back injury associated with prevalent low back pain and depression in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy J David

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury

  12. Short-term efficacy of back injury intervention project for patient care providers at one hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, R M; Freund, A

    2000-01-01

    A one-year Back Injury Prevention Program was initiated at a 440-bed acute care hospital in 1996 in response to concerns over high incidence and severity of back injuries among nursing staff and others. The program included an ergonomic evaluation of patient handling, pilot testing and purchase of new equipment, a train-the-trainer program, and training of 374 nurses and other patient handling staff (approximately one-half of the nursing staff). An impact evaluation, measured by comparing self-reported knowledge, work practices, and back pain among a subset of trainees and controls revealed an increase in knowledge of risk factors, a marginal increase in the use of mechanical devices to transfer patients, and a significant decrease in repositioning of patients in bed among trained versus control subjects (p = .017). Over the course of the program, the number of back injuries was 30% below the average of the prior 3 years, with the number of reported injuries in the final quarter (immediately following the training program) approximately one-seventh of the three prior quarters. It is concluded that back injury training may increase knowledge of risk factors and controls and may impact behaviors over which individuals have control (e.g., how often they move patients). However, training effectiveness is limited when engineering controls such as patient transfer devices are unavailable.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Back injuries in young fast bowlers - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To demonstrate the efficacy of various radiological diagnostic modalities in assessing lower back pain in young fast bowlers. Methods. Ten cricketers who presented to either a physiotherapist or a doctor with suspected spondylolysis underwent an X-ray, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...

  14. Back injuries in young fast bowlers - a radiological investigation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To demonstrate the efficacy of various radiological diagnostic modalities in assessing lower back pain in young fast bowlers. Methods. Ten cricketers who presented to either a physiotherapist or a doctor with suspected spondylolysis underwent an X-ray, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) ...

  15. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franz, Claudia; Jespersen, Eva; Rexen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    -12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers...

  16. Differences in lumbopelvic control and occupational behaviours in female nurses with and without a recent history of low back pain due to back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiolakis, Corinne S; Kuk, Jennifer L; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent in nurses. This study aimed to determine which physical fitness, physical activity (PA) and biomechanical characteristics most clearly distinguish between nurses with [recently injured (RInj)] and without [not recently injured (NRInj)] a recent back injury. Twenty-seven (8 RInj, 19 NRInj) female nurses completed questionnaires (pain, work, PA), physical fitness, biomechanical and low back discomfort measures, and wore an accelerometer for one work shift. Relative to NRInj nurses, RInj nurses exhibited reduced lumbopelvic control (41.4% more displayed a moderate loss of frontal plane position), less active occupational behaviours (less moderate PA; less patient lifts performed alone; more sitting and less standing time) and more than two times higher low back discomfort scores. Despite no physical fitness differences, the lumbopelvic control, occupational behaviours and discomfort measures differed between nurses with and without recent back injuries. It is unclear whether poor lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in RInj nurses and may require further investigation. Practitioner Summary: It is unclear which personal modifiable factors are most clearly associated with low back pain in nurses. Lumbopelvic control was the only performance-based measure to distinguish between nurses with and without recent back injuries. Future research may investigate whether reduced lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in recently injured nurses.

  17. Getting back to work after injury: the UK Burden of Injury multicentre longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries to working age adults are common and place a considerable burden on health services accounting for more than 10% of GP sick notes and 14% of those claiming benefits because they are unable to work in the UK. General practitioners (GPs currently assess fitness to work and provide care and referral to other services to facilitate return to work (RTW. Recent UK recommendations suggest replacing GP sickness certification with independent assessments of fitness to work after four weeks sick leave. The impact of a wide range of injuries on RTW and subsequent need for independent fitness to work assessments has not been well studied in the UK. The aim of this study was to quantify RTW and factors predicting RTW following a wide range of injuries. Methods We used a multicentre longitudinal study, set in four acute NHS Trusts in the UK which recruited emergency department (ED attenders and hospital admissions for injury and included those aged 16–65years that were employed or self-employed before the injury. Participants were followed up by postal questionnaire at 1, 4 and 12 months post injury to measure health status (EQ-5D, recovery, use of health and social services, time off work in the preceding month and work problems amongst those who had RTW. Multivariable Poisson regression with a robust variance estimator was used to estimate relative risks for factors associated with RTW. Results One month after injury 35% of ED attenders had fully RTW. The self employed were more likely (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.47 compared with employed and the moderate/severely injured less likely to RTW (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.72 compared with minor injuries. At four months, 83% of ED attenders had RTW and self employment and injury severity remained significant predictors of RTW (self employment RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.30; moderate/severe injury RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.92. At four months 57% of hospital admissions had RTW. Men were

  18. Fear of injury and physical deconditioning in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbunt, Jeanine A; Seelen, Henk A; Vlaeyen, Johan W; van der Heijden, Geert J; Knottnerus, J Andre

    2003-08-01

    To test the assumption that fear of injury leads to disability and physical deconditioning in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to evaluate the relation between disability and physical deconditioning. Survey in a cross-sectional design. A rehabilitation center in the Netherlands. Forty patients with nonspecific CLBP. Not applicable. Fear of injury was measured with the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia. Physical fitness was expressed in aerobic fitness measured as predicted maximum oxygen consumption derived in a submaximal exercise test according the protocol of Siconolfi. Disability was measured with the Roland Disability Questionnaire. The association between fear of injury and physical fitness or disability was examined with correlational and multiple linear regression analyses. Fear of injury correlated significantly with disability (r=.44), but did not correlate significantly with aerobic fitness. There was no statistically significant association between disability and aerobic fitness. Multiple regression analysis revealed that aerobic fitness was predicted by gender only. Fear of injury appears to be more strongly associated with perceived disability than with aerobic fitness. The assumption that fear of injury leads to physical deconditioning was not confirmed in this sample of patients with CLBP.

  19. Back to the future: estimating pre-injury brain volume in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David E; Ochs, Alfred L; D Zannoni, Megan; Seabaugh, Jan M

    2014-11-15

    A recent meta-analysis by Hedman et al. allows for accurate estimation of brain volume changes throughout the life span. Additionally, Tate et al. showed that intracranial volume at a later point in life can be used to estimate reliably brain volume at an earlier point in life. These advancements were combined to create a model which allowed the estimation of brain volume just prior to injury in a group of patients with mild or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). This volume estimation model was used in combination with actual measurements of brain volume to test hypotheses about progressive brain volume changes in the patients. Twenty six patients with mild or moderate TBI were compared to 20 normal control subjects. NeuroQuant® was used to measure brain MRI volume. Brain volume after the injury (from MRI scans performed at t1 and t2) was compared to brain volume just before the injury (volume estimation at t0) using longitudinal designs. Groups were compared with respect to volume changes in whole brain parenchyma (WBP) and its 3 major subdivisions: cortical gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (CWM) and subcortical nuclei+infratentorial regions (SCN+IFT). Using the normal control data, the volume estimation model was tested by comparing measured brain volume to estimated brain volume; reliability ranged from good to excellent. During the initial phase after injury (t0-t1), the TBI patients had abnormally rapid atrophy of WBP and CWM, and abnormally rapid enlargement of SCN+IFT. Rates of volume change during t0-t1 correlated with cross-sectional measures of volume change at t1, supporting the internal reliability of the volume estimation model. A logistic regression analysis using the volume change data produced a function which perfectly predicted group membership (TBI patients vs. normal control subjects). During the first few months after injury, patients with mild or moderate TBI have rapid atrophy of WBP and CWM, and rapid enlargement of SCN+IFT. The

  20. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  1. Evaluation of Diagnosis Techniques Used for Spinal Injury Related Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Back pain is a prevalent condition affecting much of the population at one time or the other. Complications, including neurological ones, can result from missed or mismanaged spinal abnormalities. These complications often result in serious patient injury and require more medical treatment. Correct diagnosis enables more effective, often less costly treatment methods. Current diagnosis technologies focus on spinal alterations. Only approximately 10% of back pain is diagnosable, with current diagnostic technologies. The objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate based on specific criteria current diagnosis technique. Nine diagnostic techniques were found in the literature, namely, discography, myelography, single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT, computer tomography (CT, combined CT & SPECT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, upright and kinematic MRI, plain radiography and cineradiography. Upon review of the techniques, it is suggested that improvements can be made to all the existing techniques for diagnosing back pain. This review will aid health service developers to focus on insufficient areas, which will help to improve existing technologies or even develop alternative ones.

  2. Predictors of delayed return to work after back injury: A case-control analysis of union carpenters in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Silverstein, Barbara; Cameron, Wilfred

    2009-11-01

    Union administrative records identified 20,642 union carpenters who worked in Washington State from 1989 to 2003. The Department of Labor and Industries provided records of workers' compensation claims and associated medical care. Work-related back claims (n = 4,241) were identified by ANSI codes (back, trunk, or neck/back) or ICD-9 codes relevant to medical care consistent with a back injury. Cases (n = 738) were defined as back injury claims with >90 days of paid lost time; controls (n = 699) resulted in return to work within 30 days. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) of delayed return to work (DRTW). Thirty percent of case claims and 8% of control claims were identified by an ICD-9 code. DRTW after back injury was associated with being female (2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.5), age 30-44 (1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.7) and age over 45 (1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.3), four or more years union experience (1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8), previous paid time loss back claim (1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), and >or=30-day delay to medical care (3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.1). Evidence of more acute trauma was also associated with DRTW. Use of ICD-9 codes identified claims with multiple injuries that would otherwise not be captured by ANSI codes alone. Though carpenters of younger age and inexperience were at increased risk for a paid lost time back injury claim, older carpenters and more experienced workers, once injured, were more likely to have DRTW as were those who experienced acute events. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Back pain in space and post-flight spine injury: Mechanisms and countermeasure development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayson, Jojo V.; Lotz, Jeffrey; Parazynski, Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2013-05-01

    During spaceflight many astronauts experience moderate to severe lumbar pain and deconditioning of paraspinal muscles. There is also a significant incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) in astronauts post-flight being most prevalent in cervical discs. Relief of in-flight lumbar back pain is facilitated by assuming a knee-to-chest position. The pathogenesis of lumbar back pain during spaceflight is most likely discogenic and somatic referred (from the sinuvertebral nerves) due to supra-physiologic swelling of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) due to removal of gravitational compressive loads in microgravity. The knee-to-chest position may reduce lumbar back pain by redistributing stresses through compressive loading to the IVDs, possibly reducing disc volume by fluid outflow across IVD endplates. IVD stress redistribution may reduce Type IV mechanoreceptor nerve impulse propagation in the annulus fibrosus and vertebral endplate resulting in centrally mediated pain inhibition during spinal flexion. Countermeasures for lumbar back pain may include in-flight use of: (1) an axial compression harness to prevent excessive IVD expansion and spinal column elongation; (2) the use of an adjustable pulley exercise developed to prevent atrophy of spine muscle stabilisers; and (3) other exercises that provide Earth-like annular stress with low-load repetitive active spine rotation movements. The overall objective of these countermeasures is to promote IVD health and to prevent degenerative changes that may lead to HNPs post-flight. In response to "NASA's Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions" regarding disc injury and higher incidence of HNPs after space flight (Integrated Research Plan Gap-B4), future studies will incorporate pre- and post-flight imaging of International Space Station long-duration crew members to investigate mechanisms of lumbar back pain as well as degeneration and damage to spinal structures. Quantitative results on morphological, biochemical

  4. Medical care surrounding work-related back injury claims among Washington State Union Carpenters, 1989-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Silverstein, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    We describe medical care received through workers' compensation (WC) and union-provided insurance surrounding work-related back injuries and examine relationships between care provided and time off work among a large cohort of carpenters. Union records identified a cohort of 20,642 carpenters working in Washington State from 1989-2003 and their private health insurance claims. These data were linked to workers' compensation files from this state-run program including records of medical care. Over 74,000 WC medical encounters resulted from 2959 work-related back injuries. Eleven percent received private care for musculoskeletal back pain within 90 days of work-related injury; this proportion increased with increasing lost days. Delay to physical therapy was more prevalent among those out of work longest. The proportion of claimants with care from both systems and from private utilization only increased after the first 90 days and, for the subset with at least one paid lost work day, after return to work. Examination of medical care through both systems versus solely in workers' compensation provides a more complete understanding of back injury care while also demonstrating complexity. Differences in outcomes based upon treatment shortly after injury are worthy of further exploration.

  5. Back-calculating baseline creatinine with MDRD misclassifies acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, John W; Endre, Zoltán H

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of back-calculation with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula to determine baseline creatinine on the basis of acute kidney injury (AKI) metrics, RIFLE criteria, and Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria for the purpose of clinical trial outcomes or epidemiology. This study was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from patients with measured baseline creatinines before entry to the intensive care unit (ICU). The AKI status was determined using five different baseline creatinines: the measured creatinine (the standard) and an estimated creatinine determined by back-calculation using MDRD assuming a GFR of 75 ml/min (epCr75), 100 ml/min (epCr100), randomly generating a value on a lognormal curve (epCrRnd), and choosing the lowest creatinine value within the first week in the ICU (epCrlow). A subgroup of patients without chronic kidney disease (CKD) was similarly analyzed. Of 224 patients, 70 (31%) had AKI according to RIFLE and 93 (42%) according to AKIN. The epCr75 and epCr100 distributions greatly overestimated the proportion with AKI. The epCrlow overestimated AKI according to AKIN but correctly estimated AKI according to RIFLE. The mean of 1000 epCrRnd distributions correctly estimated AKI according to RIFLE and AKIN. Each estimated distribution performed better in the non-CKD population with the exception of epCrRnd. However, only the epCrlow distribution accurately determined the proportion with AKI. A measured rather than estimated value should be used for baseline creatinine in trials or epidemiologic studies of AKI.

  6. Multi-factorial causative model for back pain management; relating causative factors and mechanisms to injury presentations and designing time- and cost effective treatment thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jeremy

    2012-08-01

    Back pain resolution has not statistically improved over many years with some literature suggesting chronic back pain to be increasing. From a search of literature on causes, events, mechanisms, factors and treatment for back pain, a model is developed that relates causes of back injury to factors that result in pain through two primary mechanisms; muscle fatigue and muscle/tendon/connective tissue strain or sprain with other main mechanisms being diminished reactivity and strength, changes in tendon/tissue mechanical properties and fear of back pain recurrence/fear of movement following a back pain episode. The model highlights the fact that back pain/injury is multi-factorial with numerous circular relationships. Therefore treatment should also be multi-factorial; a combination of physical and psychological therapy with attention to mechanisms at work or in daily living that exacerbate the injury and delay recovery thereof. Exercise is one method that can reduce muscle imbalance, improve resilience to muscle fatigue, and address reactivity and strength. More importantly, eccentric exercise can rectify musculotendinous or connective tissue injury which plays a role in prolonging the back injury cycle. Posture is identified as a causative factor for back pain with the time exposure for posture representing the largest portion of daily activities. From literature and from clinical observation, treatment methods can be improved and incorporated into integrated multi-modal programs. An integrated exercise program that commences with motor control exercise and progresses into functional movement is suggested. Furthermore a modification of the McKenzie extension movement may benefit back injury rehabilitation for a majority of lower back pain patients. Otherwise the sit-to-stand movement is a regular and frequent exacerbating mechanism of back pain and likely continuously tears connective tissue during the movement thus prolonging the cycle of back pain and can be

  7. Potential Mechanisms Leading to Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing: A Descriptive Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Haid, Christian; Fasel, Benedikt; Müller, Erich

    2015-08-01

    Overuse injuries of the back are a common complaint among top athletes and of competitive alpine skiers in particular. However, there is limited understanding about the sport-specific causes of these injuries that is essential for their prevention. This study was undertaken to describe the sport-specific, overall trunk kinematics and skiers' loading during giant slalom turns and to assess the plausibility of the hypothesis that a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and/or torsion in the loaded trunk might be a potential mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in alpine ski racing. Descriptive laboratory study. Eight European Cup-level athletes performed giant slalom runs with 2 different pairs of skis (varying in length, width, and sidecut). They were analyzed with respect to selected kinematic variables related to spinal disc loading. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. During the turn phase in which the total ground-reaction forces were the greatest (up to 2.89 times the body weight), the highest average values of frontal bending (38.7°), lateral bending (14.7°), and torsion (7.7°) in the trunk occurred. Similar magnitudes were observed when skiing on longer, giant slalom skis with less width and sidecut. The typical loading patterns of the back in alpine ski racing include a combined occurrence of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. Because these factors are known to be related to high spinal disc loading, they may be considered important components of mechanisms leading to overuse injuries of the back in alpine ski racing. Prevention measures should aim to control and/or reduce the magnitude of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the trunk, as well as the peak loads, while skiing. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. The relationship between the piriformis muscle, low back pain, lower limb injuries and motor control training among elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R; Hides, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Australian Football League (AFL) players have a high incidence of back injuries. Motor control training to increase lumbopelvic neuromuscular control has been effective in reducing low back pain (LBP) and lower limb injuries in elite athletes. Control of pelvic and femoral alignment during functional activity involves the piriformis muscle. This study investigated (a) the effect of motor control training on piriformis muscle size in AFL players, with and without LBP, during the playing season, and (b) whether there is a relationship between lower limb injury and piriformis muscle size. Stepped-wedge intervention. 46 AFL players participated in a motor control training programme consisting of two 30min sessions per week over 7-8 weeks, delivered across the season as a randomised 3 group single-blinded stepped-wedge design. Assessment of piriformis muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) involved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 time points during the season. Assessment of LBP consisted of player interview and physical examination. Injury data were obtained from club records. An interaction effect for Time, Intervention Group and LBP group (F=3.7, p=0.03) was found. Piriformis muscle CSA showed significant increases between Times 1 and 2 (F=4.24, p=0.046), and Times 2 and 3 (F=8.59, p=0.006). Players with a smaller increase in piriformis muscle CSA across the season had higher odds of sustaining an injury (OR=1.08). Piriformis muscle size increases across the season in elite AFL players and is affected by the presence of LBP and lower limb injury. Motor control training positively affects piriformis muscle size in players with LBP. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The value of SPECT in the detection of stress injury to the pars interarticularis in patients with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Frederick D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical cost associated with back pain in the United States is considerable and growing. Although the differential diagnosis of back pain is broad, epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between adult and adolescent complaints. Injury of the pars interarticularis is one of the most common identifiable causes of ongoing low back pain in adolescent athletes. It constitutes a spectrum of disease ranging from bone stress to spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Bone stress may be the earliest sign of disease. Repetitive bone stress causes bone remodeling and may result in spondylolysis, a non-displaced fracture of the pars interarticularis. A fracture of the pars interarticularis may ultimately become unstable leading to spondylolisthesis. Results in the literature support the use of bone scintigraphy to diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected spondylolysis. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT provides more contrast than planar bone scintigraphy, increases the sensitivity and improves anatomic localization of skeletal lesions without exposing the patient to additional radiation. It also provides an opportunity for better correlation with other imaging modalities, when necessary. As such, the addition of SPECT to standard planar bone scintigraphy can result in a more accurate diagnosis and a better chance for efficient patient care. It is our expectation that by improving our ability to correctly diagnose bone stress in patients with suspected injury of the posterior elements, the long-term cost of managing this condition will be lowered.

  10. Shoulder muscular activity in individuals with low back pain and spinal cord injury during seated manual load transfer tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Clark R; Alenabi, Talia; Martin, Bernard J; Chaffin, Don B

    2018-03-08

    This study aimed to compare the activity of four shoulder muscles in individuals with low back pain (LBP), spinal cord injuries (SCI) and a control group, during one-handed load transfer trials. Nine individuals with minimum one-year of LBP, eleven with thoracic/lumbar SCI and nine healthy controls participated in this study. The activations of anterior deltoid, upper trapezius, infraspinatus and pectoralis major were recorded by surface EMG during one-handed transferring of a cylinder from a home shelve to six spatially distributed target shelves. The integrated EMG values were compared using repeated measure ANOVA. Both LBPs and SCIs had higher anterior deltoid activation and LBPs required more upper trapezius activation than controls (p demands for these two muscles. The anterior deltoid and upper trapezius in LBP and SCI individuals are under higher demand during occupational load transfer tasks. Practitioner Summary: This study aimed to compare the activation of four shoulder muscles in individuals with low back pain, spinal cord injuries and healthy condition. EMG analysis showed that the injured groups required more upper trapezius and anterior deltoid activation during load transfer tasks, which may predispose them to muscle overexertion.

  11. Declining rates of work-related overexertion back injuries among union drywall installers in Washington State, 1989-2008: Improved work safety or shifting of care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Marshall, Stephen W; Casteel, Carri; Richardson, David B; Brookhart, M Alan; Cameron, Wilfrid

    2014-02-01

    Construction workers are at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal back disorders, and research suggests medical care and costs associated with these conditions may be covered by sources other than workers' compensation (WC). Little is known about the back injury experience and care seeking behavior among drywall installers, a high-risk workgroup regularly exposed to repetitive activities, awkward postures, and handling heavy building materials. Among a cohort of 24,830 Washington State union carpenters (1989-2008), including 5,073 drywall installers, we identified WC claims, visits for health care covered through union-provided health insurance and time at risk. Rates of work-related overexertion back injuries (defined using WC claims data) and health care utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders covered by private health insurance were examined and contrasted over time and by worker characteristics, stratified by type of work (drywall installation, other carpentry). Drywall installers' work-related overexertion back injury rates exceeded those of other carpenters (adjusted IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.48-1.78). For both carpentry groups, rates declined significantly over time. In contrast, rates of private healthcare utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders were similar for drywall installers compared to other carpenters; they increased over time (after the mid-1990s), with increasing years in the union, and with increasing numbers of work-related overexertion back injuries. Observed declines over time in the rate of work-related overexertion back injury, as based on WC claims data, is encouraging. However, results add to the growing literature suggesting care for work-related conditions may be being sought outside of the WC system. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Interim evaluation of the effect of a new scrum law on neck and back injuries in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, S; Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Harawira, J; Truman, R

    2008-06-01

    In January 2007 the International Rugby Board implemented a new law for scrum engagement aimed at improving player welfare by reducing impact force and scrum collapses. In New Zealand the new law was included in RugbySmart, an annual compulsory workshop for coaches and referees. To determine the effect of the new law on scrum-related moderate to serious neck and back injury claims in 2007. Claims filed with the Accident Compensation Corporation (the provider of no-fault injury compensation and rehabilitation in New Zealand) were combined with numbers of registered players to estimate moderate to serious scrum-related claims for players who take part in scrums (forwards). Poisson linear regression was used to compare the observed claims per 100 000 forwards for 2007 with the rate predicted from data for 2002-6. The observed and predicted claims per 100 000 forwards were 52 and 76, respectively (rate ratio 0.69; 90% CI 0.42 to 1.12). The likelihoods of substantial benefit (rate ratio 1.1) attributable to the scrum law were 82% and 5%, respectively. The decline in scrum-related injury claims is consistent with a beneficial effect of the new scrum law in the first year of its implementation. Another year of monitoring should provide more evidence for the efficacy of the new law.

  13. Blood transfusion : Transfusion-related acute lung injury: back to basics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.L.

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening disease affecting the lungs. TRALI can develop within 6 hours after transfusion and almost all patients with TRALI require mechanical ventilation at the intensive care department. Nevertheless up to 40% of patients do not recover

  14. Changes in electromyographic activity of trunk muscles within the sub-acute phase for individuals deemed recovered from a low back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Heather L; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Kozey, John W

    2013-04-01

    Evidence indicates that previous low back injury (LBI) is a strong predictor for re-injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether neuromuscular patterns remain altered in a LBI group who were deemed recovered. Surface electromyograms from 12-abdominal and 12-back extensors sites and motion variables were recorded from 33 LBI individuals (sub-acute phase) and 54 asymptomatic controls. Pain-related variables were recorded and a clinical assessment performed for LBI participants. Subjects performed a symmetrical lift and replace task in two reaches. Pattern recognition techniques were applied to normalized activation amplitude patterns to extract key recruitment strategies. Mixed model ANOVAs tested for effects (p muscles (except posterior external oblique) and greater co-activation between abdominal and back extensor sites compared to controls. Local abdominal and back extensor sites showed altered responses to increased physical demands in the LBI group. Despite outcomes indicating recovery, the LBI group had altered neuromuscular patterns compared to asymptomatic controls supporting that residual alterations remain following recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Back to the Bedside: Developing a Bedside Aid for Concussion and Brain Injury Decisions in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Edward R; Lopez, Kevin; Hess, Erik P; Abujarad, Fuad; Brandt, Cynthia A; Shiffman, Richard N; Post, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Current information-rich electronic health record (EHR) interfaces require large, high-resolution screens running on desktop computers. This interface compromises the provider's already limited time at the bedside by physically separating the patient from the doctor. The case study presented here describes a patient-centered clinical decision support (CDS) design process that aims to bring the physician back to the bedside by integrating a patient decision aid with CDS for shared use by the patient and provider on a touchscreen tablet computer for deciding whether or not to obtain a CT scan for minor head injury in the emergency department, a clinical scenario that could benefit from CDS but has failed previous implementation attempts. This case study follows the user-centered design (UCD) approach to build a bedside aid that is useful and usable, and that promotes shared decision-making between patients and their providers using a tablet computer at the bedside. The patient-centered decision support design process focuses on the prototype build using agile software development, but also describes the following: (1) the requirement gathering phase including triangulated qualitative research (focus groups and cognitive task analysis) to understand current challenges, (2) features for patient education, the physician, and shared decision-making, (3) system architecture and technical requirements, and (4) future plans for formative usability testing and field testing. We share specific lessons learned and general recommendations from critical insights gained in the patient-centered decision support design process about early stakeholder engagement, EHR integration, external expert feedback, challenges to two users on a single device, project management, and accessibility. Successful implementation of this tool will require seamless integration into the provider's workflow. This protocol can create an effective interface for shared decision-making and safe resource

  16. Standing Height as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing: A Kinematic and Kinetic Study of Giant Slalom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2018-01-01

    In alpine ski racing, typical loading patterns of the back include a combined occurrence of spinal bending, torsion, and high peak loads. These factors are known to be associated with high spinal disc loading and have been suggested to be attributable to different types of spine deterioration. However, little is known about the effect of standing height (ie, the distance between the bottom of the running surface of the ski and the ski boot sole) on the aforementioned back loading patterns. To investigate the effect of reduced standing height on the skier's overall trunk kinematics and the acting ground-reaction forces in giant slalom (GS) from an overuse injury prevention perspective. Controlled laboratory study. Seven European Cup-level athletes skied a total of 224 GS turns with 2 different pairs of skis varying in standing height. Their overall trunk movement (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angles) was measured based on 2 inertial measurement units located at the sacrum and sternum. Pressure insoles were used to determine the total ground-reaction force. During the turn phase in which the greatest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, significantly lower total ground-reaction forces were observed for skis with a decreased standing height. Simultaneously, the skier's overall trunk movement (ie, frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angles) remained unwaveringly high. Standing height is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier's overall back loading in GS. Yet, when compared with the effects achievable by increased gate offsets in slalom, for instance, the preventative benefits of decreased standing height seem to be rather small. To reduce the magnitude of overall back loading in GS and to prevent overuse injuries of the back, decreasing standing height might be an efficient approach. Nevertheless, the clinical relevance of the current findings, as well as the effectiveness of the measure "reduced standing height," must be verified by

  17. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing: A Kinematic and Kinetic Study of Giant Slalom and Slalom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-02-01

    A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier's overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Controlled laboratory study. Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier's overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might particularly need to control and/or reduce the magnitude of frontal and lateral bending in

  18. Beyond Accidents: A Back-Analysis on Conveyor Belt Injury for a Better Design for Maintenance Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinetti, Alberto; van Dongen, Leonardus Adriana Maria; Romano, Raffaele

    2017-01-01

    The conveyor belt represents one of the most commonly used methods of transporting bulk materials today. As highlighted multiple times in research, the moving parts are a critical issue causing accidents and injuries and several of these are strictly related to the opportunity to enter in working

  19. Nurse practitioners as attending providers for workers with uncomplicated back injuries: using administrative data to evaluate quality and process of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jeanne M; Wickizer, Thomas M; Franklin, Gary M; Cheadle, Allen D; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2007-08-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to identify quality and process of care indicators available in administrative workers' compensation data and to document their association with work disability outcomes, and 2) to use these indicators to assess whether nurse practitioners (NPs), recently authorized to serve as attending providers for injured workers in Washington State, performed differently than did primary care physicians (PCPs). Quality and process of care indicators for NP and PCP back injury claims from Washington State were compared using direct standardization and logistic regression. This study found little evidence of differences between NP and PCP claims in case mix or quality of care. The process of care indicators that we identified were highly associated with the duration of work disability and have potential for further development to assess and promote quality improvement.

  20. Study the therapeutic mechanism of Amomum compactum in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury rat based on a back propagation neural network algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiye; Chen, Hongmei; Chang, Chun; Jiang, Mingyang; Wang, Xiulan; Xu, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global public health problems, as it causes high morbidity and serious injury to renal function. However, the etiology for AKI is not very clear. In this study, a serum metabolite profile analysis was performed to identify potential biomarkers for gentamicin-induced AKI and to investigate the mechanism of action of Amomum compactum (AC) used for treatment. A metabonomics approach by ultra-performance liquid chromatography together with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was applied to perform the analysis. Back propagation (BP) neural network models were established for classifying data from the control, model, and AC-treated groups. Accuracy rate for classification was 91.7% in positive ion mode and 87.5% in negative ion mode. By orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), 29 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers of gentamicin-induced AKI. Most of them are related to phospholipid metabolism. After treatment with AC, the levels of sphingomyelin, sphingosine, phytosphingosine, and arachidonic acid were restored to normal. The results indicate that AC plays a protective role in rats with gentamicin-induced AKI via regulation of the phospholipid metabolic pathway. In this work, early biomarkers of AKI has been identified and underlying therapeutic mechanism of AC has been understood, therefore, AC can be further investigated and tested for clinical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Taking back a little of what you have lost: the meaning of using an Environmental Control System (ECS) for people with high cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Michele; Nolan, Maeve; Chard, Gill

    2017-09-22

    Assistive technologies have deep and personal meanings for people with disabilities. This study sought to provide an in-depth exploration of the subjective meaning of Environmental Control System (ECS) use for people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to explore the personal meaning of ECS. In-depth interviews with five participants were analyzed according to recommended IPA guidelines to produce a rich phenomenological account of lived experience. This study identified two overarching themes, one of which was the subject of an earlier publication. This paper focuses on the second theme "taking back a little of what you have lost" and its two main components "reclaiming a little doing" and "feeling enabled". Doing everyday things, being less dependent on others and feeling safer and less needy all contributed to participants experience of regaining something important of what had been lost. A nuanced range of meanings, demonstrating how "a little can mean a lot" emerged from this study. For those with high cervical spinal cord injury, "reclaiming a little doing" resulted in subtle, but subjectively significant, improvements in identity, relationships and well-being, while "feeling enabled" was both enjoyable and empowering and led to an increased sense of safety and reduced neediness. The potentially powerful impact on individuals with life-altering injuries of reclaiming a little of what they had lost, supports the value of more widespread access to and provision of ECS. Implications for rehabilitation While ECS use produces only a "little" objective change in activity levels, it subjectively means "a lot" to people with high level injuries. ECS enable people to "do" everyday things as well help in supporting them to "feel" less dependent and needy. Using ECS facilitates much more than functional tasks and a sense of security. It helps promote positive self-perception and continuity of being. It is

  2. Assessing whole body vibration exposure for use in epidemiological studies of back injuries: measurements, observations and self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, J; Trask, C; Chow, Y; Morrison, J B; Koehoorn, M; Teschke, K

    2012-01-01

    Improved assessment of whole body vibration exposure is needed for epidemiological studies investigating the causes of low back disorders. Vibration was measured on 54 worker-days in five heavy industries, with data collected on observed and self-reported driving conditions, demographics, and vehicle characteristics. Variables significant at p prediction of rms vibration level and 8-h equivalent vibration exposure. Vibration was measured, on average, for 205 min per work shift (SD 105). Means and standard deviations in m · s⁻² were: x-axis 0.35 (0.19); y-axis 0.34 (0.28); z-axis 0.54 (0.23); vector sum 0.90 (0.49); and 8-h equivalent vector sum 0.70 (0.37). The final three regression models retained only 2 or 3 of the 34 variables (driving speed (predict whole body vibration exposure from a number of observed or self-reported variables. This could eliminate the need for costly and time-consuming field measurements of WBV in epidemiological studies. Despite a large number of variables included in the model (34) and 54 worker-days of WBV measurement, the final models contained only two or three variables, and explained 60% of the variance. While this is an improvement over use of job title in epidemiological studies, it still leaves a considerable amount of WBV variance unexplained.

  3. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed May 29, 2015. Adult acute and subacute low back pain. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. http://www.icsi.org/low_back_pain/adult_low_back_pain__8.html. Accessed June ...

  4. Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain: education or exposure in vivo as mediator to fear reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen R; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Onghena, Patrick; Goossens, Mariëlle E J B; Geilen, Mario; Mulder, Herman

    2005-01-01

    Clinical research of graded exposure in vivo with behavioral experiments in patients with chronic low back pain who reported fear of movement/(re)injury shows abrupt changes in self-reported pain-related fears and cognitions. The abrupt changes are more characteristics of insight learning rather than the usual gradual progression of trial and error learning. The educational session at the start of the exposure might have contributed to this insight. The current study examines the contribution of education and graded exposure versus graded activity in the reduction of pain-related fear and associated disability and physical activity. Six consecutive patients with chronic low back pain who reported substantial fear of movement/(re)injury were included in the study. After a no-treatment baseline measurement period, all the patients received a single educational session, followed again by a no-treatment period. Patients were then randomly assigned to either a graded exposure with behavioral experiments or an operant graded activity program. A diary was used to assess daily changes in pain intensity, pain-related fear, pain catastrophizing, and activity goal achievement. Standardized questionnaires of pain-related fear, pain vigilance, pain intensity, and pain disability were administered before and after each intervention and at the 6-month follow-up. An activity monitor was carried at baseline, during the interventions, and 1 week at 6-month follow-up. Randomization tests of the daily measures showed that improvements in pain-related fear and catastrophizing occurred after the education was introduced. The results also showed a further improvement when exposure in vivo followed the no-treatment period after the education and not during the operant graded activity program. Performance of relevant daily activities, however, were not affected by the educational session and improved significantly only in the exposure in vivo condition. All improvements remained at half

  5. A comparison between back squat exercise and vertical jump kinematics: implications for determining anterior cruciate ligament injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Brian J; Kernozek, Thomas W; Mikat, Richard P; Wright, Glenn A; Simons, Samuel Z; Wallace, Kelly L

    2008-07-01

    Women are up to eight times more likely than men to suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and knee valgus is perhaps the most at-risk motion. Women have been shown to have more knee valgus than men in squatting movements and while landing. The purposes were to investigate whether a relationship exists between lower-extremity frontal plane motions in squatting and landing, whether gender differences exist, and whether squat or hip abduction strength relates to knee valgus while landing. Eleven collegiate Division III soccer players and 11 recreationally trained men were tested for maximal vertical jump height and for squat and hip abduction strength. On the second day of testing, subjects performed light (50% one repetition maximum) and heavy (85%) squat protocols and three landings from their maximal vertical jump height. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients and a 2 x 10 factorial analysis of variance with t-test post hoc comparisons (p

  6. Back to the future: extended dialysis for treatment of acute kidney injury in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielstein, Jan T; Schiffer, Mario; Hafer, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    On September 11, 1945, Maria Schafstaat was the first patient who successfully underwent a dialysis treatment for acute kidney injury (AKI). The ingenious design of the first dialysis machine, made of cellophane tubing wrapped around a cylinder that rotated in a bath of fluid, together with the brave determination to treat patients with AKI, enabled the Dutch physician W.J. Kolff to save the life of the 67-year-old woman. By treating her for 690 minutes (i.e., 11.5 hours) with a blood flow rate of 116 ml/min, Kolff also set the coordinates of a renal replacement therapy that has enjoyed an unsurpassed renaissance over the last decade for treatment of severely ill patients with AKI in the intensive care unit (ICU). Prolonged dialysis time with low flow rates - these days, called extended dialysis (ED) - combines several advantages of both intermittent and continuous techniques, which makes it an ideal treatment method for ICU patients with AKI. This review summarizes our knowledge of this method, which is increasingly used in many centers worldwide. We reflect on prospective controlled studies in critically ill patients that have documented that small-solute clearance with ED is comparable with that of intermittent hemodialysis and continuous venovenous hemofiltration, as well as on studies showing that patients' cardiovascular stability during ED is similar to that with continuous renal replacement therapy. Furthermore, we report on logistic and economic advantages of this method. We share our view on how extended dialysis offers ample opportunity for a collaborative interaction between nephrologists and intensivists as the nephrology staff, enabling optimal treatment of complex critically ill patients by using the skill and knowledge of 2 indispensable specialties in the ICU. Lastly, we address the problem of ED intensity, which does not seem to have an impact on survival at higher doses, a finding that might be caused by the fact that we still adhere to dosing

  7. iLift : A health behavior change support system for lifting and transfer techniques to prevent lower-back injuries in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Derek A.; Wartena, Bard O.; Dijkstra, Boudewijn H.; Terlouwa, Gijs; van t Veer, Job T. B.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Prins, Jelle T.; Pierie, Jean Pierre E. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lower back problems are a common cause of sick leave of employees in Dutch care homes and hospitals. In the Netherlands over 40% of reported sick leave is due to back problems, mainly caused by carrying out heavy work. The goal of the iLift project was to develop a game for nursing

  8. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, there doesn't appear to be one type of mattress that's best for people with back pain. It's probably a ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  9. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat......-rowing populations. It has further expanded beyond its traditional flatwater format to include the discipline of open-water or coastal rowing, and an increased focus on indoor rowing. Rowing-specific injury research has similarly increased over the last decade since our last review, revealing areas of improved...... and prevent injuries in rowers....

  10. Pain-related fear of (re-)injury in patients with low back pain: Estimation or measurement in manual therapy primary care practice? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostendorp, Rob A B; Elvers, Hans; Mikolajewska, Emilia; Laekeman, Marjan; Roussel, Nathalie; van der Zanden, Olaf; Nijs, Jo; Samwel, Han

    2017-11-06

    Manual physical therapists (MPTs) working in primary care get limited information about patient's courses of (chronic) low back pain (LBP). Identification of kinesiophobia is mostly based on clinical perception. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the scores with which manual physical therapists in a primary care setting identify kinesiophobia in patients with low back pain, and the patients' self-reported measures of kinesiophobia. The cross-sectional study comprised 104 patients with LBP and 17 MPTs. Patients first independently completed the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK-17). The therapists, blinded to the TSK-scores, rated their perception of a patient's kinesiophobia using the Visual Analogue Scale-Estimation (VAS-est) and the accuracy of their ratings using the Visual Analogue Scale-Accuracy (VAS-ac). Kendall's tau b was used to determine the level of correlation between scores on the TSK-17 and the VAS-est.

  11. Who will have Sustainable Employment After a Back Injury? The Development of a Clinical Prediction Model in a Cohort of Injured Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shearer, Heather M.; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    intensity, mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). At 6 months, sustainable employment was predicted by physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). Adding health-related and work......-related variables to models improved predictive accuracy by 8.5 and 10 % at 1 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion We developed clinically-relevant models to predict sustainable employment in injured workers who made a workers’ compensation claim for LBP. Inquiring about back pain intensity, physical and mental......Purpose Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction model to identify workers with sustainable employment following an episode of work-related low back pain (LBP). Methods We used data from a cohort study of injured workers with incident LBP claims in the USA to predict employment patterns 1...

  12. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  13. Who will have Sustainable Employment After a Back Injury? The Development of a Clinical Prediction Model in a Cohort of Injured Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Heather M; Côté, Pierre; Boyle, Eleanor; Hayden, Jill A; Frank, John; Johnson, William G

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Our objective was to develop a clinical prediction model to identify workers with sustainable employment following an episode of work-related low back pain (LBP). Methods We used data from a cohort study of injured workers with incident LBP claims in the USA to predict employment patterns 1 and 6 months following a workers' compensation claim. We developed three sequential models to determine the contribution of three domains of variables: (1) basic demographic/clinical variables; (2) health-related variables; and (3) work-related factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop the predictive models. We constructed receiver operator curves and used the c-index to measure predictive accuracy. Results Seventy-nine percent and 77 % of workers had sustainable employment at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Sustainable employment at 1 month was predicted by initial back pain intensity, mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). At 6 months, sustainable employment was predicted by physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type (c-index = 0.77). Adding health-related and work-related variables to models improved predictive accuracy by 8.5 and 10 % at 1 and 6 months respectively. Conclusion We developed clinically-relevant models to predict sustainable employment in injured workers who made a workers' compensation claim for LBP. Inquiring about back pain intensity, physical and mental health-related quality of life, claim litigation and employer type may be beneficial in developing programs of care. Our models need to be validated in other populations.

  14. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Back Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January ...

  15. Isolation and characterization of two kinds of stem cells from the same human skin back sample with therapeutic potential in spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury remains to be a challenge to clinicians and it is attractive to employ autologous adult stem cell transplantation in its treatment, however, how to harvest cells with therapeutic potential easily and how to get enough number of cells for transplantation are challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to isolate skin-derived precursors (SKPs and dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs simultaneously from single human skin samples from patients with paraplegia. METHODS: Dissociated cells were initially generated from the dermal layer of skin samples from patients with paraplegia and cultured in SKPs proliferation medium. Four hours later, many cells adhered to the base of the flask. The suspended cells were then transferred to another flask for further culture as SKPs, while the adherent cells were cultured in dMSCs proliferation medium. Twenty-four hours later, the adherent cells were harvested and single-cell colonies were generated using serial dilution method. [(3H]thymidine incorporation assay, microchemotaxis Transwell chambers assay, RT-PCR and fluorescent immunocytochemistry were employed to examine the characterizations of the isolated cells. RESULTS: SKPs and dMSCs were isolated simultaneously from a single skin sample. SKPs and dMSCs differed in several respects, including in terms of intermediate protein expression, proliferation capacities, and differentiation tendencies towards mesodermal and neural progenies. However, both SKPs and dMSCs showed high rates of differentiation into neurons and Schwann cells under appropriate inducing conditions. dMSCs isolated by this method showed no overt differences from dMSCs isolated by routine methods. CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of stem cells, namely SKPs and dMSCs, can be isolated simultaneously from individual human skin sample from paraplegia patients. Both of them show ability to differentiate into neural cells under proper inducing conditions

  16. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a week. ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or 3 ...

  17. 'Bringing them back on the right track': perceptions of medical staff on the rehabilitation of individuals with violently acquired spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Patrick; Balcazar, Fabricio

    2010-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of medical staff on the rehabilitation of spinal cord injured individuals, who became disabled from street violence. A total of 16 medical staff members from two rehabilitation hospitals were interviewed, using a semi-structured interview. The interview recorded demographic information about the staff and probed at differences in clinical goals and practices with violently and non-violently injured individuals with spinal cord injuries. In all, 34 interviews were conducted from staff. Responses were tabulated and interpreted using a grounded theory approach. Staff set goals of 'increasing independence' that are informed by their professional backgrounds. The 'differences' in persons with violently acquired disabilities were noted, both in terms of needs, resources and attitudes. Depending on the professional and racial background of the staff, there was an indication of different degrees of tolerance toward patients' non-compliance with rehabilitation goals. Staff members are largely welcoming of the perceived impact of peer mentoring as it increases the cultural competence of the hospital in dealing with individuals who were violently disabled. Findings, although exploratory, emphasise the dynamics of perception development, through the tensions in the goal of independent functioning and perceived differences in persons who became disabled from street violence.

  18. Back home after an acquired brain injury: building a "low-cost" team to provide theory-driven cognitive rehabilitation after routine interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, Davide; Hoerold, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) could benefit from further cognitive rehabilitation, after they have returned home. However, a lack of specialist services to provide such rehabilitation often prevents this. This leads to reduced reintegration of patients, increased social disadvantages and ultimately, higher economic costs. 10 months post-stroke, a 69 year-old woman was discharged from an inpatient rehabilitation program and returned home with severe cognitive impairments. We describe a pilot project which provided an individualised, low cost rehabilitation program, supervised and trained by a neuropsychologist. Progress was monitored every 3 months in order to decide on continuation of the program, based on the achieved results and predicted costs. Post intervention, despite severe initial impairment, cognitive and most notably daily functioning had improved. Although the financial investment was moderately high for the family, the intervention was still considered cost-effective when compared with the required costs of care in a local non-specialist care home. Moreover, the pilot experience was used to build a "local expert team" available for other individuals requiring rehabilitation. These results encourage the development of similar local "low cost" teams in the community, to provide scientifically-grounded cognitive rehabilitation for ABI patients returning home.

  19. Pushed to the Margins and Pushing Back: A Case Study of One Adult’s Reflections on Social Interactions After a Traumatic Brain Injury Sustained as an Adolescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscigno, Cecelia I.; Van Liew, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide chronic health problem. Current empirical approaches to defining factors that contribute to a meaningful life after TBI have been limited to the biomedical perspective. Such a limited paradigm fails to address how people with TBI find meaning and act on and are acted on by the world in which they live. Between 2005 and 2007 an in-depth qualitative case study was conducted. The primary data source was a man’s retrospective journal writings about his life after sustaining a severe TBI. The qualitative perspective of symbolic interactionism framed this case study analysis. Meaning is strongly influenced by the ways in which the social world interacts with the injured person. Despite an accumulation of negative social experiences, a traumatically brain-injured person can also assign positive meanings to the quality of his or her life. This has been ignored or explained away as a defense mechanism in previous investigations. More studies that include unbiased methods able to capture subjective experiences and what they mean to individuals with TBI are needed. This information will lead to more relevant interventions and better outcome instruments for use with this population. PMID:18727337

  20. iLift: A health behavior change support system for lifting and transfer techniques to prevent lower-back injuries in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Derek A; Wartena, Bard O; Dijkstra, Boudewijn H; Terlouw, Gijs; van T Veer, Job T B; van Dijk, Hylke W; Prins, Jelle T; Pierie, Jean Pierre E N

    2016-12-01

    Lower back problems are a common cause of sick leave of employees in Dutch care homes and hospitals. In the Netherlands over 40% of reported sick leave is due to back problems, mainly caused by carrying out heavy work. The goal of the iLift project was to develop a game for nursing personnel to train them in lifting and transfer techniques. The main focus was not on testing for the effectiveness of the game itself, but rather on the design of the game as an autogenous trigger and its place in a behavioral change support system. In this article, the design and development of such a health behavior change support system is addressed, describing cycles of design and evaluation. (a) To define the problem space, use context and user context, focus group interviews were conducted with Occupational Therapists (n=4), Nurses (n=10) and Caregivers (n=12) and a thematic analysis was performed. We interviewed experts (n=5) on the subject of lifting and transferring techniques. (b) A design science research approach resulted in a playable prototype. An expert panel conducted analysis of video-recorded playing activities. (c) Field experiment: We performed a dynamic analysis in order to investigate the feasibility of the prototype through biometric data from player sessions (n=620) by healthcare professionals (n=37). (a) Occupational Therapists, Nurses and Caregivers did not recognise a lack of knowledge with training in lifting and transferring techniques. All groups considered their workload, time pressure and a culturally determined habit to place the patient's well being above their own as the main reason not to apply appropriate lifting and transferring techniques. This led to a shift in focus from a serious game teaching lifting and transferring techniques to a health behavior change support system containing a game with the intention to influence behavior. (b) Building and testing (subcomponents of) the prototype resulted in design choices regarding players perspective

  1. Low back pain in competitive rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, A; D'Alessandro, C; Evangelisti, I; Piazza, M; Galetta, F; Morelli, E

    2004-03-01

    It has been reported that rhythmic gymnasts are at risk of suffering from low back injuries, because of repetitive lumbar hyperextensions. On the other hand, this sport requires features of leanness, muscular strength and flexibility that should represent protective factors for back pain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of low back pain in 67 club-level competitive rhythmic gymnasts aged 13-19 years. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate back-pain symptoms. Anthropometric measurements, time spent in physical activity, psychological testing results, smoking habits and age of menarche were recorded. One hundred and four age-matched general females served as control group. Low back pain complaints were reported by 7 rhythmic gymnasts and by 27 controls (10.4% vs 26.0%, pgymnasts and central in controls. Gymnasts had lower body weight, body mass index, fat body mass and delayed menarche. The females with low-back pain displayed higher body weight, body mass index, fat body mass, age, a greater smoking habit and more anxious/depressive behaviour, both in the gymnast and in the control group. Competitive, club-level rhythmic gymnasts show a reduced prevalence of low back-pain. Being younger in age, having greater leanness, not smoking, displaying less anxious/depressive behaviour, and developing increased muscle strength and flexibility, all can represent preventive factors for low back pain. This study suggests that rhythmic gymnastics is not a discipline at increased risk of low back pain.

  2. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, H.; Niethard, F.U.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  3. Low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M R

    1999-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that blends the athleticism of a gymnast with the grace of a ballerina. The sport demands both the coordination of handling various apparatus and the flexibility to attain positions not seen in any other sport. To attain perfection and reproducibility of their routines, the athletes must practice and repeat the basic elements of their routines thousands of times. In so doing, the athlete places herself at risk of a myriad of overuse injuries, the most common being low back pain. To document the presence and severity of low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts, a prospective study of seven national team members was undertaken that documented injuries and complaints with daily medical reports over a 7-wk period. These findings were correlated with a retrospective review of 11 elite level gymnasts followed over a 10-month period whose complaints ultimately required evaluation by a physician. Eighty-six percent of the gymnasts in the prospective study complained of back pain at some point over the course of the study. The only injury recorded that required a time loss from sport was a low back injury. The most common complaint requiring a physician's evaluation was low back pain with the diagnoses varying from muscle strains to bony stress reaction or complete fracture of the pars inter-articularis (spondylolysis). No athlete had a spondylolisthesis or ruptured disk. Two had mild scolioses which did not appear to be associated with their low back pain. It would appear that rhythmic gymnasts are at relative increased risk of suffering low back complaints secondary to their sport.

  4. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  5. Bilateral Proximal Radial Shaft Fracture Dislocations Resulting from 2 Separate Injuries with the Same Mechanism, Each Associated with Median Nerve Entrapment: A Case Report in a Gymnast Performing Back Hand Springs: Bony Entrapment of Median Nerve at Proximal Radius

    OpenAIRE

    Hibino, Naohito; Hamada, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of entrapment of the median nerve following a closed fracture of the proximal one-fourth of the radius in an adolescent in failure of back hand spring. We proposed that the forearm pronation and the wrist extension in, “the Back Handspring position” made the median nerve close to the radius at one-fourth proximal radius, played an important role in this complication.

  6. Bilateral Proximal Radial Shaft Fracture Dislocations Resulting from 2 Separate Injuries with the Same Mechanism, Each Associated with Median Nerve Entrapment: A Case Report in a Gymnast Performing Back Hand Springs: Bony Entrapment of Median Nerve at Proximal Radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Naohito; Hamada, Yoshitaka

    2015-06-01

    We report a rare case of entrapment of the median nerve following a closed fracture of the proximal one-fourth of the radius in an adolescent in failure of back hand spring. We proposed that the forearm pronation and the wrist extension in, "the Back Handspring position" made the median nerve close to the radius at one-fourth proximal radius, played an important role in this complication.

  7. Back pain - returning to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain - work; Backache - work; Lumbar pain - work; Pain - back - chronic; Low back pain - work; Lumbago - work ... Exercise helps to prevent future back pain: Exercise a little ... keep your heart healthy and your muscles strong. If walking is ...

  8. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Methods Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29 or control group (n = 30, being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months. The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. Results After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051 and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051. The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025. There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v14, χ2:1.12, p = 0.29 and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, χ2:2.66, p = 0.10. A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, χ2:6.70, p = 0.01. Conclusions This study

  9. The effect of a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention on the prevention of back pain, hamstring and lower limb injuries in semi-elite Australian Rules footballers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry

    2010-04-08

    Hamstring injuries are the most common injury in Australian Rules football. It was the aims to investigate whether a sports chiropractic manual therapy intervention protocol provided in addition to the current best practice management could prevent the occurrence of and weeks missed due to hamstring and other lower-limb injuries at the semi-elite level of Australian football. Sixty male subjects were assessed for eligibility with 59 meeting entry requirements and randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 29) or control group (n = 30), being matched for age and hamstring injury history. Twenty-eight intervention and 29 control group participants completed the trial. Both groups received the current best practice medical and sports science management, which acted as the control. Additionally, the intervention group received a sports chiropractic intervention. Treatment for the intervention group was individually determined and could involve manipulation/mobilization and/or soft tissue therapies to the spine and extremity. Minimum scheduling was: 1 treatment per week for 6 weeks, 1 treatment per fortnight for 3 months, 1 treatment per month for the remainder of the season (3 months). The main outcome measure was an injury surveillance with a missed match injury definition. After 24 matches there was no statistical significant difference between the groups for the incidence of hamstring injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051) and primary non-contact knee injury (OR:0.116, 95% CI:0.013-1.019, p = 0.051). The difference for primary lower-limb muscle strains was significant (OR:0.097, 95%CI:0.011-0.839, p = 0.025). There was no significant difference for weeks missed due to hamstring injury (4 v 14, chi2:1.12, p = 0.29) and lower-limb muscle strains (4 v 21, chi2:2.66, p = 0.10). A significant difference in weeks missed due to non-contact knee injury was noted (1 v 24, chi2:6.70, p = 0.01). This study demonstrated a trend towards lower limb injury prevention

  10. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; Jordan, Alan; Mikkelsen, Connie

    a significant step forward with the advent of the new back pain diagnosis, ”Modic changes”. During the coming years, thousands of back pain patients will now be given a precise diagnosis as well as a useful treatment in cases where we previously we unable to provide either a diagnosis or a useful treatment......Long awaited breakthrough Approximately 25 years ago a few researchers managed to publish an article in the renowned medical journal, The Lancet. The article demonstrated that intensive exercise was most useful for patients with chronic back pain. Many of our colleagues found this difficult...... to accept, nonetheless, intensive exercise has for chronic back pain has spread across the world and has become – in different forms – the most commonly prescribed treatment for back pain patients. Since that time, there has not been much research based progress in back science, however, we have taken...

  11. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  12. A systematic review on the effectiveness of back protectors for motorcyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmejian, Rafael; Sarrami, Pooria; Naylor, Justine M; Harris, Ian A

    2016-10-04

    Motorcyclists are a vulnerable road-user population who are overrepresented in traffic injuries. Utilisation of back protectors may be an effective preventive measure for spine injuries in motorcyclists. Since use of back protectors is increasing it is important that clinical evidence supports their use. The study aimed to investigate the current evidence on the ability of back protectors to reduce the rate of back injuries and patient mortality in motorcycle crashes. A systematic literature search was conducted using various electronic databases. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, cohort studies, case series and case reports were included Opinion pieces and laboratory or biomechanical studies were excluded. Back protectors and spine protectors were included as the intervention; neck braces and speed humps were excluded. The target outcomes were any injuries to the back or death. Only English language studies were included. The search strategy yielded 185 studies. After excluding 183 papers by title and abstract and full-text evaluation, only two small cross-sectional studies were included. Foam inserts in motorcycle jackets and non-standard clothing may possibly be associated with higher risk of injuries, while hard shell and standard back protectors may possibly be associated with a reduced rate of back and spinal injury. This systematic review highlighted lack of appropriate evidence on efficacy of back protectors. Based on limited information, we are uncertain about the effects of back protectors on spinal injuries. Further research is required to substantiate the effects of back protectors on mortality and other injuries to the back.

  13. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  14. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a United States Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Delaney, Kristin; Rundell, Sean D; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-04-03

    To examine the predictive validity of the STarT Back tool for classifying people with back pain into categories of low, medium, and high risk of persistent disabling back pain, in US primary care. Secondary analysis of data from participants receiving usual care in a randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics. 1109 adults with back pain ≥18 years of age. Those with specific causes of back pain (pregnancy, disc herniation, vertebral fracture, spinal stenosis) and work-related injuries were not included. N/A MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The original 9-item version of the STarT Back tool, administered at baseline, stratified patients by their risk (low, medium, high) of persistent disabling back pain ('STarT Back risk group'). Persistent disabling back pain was defined as Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of ≥7 at 6-month follow-up. STarT Back risk group was a significant predictor of persistent disabling back pain (pSTarT Back risk groups successfully separated people with back pain into distinct categories of risk for persistent disabling back pain at 6-month follow-up in US primary care. These results were very similar to those seen in the original STarT Back validation study. This validation study is a necessary first step towards identifying whether the entire STarT Back approach, including matched/targeted treatment, can be effectively used for primary care in the US. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits; Öberg, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of years lost to disability and its burden is growing alongside the increasing and ageing population.1 Because these population shifts are more rapid in low-income and middle-income countries, where adequate resources to address the problem might...... not exist, the effects will probably be more extreme in these regions. Most low back pain is unrelated to specific identifiable spinal abnormalities, and our Viewpoint, the third paper in this Lancet Series,2,3 is a call for action on this global problem of low back pain....

  16. Cross-sectional survey of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Stanley, James; Mathieson, Fiona; Melloh, Markus; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of attitudes and beliefs about back pain in New Zealand and compare certain beliefs based on back pain history or health professional exposure. Design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting Postal survey. Participants New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. Participants listed on the Electoral Roll with an overseas postal address were excluded. 602 valid responses were received. Measures Attitudes and beliefs about back pain were measured with the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ). The interaction between attitudes and beliefs and (1) back pain experience and (2) health professional exposure was investigated. Results The lifetime prevalence of back pain was reported as 87% (95% CI 84% to 90%), and the point prevalence as 27% (95% CI 24% to 31%). Negative views about the back and back pain were prevalent, in particular the need to protect the back to prevent injury. People with current back pain had more negative overall scores, particularly related to back pain prognosis. There was uncertainty about links between pain and injury and appropriate physical activity levels during an episode of back pain. Respondents had more positive views about activity if they had consulted a health professional about back pain. The beliefs of New Zealanders appeared to be broadly similar to those of other Western populations. Conclusions A large proportion of respondents believed that they needed to protect their back to prevent injury; we theorise that this belief may result in reduced confidence to use the back and contribute to fear avoidance. Uncertainty regarding what is a safe level of activity during an episode of back pain may limit participation. People experiencing back pain may benefit from more targeted information about the positive prognosis. The provision of clear guidance about levels of activity may enable

  17. CORRELATION OF LOW BACK PAIN WITH BODY MASS INDEX, FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST AMONG FEMALE NURSING PROFESSIONALS

    OpenAIRE

    Shameela .T .V; Veena Pais; Shaikhji Saad; Nusaibath M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the ...

  18. Compensation costs of work-related back disorders among union carpenters, Washington State 1989-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Silverstein, Barbara; Cameron, Wilfrid; Glazner, Judith E

    2009-08-01

    We measured resources used to provide medical care and to estimate lost productivity represented by payments for lost work time or impairment for work-related back injuries among a large cohort of union carpenters over 15 years. Using administrative data we identified a cohort of carpenters, their hours worked, their workers' compensation claims and associated costs. After adjustment for inflation and discounting to 2006 dollars, yearly costs for injuries and payment rates based on hours worked were calculated. Using negative binomial regression, dollars paid per claim were modeled based on age, gender, union tenure, and predominant type of work of the carpenter and whether the injury resulted from overexertion or acute trauma. Workers' compensation costs for back injuries exceeded $128 million dollars between 1998 and 2003, representing payments of $0.97 for each hour of work. Costs per hour of work declined substantively over time due largely to declining overexertion injury rates. Traumatic injuries, though less common than overexertion injuries, were more expensive. Costs increased with the number of prior back injuries and with increasing age, beginning as early as age 30. Increasing costs even among relatively young carpenters likely reflect the heavy nature of their work rather than simply the effects of biological aging. Musculoskeletal back problems remain a common, and consequently costly, source of injury among these carpenters that needs to be addressed through engineering modifications; there are also clearly needs for prevention of the often more costly back injuries associated with acute trauma.

  19. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an X-ray, computerized tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tests help to diagnose the ... posture when you are sitting, standing, sleeping, or lifting. Severe cases of low back pain may require ...

  20. Injury rates and profiles of elite competitive weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoon, G; Fry, A C

    1999-07-01

    To determine injury types, natures, anatomical locations, recommended amount of time missed, and injury rates during weightlifting training. We collected and analyzed medical injury records of resident athletes and during numerous training camps to generate an injury profile. Elite US male weightlifters who were injured during training at the United States Olympic Training Centers. United States Olympic Training Center weightlifting injury reports from a 6-year period were analyzed. Data were expressed as percentages and were analyzed via x(2) tests. The back (primarily low back), knees, and shoulders accounted for the most significant number of injuries (64.8%). The types of injuries most prevalent in this study were strains and tendinitis (68.9%). Injuries of acute (59.6%) or chronic (30.4%) nature were significantly more common than recurrent injuries and complications. The recommended number of training days missed for most injuries was 1 day or fewer (90.5%). Injuries to the back primarily consisted of strains (74.6%). Most knee injuries were tendinitis (85.0%). The majority of shoulder injuries were classified as strains (54.6%). Rates of acute and recurring injuries were calculated to be 3.3 injuries/1000 hours of weightlifting exposure. The injuries typical of elite weightlifters are primarily overuse injuries, not traumatic injuries compromising joint integrity. These injury pattems and rates are similar to those reported for other sports and activities.

  1. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  2. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Back pain and sciatica are common health complaints. Almost everyone has back ... Back Pain Read more MRI Scans Read more Sciatica Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  3. Overuse Injuries in Professional Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Francisco José; de la Cuadra, Crótida; Guillén, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite overuse injuries being previously described as the most frequent in ballet, there are no studies on professional dancers providing the specific clinical diagnoses or type of injury based on the discipline. Hypothesis Overuse injuries are the most frequent injuries in ballet, with differences in the type and frequency of injuries based on discipline. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study performed between January 1, 2005, and October 10, 2010, on injuries occurring in professional dancers from leading Spanish dance companies who practiced disciplines such as classical, neoclassical, contemporary, and Spanish ballet. Data, including type of injury, were obtained from specialized medical services at the Trauma Service, Fremap, Madrid, Spain. Results A total of 486 injuries were evaluated, a significant number of which were overuse disorders (P ballet (82.60%). Injuries were more frequent among female dancers (75.90%) and classical ballet (83.60%). A statistically significant prevalence of patellofemoral pain syndrome was found in the classical discipline (P = .007). Injuries of the adductor muscles of the thigh (P = .001) and of the low back facet (P = .02) in the Spanish ballet discipline and lateral snapping hip (P = .02) in classical and Spanish ballet disciplines were significant. Conclusion Overuse injuries were the most frequent injuries among the professional dancers included in this study. The prevalence of injuries was greater for the most technically demanding discipline (classical ballet) as well as for women. Patellofemoral pain syndrome was the most prevalent overuse injury, followed by Achilles tendinopathy, patellar tendinopathy, and mechanical low back pain. Clinical Relevance Specific clinical diagnoses and injury-based differences between the disciplines are a key factor in ballet. PMID:26665100

  4. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    , Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre....... Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms...

  5. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a b......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  6. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  7. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...

  8. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  9. Epidemiology of Low Back Pain in Enugu, Nigeria | Eyichukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequently reported chronic health problems affecting the adult population. It is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition in ... Patients with vertebral fractures and spinal cord injuries in the lumber region were excluded. Results: Three thousand two hundred patients' ...

  10. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-05-23

    To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability

  11. Low back pain in young athletes. A practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J; Tanner, S

    1991-12-01

    Lumbar spine pain accounts for 5 to 8% of athletic injuries. Although back pain is not the most common injury, it is one of the most challenging for the sports physician to diagnose and treat. Factors predisposing the young athlete to back injury include the growth spurt, abrupt increases in training intensity or frequency, improper technique, unsuitable sports equipment, and leg-length inequality. Poor strength of the back extensor and abdominal musculature, and inflexibility of the lumbar spine, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles may contribute to chronic low back pain. Excessive lifting and twisting may produce sprains and strains, the most common cause of low back pain in adolescents. Blows to the spine may create contusions or fractures. Fractures in adolescents from severe trauma include compression fracture, comminuted fracture, fracture of the growth plate at the vertebral end plate, lumbar transverse process fracture, and a fracture of the spinous process. Athletes who participate in sports involving repeated and forceful hyperextension of the spine may suffer from lumbar facet syndrome, spondylolysis, or spondylolisthesis. The large sacroiliac joint is also prone to irritation. The signs and symptoms of disc herniation in adolescents may be more subtle than in adults. Disorders simulating athletic injury include tumours and inflammatory connective tissue disease. Often, however, a specific diagnosis cannot be made in the young athlete with a low back injury due to the lack of pain localisation and the anatomic complexity of the lumbar spine. A thorough history and physical examination are usually more productive in determining a diagnosis and guiding treatment than imaging techniques. Diagnostic tests may be considered, though, for the adolescent athlete whose back pain is severe, was caused by acute trauma, or fails to improve with conservative therapy after several weeks. Radiographs, bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging may

  12. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...

  13. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  14. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  15. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  16. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  17. Site and Type Assessments of Sports Injuries in Archers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Kocaman

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Most archers are injured in the shoulder, neck and back areas. These injuries are mostly seen as muscle pain. The vast majority of injuries occur in training. In archers, shoulder, neck, and back areas should be more strengthened to reduce injuries. Extra warm-up programmes special to muscles in these sections should be especially applied in trainings and competitions. Shooting techniques are to be correctly applied.

  18. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  20. Effects of front and back squat techniques on patellofemoral joint kinetics in males

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Atkins, Stephen; Kudiersky, Nik; Taylor, Paul John; Vincent, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The barbell squat is fundamental in strength and conditioning, with two principal variants; the back and front squat. Unfortunately, the propensity for injury is high particularly at the knee. The aim of the current investigation was examine the influence of front and back squat variations on patellofemoral joint load.\\ud Methods: Patellofemoral loads were obtained from thirty-five experienced male participants, who completed both back and front squats at 70% of 1 RM. Differences bet...

  1. Effects of front and back squat techniques on\\ud patellofemoral joint kinetics in males.

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, J; Atkins, Stephen John; Kudiersky, N; Taylor, P J; Vincent, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The barbell squat is fundamental in strength and conditioning, with two principal variants; the back and front\\ud squat. Unfortunately, the propensity for injury is high particularly at the knee. The aim of the current investigation was\\ud examine the influence of front and back squat variations on patellofemoral joint load.\\ud Methods: Patellofemoral loads were obtained from thirty-five experienced male participants, who completed both back\\ud and front squats at 70% of 1 RM. Differ...

  2. Handout on Health: Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disks in your back if you smoke. Smoker’s cough may also cause back pain. People who smoke are slow to heal, so back pain may last longer. Race. Black women are two to three times more likely than white women to have part of the lower spine ...

  3. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  4. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  5. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  6. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  7. Common Injuries of Collegiate Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wisdom Magtajas Valleser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the common injuries of Filipino collegiate tennis players; 110 varsity tennis players with a mean of 20 years old (SD ± 1.7 with an average playing experience of 12 years participated in the study. There was a 100% occurrence of at least one injury with an average rate of 5.98 injuries per person. The authors observed that the most commonly injured anatomical region is the lower extremity; ankles were recorded as the most commonly injured part. Other commonly injured areas included the shoulders and lower back. Furthermore, the most common injury type is tendinitis, sprains, and strains. The recorded injuries were mostly associated with overuse injuries, and the findings were similar to those of most other studies on tennis injuries. A larger sample size may provide more conclusive findings on tennis injuries, particularly in different levels of competition, such as recreational or professional athletes.

  8. Using Narrative Text and Coded Data to Develop Hazard Scenarios for Occupational Injury Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether narrative text in safety reports contains sufficient information regarding contributing factors and precipitating mechanisms to prioritize occupational back injury prevention strategies...

  9. Hyper Mobility and Low Back Pain in the Athletic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsun Nodehi moghadam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is important to recognize any risk factors for the development of injuries in the athletic population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between joint hyper mobility and low back pain in Iranian hyper mobile and non-hyper mobile athletes. Methods: 50 athletic patients with low back pain (age=23.20±12.79 years and 51 healthy athletes (age=24.28±13.70 from Iranian athletic teams were screened for hyper mobility using the Beighton score (0-9, with higher scores indicating increasing hyper mobility. The athletes’ profiles, medical histories and chosen sport were collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The mean (SD Beighton score in females with low back pain and healthy subjects were 5.07±2.30 and 4.93±1.79 respectively. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups (P=0.54. The mean (SD Beighton score in males with low back pain was also higher (5.11±1.72 than in healthy subjects (4.36±1.82. However, the result of an independent t test showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.07. Discussion: Further studies are needed to determine the effects of hyper mobility on low back kinematics and injuries in different sport types.

  10. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  11. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  12. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  13. Low back pain during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Terceiro, Cristovam Alves de Lira; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we incl...

  14. Survey of injuries among West End performers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R. W.; Evans, R. I.; Carvajal, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To obtain more information about injuries of West End performers. METHODS: A retrospective survey of 269 performers appearing in 20 West End productions (12 dramas and eight musicals). RESULTS: In current productions, 46% of all performers sustained at least one injury for an average of 0.87 injuries per performer. Lower extremity injuries were the most common for dancers (52.2% of injuries) and actors (43.2%) with neck and back injuries the second most common. Sprains and strains were the most common diagnoses. 61% of performers thought that their injuries were preventable. Most performers consulted nonphysician healthcare providers. Factors significantly influencing the risk of injuries for performers include female sex, a history of previous injuries, missed performances due to previous injuries, more physically demanding roles, and performing on raked (angled) stages. CONCLUSION: West End performers commonly sustain injuries. Although primary prevention of most theatrical injuries is not possible, modification of raked stages may reduce the incidence. This study may be helpful to the growing number of healthcare providers who practice performing arts medicine and may stimulate additional concern and research in the medical and theatrical communities about the performance injuries of professionals, amateurs, and theatrical students worldwide.   PMID:9861179

  15. [Low back pain during gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Flavia Silva; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2006-01-01

    This research qualitatively analyzed the contents of national and international scientific publications, indexed in the period from 1999 to 2005, about low back pain in gestation. Around 50 % of pregnant women complain about low back pain. The physiologic modifications that occur happen in pregnancy alter the posture of pregnant women and the largest incidence of low back pain usually happens in the last three months. Specific causes remain unknown. However, treatment involves analgesics, antiphlogistics, exercises and physiotherapy. Low back pain during gestation is a symptom that causes great discomfort and, depending on the level of pain, it generates motor disability and impairs daily activities, besides causing problems to take care of the baby after birth. Some discomfort of low back pain can continue for a period of up to three years after childbirth. We see a great need for further research in this subject area, in order to provide a better quality of life for pregnant women.

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  18. Bring back the Glory!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Whitman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.

  19. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... numbness in the arms or legs. Loss of consciousness. Seizures. What causes a head injury? There are ... Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight ...

  20. Pediatric Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention. (2012). Protect the ones you love: child injuries are preventable . Retrieved August 23, 2012, from ... Disclaimer FOIA Privacy Policy Accessibility NIH...Turning Discovery ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Back injuries in young fast bowlers - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physiotherapy modalities, postural correction, and specific individually graded flexibility, stabilisation, ... inadequate physical preparation, postural defects, increased. Sport Bureau, University of Port Elizabeth, PO Box 1600, Port .... and analysis of the data for each session. Three experienced radiologists assessed the CT ...

  2. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  3. The epidemiology of schoolboy rugby injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C E; Goedeke, R; Visser, G R; van Zyl, W A; Noakes, T D

    1987-03-07

    During one 18-week season, in which players from 26 high schools played 3,350 rugby matches, 495 injuries prevented players from participating in rugby for at least 1 week; 71% occurred during matches and 29% during practices. Injury was more common during the first 4 weeks of the season and again in the same time period after the mid-season vacation. At all ages, A-team players suffered the greatest number of injuries. The safest playing positions were tight-forward and scrum-half; the most dangerous loose-forward and in the back-line excluding the scrum-half. Overall, eightmen were the most often injured players. Of all injuries 55% occurred while the player was tackling or being tackled and 18% during the loose scrum/maul. The lower limb (37%), the head and neck (29%) and the upper limb (20%) were most commonly injured, and fractures (27%), ligament/tendon injuries (25%) and muscle injuries (17%) were commonest. However, concussion injuries were underreported in 19 of the 26 schools. This study shows: that monitoring rugby injuries through correspondence results in underreporting of injuries; that rugby injuries show specific trends with age, team level, playing position, time of the season and phase of play; and that players in the different positions suffer specific injuries in predictable phases of the game. Speed of play may be the most important aetiological factor in the majority of rugby injuries.

  4. Spine and axial skeleton injuries in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Nathan A; Buchowski, Jacob; Zebala, Lukas; Brophy, Robert H; Wright, Rick W; Matava, Matthew J

    2012-08-01

    The majority of previous literature focusing on spinal injuries in American football players is centered around catastrophic injuries; however, this may underestimate the true number of these injuries in this athletic cohort. The goals of this study were to (1) report the incidence of spinal and axial skeleton injuries, both minor and severe, in the National Football League (NFL) over an 11-year period; (2) determine the incidence of spinal injury by injury type, anatomic location, player position, mechanism of injury, and type of exposure (practice vs game); and (3) determine the average number of practices and days missed because of injury for each injury type. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries to the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine; pelvis; ribs; and spinal cord were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL's injury surveillance database over a period of 11 seasons from 2000 through 2010. The data were analyzed by the number of injuries per athlete-exposure, the anatomic location and type of injury, player position, mechanism of injury, and number of days missed per injury. A total of 2208 injuries occurred to the spine or axial skeleton over an 11-season interval in the NFL, with a mean loss of 25.7 days per injury. This represented 7% of the total injuries during this time period. Of these 2208 injuries, 987 (44.7%) occurred in the cervical spine. Time missed from play was greatest for thoracic disc herniations (189 days/injury). Other injuries that had a mean time missed greater than 30 days included (in descending order) cervical fracture (120 days/injury), cervical disc degeneration/herniation (85 days/injury), spinal cord injury (77 days/injury), lumbar disc degeneration/herniation (52 days/injury), thoracic fracture (34 days/injury), and thoracic nerve injury (30 days/injury). Offensive linemen were the most likely to suffer a spinal injury, followed by defensive backs, defensive linemen, and linebackers. Blocking and tackling

  5. Chiropractic care for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...

  6. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem...... to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings...... and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  9. [Low back pain during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; de Lira Terceiro, Cristovam Alves; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we included pregnant women over 18 years of age and excluded those with psychiatric disorders, previous lumbar pathologies, and receiving treatment for low back pain. We interviewed 97 pregnant women. The frequency of low back pain was 68%. The mean age was 26.2 years and the median gestational age was 30 weeks. Fifty-eight pregnant women declared themselves as brown (58%). Most (88.6%) were married or living in common-law marriage, fifty-six (57.7%) worked outside the home, and 71 (73.2%) had completed high school. Low back pain was more frequent during the second trimester of pregnancy (43.9%), referred to as a "burning" sensation in 37.8% of patients, with intermittent frequency in 96.9% of the women. The symptoms got worse at night (71.2%). Resting reduced low back pain in 43.9% of pregnant women, while the standing position for a long time worsened it in 27.2% of patients. Low back pain is common in pregnant women, has specific characteristics, and is more frequent in the second trimester of pregnancy. This indicates the need for prevention strategies that enable better quality of life for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Marc S.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  11. Gymnastics injuries and imaging in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Marc S. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Injuries of children participating in gymnastics are seen less often than in more popular sports. Patterns of injury are predictable based upon sex, age and level of intensity of training and competition. More injuries are seen in girls than in boys, and the great majority of early adolescents who compete have wrist pain. Some otherwise quiescent congenital spine anomalies may be uncovered by the stress of gymnastics maneuvers and present with low back pain. In addition to diagnosis of injuries, imaging can be used to guide analgesic and anti-inflammatory therapy in some injured athletes. Parents whose children wish to participate in gymnastics should understand that fewer injuries occur in the child enjoying recreational gymnastics than in competing gymnasts. More gymnastics injuries are found in very competitive athletes training at higher levels. (orig.)

  12. Non-traumatic injury profile of amateur cyclists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in respondents who experienced neck, back, hand/wrist, buttock/perineum and foot/ankle problems. Conclusion. Non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists are common, with back, hand/wrist and buttock/perineal symptoms the most frequent problems. Knee problems caused the greatest need to stop training and seek ...

  13. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS ...

  14. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Injuries in Female Dancers Aged 8 to 16 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Peleg, Smadar; Dar, Gali; Masharawi, Youssef; Zeev, Aviva; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Context Most studies of injured dancers have been carried out on professional adult dancers; data on young, nonprofessional injured dancers are sparse. Objective To identify the types of injuries sustained by recreational dancers and to examine their association with age, joint range of motion, body structure, age at menarche, presence of anatomic anomalies, and physical burden (ie, practice hours en pointe). Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting The Israel Performing Arts Medicine Center, Tel Aviv. Patients or Other Participants A total of 569 injured female dancers, aged 8 to 16 years. Main Outcome Measure(s) Dependent variables were 61 types of current injuries that were later classified into 4 major categories: knee injuries, foot and ankle tendinopathy, back injuries, and other injuries. Independent variables were age, joint range of motion, body size and shape, age at menarche, anatomic anomalies, and dance discipline (eg, hours of practice per week en pointe). Results At least 1 previous injury had been sustained by 42.4% of the dancers. The most common injuries involved the knee (40.4%), followed by other injuries (23.4%). The relative frequency of back injuries and tendinopathy decreased with age, whereas knee injuries increased. Types of injuries were significantly associated with ankle plantar flexion, hip external rotation, hip abduction, and knee flexion. Multinomial regression analysis revealed only 3 predictive variables (with other as baseline), all for back injury: scoliosis, age, and hip external rotation. Conclusions Joint range of motion and scoliosis may signal the potential for future injury. Young dancers (less than 10 years of age) should not be exposed to overload (especially of the back) or extensive stretching exercises. PMID:23672333

  16. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  17. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  18. Frequency and cost of claims by injury type from a state workers' compensation fund from 1998 through 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Tracy M; Carlini, Anthony R; Archer, Kristin R; Wegener, Stephen T; Hoolachan, Jordan I; Stiers, William; Shore, Rebecca A; Castillo, Renan C

    2014-06-01

    To determine which work-related injuries are the most frequent and costly. Secondary analysis of workers' compensation claims data. Data were provided by a large, Maryland workers' compensation insurer from 1998 through 2008. Not applicable. None. For 45 injury types, the number of claims and compensation amount was calculated for total compensation and for medical and indemnity compensation separately. Back and knee injuries were the most frequently occurring single injury types, whereas heart attack and occupational disease were the most expensive in terms of mean compensation. When taking into account both the frequency and cost of injury (mean cost × number occurrences), back, knee, and shoulder injuries were the most expensive single injury types. Successful prevention and management of back, knee, and shoulder injuries could lead to a substantial reduction in the burden associated with work-related injuries. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Case Report:Triceps Tendon Avulsion: A Rare Injury | Sharma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Triceps tendon avulsion is one of the rare tendinous injuries. Such injuries can easily be missed, and should be kept as a differential diagnosis in all patients who present with pain and swelling at the back of the elbow after a traumatic event. Case Details: We present a case of triceps tendon avulsion which ...

  20. Ocular Injuries: Another Example of the Heavy Prize of Terrorism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injuries to the face and ocular structures could occur at the war front not only to the enemies, but also to unsuspecting friends of the security agents. We report here a case of ocular injury involving an air force personnel (lance corporal) who was mistakenly hit on the face by the back blast of a rocket‑propelled grenade shot ...

  1. A Review of Types of Injuries Sustained Following Road Traffic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The driver and other front seat passenger can have lacerations on the face from hitting the windscreen, characteristic bruises and lacerations to the knees and skin from the dashboard or cervical spine injury through whiplash injury if there are no headrests on the seats. Backseat passenger may hit the back of the front seat ...

  2. The impact of drywall handling tools on the low back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jennifer A; Kincl, Laurel D; Davis, Kermit

    2010-03-01

    Carpenters and other construction workers who install drywall have high rates of strains and sprains to the low back and shoulder. Drywall is heavy and awkward to handle resulting in increased risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate several low-cost coupling tools that have the potential to reduce awkward postures in drywall installers. Five coupling tools were evaluated using the Lumbar Motion Monitor that measures trunk kinematics and predicts probability of low back disorder group membership risk (LBD risk). Workers answered surveys about their comfort while using each tool. The results indicate that use of the 2-person manual lift and the J-handle provide the best reduction in awkward postures, motions, low back sagittal moment, and LBD risk. The two-person manual lift appears to be the safest method of lifting and moving drywall, though using the two-person J-handle also significantly reduces injury risk. Given that carpenters are skeptical about using equipment that can get in the way or get lost, a practical recommendation is promotion of two-person manual lifting. For single-person lifts, the Old Man tool is a viable option to decrease risk of MSDs.

  3. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Soccer have seen positive results and fewer injuries with PEP. The Santa Monica Sports Medicine Foundation (SMSMF) created this program. There is no clear evidence that use of a knee brace prevents ACL injuries. There also is no ...

  4. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  5. Back surgery: Modern medical pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jc

    2002-01-01

    Medical iatrogenesis is at an all-time high with increasing deaths, disability, and costs compounded by unnecessary and ineffective surgeries despite the warnings from WHO, the US Public Health Service, and the Institute of Medicine. One area in particular, failed back surgeries, has drawn increasing attention by researchers due to disproved medical theories and surgical treatments. Paradoxically, while spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to achieve better results for this epidemic of low back pain in particular, medical and insurance programs often limit or boycott this inexpensive and effective treatment, indicating the solution to lowering medical costs and iatrogenesis now rests with political and economic factors primarily.

  6. Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Express Safety Concerns As Kids Go Back To School Think With Your Head and Protect Your Brain Think With Your Head and Protect Your ... Care For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  7. Work-related injuries in drywall installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, H J; Dement, J M; Gaal, J S; Cameron, W; McDougall, V

    2000-10-01

    Administrative data sources were used to describe the work-related injuries of drywall carpenters, to calculate rates of occurrence, and to explore high risk sub-groups. Health insurance eligibility files were used to identify a cohort of active union carpenters affiliated with a union local whose predominant work involved drywall installation in the state of Washington. These files contained the hours worked by each individual for each month between January 1989 and December 1995, providing person-hours at risk as a union carpenter. The Washington Department of Labor and Industries (L&I) provided records of workers' compensation claims filed by these individuals. Over seven years 1773 drywall carpenters filed 2567 workers' compensation claims representing an overall rate of 53.3 per 200,000 hours worked. These claims were filed by 1046 different individuals, or 59.0 percent of the cohort. Claims resulting in paid lost time from work were filed at a rate of 12.5 per 200,000 hours worked (n = 609) by 445 (25.1%) different individuals. The most common mechanisms of injury involved being struck (38.3%), overexertion (28.1%), and falls (13.2%). Struck by injuries most commonly involved cuts to the upper extremity. Overexertion injuries were most commonly described as sprains or strains involving the back. Sheetrock was associated with over 40 percent of these injuries. Falls most commonly involved injuries to the knee followed by the back and multiple injuries. Struck by injuries decreased steadily with increasing age and increasing time in the union. There was a steady increase in the rate of falls with increasing age. Overexertion injuries were responsible for the greatest proportion of costs for medical care, permanent impairment, and paid lost days. The high rates of overexertion injuries among these workers is consistent with known ergonomic stresses on drywall jobs. However, these workers are also at high risk of acute traumatic injuries.

  8. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  9. Injuries among competitive snowboarders at the national elite level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjussen, Joern; Bahr, Roald

    2005-03-01

    Little is known about injury risk or the pattern of injuries among competitive snowboarders. To describe the incidence and pattern of injuries among female and male snowboard athletes at the highest national level. Descriptive epidemiology study. This study consists of 2 parts: prospective registration of injuries at snowboarding national cup events and the national championships during the 2002 season, as well as a retrospective interview of the participants during the national championships in March 2002. All injuries that resulted in missed participation were recorded. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines. In the prospective study, the competition incidence was 4.0 +/- 0.7 injuries per 1000 runs (n = 32 injuries). Back (22%), knee (16%), and hand/wrist injuries (9%) were the most common. The incidence for the different disciplines was 14.2 +/- 5.3 per 1000 runs for big jump, 6.1 +/- 1.8 for snowboardcross, 3.1 +/- 0.9 for halfpipe, and 1.9 +/- 1.9 for giant slalom. The retrospective interview (n = 163 athletes, 83% response) revealed 84 acute time-loss injuries during the season; knee (16%), back (13%), head (13%), and hand/wrist injuries (12%) were the 4 most common injury types. The overall competition incidence was 3.4 +/- 0.6 injuries per 1000 runs (6.6 +/- 3.0 for big jump, 5.8 +/- 1.7 for snowboardcross, 2.1 +/- 0.7 for halfpipe, and 6.6 +/- 4.7 for giant slalom). No injury was recorded in parallel slalom in either study. The incidence of injuries is high among competitive snowboarders at the elite national level. The injury pattern is different from the panorama seen among less experienced athletes, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee injuries.

  10. Exploring the formation of an employee injury team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingel, P

    1997-01-01

    In May 1994, it was noted that lost work days due to employee injuries were out of control at MedCenter Hospital in Marion, OH. An employee injury team was commissioned by the continuous quality improvement steering committee to investigate and make recommendations to reduce lost workdays. An analysis of the situation required a data search that revealed several patterns and trends. This information was then examined and a decision was made to institute a "Back Care: Train the Trainer" program to reduce the major cause of employee injuries--back sprains and strains. The concept of teamwork is defined and the developmental process of a team is explored.

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and ...

  12. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  13. Injury Patterns, Physiological Profile, and Performance in University Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Sharp, Tristan; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. To determine injury, anthropometric, and physical-performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-one players (age 19.2 ± 0.7 y) from an under-20 university rugby union team (forwards, n = 27; backs, n = 24) participated in a study conducted over a competition season. Training load, injury characteristics, anthropometry, physiological performance, and match time-loss injury incidence were observed. Backs had significantly lower body mass (ES [95% CI] = 1.6 [0.9, 2.2]), skinfold thickness (ES = 1.1 [0.5, 1.7]), strength (squat ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.2], deadlift ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.1], bench press ES = 0.9 [0.4, 1.5]), lower-body power (ES = 0.4 [-0.2, 1.0]), and higher maximal aerobic capacity (ES = -0.3 [-0.8, 0.3]) than forwards. Match injury incidence was 107.3 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 91.4/1000, backs 125.5/1000) during preseason and 110.7 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 124.1/1000, backs 95.2/1000) during in-season. Forwards showed higher incidence of joint and ligament (P = .049) and upper-limb (P = .011) injuries than backs. No significant relationship between overall training load and match injury incidence was found. However, lower match injury incidence was associated with higher weekly training volume in backs (P = .007). Positional differences in body composition, performance, injury characteristics, and match injury patterns were identified in junior university rugby union players, indicating the need for position-specific training programs to reduce risk of injury.

  14. Back-to-School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Back-to-School Health Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents ... improve eating and physical habits for a healthier school year. Talk about being healthy Take the time ...

  15. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Maher, C.G.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hancock, M.J.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Cabral, C.M.N.; Menezes Costa, L.C.; Costa, L.O.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  16. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, Tiê P.; Maher, Christopher G.; Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Hancock, Mark J.; Ostelo, Raymond W.J.G.; Cabral, Cristina M.N.; Menezes Costa, Luciola C.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  17. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  18. BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  19. Approach to lower back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered ... Approach to management. Therapy or management of chronic LBP involves a multidisciplinary approach. The aim is to prevent a chronic vicious cycle by means of ...

  20. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  1. "Heely"-related injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thing, J; Wade, D; Clark, H

    2008-09-01

    "Heelys", or shoes with an integral wheel embedded into the heel, are becoming increasingly popular among children in the UK. Despite the manufacturer's claims about their safety, increasing numbers of patients are attending the emergency department with "Heely"-related injuries. To assess the number and type of "Heely"-related injuries seen in the emergency department in a busy district general hospital and to assess the number of school days lost as a result of these injuries as a secondary measure of the impact on education and lifestyle. Medical staff working in the emergency department completed proformas for all children attending the department with "Heely"-related injuries between 26 December and 26 April 2007. Data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, diagnosis and number of days off school as a result of the injury. 35 patients with "Heely"-related injuries of mean age 9.6 years (range 6-15) were identified during the study period. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall onto an outstretched hand (20/35, 57%). Other mechanisms of injury identified were lateral upper limb injury (7/35), traumatic lower limb injury (2/35), rotational lower limb injury (2/35), head injury (2/35) and back injury (2/35). The most common diagnosis was fracture of the distal radius (10/35), two of which had an associated distal ulna fracture. Two tibial fractures and one nasal fracture were also seen. The average number of days off school was 4.5 days (range 0-20). None of the children included in this study were using safety equipment at the time of the injury. The number of "Heely"-related injuries seen in one department over a 4-month period suggests a much higher incidence of injuries than the 46/100,000 found by the manufacturers based on Consumer Product Safety Commission data in the USA. The discrepancy is almost certainly due to the reluctance of UK children to use safety equipment and to follow the manufacturer's safety advice. Larger scale studies

  2. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  3. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Summary of Background Data. LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide...

  4. Lightning Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Lightning Injuries By Daniel P. Runde, MD, MME, Assistant Clinical ...

  5. Urethral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News) Small Study Uncovers Brain Disease in Former Soccer Players (Video) Anterior Cruciate Ligament (Video) Resisted Finger Abduction and Extension With Putty Additional Content Medical News Urethral Injuries By Noel A. Armenakas, MD, Clinical Professor of ...

  6. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  7. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  8. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001017.htm Corneal injury To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  9. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  10. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis or a similar sport that involves sprinting ... may not be able to bear the full force of the action required during certain activities. Muscle ...

  11. Testicular Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when the testicle receives a forceful direct blow or when the testicle is crushed against ... to avoid testicular injuries, especially if you play sports, exercise a lot, or just live an all- ...

  12. Crush injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... M, Ragazzoni L, Djatali A, Della Corte F. Introduction to structural collapse (crush injury and crush syndrome). ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  13. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  14. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... where Lars von Trier seeks to elaborate on his particular fondness of the values that this pop duo seems to represent for him; simplicity, popularity (in Danish “folkelighed”), and irony. In this sense, by promoting the Laid Back single by means of a music video, von Trier’s contribution leads us rather......; an interest which historically both evokes ideas of pop music and pop culture, the role of the artist in a national, social-democratic context, and the role of the avant-garde artist after the completion of such projects as situationism and the American neo-avant-garde. In this manner, the paper finally seeks...

  15. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    skydiving music videos (e.g. Boards of Canada) and to von Trier’s work (e.g. Element of Crime) will be discussed by means of a perspective. The paper will draw on a collection of press material concerning von Triers life and work collected by the author until ca. the mid1990ies....... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... the official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...

  16. Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors predicting low back functional impairment among furniture distribution employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sue A; Allread, W Gary; Burr, Deborah L; Heaney, Catherine; Marras, William S

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors for low back disorder have been studied extensively however few researchers have examined all three risk factors. The objective of this was to develop a low back disorder risk model in furniture distribution workers using biomechanical, psychosocial and individual risk factors. This was a prospective study with a six month follow-up time. There were 454 subjects at 9 furniture distribution facilities enrolled in the study. Biomechanical exposure was evaluated using the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (2001) lifting threshold limit values for low back injury risk. Psychosocial and individual risk factors were evaluated via questionnaires. Low back health functional status was measured using the lumbar motion monitor. Low back disorder cases were defined as a loss of low back functional performance of -0.14 or more. There were 92 cases of meaningful loss in low back functional performance and 185 non cases. A multivariate logistic regression model included baseline functional performance probability, facility, perceived workload, intermediated reach distance number of exertions above threshold limit values, job tenure manual material handling, and age combined to provide a model sensitivity of 68.5% and specificity of 71.9%. The results of this study indicate which biomechanical, individual and psychosocial risk factors are important as well as how much of each risk factor is too much resulting in increased risk of low back disorder among furniture distribution workers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CORRELATION OF LOW BACK PAIN WITH BODY MASS INDEX, FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST AMONG FEMALE NURSING PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameela .T .V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Among health care workers the highest level of work related back injuries are more affected in nurses. There were many studies done to assess low back pain by using different tools. So this study aimed to identify the prevalence low back pain disability among female nursing professionals and the association between BMI, functional reach test and low back pain, so that a better tool can be used during the clinical examination for the betterment of the patient. The objective of the study is to identify the prevalence of low back pain disability, the association of Low Back Pain(LBP with BMI and functional reach test among female nursing professionals. Methods: A total of 256 subjects were assessed for disability due to back pain using OswestryLBP Disability Questionnaire and the prevalence of disability was determined. The sit and reach test, forward reach test and their BMI were calculated for those who had a disability score of 20 and above (n=87. Results: Data was analyzed using Pearson’s correlation.The study result showed a significant correlation (p=0.03 of sit and reach test with low back pain disability scores. There was a negative correlationseen among BMI and LBP disability score forward reach test and LBP disability score, and BMI and no low back pain disability score. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP disability among nursing professionals was 33.9%. This study suggest that sit and reach test can be used as an indicator of low back pain. Whereas BMI and forward reach test do not indicate low back pain.

  18. Epidemiology of 10,000 high school football injuries: patterns of injury by position played.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgeley, Marcus A; McIlvain, Natalie M; Yard, Ellen E; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2013-02-01

    With more than 1.1 million high school athletes playing annually during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years, football is the most popular boys' sport in the United States. Using an internet-based data collection tool, RIO, certified athletic trainers (ATs) from 100 nationally representative US high schools reported athletic exposure and football injury data during the 2005-06 to 2009-10 academic years. Participating ATs reported 10,100 football injuries corresponding to an estimated 2,739,187 football-related injuries nationally. The injury rate was 4.08 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) overall. Offensive lineman collectively (center, offensive guard, offensive tackle) sustained 18.3% of all injuries. Running backs (16.3%) sustained more injuries than any other position followed by linebackers (14.9%) and wide receivers (11.9%). The leading mechanism of injury was player-player contact (64.0%) followed by player-surface contact (13.4%). More specifically, injury occurred most commonly when players were being tackled (24.4%) and tackling (21.8%). Patterns of football injuries vary by position. Identifying such differences is important to drive development of evidence-based, targeted injury prevention efforts.

  19. Placing piggy back: An easy way out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of piggy back nickel-titanium (NiTi archwire with stainless steel base archwire is often a part of an orthodontic treatment mechanics. Here is an innovative method for securing the piggy back.

  20. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  1. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experien...

  2. Cold injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Wm J; Jenabzadeh, Kamrun; Ahrenholz, David H

    2009-11-01

    The pathophysiology of true frostbite reveals that the direct injury produced during the initial freeze process has a minor contribution to the global tissue damage. However, rapid rewarming to reverse the tissue crystallization has essentially been the lone frostbite intervention for almost half a century. The major pathologic process is the progressive microvascular thrombosis following reperfusion of the ischemic limb, with the cold-damaged endothelial cells playing a central role in the outcome of these frozen tissues. Newer interventions offer the opportunity to combat this process, and this article offers a scientific approach to frostbite injuries of the upper extremities.

  3. Application of advanced biomechanical methods in studying low back pain – recent development in estimation of lower back loads and large-array surface electromyography and findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazrgari B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Babak Bazrgari,1 Ting Xia2 1F. Joseph Halcomb III, M.D. Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2Palmer Center for Chiropractic Research, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA, USA Abstract: Low back pain (LBP is a major public health problem and the leading disabling musculoskeletal disorder globally. A number of biomechanical methods using kinematic, kinetic and/or neuromuscular approaches have been used to study LBP. In this narrative review, we report recent developments in two biomechanical methods: estimation of lower back loads and large-array surface electromyography (LA-SEMG and the findings associated with LBP. The ability to estimate lower back loads is very important for the prevention and the management of work-related low back injuries based on the mechanical loading model as one category of LBP classification. The methods used for estimation of lower back loads vary from simple rigid link-segment models to sophisticated, optimization-based finite element models. In general, reviewed reports of differences in mechanical loads experienced in lower back tissues between patients with LBP and asymptomatic individuals are not consistent. Such lack of consistency is primarily due to differences in activities under which lower back mechanical loads were investigated as well as heterogeneity of patient populations. The ability to examine trunk neuromuscular behavior is particularly relevant to the motor control model, another category of LBP classification. LA-SEMG not only is noninvasive but also provides spatial resolution within and across muscle groups. Studies using LA-SEMG showed that healthy individuals exhibit highly organized, symmetric back muscle activity patterns, suggesting an orderly recruitment of muscle fibers. In contrast, back muscle activity patterns in LBP patients are asymmetric or multifocal, suggesting lack of orderly muscle recruitment. LA-SEMG was also shown capable of

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  6. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  10. Injuries and overuse syndromes in powerlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewe, J; Rudat, J; Röllinghoff, M; Schlegel, U J; Eysel, P; Michael, J W-P

    2011-09-01

    Powerlifting is a discipline of competitive weightlifting. To date, no investigations have focused on pain encountered during routine training. The aim of the study was to identify such pain, assign it to particular exercises and assess the data regarding injuries as well as the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Data of 245 competitive and elite powerlifters was collected by questionnaire. Information regarding current workout routines and retrospective injury data was collected. Study subjects were selected from 97 incorporated powerlifting clubs. A percentage of 43.3% of powerlifters complained of problems during routine workouts. Injury rate was calculated as 0.3 injuries per lifter per year (1 000 h of training=1 injury). There was no evidence that intrinsic or extrinsic factors affected this rate. Most commonly injured body regions were the shoulder, lower back and the knee. The use of weight belts increased the injury rate of the lumbar spine. Rate of injury to the upper extremities was significantly increased based on age >40 years (shoulder/p=0.003, elbow/p=0.003, hand+wrist/p=0.024) and female gender (hand+wrist/p=0.045). The daily workout of a large proportion of powerlifters is affected by disorders which do not require an interruption of training. The injury rate is low compared to other sports. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Injuries in judo: a systematic literature review including suggestions for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocecco, Elena; Ruedl, Gerhard; Stankovic, Nemanja; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Del Vecchio, Fabricio Boscolo; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Rousseau, Romain; Wolf, Mirjam; Kopp, Martin; Miarka, Bianca; Menz, Verena; Krüsmann, Philipp; Calmet, Michel; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Burtscher, Martin

    2013-12-01

    There is limited knowledge on epidemiological injury data in judo. To systematically review scientific literature on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. The available literature up to June 2013 was searched for prospective as well as retrospective studies on injuries in judo. Data extraction and presentation focused on the incidence rate, injury risk, types, location and causes of injuries. During the Olympic Games in 2008 and 2012, an average injury risk of about 11-12% has been observed. Sprains, strains and contusions, usually of the knee, shoulder and fingers, were the most frequently reported injuries, whereas being thrown was the most common injury mechanism. Severe injuries were quite rare and usually affected the brain and spine, whereas chronic injuries typically affected the finger joints, lower back and ears. The most common types of injuries in young judo athletes were contusions/abrasions, fractures and sprains/strains. Sex-differences data on judo injuries were mostly inconsistent. Some studies suggested a relationship between nutrition, hydration and/or weight cycling and judo injuries. Also, psychological factors may increase the risk of judo injuries. The present review provides the latest knowledge on the frequency and characteristics of injuries in judo. Comprehensive knowledge about the risk of injury during sport activity and related risk factors represents an essential basis to develop effective strategies for injury prevention. Thus, the introduction of an ongoing injury surveillance system in judo is of utmost importance.

  12. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  13. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self....... The forensic examination showed lesions of intracranial surgery and minor bruises on the arms. No sign of defense injuries was found. There were no signs of malfunction of the nail gun-wielding robot. On the side of the machine, there were a handheld nail gun and the police investigated the case as a possible...... criminal act. They found bloodstains on the back of the machine. When awake, the man explained, that by accident, he had hit his head against a nail gun and as a result of this, the nail gun delivered a nail into his skull. Conclusion Sometimes, the circumstances of a case are not clear...

  14. Nutrition, illness, and injury in aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

  15. Occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem M.; Alatassi, Raheef; Altamimi, Saad M.; Alqarni, Mahdi M.; Alfayez, Saud M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed all pediatric orthopedic surgeons in Saudi Arabia using an anonymous electronic questionnaire composed of 23 items to identify the rate of occupational injuries and obtain other relevant information. Thirty-nine participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 83%). Participants who sustained occupational injuries throughout their careers represented 82.5%. The most injured areas were the hands, eyes, and back by 54.5%, 24.2%, and 15.2%, respectively. Approximately 11.1% were injured while operating on infected patients. Approximately 30.3% reported their injuries to their institution. We concluded that the rate of occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons is very high and underreported. PMID:28640103

  16. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  17. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    Ophthalmologist (NOG) that protective polycarbonate glasses be worn while lighting and watching of fire-works is also advocated (7). Banger-related ocular injuries result in significant ocular morbidity and unilateral visual loss. Public education regarding proper use of bangers along with strict legislation regulating their use ...

  18. Some observations on whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W

    1992-11-01

    Motor vehicle accidents with a whiplash mechanism of injury are one of the most common causes of neck injuries, with an incidence of perhaps 1 million per year in the United States. Proper adjustment of head restraints can reduce the incidence of neck pain in rear-end collisions by 24%. Persistent neck pain is more common in women by a ratio of 70:30. Whiplash injuries usually result in neck pain owing to myofascial trauma, which has been documented in both animal and human studies. Headaches, reported in 82% of patients acutely, are usually of the muscle contraction type, often associated with greater occipital neuralgia and less often temporomandibular joint syndrome. Occasionally migraine headaches can be precipitated. Dizziness often occurs and can result from vestibular, central, and cervical injury. More than one third of patients acutely complain of paresthesias, which frequently are caused by trigger points and thoracic outlet syndrome and less commonly by cervical radiculopathy. Some studies have indicated that a postconcussion syndrome can develop from a whiplash injury. Interscapular and low back pain are other frequent complaints. Although most patients recover within 3 months after the accident, persistent neck pain and headaches after 2 years are reported by more than 30% and 10% of patients. Risk factors for a less favorable recovery include older age, the presence of interscapular or upper back pain, occipital headache, multiple symptoms or paresthesias at presentation, reduced range of movement of the cervical spine, the presence of an objective neurologic deficit, preexisting degenerative osteoarthritic changes; and the upper middle occupational category. There is only a minimal association of a poor prognosis with the speed or severity of the collision and the extent of vehicle damage. Whiplash injuries result in long-term disability with upward of 6% of patients not returning to work after 1 year. Although litigation is very common and always

  19. Injury rates and injury risk factors among federal bureau of investigation new agent trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Joseph J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A one-year prospective examination of injury rates and injury risk factors was conducted in Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI new agent training. Methods Injury incidents were obtained from medical records and injury compensation forms. Potential injury risk factors were acquired from a lifestyle questionnaire and existing data at the FBI Academy. Results A total of 426 men and 105 women participated in the project. Thirty-five percent of men and 42% of women experienced one or more injuries during training. The injury incidence rate was 2.5 and 3.2 injuries/1,000 person-days for men and women, respectively (risk ratio (women/men = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 0.9-1.7. The activities most commonly associated with injuries (% of total were defensive tactics training (58%, physical fitness training (20%, physical fitness testing (5%, and firearms training (3%. Among the men, higher injury risk was associated with older age, slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the physical fitness test (PFT, lower self-rated physical activity, lower frequency of aerobic exercise, a prior upper or lower limb injury, and prior foot or knee pain that limited activity. Among the women higher injury risk was associated with slower 300-meter sprint time, slower 1.5-mile run time, lower total points on the PFT, and prior back pain that limited activity. Conclusion The results of this investigation supported those of a previous retrospective investigation emphasizing that lower fitness and self-reported pain limiting activity were associated with higher injury risk among FBI new agents.

  20. Injuries and preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustsson, S R; Augustsson, J; Thomeé, R; Svantesson, U

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of injury and the extent of preventive actions in elite Swedish volleyball players. Injuries to players in the elite male and female Swedish division, during the 2002-2003 season, were registered by using a questionnaire. Of the 158 volleyball players (70% response rate), a total of 82 players (52%) reported 121 injuries, during a total exposure time of 24 632 h, representing an overall incidence of 0.77 injuries per player. The majority of the injuries were located in the ankle (23%), followed by the knee (18%) and the back (15%). Most injuries (62%) were classified as being of minor severity. Most injuries occurred during training (47%), and 41% of the injuries had a gradual onset. Fifty-four percent of the injuries that could be related to a specific court situation occurred during blocking, and 30% during spiking. Most players (96%) participated in injury prevention training of some kind, generally performed without supervision (58%). Although most players took part in some kind of preventive action, one out of two players incurred an injury during the season, which indicates that the risk of suffering an injury in elite volleyball is relatively high.

  1. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  2. Long-term health effects of unintentional injuries in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bjarne; Møller, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of self-reported health effects of unintentional injuries in the adult Danish population, including the limitation of daily activities and perceived general health. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the 2005 National Health...... reported poor health in general. The most severe health effects affected the head, neck and back, as well as multiple body parts. Those injuries that entailed the most severe health effects were caused by traffic injuries and falls. CONCLUSION: Long-term effects of injuries are prevalent in the adult...... population and most can be attributed to falls and traffic injuries. Back injuries and multiple injuries had the largest influence on perceived health. FUNDING: The work was supported by TrygFonden grant no. 7585-07. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  3. Trauma attenuating backing improves protection against behind armor blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondén, Anders; Rocksén, David; Riddez, Louis; Davidsson, Johan; Persson, Jonas K; Gryth, Dan; Bursell, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2009-12-01

    Body armor is used by military personnel, police officers, and security guards to protect them from fatal gunshot injuries to the thorax. The protection against high-velocity weapons may, however, be insufficient. Complementary trauma attenuating backings (TAB) have been suggested to prevent morbidity and mortality in high-velocity weapon trauma. Twenty-four Swedish landrace pigs, protected by a ceramid/aramid body armor without (n = 12) or with TAB (n = 12) were shot with a standard 7.62-mm assault rifle. Morphologic injuries, cardiorespiratory, and electroencephalogram changes as well as physical parameters were registered. The bullet impact caused a reproducible behind armor blunt trauma (BABT) in both the groups. The TAB significantly decreased size of the lung contusion and prevented hemoptysis. The postimpact apnea, desaturation, hypotension, and rise in pulmonary artery pressure were significantly attenuated in the TAB group. Moreover, TAB reduced transient peak pressures in thorax by 91%. Our results indicate that ordinary body armor should be complemented by a TAB to prevent thoracic injuries when the threat is high-velocity weapons.

  4. [Study on child head-injuries through data derived from the National Injury Surveillance System of China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Cuirong; Duan, Leilei; Er, Yuliang; Ye, Pengpeng; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Gao, Xin; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong

    2016-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics of head injuries in children. Data was derived from the Chinese National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) in 2014. Method on descriptive analysis was applied to depict general information, injuries events and clinical characteristics of head injuries among children under 18 years of age. A total number of 47 690 cases with child head injuries in 2014 were collected, including 32 542 males and 15 148 females. 43.47% of them were under 1-4 years of age. In October, 06:00 PM appeared the peak time for the injuries to happen. The three leading causes responsible for child head injuries were falls (69.57%), hit by blunt force (14.23%) or road traffic (11.01%). Main locations responsible for the head injuries to happen were:at home (44.98%), at public places (19.65%) or on roads/streets (15.81%). Recreation activates (77.88%), driving (7.32%), sports (5.72%) were the three major activities causing the injuries to take place. Majority of the cases happened unintentionally (95.35%), with bruise (71.69%) or mild injuries (85.27%) and went back home after treatment (90.25%). In 2014, child head injuries were seen more in males than in females and mostly occured at home. The leading causes for head injuries would include falls, hit by blunt stuff or road traffic .

  5. Injuries among elite snowboarders (FIS Snowboard World Cup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torjussen, J; Bahr, R

    2006-03-01

    Although snowboarding is already established as an Olympic sport, it is still a developing sport, with new disciplines, more demanding snow installations, and spectacular tricks. A recent study on subjects at Norwegian national elite level showed that injury risk is high and that injuries among competitive snowboarders differ from those seen in recreational snowboarders, with fewer wrist injuries and more knee and back injuries. To describe the incidence and type of injuries among female and male snowboarders at international elite level. At the last race of the Fédération Internationale de Ski Snowboard World Cup, acute injuries resulting in missed participation and overuse injuries influencing performance, were recorded during a retrospective interview (91% response rate). The registration period was from April 2002 (end of season) until March 2003. Exposure was recorded as the number of runs in all disciplines, and the incidence was calculated as number of injuries per 1000 runs. The 258 athletes interviewed reported 3193 competition days (n = 46 879 runs) in all disciplines. In total, 135 acute injuries were recorded; 62 (46%) during competition in the official disciplines. Of the 135 acute injuries, the most common injury locations were knee (n = 24; 18%), shoulder (n = 18; 13%), back (n = 17; 13%), and wrist (n = 11; 8%). The overall incidence during competition was 1.3 (95% confidence interval 1.0 to 1.7) injuries per 1000 runs; 2.3 (0.9 to 3.8) for big air (n = 10), 1.9 (1.1 to 2.8) for halfpipe (n = 21), 2.1 (1.2 to 3.0) for snowboard cross (n = 20), 0.6 (0.2 to 1.0) for parallel giant slalom (n = 8), and 0.3 (0.0 to 0.7) for parallel slalom (n = 3). The severity of injuries was graded based on time loss (27% lost >21 days) and score on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (38% AIS 1, 61% AIS 2 and 1% AIS 3). There were 122 overuse injuries, 38 (31%) of these to the knee. The injury risk for big air, snowboard cross, and halfpipe disciplines is high, while

  6. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  7. Looking Back at 'Purgatory Dune'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dug more than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the soft, sandy material of a wind-shaped ripple in Mars' Meridiani Planum region during the rover's 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). Getting the rover out of the ripple, dubbed 'Purgatory Dune,' required more than five weeks of planning, testing, and carefully monitored driving. Opportunity used its navigation camera to capture this look back at the ripple during sol 491 (June 11, 2005), a week after the rover drove safely onto firmer ground. The ripple that became a sand trap is about one-third meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide.

  8. Back to the 80s

    CERN Document Server

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  9. Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sports_Injuries/sports_injuries_ff.asp. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Tips for ... cfm?topic=A00132. Accessed Dec. 21, 2015. Overuse injury. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. http://www.stopsportsinjuries.org/overuse-injury.aspx. ...

  10. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangersnes, Krister

    2010-10-15

    Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cells, on the other hand, have both the complete metallization and the active diffused regions of both polarities on the backside. World-record efficiencies have already been demonstrated for this type of cell design in production, both on cell and module level. However, the production of these cells is both complex and costly, and a further cost reduction in fabrication is needed to make electricity from BC-BJ silicon solar cells cost-competitive with electricity on the grid ('grid-parity'). During the work with this thesis, we have investigated several important issues regarding BC-BJ silicon solar cells. The aim has been to reduce production cost and complexity while at the same time maintaining, or increasing, the already high conversion efficiencies demonstrated elsewhere. This has been pursued through experimental work as well as through numerical simulations and modeling. Six papers are appended to this thesis, two of which are still under review in scientific journals. In addition, two patents have been filed based on the work presented herein. Experimentally, we have focused on investigating and optimizing single, central processing steps. A laser has been the key processing tool during most of the work. We have used the same laser both to structure the backside of the cell and to make holes in a double-layer of passivating amorphous silicon and silicon oxide, where the holes were opened with the aim of making local contact to the underlying silicon. The processes developed have the possibility of using a relatively cheap and industrially proven laser and obtain results better than most state-of-the-art laser technologies. During the work with the laser, we also developed a thermodynamic model that was able to predict the outcome from laser interaction with amorphous and crystalline silicon. Alongside the experimental work, we

  11. Sacral insufficiency fractures: an easily overlooked cause of back pain in the ED.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, John G

    2011-03-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures are an important and treatable cause of severe back pain. Despite publication of several case reports since its original description in 1982, awareness of these injuries remains inadequate in emergency medicine. Most patients are elderly women presenting with intractable lower back pain. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most significant risk factor. Marked sacral tenderness is common. Neurologic impairment is rarely detectable. Routine radiography of the spine and pelvis is usually inconclusive. Computed tomography remains the diagnostic modality of choice. Treatment is usually conservative.

  12. Multifactorial assistive device intervention to prevent low back pain among caregivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Bjørnskov; Brandt, Åse

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers are among those professionals who experience the highest incidence of low back pain and low back injuries, and one of the most frequently described reasons for this is person transfers. This paper reports on a controlled intervention study in two Danish municipalities with perceived....... The study population consisted of all permanently employed caregivers in the two municipalities, and data was collected by means of a questionnaire at baseline and after 10 months of follow-up. At follow-up the caregivers in the intervention group reported lower perceived strain during person transfer...

  13. Injuries in an Extreme Conditioning Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Kyle T; Powers, Joseph M

    2016-10-19

    Extreme conditioning programs (ECPs) are fitness training regimens relying on aerobic, plyometric, and resistance training exercises, often with high levels of intensity for a short duration of time. These programs have grown rapidly in popularity in recent years, but science describing the safety profile of these programs is lacking. The rate of injury in the extreme conditioning program is greater than the injury rate of weightlifting and the majority of injuries occur to the shoulder and back. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. This is a retrospective survey of injuries reported by athletes participating in an ECP. An injury survey was sent to 1100 members of Iron Tribe Fitness, a gym franchise with 5 locations across Birmingham, Alabama, that employs exercises consistent with an ECP in this study. An injury was defined as a physical condition resulting from ECP participation that caused the athlete to either seek medical treatment, take time off from exercising, or make modifications to his or her technique to continue. A total of 247 athletes (22%) completed the survey. The majority (57%) of athletes were male (n = 139), and 94% of athletes were white (n = 227). The mean age of athletes was 38.9 years (±8.9 years). Athletes reported participation in the ECP for, on average, 3.6 hours per week (± 1.2 hours). Eighty-five athletes (34%) reported that they had sustained an injury while participating in the ECP. A total of 132 injuries were recorded, yielding an estimated incidence of 2.71 per 1000 hours. The shoulder or upper arm was the most commonly injured body site, accounting for 38 injuries (15% of athletes). Athletes with a previous shoulder injury were 8.1 times as likely to injure their shoulder in the ECP compared with athletes with healthy shoulders. The trunk, back, head, or neck (n = 29, 12%) and the leg or knee (n = 29, 12%) were the second most commonly injured sites. The injury incidence rate among athletes with < 6 months of experience in the ECP

  14. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extravasation injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, D T

    1993-03-01

    The leakage of cytotoxic drugs, intravenous nutrition, solutions of calcium, potassium, bicarbonate and even 10% dextrose outside the vein into which they are delivered is known not only to cause skin necrosis but also to precipitate significant scarring around tendons, nerves and joints. In this review of 96 patients with extravasation injuries seen between 1987 and 1992 at St Thomas' Hospital, Mount Vernon Hospital and The Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, several patients required extensive reconstruction and in some, despite this, extravasation injury has rendered a limb virtually useless. Two techniques, liposuction and saline flushout, are described to remove extravasated material while conserving the overlying skin. Analysis of flushout material confirmed that the extravasated material was actually being removed. Forty four of the study group in whom noxious materials were known to have extravasated underwent such early treatment. The results in this group were quite striking--the majority (86%) healed without any soft tissue loss at all. The early referral and treatment of extravasation injuries is, therefore, recommended.

  16. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.

  17. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroteja Drobnič-Kovač

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consulting general practitioner. Little is known about etiology and pathogenesis of low back pain. General practitioner use different methods for the treatment of patients with low back pain. The choice of kind of therapy is not related with the used diagnostic method. A large variety of therapeutic interventions is available for the treatment of low back pain, but the effectiveness of most of them has not been demonstrated. The treatment of low back pain is mainly conservative and symptomatic.Conclusions. In the article are reviewed and critically evaluated different diagnostic and therapeutic methods used by physicians for the treatment of patients with low back pain. Results of existing studies suggest that applied therapeutic treatments mainly do not base on scientific based results.

  18. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  19. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  20. Pilates for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is low quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared with minimal

  1. Iliacus haematoma causing femoral nerve palsy: an unusual trampolining injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Simon; Berg, Andrew James; Lupu, Andreea; Jennings, Andrew

    2015-07-27

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented to accident and emergency following a trampolining injury. Initially, the patient was discharged, diagnosed with a soft tissue injury, but he re-presented 48 h later with worsening low back pain and neurological symptoms in the left leg. Subsequent MRI revealed a left iliacus haematoma causing a femoral nerve palsy. The patient was managed conservatively and by 6 months post injury all symptoms had resolved. This is the first reported case of an iliacus haematoma causing a femoral nerve palsy, after a trampolining injury. We believe this case highlights to our fellow clinicians the importance of a detailed history when assessing patients with trampolining injuries to evaluate the true force of injury. It also acts as a reference for clinicians in managing similar cases in future. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  3. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwick, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  4. Injury reporting rates and injury concealment patterns differ between high-school cirque performers and basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ashley S; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Fahringer, Patty M

    2011-12-01

    The performing arts style of cirque has grown in popularity, with high-school participants increasingly practicing this style. Still, little research has examined the injury reporting rates and patterns in this population. Our study aimed to compare injury reporting rates and injury concealment patterns between high-school cirque performers and a peer-group of basketball players. Fifty participants (30 cirque, 20 basketball) completed a 12-item injury history and concealment instrument with chi-squared analyses and Fisher's exact tests comparing groups (p = 0.05). While no group differences (p = 0.36) existed in injuries reported, basketball players were more likely (p = 0.01) to miss participation due to injury than cirque performers. No significant difference existed between participants regarding which healthcare provider they reported to first (p = 0.27), but basketball players reported their injuries to the athletic trainer at higher rates (50%) than cirque performers (20%). A nonsignificant trend (p = 0.08) was noted in promptness to report injury, with more cirque performers (13%) concealing their injuries than basketball players (5%). Several reasons were noted for concealment of injury, with the most common being the belief that the injury would "go away" on its own. Knee injuries were most common in basketball players (23.7%) and back and knee injuries (10.5% each) in cirque performers. Despite similar injury rates, cirque participants concealed injuries more than peer-basketball players. Reasons may include losing performance roles, unfamiliarity and low trust with healthcare providers, ignorance about initially minor-looking injuries, and higher pain tolerance thresholds. Education and communication are essential to allow performing artists to seek healthcare support. Research is needed to appropriately understand and meet the needs of this underserved performing artist population.

  5. Paracetamol for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragiotto, Bruno T; Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Manuela L; Pinheiro, Marina B; Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G

    2016-06-07

    Analgesic medication is the most frequently prescribed treatment for low back pain (LBP), of which paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended as the first choice medication. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of paracetamol for LBP. To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for non-specific LBP. We conducted searches on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, which includes the Back and Neck Review Group trials register), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, LILACS, and IPA from their inception to 7 August 2015. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and trial registry websites (WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov). We only considered randomised trials comparing the efficacy of paracetamol with placebo for non-specific LBP. The primary outcomes were pain and disability. We also investigated quality of life, function, adverse effects, global impression of recovery, sleep quality, patient adherence, and use of rescue medication as secondary outcomes. Two review authors independently performed the data extraction and assessed risk of bias in the included studies. We also evaluated the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We converted scales for pain intensity to a common 0 to 100 scale. We quantified treatment effects using mean difference for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. We used effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals as a measure of treatment effect for the primary outcomes. When the treatment effects were smaller than 9 points on a 0 to 100 scale, we considered the effect as small and not clinically important. Our searches retrieved 4449 records, of which three trials were included in the review (n = 1825 participants), and two trials were included in the meta-analysis. For acute LBP, there is high-quality evidence for no difference between paracetamol (4 g per day) and placebo at 1 week (immediate term), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks (short term) for

  6. Chinese energy demand falls back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1977-10-01

    China's growth in energy demand and production declined in 1976, partly because of difficulty of sustaining a rapid 5.4 percent growth and partly because of the disruptions caused by a major earthquake and the deaths of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai. The earthquake, which damaged all mines, the power station, refineries, and transportation lines in the Tangshan area, has had serious economic consequences. The failure to back up a growing coal industry with adequate investments and mechanization was recognized in 1975 and prompted a 10-year modernization program. Progress has been made with new mine shafts, pulverizing equipment, and the use of small mines for local industries. Oil and gas production increased after the discovery of new fields and the use of new technology in the hydrocarbon industries. Ports and terminal facilities to handle large tankers will increase China's oil export traffic. Electricity generation increased with new power facilities, although China's dependence on human and animal power is still a major factor. Changes in energy consumption patterns are developing, but industry still represents 50 percent and transportation less than 10 percent. (DCK)

  7. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  8. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  9. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in specific chronic low back pain populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Squillante, Dawn; Maurer, Philip; Westcott, Sarah; Karduna, Andrew R

    2005-06-01

    It is hypothesized that injury or degeneration of osteoligamentous spinal structures would require compensation by trunk musculature and alterations in motor control to maintain spine stability. While, biomechanical modeling has supported this hypothesis, studies of muscle recruitment patterns in chronic low back pain patients both with and without significant osteoligamentous damage have been limited. This study utilized a non-randomized case-control design to investigate trunk muscle recruitment patterns around the neutral spine position between subgroups of patients with chronic mechanical low back pain and asymptomatic controls. Twenty subjects with chronic low back pain attributed to clinical lumbar instability were matched to 20 asymptomatic controls. In addition 12 patients with non-specific chronic low back pain were studied. Surface EMG from five trunk muscles was analyzed to determine activation levels and patterns of recruitment during a standing reach under two different loading conditions. The chronic low back pain group with symptoms attributed to clinical instability demonstrated significantly higher activation levels of the external oblique and rectus abdominus muscles and lower abdominal synergist ratios than the control group. No significant differences were found between patient subgroups. While these data demonstrate altered muscle recruitment patterns in patients with chronic low back pain, the changes are not consistent with Panjabi's theory suggesting that these alterations are driven by passive subsystem damage. However, the higher activation of global abdominal musculature and altered synergist patterns may represent a motor control pattern that has consequences for continued dysfunction and chronic pain.

  10. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  11. Back care education on peasant farmers suffering from chronic mechanical low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Ayanniyi; Olusoji G. Ige

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem that cuts across various occupations. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of back care education on farmers suffering from chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Male peasant farmers suffering from chronic LBP were purposively recruited and randomly assigned to back care education group (BG) and control group (CG). The participants in the BG were trained in back care education five times within eight weeks while parti...

  12. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  13. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the top reasons for doctor visits. Back pain has many causes, including bad posture, excessive weight, poor workstation setup, lack of exercise and limited flexibility. Fortunately, many of them are preventable and ... can help prevent back pain. Depending on the cause, the pain can occur ...

  14. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department of...

  15. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  16. Backing warning sensors for tow plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Backup warning system devices were evaluated to determine if they would alert winter maintenance snow : plow drivers to obstacles directly behind the trailer and out of view of the driver when a unit is backed up. : When the sensors on the back of th...

  17. Gluteus Medius Tendon Rupture as a Source for Back, Buttock and Leg Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewyer, Dennis; Chen, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman with chronic lumbosacral and hip symptoms involving gluteus medius tendon rupture and strain injury is presented here. We report her work-up and management. Although this is an uncommonly reported pathology, many patients with back, buttock and leg pain see physicians who often focus on lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbar radiculopathy or hip/knee osteoarthritis. Careful physical examination guided us to this patient's diagnosis. PMID:16089095

  18. Pain and Injury Associated with Powerlifting Training in Visually Impaired Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykowsky, Mark J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study assessed occurrence and level of pain and injury history associated with powerlifting training in 11 adults with visual impairments. Powerlifting training was associated with an elevated occurrence of pain in shoulders, elbows, lower back, and knee regions. Injury rate, however, was lower than for athletes without visual impairments.…

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  20. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  1. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes may be the result of ... occur in childhood sports, but with any knee injury in a growing child there is a possibility of a fracture related ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  3. Wounds and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    An injury is damage to your body. It is a general term that refers to harm caused by accidents, ... millions of people injure themselves every year. These injuries range from minor to life-threatening. Injuries can ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult ... LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By ...

  5. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...

  6. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  8. Nerve Injuries in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Kathryn; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Over a two-year period this study evaluated the condition of 65 athletes with nerve injuries. These injuries represent the spectrum of nerve injuries likely to be encountered in sports medicine clinics. (Author/MT)

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric ...

  12. Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) happens when a bump, blow, jolt, or other head injury causes damage to the brain. Every year, millions of people in the U.S. suffer brain injuries. More than half are bad enough that ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  15. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neck pain: manipulating the upper back helps lessen pain and improve neck motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Neck pain is very common. In the United States, between 30% and 50% of people suffer from an aching neck each year. Although neck pain can be caused by injury, most of this pain results from more gradual stresses, such as particular sitting, standing, or work postures, lifting patterns, or sleeping positions. Typical neck pain can also cause headaches, pain between your shoulders, or a feeling of knots in your neck and upper back muscles. Although manual therapy, sometimes called "manipulation," is a common treatment for many types of spine pain, some people are uncomfortable having their necks manipulated. Recently, though, researchers have tested the benefits of a thrust manipulation of the upper back to treat neck pain. A study published in the September 2011 issue of JOSPT provides new insight and an evidence-based summary of the benefits of manipulating the upper back to ease and eliminate neck pain.

  17. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...... of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods...

  18. Specificity of a back muscle exercise machine in healthy and low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; DA Silva, Rubens A; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Nadeau, Sylvie; Plamondon, André; Vadeboncoeur, Roger

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether dynamic back muscle endurance exercises in a semisitting position induce more fatigue in back muscles than that in hip extensors in healthy controls as well as in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with nonspecific chronic low back pain performed trunk flexion-extension cycles until exhaustion at 60% of their strength in a machine designed for back exercise in a semisitting position with knees' angle at 135 degrees . The number of cycles and perceived muscle fatigue (Borg CR-10 scale) at five areas (upper and lower back, gluteus, hamstrings, and quadriceps) were used as fatigue criteria. EMG signals were recorded bilaterally on four back muscles, two hip extensors (gluteus maximus and biceps femoris), and the vastus medialis. The slope values of the instantaneous median frequency values computed over time were retained as EMG indices of fatigue. The number of cycles was equivalent in healthy controls (n = 23 +/- 13) and patients with back pain (n = 27 +/- 16). EMG indices of fatigue disclosed evidence of muscle fatigue in all the back muscles and the vastus medialis, contrary to hip extensors. EMG revealed significantly more muscle fatigue of lower back muscles, which was further corroborated by the Borg scale assessment. No between-group difference was obtained in any EMG comparison. These results showed that this type of exercise machine can specifically train the back muscles, and this as much in subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain as in healthy controls. This has implications for the training of back muscle endurance, especially in patients with back pain for whom poor back muscle endurance is sometimes of concern.

  19. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...

  20. Return to work following an aquafitness and muscle strengthening program for the low back injured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFort, S M; Hannah, T E

    1994-11-01

    Our purpose, in this prospective clinical study, was to identify the best predictors of 2-month return to work or retraining for a group of low back injured subjects (n = 40) who completed at least 8 weeks of a community-based rehabilitation program that combined aerobic and flexibility exercise conducted in the water (aquafitness) with muscle strength and endurance training. Baseline demographic characteristics and changes in physical fitness, pain, disability, and psychological well-being during the course of program participation were compared between two groups of low back injured subjects: those who returned to work (RTW) [n = 24], and those who did not (N-RTW) [n = 16]. Subjects in both groups showed comparable improvement in measures of physical fitness at 8 weeks. However, multivariate analyses showed significant between-group differences in self-report measures. The RTW group showed significant improvement in measures of pain, disability, anxiety, and vigor while self-esteem and affect remained stable. The N-RTW group displayed no change in pain and disability variables and had significant deterioration in mean overall psychological well-being over time. The best predictors of return to work using logistic regression analyses were a first injury rather than a repeat injury to the lower back, and stability in self-esteem. Suggestions are offered for further research to examine the benefits of aquafit exercise for the low back injured, for additional interventions for those with a reinjury, and for maintaining or enhancing self-esteem as a treatment goal.

  1. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh B Dalavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive management of penetrating chest injuries. Management of penetrating chest injury involving pulmonary trauma is based on three principles. One is stabilization of hemodynamics of patient with proper clinical evaluation. Second, a mere intercostal tube drainage sufficient for majority of the cases. Third, post-operative active as well as passive physiotherapy is necessary for speedy recovery.

  2. Pediatric thoracic SCIWORA after back bend during dance practice: a retrospective case series and analysis of trauma mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Zeng, Gao; Ma, Yong-Jie; Chen, Nan; Chen, Zan; Ling, Feng; Zhang, Hong-Qi

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe a unique type of low-energy traumatic pediatric thoracic spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality (SCIWORA) after a back bend during dance practice and analyze the trauma mechanisms and treatment protocols. This was a retrospective case series from September 2007 to August 2016. The study was conducted at a tertiary medical center in Beijing, China (Xuanwu Hospital, China International Neuroscience Institute [China-INI], Capital Medical University). A total of 12 pediatric patients who had a clear traumatic history after back bend movements and had been diagnosed with thoracic SCIWORA were included. Clinical and imaging data were obtained for each patient. The follow-up data was analyzed. The traumatic mechanisms were investigated by analyzing the patients' medical history, spinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography data. Of the 12 patients, 11 (91.7%) were younger than 8 years old. The mean age of the patients was 6.6 years. All patients had a clear traumatic history of severe thoracic spinal cord injury after performing back bend movements. The mean follow-up time was 36.5 months. During the follow-up period, 1 patient (8.3%) recovered completely, and 11 patients (91.7%) had unfavorable prognoses, including 4 (33.3%) with incomplete recovery and 7 (58.3%) with no change. Two patients underwent spinal DTI, which showed rupture of the nerve fiber bundle in the section of the injury. Back bend movements performed during dance practice may cause pediatric thoracic SCIWORA, particularly in children younger than 8 years old. We suggest that the mechanism of primary injury is the longitudinal distraction of the thoracic spine during back bend movements, which leads to violent distraction of the spinal cord and blunt injury of nerve axons, nerve cells, and small vessels. Spinal DTI may facilitate the diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of SCIWORA.

  3. MORAL INJURY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Mildred

    2017-12-01

    The devastating effect on the self of moral injury, often a core component of trauma, occurring when one's actions have profoundly violated one's code of ethics, when one has been a victim of such violation, or when one has been a passive witness, has been extensively explored as it has occurred in veterans of the wars in Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan. Two examples illustrate its prevalence in civilian life. The literature shows violation of expected empathy from and for others, inherent in our nature, is more devastating than violation of the ethical code of our culture or sub-culture, adherence to which becomes urgent as our need emerges to belong to the culture or subculture of which we are a part, values which often contradict our innate sense of "what is right."

  4. Risk assessment of back pain in youth soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Thore-Björn; Mayer, H. Michael; Schneider, Alexandra S.; Rumpf, Michael C.; Handel, Martin; Schneider, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to identify several responsible parameters for back pain (BP) in youth soccer players to create a risk assessment tool for early prevention. An iPad-based survey was used to screen for parameters in a cross-sectional study. This questionnaire includes items regarding anthropometric data, training habits and sports injuries and was put into practice with 1110 athletes. Sex (odds ratio (OR): 1.84), age group (1.48) and playing surface (1.56) were significantly associated with BP. A history of injuries especially to the spine and hip/groin increased the likelihood for evolving recurrent BP (1.74/1.40). Overall 15 factors seem to influence the appearance of pain and were integrated into a feasible nomogram. The nomogram provides a practical tool to identify the risks of developing BP for youth soccer players. Although most factors we identified are non-modifiable, this method allows to rank the importance of factors and especially their prevention treatments for athletes. PMID:27537067

  5. Impairment and disability rating in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R T

    2001-08-01

    LBP is one of the two most common forms of disability in Western society (mental illness is the other), and remains a thorny problem in the arena of disability evaluation. Disability evaluation after LBP differs whether the pain is work-related or not. If work-related, guidelines for disability evaluation differ by jurisdiction and type of employment (e.g., private vs. federal employee). When outside of the workplace, thresholds for disability differ between entitlement programs (Social Security Disability) and private insurance programs (long-term disability insurance). In the patient without obvious findings, the disability evaluating physician needs to be caring and compassionate and yet maintain an objective stance with the understanding that there may be significant psychosocial overlay in patients with nonobjective pain complaints. Although some would argue that objective independent medical evaluation is an oxymoron, psychiatrists have excellent training and perspective with which to do so. The patient suffering from catastrophic brain injury or spinal cord injury offers a useful contrast--on the most severe end of the disability spectrum--to the patient with persisting low back complaints but normal physical examination. As a society, we have to wisely manage the funds that comprise our social "safety net" in order to provide for persons with severe disability who cannot provide for themselves. It would then follow that patients with minor impairments/disabilities should receive minor (i.e., noninflated) ratings. Psychiatrists need to enable rather than disable their patients.

  6. [Which rehabilitation for which low back pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiraudeau, S; Lefèvre-Colau, M M; Mayoux-Benhamou, M A; Revel, M

    2000-10-15

    Many rehabilitation technics for low back pain are available. Their aims are short time pain decrease, muscular strengthening in flexion or extension, increased hip and lumbar spine mobility, improved lumbar and pelvic proprioceptive sensibility, improved general fitness. During the past ten years, studies meeting widely accepted validity and applicability for therapeutic trials have addressed the clinical efficacy of rehabilitation in low back pain patients. Most studies assessing the back school approach have found no benefit. Spinal extension and flexion programs have yielded short-time improvements, without difference between the two methods. There is now strong evidence that functional restoration programs provide long-term benefits including better social and occupational outcomes.

  7. Landing-related ankle injuries do not occur in plantarflexion as once thought: a systematic video analysis of ankle injuries in world-class volleyball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skazalski, Christopher; Kruczynski, Jacek; Bahr, Martin Aase; Bere, Tone; Whiteley, Rod; Bahr, Roald

    2018-01-01

    Ankle injuries are prevalent in elite volleyball and suggested to result from player contact at the net. Traditionally, ankle sprains are thought to happen in a plantarflexed position, but case studies suggest plantarflexion may not be involved. Describe the injury situations and mechanisms of ankle injuries in world-class volleyball based on systematic video analysis of injuries reported through the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System. Videos of 24 injuries from major FIVB tournaments were included for analysis (14 men, 10 women). Five analysts reviewed the videos to determine specific situations and mechanisms leading to injuries. The majority of injuries occurred during two volleyball situations, blocking (n=15) and attacking (n=6). Injuries to blockers were the result of landing on an opponent (n=11) or teammate (n=4). Attacking injuries most frequently occurred when a back-row player landed on a front-row teammate (n=4 of 6). When landing on an opponent under the net, the attacker landed into the opponent's court in 11 of 12 situations but without violating the centre line rule. Injuries mostly resulted from rapid inversion without any substantial plantarflexion. The majority of injuries occur while blocking, often landing on an opponent. The attacker is overwhelmingly to blame for injuries at the net secondary to crossing the centre line. Injuries while attacking often result from a back-row player landing on a front-row teammate. Landing-related injuries mostly result from rapid inversion with the absence of plantarflexion. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. [Injuries and damage caused by excess stress in body building and power lifting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, M; Schöppe, K; Lange, G; Schulitz, K P

    1989-03-01

    A questionnaire, designed to elict information about training programs, experience and injury profile, was administered to 358 bodybuilders and 60 powerlifters. This was followed by a clinical orthopedic and radiological examination. The upper extremity, particulary the shoulder and elbow joint, showed the highest injury rate. More than 40% of all injuries occurred in this area. The low back region and the knee were other sites of elevated injury occurrences. Muscular injuries (muscle pulls, tendonitis, sprains) were perceived to account for 83.6% of all injury types. Powerlifting showed a twice as high injury rate as bodybuilding, probably of grounds of a more uniform training program. Weight-training should be associated with a sports-related medical care and supervised by knowledgeable people, who can instruct the athletes in proper lifting techniques and protect them from injury which can result from incorrect weight-training.

  9. The back squat: A proposed assessment of functional deficits and technical factors that limit performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Kushner, Adam M.; Brent, Jensen L.; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Hugentobler, Jason; Lloyd, Rhodri S.; Vermeil, Al; Chu, Donald A.; Harbin, Jason; McGill, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement competency is essential for participation in physical activity and for mitigating the risk of injury, which are both key elements of health throughout life. The squat movement pattern is arguably one of the most primal and critical fundamental movements necessary to improve sport performance, to reduce injury risk and to support lifelong physical activity. Based on current evidence, this first (1 of 2) report deconstructs the technical performance of the back squat as a foundation training exercise and presents a novel dynamic screening tool that incorporates identification techniques for functional deficits that limit squat performance and injury resilience. The follow-up report will outline targeted corrective methodology for each of the functional deficits presented in the assessment tool. PMID:25506270

  10. Hypermobility and injuries in a professional ballet company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemp, P.; Learmonth, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted on members of the Cape Performing Arts Board (CAPAB) professional ballet company to determine the prevalence of hypermobility and to document the injuries sustained over a ten year period. If forward flexion, which is acquired through training, is excluded as a parameter the difference in hypermobility between dancers and controls is not statistically significant. Considering the stresses imposed on the musculoskeletal system, the number of injuries was surprisingly low. Ligamentous injuries about the ankle and knee were both common and accounted for the major morbidity. There were minor differences in the nature and severity of injuries in the male and female dancers. Back injuries, fractures and osteoarthrosis were uncommon and shin splints was not recorded in any of the dancers. Images p143-a p143-b Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6435713

  11. Optimal management of ankle syndesmosis injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porter DA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available David A Porter, Ryan R Jaggers, Adam Fitzgerald Barnes, Angela M Rund Methodist Sports Medicine/The Orthopedic Specialists, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: Syndesmosis injuries occur when there is a disruption of the distal attachment of the tibia and fibula. These injuries occur commonly (up to 18% of ankle sprains, and the incidence increases in the setting of athletic activity. Recognition of these injuries is key to preventing long-term morbidity. Diagnosis and treatment of these injuries requires a thorough understanding of the normal anatomy and the role it plays in the stability of the ankle. A complete history and physical examination is of paramount importance. Patients usually experience an external rotation mechanism of injury. Key physical exam features include detailed documentation about areas of focal tenderness (syndesmosis and deltoid and provocative maneuvers such as the external rotation stress test. Imaging workup in all cases should consist of radiographs with the physiologic stress of weight bearing. If these images are inconclusive, then further imaging with external rotation stress testing or magnetic resonance imaging are warranted. Nonoperative treatment is appropriate for stable injuries. Unstable injuries should be treated operatively. This consists of stabilizing the syndesmosis with either trans-syndesmotic screw or tightrope fixation. In the setting of a concomitant Weber B or C fracture, the fibula is anatomically reduced and stabilized with a standard plate and screw construct. Proximal fibular fractures, as seen in the Maisonneuve fracture pattern, are not repaired operatively. Recent interest is moving toward repair of the deltoid ligament, which may provide increased stability, especially in rehabilitation protocols that involve early weight bearing. Rehabilitation is focused on allowing patients to return to their pre-injury activities as quickly and safely as possible. Protocols initially focus on

  12. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  13. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  14. Epidemiology of syndesmosis injuries in intercollegiate football: incidence and risk factors from National Collegiate Athletic Association injury surveillance system data from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kenneth J; George, Elizabeth; Harris, Alex H S; Dragoo, Jason L

    2013-07-01

    To describe the incidence and risk factors for high ankle sprains (ie, syndesmosis injuries) among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football players. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Data were examined from the NCAA's Injury Surveillance System (ISS) for 5 football seasons (from 2004-2005 to 2008-2009). All NCAA men's football programs participating in the ISS. No additional risk factors were introduced as a result of this analysis. For partial and complete syndesmosis injuries, outcome measures included incidence, time lost from participation, and requirement for surgical repair. The overall incidence of high ankle sprains in NCAA football players was 0.24 per 1000 athlete exposures, accounting for 24.6% of all ankle sprains. Athletes were nearly 14 times more likely to sustain the injury during games compared with practice; complete syndesmosis injuries resulted in significantly greater time lost compared with partial injuries (31.3 vs 15.8 days). Less than 3% of syndesmosis injuries required surgical intervention. There was a significantly higher injury incidence on artificial surfaces compared with natural grass. The majority of injuries (75.2%) occurred during contact with another player. Our data suggest a significantly higher incidence of syndesmosis injuries during games, during running plays, and to running backs and interior defensive linemen. The wide range in time lost from participation for complete syndesmosis injuries underscores the need for improved understanding of injury mechanism and classification of injury severity such that prevention, safe return to play protocols, and outcomes can be further improved.

  15. Overuse in volleyball training/practice: A review on shoulder and spine-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance.

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  17. Head Injuries in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play a crucial role in injury prevention and initial treatment when injuries occur at school. The role of school nurses includes being knowledgeable about the management of head injuries, including assessment and initial treatment. The school nurse must be familiar with the outcomes of a head injury and know when further evaluation…

  18. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt Arend

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  20. Core strengthening exercises for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerga-Varela, Luis; Abréu Ramos, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    Core strengthening concepts have gained increased popularity in low back rehabilitation. Traditional low back pain rehabilitation is based on a static spine stability model and is composed mostly of modalities, stretching and strengthening exercises. More recent theories, however, include newer concepts of dynamic spinal stability, coordination and neuromuscular control. Core strengthening exercises incorporate these new concepts. Although more research is necessary, the best available evidence suggests that a core strengthening program may be beneficial in reducing pain scores, functional disability and recurrences of acute low back pain episodes. This article reviews "core" anatomy, physiologic models of spinal stability, effects, of low back pain on spinal stability, evidence-based reasoning behind core strengthening and the basic concepts involved in designing a core strengthening program.

  1. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam ... Keywords. Embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; reprogramming; differentiation; Nobel Prize 2012. ... National Centre for Cell Science University of Pune Campus Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007, India.

  2. The pharmacotherapy of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern imaging techniques have contributed significantly to getting to the correct diagnosis. The following conditions may cause lower back pain: Cancer, Cauda Equina Syndrome, Herniated intervertebral disc, severe or progressive neurological deficits, spinal stenosis, vertebral compression fracture or vertebral infection.

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  4. Generalized Back Propagation for Training Pattern Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (1994), s. 91-98 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:ALTEC(XE) IC-1000 Keywords : back propagation * smoothness constraints * multi-layered network * expert system * explicite kulle * trainning pattern derivatives * generalization

  5. Back Labor: Childbirth Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Although not widely used, some research suggests that shallow injections of sterile water to the lower back ... shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo ...

  6. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  7. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  8. The prevalence and severity of injuries in field hockey drag flickers: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Leo; Sherry, Dorianne; Loh, Wei Bing; Sjurseth, Andreas Myhre; Iyengar, Shrikant; Wild, Catherine; Rosalie, Simon

    2016-09-01

    The drag flick is the preferred method of scoring during a penalty corner in field hockey. Performing the drag flick requires a combination of strength, coordination and timing, which may increase susceptibility to injuries. However, injury prevalence in drag flickers has not previously been investigated. Therefore, this study compared the injury prevalence and severity of lower limb and lower back injuries between drag flickers and non-drag flickers in field hockey. A total of 432 local, national and international adult field hockey players (242 males, 188 females) completed an online questionnaire to retrospectively determine the 3-month prevalence and severity of ankle, knee, hip and lower back injuries. Of this group, 140 self-identified as drag flickers and 292 as non-drag flickers. The results showed that drag flickers had significantly higher prevalence of hip (OR: 1.541; 95% CI: 1.014, 2.343) and lower back injury (OR: 1.564; 95% CI: 1.034, 2.365) compared to non-drag flickers. No significant differences were observed between drag flickers and non-drag flickers in injury prevalence at the ankle and knee. There were no significant between-group differences in injury severity scores. Overall, the prevalence of hip and lower back injuries was significantly higher in drag flickers compared to non-drag flickers.

  9. Epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries among students entering a chiropractic college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetan, Harrison T; Rupert, Ronald L; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan P

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence, distribution, and severity of injuries to students before entering chiropractic college and to explore the possible demographic risk factors to these injuries. A cross-sectional survey was administered to first-year chiropractic students (n = 255) of one chiropractic college. Survey questions were adopted from the Standardized Nordic and Outcome Assessment Health Status Questionnaires. Data were collected on severity and period of last perception of low back, hand/wrist (HW), and neck/shoulder (NS) injuries of the students before attending chiropractic college. The response rate was 98.8% (N = 252), among which 66.7% were males. Injury prevalence to low back, HW, and NS before attending chiropractic college was 50.4%, 40.1%, and 53.2%, respectively. Of the respondents, 48.8% were overweight/obese and they were more likely to report injuries to HW (odds ratio, 2.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-3.51) and NS (odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.73) compared with those with normal weight. Among those with injuries, the mean body mass index for the females was significantly greater than for the males. This study identified a high prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among students before attending this particular chiropractic college. Only a small percentage of those injuries were severe enough to impede normal daily work. From this study sample, it seems that males entering this chiropractic college tend to report more injuries than females. However, females with high BMI seemed to report more previous injuries.

  10. Injury Incidence and Patterns Among Dutch CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrab, Mirwais; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Kraan, Gerald A; Mathijssen, Nina M C

    2017-12-01

    CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program that has gained widespread recognition, with 11,000 affiliated gyms worldwide. The incidence of injuries during CrossFit training is poorly analyzed. To investigate the incidence of injuries for persons participating in CrossFit. Risk factors for injury and injury mechanisms were also explored through athlete demographics and characteristics. Descriptive epidemiology study. A questionnaire that focused on injury incidence in CrossFit in the past year and included data on athlete demographics and characteristics was distributed to all 130 CrossFit gyms in the Netherlands and was also available online in active Facebook groups. Data were collected from July 2015 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria consisted of age ≥18 years and training at a registered CrossFit gym in the Netherlands. A total of 553 participants completed the survey. Univariable and multivariable generalized linear mixed models were used to identify potential risk factors for injury. A total of 449 participants met the inclusion criteria. Of all respondents, 252 athletes (56.1%) sustained an injury in the preceding 12 months. The most injured body parts were the shoulder (n = 87, 28.7%), lower back (n = 48, 15.8%), and knee (n = 25, 8.3%). The duration of participation in CrossFit significantly affected the injury incidence rates (CrossFit was 56.1%. The most frequent injury locations were the shoulder, lower back, and knee. A short duration of participation (<6 months) was significantly associated with an increased risk for injury.

  11. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  12. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luomajoki, H; Moseley, G L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary lumbopelvic control is compromised in patients with back pain. Loss of proprioceptive acuity is one contributor to decreased control. Several reasons for decreased proprioceptive acuity have been proposed, but the integrity of cortical body maps has been overlooked. We investigated whether tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to lumbopelvic control in people with back pain. Forty-five patients with back pain and 45 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this cross-sectional study. Tactile acuity at the back was assessed using two-point discrimination (TPD) threshold in vertical and horizontal directions. Voluntary motor control was assessed using an established battery of clinical tests. Patients performed worse on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks than healthy controls did (p<0.001). TPD threshold was larger in patients (mean (SD)=61 (13) mm) than in healthy controls (44 (10) mm). Moreover, larger TPD threshold was positively related to worse performance on the voluntary lumbopelvic tasks (Pearson's r=0.49; p<0.001). Tactile acuity, a clear clinical signature of primary sensory cortex organisation, relates to voluntary lumbopelvic control. This relationship raises the possibility that the former contributes to the latter, in which case training tactile acuity may aid recovery and assist in achieving normal motor performance after back injury.

  13. Impact of back squat training intensity on strength and flexibility of hamstring muscle group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Ardalan; Lam, Eddie T C; Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Sangelaji, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    True experimental design. The back squat is an integral aspect of any resistance training program to improve athletic performance. It is also used for injury prevention of the lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of back squat training at different intensities on strength and flexibility of the hamstring muscle group (HMG). Twenty-two male recreational bodybuilders with at least two years of experience in resistance training were recruited to participate in a nine-week training program. They were randomly assigned to a heavy back squat group (90-95% of one repetition maximum) or a moderate-intensity back squat group (60-65% of one repetition maximum). The heavy back squat group resulted in a significantly (p strength but a significant (p training program is effective in improving strength, it has an adverse effect on the flexibility of the HMG. The implication of this study is that there is a tradeoff between strength and flexibility and trainers should select the appropriate training protocols for their athletes to maximize athletic performance.

  14. Back pain in the emergency department: Pathological fracture following spinal manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skappak, Christopher; Saude, Erik J

    2018-03-01

    Back pain is one of the most common presentations to the emergency department. Though case reports of patients presenting with increased back pain following chiropractic spinal manipulations are rare, we have identified a case rarely reported in the literature where a potential injury from chiropractic manipulation resulted in a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We have reported a previously healthy 66-year-old male who presented with persistent lower back pain over 4 weeks. An initial evaluation with thoracolumbar radiographs revealed no significant findings. Following initial presentation to the family physician, the patient underwent three treatments of spinal manipulation from his local chiropractor, which resulted in worsening lower back pain. A re-examination and new radiographs in the hospital revealed multiple compression fractures and an underlying diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We have explored current literature examining the prevalence of lower back pain, as well as the incidence of spinal fracture following chiropractic manipulation, and have highlighted a potential complication from chiropractic manipulation in a patient with an undiagnosed underlying neoplastic disorder.

  15. Polysaccharide storage myopathy in the M. longissimus lumborum of showjumpers and dressage horses with back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Rothe, E; Novales, M; Aguilera-Tejero, E; Rivero, J L L

    2002-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether horses with clinical signs of back pain due to suspected soft tissue injuries were affected by polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). Diagnosis of PSSM in muscle biopsies obtained from the M. longissimus lumborum of 5 showjumpers and 4 dressage horses with a history of back pain is reported. M. longissimus lumborum biopsies of these horses were characterised histopathologically and in 3/9 cases also by electron microscopy. Observations were compared with M. gluteus biopsies of the same horses, and with M. gluteus biopsies obtained from 6 Standardbreds with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis and from 6 healthy trotters. M. longissimus biopsies from horses with back pain showed pathognomonic signs of PSSM, i.e. high glycogen and/or abnormal complex amylase-resistant polysaccharide deposits. Similar features were found in M. gluteus biopsies of the same horses. Sections of horses with rhabdomyolysis had increased PAS stain when compared with healthy horses, but did not show amylase-resistant material. Qualitative observations were corroborated by quantitative histochemistry (optical densities) of sections stained with PAS and amylase PAS. This study demonstrated the presence of PSSM in the M. longissimus of showjumpers and dressage horses with back pain and indicates that epaxial muscle biopsy is an option in diagnosing back problems in horses when clinical examination and imaging techniques do not provide a precise diagnosis.

  16. Sports injuries in soccer according to tactical position: a retrospective survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Moreto Onaka

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In soccer, the players’ positions have been associated with specific functional overload, which may cause sports injuries. Objective: To investigate the occurrence and characterize sport injuries according to soccer player position. Methods: 232 male soccer players (129 professionals and 103 amateurs from different sport teams in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were distributed in groups according to their soccer player position. Besides anthropometric characteristics, sports injuries were registered by using a referred morbidity survey. The occurrence of injuries was analyzed by means of the Goodman Test. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between different risk factors and the occurrence/-recurrence of sports injuries. Results: Forwards showed higher occurrence rates of sport injuries than other soccer position groups. Joint injuries in lower limbs constituted the most frequent registered cases. Muscle injuries in the back region were the most registered sports injuries among midfielders, while muscle damages in lower limbs were the primary injuries registered for other line positions. In the etiologic context, contact was the main cause of sports injuries in all groups. Most athletes (195 reported recurrence of sports injuries. Conclusion: The occurrence of sports injuries was higher among forwards. Traumatic joint and muscle injuries were the most prevalent registers in all line positions.

  17. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  18. Retrospective Injury Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Injury in CrossFit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce

  19. Shift work and the incidence of injury among police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violanti, John M; Fekedulegn, Desta; Andrew, Michael E; Charles, Luenda E; Hartley, Tara A; Vila, Bryan; Burchfiel, Cecil M

    2012-03-01

    Police officers may be injury prone due to fatigue, erratic work hours, and insufficient sleep. This study explored injury incidence among police officers across shifts. Day-to-day shift data from computerized payroll records (1994-2010) were available from a mid-sized urban police department (n = 430). Sleep duration, shift activity level, returning to work after days off, and injury incidence over time were also examined. Age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for injury on the midnight shift was 72% larger than the day shift (IRR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.26-2.36) and 66% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.23-2.25). Injury incidence for the first day back on the midnight shift was 69% larger than day shift (IRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.23-2.32) and 54% larger than the afternoon shift (IRR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.36-1.76). High activity level combined with midnight shift work put officers at increased injury risk (IRR = 2.31; P = 0.0003). Probability of remaining free of injury was significantly higher for day shift than midnight shift (P < 0.0001). Higher injury risk was associated with night shift work in police officers. Night shift combined with high work activity was strongly associated with injury risk. There was a significantly higher probability of not being injured on day compared to midnight or afternoon shifts. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Musculoskeletal injuries and pain in dancers: a systematic review update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Craig L; Hincapié, Cesar A; Cassidy, J David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assemble and synthesize the best available literature from 2004 to 2008 on musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. MEDLINE and CINAHL were the primary sources of data. Indexed terms such as dance, dancer, dancing, athletic injuries, occupational injuries, sprains and strains, musculoskeletal diseases, bone density, menstruation disturbances, and eating disorders were used to search the databases. Citations were screened for relevance using a priori criteria, and relevant studies were critically reviewed for scientific merit by the best-evidence synthesis method. After screening, 19 articles were found to be scientifically admissible. Data from accepted studies were abstracted into evidence tables relating to: prevalence and associated factors; incidence and risk factors; intervention; and injury characteristics and prognosis of musculoskeletal injury and pain in dancers. Principal findings included: a high prevalence and incidence of lower extremity, hip and back injuries; preliminary evidence that psychosocial and psychological issues such as stress and coping strategies affect injury frequency and duration; history of a previous lateral ankle sprain is associated with an increased risk of ankle sprain in the contralateral ankle in dance students; fatigue may play a role in ACL injury in dancers; acute hamstring strains in dancers affect tendon more than muscle tissue, often resulting in prolonged absence from dance. It is concluded that, while there are positive developments in the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of MSK injuries and pain in dancers, much room for improvement remains. Suggestions for future research are offered.

  1. Stress-related psychological factors for back pain among athletes: Important topic with scarce evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Jahan; Hasenbring, Monika; Kleinert, Jens; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Health issues represent a frequent problem for athletes, as this particular demographic is repeatedly confronted with physically and psychologically stressful situations. Back pain (BP) materialises as comparatively common health problem being regarded as functionally limiting and psychologically straining burden for athletes. According to research conducted on athletes with BP, biomechanical and physiological mechanisms emerge as influential, whereas stress-related psychological factors appear to be neglected. For athletic injuries, the essential impact of psychological processes on injury occurrence and return from injury has already been corroborated. Hence, the aim of this literature review is to: (1) introduce a conceptual differentiation between injuries and BP; (2) summarise the results obtained regarding stress-related psychological aspects for injuries; and (3) connect the injury research to the state-of-the-art evidence regarding stress-related factors for BP among athletes. A distinction between injuries and BP could be established based on previous definitions, despite the fact that a considerable overlap between both concepts prevails. Injuries can be attributed to a physical origin, whereas BP frequently lacks this physical criterion. For BP, our enquiry yielded four studies including psychological measures of stress - with two studies specifically examining the association between BP and psychological stress among athletes longitudinally. Abundant findings from the general population support the importance of considering psychological and specifically stress-related factors in BP prevention and rehabilitation, but evidence related to the athletic field remains elusive. Further scientific investigations with a wider methodological approach are needed to deepen the knowledge about the crucial relationship between psychological stress, BP, and athletes.

  2. Epidemiology of Injuries in Stand-Up Paddle Boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, James; Olorunnife, Olayinka; Schram, Ben; Climstein, Mike; Hing, Wayne

    2017-06-01

    Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a recreational activity and sport that has grown exponentially, with participation increasing from 1.1 million in 2010 to 2.8 million in 2014 in the United States alone. Despite this growth in participation, SUP remains underresearched with regard to injury epidemiology. To investigate injury epidemiology (severity, location, type, mechanism) in SUP. Descriptive epidemiology study. An open-source online survey was administered to active SUP participants internationally. The survey captured information relevant to demographics, participation, and injury history over the past 12 months. Of 240 participants included in the data analysis, 67.1% were males, and 54.6% were involved in competition. Participants spent a mean 192.6 ± 179.5 hours participating in SUP per year, most commonly for fun and fitness (43.3%) at the beach or bay (63.0%). A total of 95 participants had sustained at least 1 injury. A total of 161 injuries were recorded, resulting in an injury rate of 3.63 (95% CI, 3.04-4.16) per 1000 hours of SUP. The shoulder/upper arm was the most frequently injured body location, accounting for 32.9% of all injuries, followed by the lower back (14.3%) and the elbow/forearm (11.8%). The most common injury types were to muscle/tendon (50.4%), joint/ligament (22.6%), and skin (14.2%). Endurance paddling was the most frequently reported mechanism of injury (34.5%), followed by contact with a paddler's own board (20.1%) and sprint paddling (9.3%). Key risk factors for sustaining an injury were age >46 years, competitive status, and participating for >4.8 hours/week, as well as using SUP for racing. This is the first study to report injury epidemiology for SUP. It is evident that both sexes participate in SUP for fun, fitness, and competition. With regard to injuries, the shoulder, lower back, and elbow are the most injury prone; older age, competitive status, and longer hours of participation all influenced the chance of injury

  3. Lower extremity fatigue, sex, and landing performance in a population with recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddas, Ram; James, C Roger; Hooper, Troy L

    2015-04-01

    Low back pain and lower extremity injuries affect athletes of all ages. Previous authors have linked a history of low back pain with lower extremity injuries. Fatigue is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries, some of which are known to affect female athletes more often than their male counterparts. To determine the effects of lower extremity fatigue and sex on knee mechanics, neuromuscular control, and ground reaction force during landing in people with recurrent low back pain (LBP). Cross-sectional study. A clinical biomechanics laboratory. Thirty-three young adults with recurrent LBP but without current symptoms. Fatigue was induced using a submaximal free-weight squat protocol with 15% body weight until task failure was achieved. Three-dimensional knee motion, knee and ankle moments, ground reaction force, and trunk and lower extremity muscle-activity measurements were collected during 0.30-m drop vertical-jump landings. Fatigue altered landing mechanics, with differences in landing performance between sexes. Women tended to have greater knee-flexion angle at initial contact, greater maximum knee internal-rotation angle, greater maximum knee-flexion moment, smaller knee-adduction moment, smaller ankle-inversion moment, smaller ground reaction force impact, and earlier multifidus activation. In men and women, fatigue produced a smaller knee-abduction angle at initial contact, greater maximum knee-flexion moment, and delays in semitendinosus, multifidus, gluteus maximus, and rectus femoris activation. Our results provide evidence that during a fatigued 0.30-m landing sequence, women who suffered from recurrent LBP landed differently than did men with recurrent LBP, which may increase women's exposure to biomechanical factors that can contribute to lower extremity injury.

  4. The history of knowledge on radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettmann, W.

    1988-01-01

    The possible endangering with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and the fateful threat of mankind by nuclear weapons in a world-wide extent keep the discussion on problems of radiation injuries and the national and international activities to avoid them as well running. In view of the burning discussions, the impression may rise that radiation injuries became aware to the human-being only recently. Actually this knowledge dats back to the turn of the century. The development of the knowledge on radiation injuries originating immediately after discovery of W.C. Roentgen in 1895 is presented concisely. The application of radiotherapy is taken into consideration. A historical retrospect in various sections deals with the initial period of radiogenic skin injuries, with the recognition of radiation injuries at the internal organs, the proof of carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations and its mutagenic influence. Finally it is presented how experience gained during decades, is used as a basis for the conception of present radiation protection. (author)

  5. Low back pain recurrence in occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, William S; Ferguson, Sue A; Burr, Deborah; Schabo, Pete; Maronitis, Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Prospective assessment of return to work after low back pain. To determine which factors or combination of factors best predict recurrence of low back pain (defined 4 different ways) when returning to full-duty work. Recurrent back pain is one of the more costly health problems facing industry today. Few systematic evaluations of the various factors suspected of exacerbating low back pain have been reported in the literature. A total of 206 workers who reported low back pain were evaluated as they returned to full-duty work. Five types of assessments were performed including: 1) a low back kinematic functional assessments, 2) evaluation of job physical demands, 3) psychosocial assessment of the job environment, 4) self-reported impairment including perception of symptoms and psychological measures, and 5) personal (individual) factors. One year after return to full duty workers were interviewed to assess who had a recurrence of low back pain according to 4 different definitions of low back pain (symptom reports, medical visits, self-reported lost days, and employer-reported lost days due to back pain). Multiple logistic regression models were developed to assess the best combinations of predictors. The most liberal definition of recurrence, recurrent symptoms, had a significantly greater recurrence rate at 58% than all other outcome measures (P = 0.0001). The medical visit recurrence rate of 36% was significantly greater than the more conservative lost time measures (P = 0.0001). The recurrence rate for self-reported lost time was 15%, whereas the more conservative employer confirmed lost time measure was significantly lower at 10% (P = 0.0077). Multivariate predictive models associated with the various recurrence definitions yielded sensitivities varying between 78% and 80% and specificity between 73% and 80%. Recurrence is greatly dependent on how one defines recurrence with symptom reporting yielding 5.5 times as many recurrences compared with employer confirmed

  6. Are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effective for the management of neck pain and associated disorders, whiplash-associated disorders, or non-specific low back pain? A systematic review of systematic reviews by the Ontario Protocol for Traffic Injury Management (OPTIMa) Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jessica J; Côté, Pierre; Ameis, Arthur; Varatharajan, Sharanya; Varatharajan, Thepikaa; Shearer, Heather M; Brison, Robert J; Sutton, Deborah; Randhawa, Kristi; Yu, Hainan; Southerst, Danielle; Goldgrub, Rachel; Mior, Silvano; Stupar, Maja; Carroll, Linda J; Taylor-Vaisey, Anne

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the management of neck pain and associated disorders (NAD), whiplash-associated disorders, and non-specific low back pain (LBP) with or without radiculopathy. We systematically searched six databases from 2000 to 2014. Random pairs of independent reviewers critically appraised eligible systematic reviews using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. We included systematic reviews with a low risk of bias in our best evidence synthesis. We screened 706 citations and 14 systematic reviews were eligible for critical appraisal. Eight systematic reviews had a low risk of bias. For recent-onset NAD, evidence suggests that intramuscular NSAIDs lead to similar outcomes as combined manipulation and soft tissue therapy. For NAD (duration not specified), oral NSAIDs may be more effective than placebo. For recent-onset LBP, evidence suggests that: (1) oral NSAIDs lead to similar outcomes to placebo or a muscle relaxant; and (2) oral NSAIDs with bed rest lead to similar outcomes as placebo with bed rest. For persistent LBP, evidence suggests that: (1) oral NSAIDs are more effective than placebo; and (2) oral NSAIDs may be more effective than acetaminophen. For recent-onset LBP with radiculopathy, there is inconsistent evidence on the effectiveness of oral NSAIDs versus placebo. Finally, different oral NSAIDs lead to similar outcomes for neck and LBP with or without radiculopathy. For NAD, oral NSAIDs may be more effective than placebo. Oral NSAIDs are more effective than placebo for persistent LBP, but not for recent-onset LBP. Different oral NSAIDs lead to similar outcomes for neck pain and LBP.

  7. Physical deconditioning in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ivan; Parra, José-Hernán; Duvallet, Alain

    2009-03-01

    To establish the level of cardiorespiratory fitness and the rate of decrease in maximal aerobic capacity according to age in patients with chronic low back pain and compare these with normative data. Prospective case series with historical controls. Seventy patients with chronic low back pain. A maximal cycle ergometer protocol was used to measure VO2max, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate levels. Seventy patients achieved absolute and normalized for weight VO2max values of 2.17 (standard deviation (SD) 0.65) l/min and 30.79 (SD 7.77) ml/kg/min, respectively. Absolute VO2max was poorly related to age in both men and women with chronic low back pain (r = -0.22 and r = -0.28, respectively). VO2max normalized for weight was also inversely related to age in both men and women (r = -0.36 and r = -0.42, respectively). The rate of VO2max decline between 20 and 59 years was -3.3 ml/kg/min/decade for the entire population and -1.2 and -5.4 ml/kg/min/decade in men and women, respectively. The level of physical fitness of patients with chronic low back pain is comparable to the physical fitness of healthy, but poorly conditioned subjects. Patients with chronic low back pain show a VO2max decline with ageing that is slower than of active subjects.

  8. Eight-season epidemiological study of injuries in men's international Under-20 rugby tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained in men's international under-20 rugby. The study comprised an 8-season prospective study of 16 international under-20 rugby tournaments. Procedures complied with the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby. Outputs included players' mean age, stature and body mass and incidence, severity, location, type and cause of match injuries. The overall incidence of injury was 49.7 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 48.3; forwards: 50.9) with a mean severity of 32.2 days-absence (backs: 29.4; forwards: 34.4). There were no significant changes in incidence or severity of injury over the study period. Shoulder/clavicle (18.3%), head/face (16.4%), knee (13.7%) and ankle (13.7%) were the most common injury locations and ligament sprain (35.4%), haematoma/bruise (15.9%), concussion (12.5%) and muscle strain (11.2%) the most common types of injury. Being-tackled (29.2%), tackling (24.0%) and collisions (14.3%) were the most common events leading to injury. The results confirm that international under-20 rugby has a high incidence and severity of injury but the incidence is half that reported for senior international players. There was no significant change in the overall incidence of injury at the Under-20 level in the period 2008 to 2016.

  9. Disabling occupational injury in the US construction industry, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Matz, Simon; Webster, Barbara S

    2002-12-01

    In 1996 the US construction industry comprised 5.4% of the annual US employment but accounted for 7.8% of nonfatal occupational injuries and illness and 9.7% of cases involving at least a day away from work. Information in the published literature on the disability arising from construction injuries is limited. The construction claims experience (n = 35,790) of a large workers' compensation insurer with national coverage was examined. The leading types and sources of disabling occupational morbidity in 1996 in the US construction industry were identified. Disability duration was calculated from indemnity payments data using previously published methods. The average disability duration for an injured construction worker was 46 days with a median of 0 days. The most frequently occurring conditions were low back pain (14.8%), foreign body eye injuries (8.5%), and finger lacerations (4.8%). Back pain also accounted for the greatest percentage of construction claim costs (21.3%) and disability days (25.5%). However, the conditions with the longest disability durations were sudden-onset injuries, including fractures of the ankle (median = 55 days), foot (42 days), and wrist (38 days). Same-level and elevated falls were the principal exposures for fractures of the wrist and ankle, whereas elevated falls and struck by incidents accounted for the majority of foot fractures. Manual materials handling activities were most often associated with low back pain disability. The results suggest that these most disabling injuries can be addressed by increasing primary prevention resources in slips and falls and exposures related to injuries of sudden-onset as well as in reducing manual materials handling and other exposures associated with more gradual-onset injuries.

  10. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  11. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  13. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  14. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  15. Multiple lumbar transverse process stress fractures as a cause of chronic low back ache in a young fast bowler - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bali Kamal

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A rare case of multilevel transverse process stress fractures as a cause of low back ache in a professional cricket player has been presented. The report discusses the possible mechanism of such an injury in a cricket player and also highlights the preventive and therapeutic aspects of management in such patients. The report also stresses upon the need for early identification of such sports related injuries to prevent long term morbidity in the athletes.

  16. Injuries at a Canadian National Taekwondo Championships: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Willy

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the injury rates in male and female adult Canadian Taekwondo athletes relative to total number of injuries, type and body part injured. Methods Subjects (219 males, 99 females participated in the 1997 Canadian National Taekwondo Championships in Toronto, Canada. Injuries were recorded on an injury form to documents any injury seen and treatment provided by the health care team. These data were later used for this study. The injury form describes the athlete and nature, site, severity and mechanism of the injury. Results The overall rate of injuries was 62.9/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E. The males (79.9/1,000 A-E sustained significantly more injuries than the females (25.3/1,000 A-E. The lower extremities were the most commonly injured body region in the men (32.0 /1,000 A-E, followed by the head and neck (18.3/1,000 A-E. Injuries to the spine (neck, upper back, low back and coccyx were the third most often injured body region in males (13.8/1,000 A-E. All injuries to the women were sustained to the lower extremities. The most common type of injury in women was the contusion (15.2/1,000 A-E. However, men's most common type of injury was the sprain (22.8/1,000 A-E followed by joint dysfunction (13.7/1,000A-E. Concussions were only reported in males (6.9/1,000 A-E. Compared to international counterparts, the Canadian men and women recorded lower total injury rates. However, the males incurred more cerebral concussions than their American colleagues (4.7/1,000 A-E. Conclusions Similar to what was found in previous studies, the current investigation seems to suggest that areas of particular concern for preventive measures involve the head and neck as well as the lower extremities. This is the first paper to identify spinal joint dysfunction.

  17. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  18. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim....... The body can never be understood merely as a biological entity, and therefore illness is far more than having symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment. The synthesis thus proposes an acknowledgment of this and a more holistic approach....... of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of back patients’ illness experiences and to identify, systematise and integrate the findings of different qualitative studies that may elucidate barriers, consequences or focal points in connection with the care and treatment. Methods: The methodology...

  19. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  20. Injuries in women associated with a periodized strength training and running program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, K L; Harman, E A; Worsham, R E; Sykes, M B; Frykman, P N; Backus, V L

    2001-02-01

    Forty-five women participated in a 24-week physical training program designed to improve lifting, load carriage, and running performance. Activities included weightlifting, running, backpacking, lift and carry drills, and sprint running. Physicians documented by passive surveillance all training-related injuries. Thirty-two women successfully completed training program. Twenty-two women (48.9%) suffered least 1 injury during training, but only 2 women had to drop out of the study because of injuries. The rate of injury associated with lost training time was 2.8 injuries per 1,000 training hours of exposure. Total clinic visits and days lost from training were 89 and 69, respectively. Most injuries were the overuse type involving the lower back, knees, and feet. Weightlifting accounted for a majority of the lost training days. A combined strength training and running program resulted in significant performance gains in women. Only 2 out of 45 participants left the training program cause of injuries.

  1. Clinical classification in low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom; Laslett, Mark; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical examination findings are used in primary care to give an initial diagnosis to patients with low back pain and related leg symptoms. The purpose of this study was to develop best evidence Clinical Diagnostic Rules (CDR] for the identification of the most common patho...... searching and citation tracking to identify eligible studies. Criteria for inclusion were: persons with low back pain with or without related leg symptoms, history or physical examination findings suitable for use in primary care, comparison with acceptable reference standards, and statistical reporting...

  2. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  3. Predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A; Johansen, J G; Hellesnes, J; Brox, J I

    1999-02-01

    Testing for trunk muscle strength was performed on 105 patients with chronic low back pain. To investigate prediction of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain. The clinical evaluation of patients with chronic low back pain often in difficult because of discrepancy between disability and impairment. The isokinetic trunk device was developed as a tool for objective assessment of back muscle strength. However, the performance of patients depends on radiologic abnormalities of the spine, conditions of the back muscles, and various psychosocial factors. Studies are warranted that address how these variables influence back muscle strength. The patients with chronic low back pain were tested by an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test (Cybex TEF, Ronkonkoma, NY). In addition, the following variables were recorded: gender, age, body mass index, emotional distress, pain on exertion, self-efficacy for pain, degenerative changes of the lumbar spine, cross-sectional area, and density of the erector spinae muscles. The three latter variables were estimated by computed tomography scans. The sum of the total work performed during isokinetic extension strength test was the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, and anthropometric, demographic, psychological, and radiologic factors were independent variables. Gender, cross-sectional muscle area, and pain on exertion were the most powerful predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength. The final regression model, which included these variables, could account for approximately 40% of the variability in back muscle strength. For assessing the results of an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test, cross-sectional muscle area, gender, and pain on exertion should be taken into account.

  4. 1990 Volvo Award in clinical sciences. Lumbar spinal pathology in cadaveric material in relation to history of back pain, occupation, and physical loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videman, T; Nurminen, M; Troup, J D

    1990-08-01

    The occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, end-plate defects, vertebral body osteophytosis, and facet joint osteoarthrosis was examined radiographically and osteologically in 86 male cadavers for whom occupational, physical loading, and back pain histories were obtained from the men's families. History of back pain and the parameters of spinal pathology were related to the highest and lowest degrees of physical loading. In multivariate analyses, history of back injury was related to the occurrence of symmetric disc degeneration, anular ruptures, and vertebral osteophytosis. Symmetric disc degeneration was associated with sedentary work, and vertebral osteophytosis was related to heavy work. History of back pain was related to occupational physical loading after control for the effects of the other covariates. The results indicate that the least pathology stemmed from moderate or mixed physical loading, but the least back pain was associated with sedentary work.

  5. Lower back pain: clinical features and examination of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Damulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the clinical and paraclinical aspects of pain syndromes of the lumbosacral localization. The past medical history (including the working conditions of the patient and the presence of constant stress, physical and paraclinical examination, and assessment of psychological condition are important for establishing the correct diagnosis. It should be noted that there is no strict parallelism between the presence of back pain and the results of paraclinical examination of the spine. Therefore, the comprehensive assessment of the patient's clinical status, including the state of the musculoskeletal system, has a leading value for correct diagnosis and selection of therapy. Increasing pain when coughing or sneezing is noted in patients with discogenic pain syndromes; the development of pain along the root innervation often occurs simultaneously with the reduction of localized pain in the lumbar region. The diagnostic value of the radiography and neuroimaging data is unquestioned; however, these methods allow one to evaluate mainly the anatomical rather than pathophysiological changes. The direct dependence between the anatomical changes and the clinical situation is not typical of back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is when the injury level is unclear and the clinical examination data indicate pathology of the spinal cord or soft tissues. Moreover, MRI data help either to eliminate or confirm a tumor or the inflammatory nature of the pain syndrome. MRI is also an informative method in patients who have undergone surgery for vertebral pathology. Computed tomography is an effective diagnosis method only in those cases where the symptomatology clearly indicates the injury level and the bone changes are the pain cause with a high degree of probability. Electromyography (EMG is very informative in patients with radiculopathies; it allows one to evaluate the pathophysiological changes in such patients. However, there usually is

  6. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Choung Young

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwondo athletes competing in a national tournament was conducted. Competitors at a Canadian national level tournament were given a comprehensive survey prior to competition. Items on training characteristics, diet, and injuries sustained during training and competition were included. Questionnaires were distributed to 60 athletes. Results A response rate of 46.7% was achieved. Of those that responded, 54% dieted prior to competition, and 36% dieted and exercised pre-competition. Sixty-four percent of the athletes practised between 4–6 times per week, with 54% practicing 2 hours per session. Lower limb injuries were the most common (46.5%, followed by upper extremity (18%, back (10%, and head (3.6%. The majority of injuries consisted of sprains/strains (45%, followed by contusions, fractures, and concussions. More injuries occurred during training, including 59% of first injuries. Conclusion More research needs to be conducted to further illustrate the need for appropriate regulations on weight cycling and injury prevention.

  7. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, E A

    1989-07-01

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the patient with arachnoiditis are discussed.

  8. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenbode, I. C. D.; Jellema, P.; van Poppel, M. N. M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar supports are used in the treatment of low-back pain patients, to prevent the onset of low-back pain (primary prevention) or to prevent recurrences of a low-back pain episode (secondary prevention). To assess the effects of lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of non-specific low-back

  9. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eye Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Eye Injuries What's in ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  10. Knee Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cartilage in the knee gradually wears away, causing pain and swelling. Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You usually injure your ACL ...

  11. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  13. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos en ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect stem-cell treatments to become available for spinal cord injuries? ...

  15. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  16. Overview of Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kept in the emergency department or hospital for observation. Children who have had a minor head injury ... penetrating trauma (such as a knife or gunshot wound). Injuries may range from relatively small hematomas (collections ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_ ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ... spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, ...

  4. Acromioclavicular joint injuries in the National Football League: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Saltzman, Matthew D; Ghodasra, Jason H; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Bowen, Mark K; Nuber, Gordon W

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies investigating acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries in professional American football players have only been reported on quarterbacks during the 1980s and 1990s. These injuries have not been evaluated across all position players in the National Football League (NFL). The purpose of this study was 4-fold: (1) to determine the incidence of AC joint injuries among all NFL position players; (2) to investigate whether player position, competition setting, type of play, and playing surface put an athlete at an increased risk for this type of injury; (3) to determine the incidence of operative and nonoperative management of these injuries; and (4) to compare the time missed for injuries treated nonoperatively to the time missed for injuries requiring surgical intervention. Descriptive epidemiological study. All documented injuries of the AC joint were retrospectively analyzed using the NFL Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS) over a 12-season period from 2000 through 2011. The data were analyzed by the anatomic location, player position, field conditions, type of play, requirement of surgical management, days missed per injury, and injury incidence. Over 12 NFL seasons, there were a total of 2486 shoulder injuries, with 727 (29.2%) of these injuries involving the AC joint. The overall rate of AC joint injuries in these athletes was 26.1 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures, with the majority of these injuries occurring during game activity on natural grass surfaces (incidence density ratio, 0.79) and most often during passing plays. These injuries occurred most frequently in defensive backs, wide receivers, and special teams players; however, the incidence of these injuries was greatest in quarterbacks (20.9 injuries per 100 players), followed by special teams players (20.7/100) and wide receivers (16.5/100). Overall, these athletes lost a mean of 9.8 days per injury, with quarterbacks losing the most time to injury (mean, 17.3 days). The majority of

  5. Low fitness, low body mass and prior injury predict injury risk during military recruit training: a prospective cohort study in the British Army.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Siddall, Andrew; Bilzon, James; Thompson, Dylan; Greeves, Julie; Izard, Rachel; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Injuries sustained by military recruits during initial training impede training progression and military readiness while increasing financial costs. This study investigated training-related injuries and injury risk factors among British Army infantry recruits. Recruits starting infantry training at the British Army Infantry Training Centre between September 2008 and March 2010 were eligible to take part. Information regarding lifestyle behaviours and injury history was collected using the Military Pre-training Questionnaire. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical fitness and injury (lower limb and lower back) data were obtained from Army databases. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to explore the association between time to first training injury and potential risk factors. 58% (95% CI 55% to 60%) of 1810 recruits sustained at least 1 injury during training. Overuse injuries were more common than traumatic injuries (65% and 35%, respectively). The lower leg accounted for 81% of all injuries, and non-specific soft tissue damage was the leading diagnosis (55% of all injuries). Injuries resulted in 122 (118 to 126) training days lost per 1000 person-days. Slower 2.4 km run time, low body mass, past injury and shin pain were independently associated with higher risk of any injury. There was a high incidence of overuse injuries in British Army recruits undertaking infantry training. Recruits with lower pretraining fitness levels, low body mass and past injuries were at higher risk. Faster 2.4 km run time performance and minimal body mass standards should be considered for physical entry criteria.

  6. Chronic low back pain after lumbosacral fracture due to sagittal and frontal vertebral imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyoud-Garnier, L; Boudissa, M; Ruatti, S; Kerschbaumer, G; Grobost, P; Tonetti, J

    2017-06-01

    Over time, some patients with unilateral or bilateral lumbosacral injuries experience chronic low back pain. We studied the sagittal and frontal balance in a population with these injuries to determine whether mismatch in the pelvic and lumbar angles are associated with chronic low back pain. Patients with posterior pelvic ring fractures (Tile C1, C2, C3 and A3.3) that had healed were included. Foreign patients and those with an associated spinal or acetabular fracture or nonunion were excluded. The review consisted of subjective questionnaires, a clinical examination, and standing A/P and lateral stereoradiographic views. The pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope (SS), pelvic incidence (PI), measured lumbar lordosis (LLm), T9 sagittal offset, leg discrepancy (LD) and lateral curvature (LC). The expected lumbar lordosis (LLe) was calculated using the formula LLe=PI+9°. We defined lumbopelvic mismatch (LPM) as the difference between LLm and LLe being equal or greater than 25% of LLe. Fifteen patients were reviewed after an average follow-up of 8.8 years [5.4-15]. There were four Tile C1, five Tile C2, five Tile C3 and one Tile A3.3 fracture. Ten of the 15 patients had low back pain. The mean angles were: LLm 49.6° and LLe 71.9° (P=0.002), PT 21.3°, SS 44.1°, PI 62.9° in patients with low back pain and LLm 57.4° and LLe 63.2° (P=0.55), PT 13°, SS 43.1°, PI 54.2° in those without. LPM was present in 9 patients, 8 of who had low back pain (P=0.02). Six patients, all of whom had low back pain, had a mean LC of 7.5° [4.5-23] (P=0.02). The mean LD was 0.77cm. The findings of this small study suggest that patients who experience low back pain after their posterior arch of the pelvic ring fracture has healed, have a lumbopelvic mismatch. Early treatment of these patients should aim to reestablish the anatomy of the pelvic base relative to the frontal and sagittal balance. IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Yoga versus education for Veterans with chronic low back pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Robert B; Lemaster, Chelsey M; Elwy, A Rani; Paris, Ruth; Herman, Patricia M; Plumb, Dorothy N; Sherman, Karen J; Groessl, Erik J; Lynch, Susan; Wang, Shihwe; Weinberg, Janice

    2016-04-29

    Chronic low back pain is the most frequent pain condition in Veterans and causes substantial suffering, decreased functional capacity, and lower quality of life. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress, depression, and mild traumatic brain injury are highly prevalent in Veterans with back pain. Yoga for low back pain has been demonstrated to be effective for civilians in randomized controlled trials. However, it is unknown if results from previously published trials generalize to military populations. This study is a parallel randomized controlled trial comparing yoga to education for 120 Veterans with chronic low back pain. Participants are Veterans ≥18 years old with low back pain present on at least half the days in the past six months and a self-reported average pain intensity in the previous week of ≥4 on a 0-10 scale. The 24-week study has an initial 12-week intervention period, where participants are randomized equally into (1) a standardized weekly group yoga class with home practice or (2) education delivered with a self-care book. Primary outcome measures are change at 12 weeks in low back pain intensity measured by the Defense and Veterans Pain Rating Scale (0-10) and back-related function using the 23-point Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. In the subsequent 12-week follow-up period, yoga participants are encouraged to continue home yoga practice and education participants continue following recommendations from the book. Qualitative interviews with Veterans in the yoga group and their partners explore the impact of chronic low back pain and yoga on family relationships. We also assess cost-effectiveness from three perspectives: the Veteran, the Veterans Health Administration, and society using electronic medical records, self-reported cost data, and study records. This study will help determine if yoga can become an effective treatment for Veterans with chronic low back pain and psychological comorbidities. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02224183.

  8. Effect of Occupational and Psychological Factors in Back Pain Nurses in AMOL City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hamid Sharif Nia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this investigation is recognizing the job and psychic factors of the job with Amol nurses backache. Materials & Methods: This study was conducted on 400 nurses in some public hospitals in Amol. Colleting the information was done through the modified Nordic questionnaire and the given analysis was through the descriptive statistics, chi-square, independent t-test and Logistic regression. Results: 324 of the nurses (81% had backache at least once during the previous year. Their average age was 32.39±6.2 years and their average height was 166.7±8.7cm and their average weight was 67.7±9.8. Female gender (OR=3.03, regular exercise (OR=0.4, increased height per centimeter (OR=1.06 and increased weight per kg (OR=1.04 communication means do with back pain showed. Bending for lifting objects from the floor for 5% risk of back pain increases and the work related psychosocial factors were observed for each one degree increase in the intensity of dissatisfaction with colleagues back pain risk is increased 70% and between job stress factors, for every one degree increase in the range (always, most often, sometimes, never in a hurry to work 40% less likely to back pain. Conclusion: The findings of this study confirm nurses lumbar injuries are at risk. Also be significant for some individual factors, physical and psychological complexity suggests occupational back pain back pain are factors that can modify their costs into the system and reduce the individual.

  9. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  10. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  11. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and cool downs before and after training and matches, respectively. As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and rehabilitation are essential; especially in the prevention of re-injury. Unfortunately, youth football is often disadvantaged with inadequate or unavailable sports medicine personnel and treatment ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  13. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  14. Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of illnesses and disabilities Spinal cord injury Spinal cord injury Read advice from Dr. Jeffrey Rabin , a pediatric ... your health on a daily basis. Living with spinal cord injury — your questions answered top What are pediatric ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  16. Lightning injury: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Hospital to Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ...

  18. Assessment of Ankle Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Nicholas; Cooper, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    School nurses are faced with the challenge of identifying and treating ankle injuries in the school setting. There is little information guiding the assessment and treatment of these children when an injury occurs. It is essential for school nurses to understand ankle anatomy, pathophysiology of the acute ankle injury, general and orthopedic…

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  20. Penetrating chest injury: A miraculous life salvage

    OpenAIRE

    Santosh B Dalavi; Prakash D Gurav; Sharad S Sharad

    2013-01-01

    An unusual penetrating chest injury was caused by high velocity road traffic accident. An 18-year-old had a four wheeler accident and was brought in emergency department with a ′bamboo′ stick on the left side chest exiting through back. After the stabilization of vital parameters, an inter-costal tube drainage was done on the left side. Except the minor brochopleural fistula which healed by 10 th day, his recovery was uneventful. The outcome was consistent with current aggressive manageme...

  1. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  2. Low back pain (non-specific).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krismer, M.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is defined as pain localised between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain. Most cases are non-specific, but in about 10% of cases a specific cause is identified. Red flags are typical signs or symptoms that are frequently associated with specific

  3. Paschen-Back effect in dyonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A formulation of the Pashen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed to explain the recent evidence for a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e. The masses for isospin I = 0 mesons are estimated and compared with experiment

  4. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  5. Imaging in mechanical back pain: Anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A; Fournier, Gilles; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-08-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations of various lumbar spine imaging techniques with focus on new emerging technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  7. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst with back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [11]. Conclusion. A case of a 31-year-old man with congenital bronchogenic cyst associated with severe back pain has been presented. The diagnosis made by chest radiograph and chest CT was confirmed by pathology. The clinical presentation, radiologic features and treatment of bronchogenic cyst have been discussed.

  8. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  9. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  10. Non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peralta's "Operation Call Back": Demonstrating People Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Thomas W., Jr.; Mitchell, Beverly

    1975-01-01

    To avoid declining enrollments, Peralta identified 50,000 former students and launched a massive campaign to contact and re-recruit them. This, combined with the mailing of a brochure to all 190,000 local households, posters mounted on the backs of 50 local buses, and other advertising methods led to a second semester enrollment increase of over…

  12. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long...

  13. Looking back on 10 RESIM workshops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    This year sees the 10th RESIM workshop, which is a good moment to look back on this series of workshops. Partially, this will be a "trip down memory lane": remembering all the meetings and venues. Partially, it will be more serious. Can we see any trends in the topics discussed in the workshops? Are

  14. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical therapist says it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying ... Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, et al. Interventional therapies, surgery, and ... for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice ...

  15. Augmented Reality: Simulasi Terapi Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmi Khalida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini telah berkembang ilmu layanan kesehatan yang dilakukan dari jarak jauh atau telemedicine. Telemedicine adalah praktek kesehatan dengan memakai komunikasi audio, visual dan data. termasuk perawatan, diagnosis, konsultasi dan pengobatan serta pertukaran data medis dan diskusi ilmiah jarak jauh dengan melibatkan dokter, pasien dan pihak-pihak lain. Augmented Reality merupakan pemodelan simulasi virtual, Augmented Reality adalah teknologi yang menggabungkan antara dunia nyata dengan virtual. Teknologi Augmented Reality dapat diterapkan pada telemedicine, Secara sederhana, telemedicine sesungguhnya telah diaplikasikan ketika terjadi simulasi model virtual pada sebuah tindakan operasi. Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai media Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada bidang kesehatan yaitu pada penyakit low back pain dan penyembuhannya melalui terapi mandiri. Penyalit low back pain mempunyai prevalensi yang tinggi namun penyakit ini dapat sembuh dengan sendirinya. Tahapan pengerjaan dalam penelitian ini dimulai identifikasi kandidat prototype, lalu rancang bangun prototype. Tahap yang ketiga yaitu rancang bangun prototype yaitu proses pembuatan model 3D dan interface flash, proses rendering, dan integrasi antara model dan Augmented Reality. Tahap yang keempat adalah uji coba prototype yaitu Teknologi Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada terapi low back pain. Tahap yang terakhir adalah evaluasi dan diharapkan berhasil mencapai sasaran, maka peningkatan derajat kesehatan masyarakat dapat dipercepat. Implementasi aplikasi simulasi terapi Low Back Pain dengan metode Augmented Reality menunjukan dapat digunakan oleh seluruh masyarakat karena penggunaa merasa mudah mengoperasikannya, desain aplikasi menarik, dan mudah disebar-luaskan.

  16. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 2015 Approved by: Rudolph P. Darken Thesis Advisor Thomas Mackin, California Polytechnic State...critical infrastructure resilience CIRGP Critical Infrastructure Resilience Grant Program CMI Consequences Measurement Index COAG Council of Australian

  17. Injury Rate and Patterns Among CrossFit Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisenthal, Benjamin M; Beck, Christopher A; Maloney, Michael D; DeHaven, Kenneth E; Giordano, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    CrossFit is a type of competitive exercise program that has gained widespread recognition. To date, there have been no studies that have formally examined injury rates among CrossFit participants or factors that may contribute to injury rates. To establish an injury rate among CrossFit participants and to identify trends and associations between injury rates and demographic categories, gym characteristics, and athletic abilities among CrossFit participants. Descriptive epidemiology study. A survey was conducted, based on validated epidemiologic injury surveillance methods, to identify patterns of injury among CrossFit participants. It was sent to CrossFit gyms in Rochester, New York; New York City, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and made available via a posting on the main CrossFit website. Participants were encouraged to distribute it further, and as such, there were responses from a wide geographical location. Inclusion criteria included participating in CrossFit training at a CrossFit gym in the United States. Data were collected from October 2012 to February 2013. Data analysis was performed using Fisher exact tests and chi-square tests. A total of 486 CrossFit participants completed the survey, and 386 met the inclusion criteria. The overall injury rate was determined to be 19.4% (75/386). Males (53/231) were injured more frequently than females (21/150; P = .03). Across all exercises, injury rates were significantly different (P CrossFit was approximately 20%. Males were more likely to sustain an injury than females. The involvement of trainers in coaching participants on their form and guiding them through the workout correlates with a decreased injury rate. The shoulder and lower back were the most commonly injured in gymnastic and power lifting movements, respectively. Participants reported primarily acute and fairly mild injuries.

  18. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive understanding of low back pain (LBPhas evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  19. Sports injuries in school gaelic football: a study over one season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A W

    1996-01-01

    School football injuries were studied over the seven months of one season on 150 males aged 16.94 +/- 0.82 years. Training averaged 4.13 +/- 1.47 hours per week and matches 1.84 +/- 0.60 hours per week. Mean time injured was: 0.51 +/- 1.7 days in hospital, 34.27 +/- 37.08 days off sport and 13.98 +/- 5.22 days of restricted activity. There were 136 match and 63 training injuries giving 175.98 injuries per 10000 hours of matches and 31.06 injuries per 10000 hours of training. Injuries were treated as follows: hospital 83, general practitioners 51, physiotherapists 28, no treatment 38. The most common injuries were: ankle sprain (11.6% of the total), hamstring strain (6.5%), contusion (6.5%) back strain (6%) knee sprain (5.0%), finger sprain (5.0%), other muscle strains (5.0%), fracture of the wrist (5.0%), dislocation of the finger (4.5%), overuse injury of the back (4.0%), tenosynovitis (3.5%), fracture of the ankle (3.0%). Thirteen injuries were to goal-keepers, 85 to backs, 31 to mid-field players and 70 to forwards. In 34.83% of the injuries foul play was given as the major cause. This was followed by "Lack of fitness", "Poor kit or boots" and "Previous injury" (all 11.24%). The most common minor cause was "Poor state of the pitch" (17.42% of injuries).

  20. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    , depression or others) has been investigated previously; however, knowledge about traffic collision-related MBP is lacking. The study objectives were to describe the incidence, course of recovery and prognosis of MBP after traffic collisions, in terms of global self-reported recovery. METHODS: Longitudinal......BACKGROUND: Traffic collisions often result in a wide range of symptoms included in the umbrella term whiplash-associated disorders. Mid-back pain (MBP) is one of these symptoms. The incidence and prognosis of different traffic injuries and their related conditions (e.g. neck pain, low back pain......: These findings show that MBP is common after traffic collisions, may result in a long recovery process and that a range of biopsychosocial factors are associated with recovery....

  1. Back pain as a lifestyle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Koszela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency in which back pain is diagnosed and treated has markedly increased in the recent years. At present, back pain and dysfunction syndrome is becoming a lifestyle disease, along with hypertension and diabetes. It affects more and more people. Low back pain is currently one of the most common complaints with which patients report to the doctor, including a primary care physician. Depending on the affected part of the spinal motion segment, we can distinguish: discogenic pain, radicular pain, facet joint pain and muscle pain. Unambiguous determination of its aetiology is generally difficult since, usually, several overlapping pathologies are involved. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the problems associated with back pain and the complexity of its pathomechanism as treatment is adjusted to the site of pathology. This article is based on data from international, broadly cited literature on spinal dysfunctions. Back pain is not usually a very severe condition and can be treated conservatively in most cases. Despite this, it affects a vast number of people and constitutes a considerable financial burden for the state budget. This is associated with costs of medical procedures, but most of all, with absence at work and early opinions of incapacity for work.

  2. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  3. The bra-line back lift: a simple approach to correcting severe back rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunstad, Joseph P; Khan, Phillip D

    2014-10-01

    Anatomic sequelae of the upper back that occur with age or weight loss have been somewhat underserved in the plastic surgery literature. Zones of adherence in the upper posterior trunk create overhanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue, which are disturbing to the patient both functionally and cosmetically. These adherence points prove challenging in that they prevent contouring of the upper back with procedures such as traditional abdominoplasty or lower body lift. The bra line back lift provides a reliable and consistent method of addressing these issues by eliminating excess redundant skin and adiposity from the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal column injuries among Americans in the global war on terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, James A; Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Cross Rivera, Jessica D; Grenier, Eric S; Lehman, Ronald A; Hsu, Joseph R

    2012-09-19

    While combat spinal injuries have been documented since the fourth century BC, a comprehensive analysis of such injuries has not been performed for any American military conflict. Recent literature has suggested that spinal injuries account for substantial disability in wounded service members. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried to identify all American military personnel who sustained injuries to the back, spinal column, and/or spinal cord in Iraq or Afghanistan from October 2001 to December 2009. Spinal injuries were categorized according to anatomic location, neurological involvement, mechanism of injury, and concomitant wounds. Of 10,979 evacuated combat casualties, 598 (5.45%) sustained 2101 spinal injuries. Explosions accounted for 56% of spinal injuries, motor vehicle collisions for 29%, and gunshots for 15%. Ninety-two percent of all injuries were fractures, with transverse process, compression, and burst fractures the most common. Spinal cord injuries were present in 17% (104) of the 598 patients. Concomitant injuries frequently occurred in the abdomen, chest, head, and face. The incidence of spine trauma sustained by military personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan is higher than that reported for previous conflicts, and the nature of these injuries may be similar to those in severely injured civilians. Further research into optimal management and rehabilitation is critical for military service members and severely injured civilians with spine trauma.

  5. Lumbar spine MRI in the elite-level female gymnast with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D. Lee; Nassar, Lawrence; DeLano, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown increased degenerative disk changes and spine injuries in the competitive female gymnast. However, it has also been shown that many of these findings are found in asymptomatic athletic people of the same age. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating the gymnastic spine have not made a distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes. Our hypothesis is that MRI will demonstrate the same types of abnormalities in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic gymnasts. Olympic-level female gymnasts received prospectively an MRI exam of the lumbar spine. Each of the gymnasts underwent a physical exam by a sports medicine physician just prior to the MRI for documentation of low back pain. Each MRI exam was evaluated for anterior apophyseal ring avulsion injury, compression deformity of the vertebral body, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, degenerative disease, focal disk protrusion/extrusion, muscle strain, epidural mass, and bone-marrow edema. Nineteen Olympic-level female gymnasts (age 12-20 years) were evaluated prospectively in this study. All of these gymnasts were evaluated while attending a specific training camp. Anterior ring apophyseal injuries (9/19) and degenerative disk disease (12/19) were common. Spondylolysis (3/19) and spondylolisthesis (3/19) were found. Focal bone-marrow edema was found in both L3 pedicles in one gymnast. History and physical exam revealed four gymnasts with current low back pain at the time of imaging. There were findings confined to those athletes with current low back pain: spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, bilateral pedicle bone-marrow edema, and muscle strain. (orig.)

  6. Lumbar spine MRI in the elite-level female gymnast with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, D. Lee [Department of Radiology, University of Iowa, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, Colleges of Human Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States); Nassar, Lawrence [Department of Sports Medicine and Kinesiology, Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States); DeLano, Mark C. [Department of Radiology, Michigan State University, Colleges of Human Medicine and Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Previous studies have shown increased degenerative disk changes and spine injuries in the competitive female gymnast. However, it has also been shown that many of these findings are found in asymptomatic athletic people of the same age. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating the gymnastic spine have not made a distinction between symptomatic and asymptomatic athletes. Our hypothesis is that MRI will demonstrate the same types of abnormalities in both the symptomatic and asymptomatic gymnasts. Olympic-level female gymnasts received prospectively an MRI exam of the lumbar spine. Each of the gymnasts underwent a physical exam by a sports medicine physician just prior to the MRI for documentation of low back pain. Each MRI exam was evaluated for anterior apophyseal ring avulsion injury, compression deformity of the vertebral body, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, degenerative disease, focal disk protrusion/extrusion, muscle strain, epidural mass, and bone-marrow edema. Nineteen Olympic-level female gymnasts (age 12-20 years) were evaluated prospectively in this study. All of these gymnasts were evaluated while attending a specific training camp. Anterior ring apophyseal injuries (9/19) and degenerative disk disease (12/19) were common. Spondylolysis (3/19) and spondylolisthesis (3/19) were found. Focal bone-marrow edema was found in both L3 pedicles in one gymnast. History and physical exam revealed four gymnasts with current low back pain at the time of imaging. There were findings confined to those athletes with current low back pain: spondylolisthesis, spondylolysis, bilateral pedicle bone-marrow edema, and muscle strain. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of Low Back and Neck Pain and Disability of Interns at Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Department of Afyon Kocatepe University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horata Emel Taşvuran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive tasks, high force, direct pressure, and awkward joint and prolonged constrained posture are cited as prime risk factors, making particularly younger adult physiotherapists vulnerable to musculoskeletal injury. Fourth-grade students (interns perform clinical practice at Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital. They apply hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, robotic therapy, virtual reality therapy and exercise therapy to patients (inpatient and outpatient at both orthopaedic and neurology units approximately twelve months. Because we think they are under the risk of low back and neck disorders therefore aim of the present study is to evaluate recent low back and neck pain and disability of them. 50.6% participants had recent low back pain; 52.9% participants reported mild and moderate low back disability. 21.8% participants had recent neck pain; 16% participants showed mild, moderate and severe neck disability. The difference between units related to low back and neck pain or disability wasn’t significant statistically (p>0.05. Most participants announced that they used the body biomechanics correctly (84.1% and took care of ergonomic conditions (91.5%. In conclusion, it is vital to identify prevalence of low back and neck pain among physiotherapy students and take necessary precautions to prevent further problems.

  8. [Trauma registry and injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, S C

    2001-10-01

    The trauma registry network constitutes an essential database in every injury prevention system. In order to rationally estimate the extent of injury in general, and injuries from traffic accidents in particular, the trauma registry systems should contain the most comprehensive and broad database possible, in line with the operational definitions. Ideally, the base of the injury pyramid should also include mild injuries and even "near-misses". The Israeli National Trauma Registry has come a long way in the last few years. The eventual inclusion of all trauma centers in Israel will enable the establishment of a firm base for the allocation of resources by decision-makers.

  9. Injuries during physical activity in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Gunilla; Saartok, Tönu; Engström, Lars-Magnus; Renström, Per

    2005-10-01

    During the spring of 2001, 1975 children, from grades 3, 6 and 9 participated in a nationwide, multidisciplinary collaboration study. The students came from randomly selected classes throughout Sweden, representing different geographical and socio-economic areas. The aim of this study was to collect and evaluate self-reported injuries and associated factors during various physical activities as recalled retrospectively for 3 months by the students. Every sixth student (n=299 or 16%) reported 306 injuries. Twice as many girls than boys were injured during physical education class. Ninth-grade students reported relatively more injuries during organized sports than during physical education class and leisure activities. There were no age or gender differences in incidence rate during leisure activities. Most injuries were minor, as 70% were back in physical activity within a week. Half of the students (50%) reported that they previously had injured the same body part. Primary care of the injured student was, with the exception of a family member, most often carried out by the physical education teacher or coach, which accentuates the importance of continuous sports medicine first aid education for this group.

  10. Whole-Body Vibrations Associated With Alpine Skiing: A Risk Factor for Low Back Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Supej

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpine skiing, both recreational and competitive, is associated with high rates of injury. Numerous studies have shown that occupational exposure to whole-body vibrations is strongly related to lower back pain and some suggest that, in particular, vibrations of lower frequencies could lead to overuse injuries of the back in connection with alpine ski racing. However, it is not yet known which forms of skiing involve stronger vibrations and whether these exceed safety thresholds set by existing standards and directives. Therefore, this study was designed to examine whole-body vibrations connected with different types of skiing and the associated potential risk of developing low back pain. Eight highly skilled ski instructors, all former competitive ski racers and equipped with five accelerometers and a Global Satellite Navigation System to measure vibrations and speed, respectively, performed six different forms of skiing: straight running, plowing, snow-plow swinging, basic swinging, short swinging, and carved turns. To estimate exposure to periodic, random and transient vibrations the power spectrum density (PSD and standard ISO 2631-1:1997 parameters [i.e., the weighted root-mean-square acceleration (RMS, crest factor, maximum transient vibration value and the fourth-power vibration dose value (VDV] were calculated. Ground reaction forces were estimated from data provided by accelerometers attached to the pelvis. The major novel findings were that all of the forms of skiing tested produced whole-body vibrations, with highest PSD values of 1.5–8 Hz. Intensified PSD between 8.5 and 35 Hz was observed only when skidding was involved. The RMS values for 10 min of short swinging or carved turns, as well as all 10-min equivalent VDV values exceeded the limits set by European Directive 2002/44/EC for health and safety. Thus, whole-body vibrations, particularly in connection with high ground reaction forces, contribute to a high risk for low back

  11. Ice hockey injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Brian W; Meeuwisse, Willem H

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the distribution and determinants of injuries reported in the pediatric ice hockey literature, and suggests potential injury prevention strategies and directions for further research. Thirteen electronic databases, the ISI Web of Science, and 'grey literature' databases were searched using a combination of Medical Subject Headings and text words to identify potentially relevant articles. The bibliographies of selected studies were searched to identify additional articles. Studies were selected for review based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A comparison between studies on this topic area was difficult due to the variability in research designs, definition of injury, study populations, and measurements used to assess injury. The majority of injuries were sustained during games compared with practices. The two most commonly reported injuries were sprains/strains and contusions. Players competing at the Minor hockey, High School, and Junior levels of competition sustained most of their injuries to the upper extremity, head, and lower extremity, respectively. The primary mechanism of injury was body checking, followed by stick and puck contact. The frequency of catastrophic eye injuries has been significantly reduced with the world-wide mandation of full facial protection for all Minor hockey players. Specific hockey-related injury risk factors are poorly delineated and rarely studied among pediatric ice hockey players leaving large gaps in the knowledge of appropriate prevention strategies. Risk management strategies should be focused at avoiding unnecessary foreseeable risk, and controlling the risks inherent to the sport. Suggestions for injury prevention and future research are discussed.

  12. Martial arts injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieter, Willy

    2005-01-01

    To review the current evidence for the epidemiology of pediatric injuries in martial arts. The relevant literature was searched using SPORT DISCUS (keywords: martial arts injuries, judo injuries, karate injuries, and taekwondo injuries and ProQuest (keywords: martial arts, taekwondo, karate, and judo), as well as hand searches of the reference lists. In general, the absolute number of injuries in girls is lower than in boys. However, when expressed relative to exposure, the injury rates of girls are higher. Injuries by body region reflect the specific techniques and rules of the martial art. The upper extremities tend to get injured more often in judo, the head and face in karate and the lower extremities in taekwondo. Activities engaged in at the time of injury included performing a kick or being thrown in judo, while punching in karate, and performing a roundhouse kick in taekwondo. Injury type tends to be martial art specific with sprains reported in judo and taekwondo and epistaxis in karate. Injury risk factors in martial arts include age, body weight and exposure. Preventive measures should focus on education of coaches, referees, athletes, and tournament directors. Although descriptive research should continue, analytical studies are urgently needed.

  13. Imaging of muscle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, G.Y. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Brandser, E.A. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Kathol, M.H. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Tearse, D.S. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Callaghan, J.J. [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    1996-01-01

    Although skeletal muscle is the single largest tissue in the body, there is little written about it in the radiologic literature. Indirect muscle injuries, also called strains or tears, are common in athletics, and knowing the morphology and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit is the key to the understanding of these injuries. Eccentric muscle activation produces more tension within the muscle tan when it is activated concentrically, making it more susceptible to tearing. Injuries involving the muscle belly tend to occur near the myotendinous junction. In adolescents, the weakest link in the muscle-tendon-bone complex is the apophysis. Traditionally, plain radiography has been the main diagnostic modality for evaluation of these injuries; however, with the advent of MRI it has become much easier to diagnose injuries primarily affecting the soft tissues. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the muscle-tendon unit as they relate to indirect muscle injuries. Examples of common muscle injuries are illustrated. (orig.)

  14. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  15. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. Objective To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). Methods The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). Results The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Conclusions Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. PMID:26194501

  16. Injury risk is low among world-class volleyball players: 4-year data from the FIVB Injury Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bere, Tone; Kruczynski, Jacek; Veintimilla, Nadège; Hamu, Yuichiro; Bahr, Roald

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the rate and pattern of injuries in international volleyball competition. To describe the risk and pattern of injuries among world-class players based on data from the The International Volleyball Federation (FIVB) Injury Surveillance System (ISS) (junior and senior, male and female). The FIVB ISS is based on prospective registration of injuries by team medical staff during all major FIVB tournaments (World Championships, World Cup, World Grand Prix, World League, Olympic Games). This paper is based on 4-year data (September 2010 to November 2014) obtained through the FIVB ISS during 32 major FIVB events (23 senior and 9 junior). The incidence of time-loss injuries during match play was 3.8/1000 player hours (95% CI 3.0 to 4.5); this was greater for senior players than for junior players (relative risk: 2.04, 1.29 to 3.21), while there was no difference between males and females (1.04, 0.70 to 1.55). Across all age and sex groups, the ankle was the most commonly injured body part (25.9%), followed by the knee (15.2%), fingers/thumb (10.7%) and lower back (8.9%). Injury incidence was greater for centre players and lower for liberos than for other player functions; injury patterns also differed between player functions. Volleyball is a very safe sport, even at the highest levels of play. Preventive measures should focus on acute ankle and finger sprains, and overuse injuries in the knee, lower back and shoulder. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Epidemiology of high school and collegiate football injuries in the United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Prasad R; Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Dick, Randall W; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-08-01

    Football, one of the most popular sports among male high school students in the United States, is a leading cause of sports-related injuries, with an injury rate almost twice that of basketball, the second most popular sport. Injury patterns will vary between competition and practice exposures and between levels of play (ie, high school vs. National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA]). Descriptive epidemiology study. Football-related injury data were collected over the 2005-2006 school year from 100 nationally representative high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) and from 55 Division I, II, and III colleges via the NCAA Injury Surveillance System. Nationally, an estimated 517,726 high school football-related injuries (1881 unweighted injuries) occurred during the 2005-2006 season. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater during high school competitions (12.04) than during practices (2.56). The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was also greater during collegiate competitions (40.23) than during practices (5.77). While the overall rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was greater in the NCAA (8.61) than in high school (4.36), high school football players sustained a greater proportion of fractures and concussions. Running plays were the leading cause of injury, with running backs and linebackers being the positions most commonly injured. Patterns of football injuries vary, especially by type of exposure and level of play. Future studies should continue to compare differences in injury patterns in high school and collegiate football, with particular emphasis placed on high-risk plays (running plays) and positions (running backs and linebackers).

  18. Snowboarding injuries. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, C; McCrory, P

    1995-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, snowboarding has become established as a popular and legitimate alpine sport. However, at present, there are few epidemiological studies examining the spectrum of injuries associated with this new sport. Snowboarders are typically male (male: female ratio of 3:1) and in their early twenties. They have an injury rate of 4 to 6 per 1000 visits, which is comparable to that which occurs with skiing. However, in contrast to skiing, in which only 34% of those injured are beginners, the majority (60%) of snowboarders injured are beginners. This is a reflection of the participant profile of this developing sport. 57% of injuries occur in the lower limbs, and 30% in the upper limbs. The most common injuries are simple sprains (31 to 53%), particularly of the ankles (23 to 26%) and knees (12 to 23%), followed by fractures (24 to 27%) and contusions (12%). Compared with skiing injuries, snowboarders have 2.4 times as many fractures, particularly of the upper limbs (constituting 21 vs 35% of upper limb injuries), fewer knee injuries (23 vs 44% of lower limb injuries), but more ankle injuries (23 vs 6% of lower limb injuries). Snowboarding knee injuries are less severe than those associated with skiing. Fracture of the lateral process of the talus is an unusual and uncommon snowboarding injury that can be misdiagnosed as a severe ankle sprain. Ankle injuries are more common with soft shell boots, whereas knee injuries and distal tibia fractures are more common with hard shell boots.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  20. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this project was to perform an initial evaluation of reported post-flight back pain and injury cases to relevant spaceflight risk factors in United States astronauts that have completed an ISS mission. METHODS All US astronauts who completed an ISS mission between Expeditions (EXP) 1 and 41 (2000-2015) were included in this evaluation. Forty-five astronauts (36 males and 9 females) completed 50 ISS missions during the study time period, as 5 astronauts completed 2 ISS missions. Researchers queried medical records of the 45 astronauts for occurrences of back pain and injury. A case was defined as any reported event of back pain or injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or coccyx spine regions. Data sources for the cases included the Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record; Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation electronic documentation; the Private Medical Conference tool; and the Space Medicine Operations Team records. Post-flight cases were classified as an early case if reported within 45 days of landing (R + 45) or a late case if reported from R + 46 to R + 365 days after landing (R + 1y). Risk factors in the astronaut population for back pain include age, sex, prior military service, and prior history of back pain. Additionally, spaceflight specific risk factors such as type of landing vehicle and onboard exercise countermeasures were included to evaluate their

  1. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is computed...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  2. RESULTS OF DIAGNOSTICAL BLOCK OF LONG DORSAL SACROILIAC LIGAMENT UNDER SONOGRAPHIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurkovskiy A. M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to improve effectiveness of diagnostic block of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament performed under sonographic control in patients with low back pain caused by pathology of this ligament. Material and methods: the research included 35 patients (average age 46,2±12,5 years with symptoms of low back pain caused by pathology of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Diagnostical block of the given ligament was made under ultrasound control. Results: significant pain syndrome reduction was observed in all patients with ligamentopathy of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament. Conclusion: compared to "blind" technique, long dorsal sacroiliac ligament block performed under sonographic control is a more efficient method of verification and treatment for low back pain syndrome in case of long dorsal sacroiliac ligament injury.

  3. Ballet dancer's turnout and its relationship to self-reported injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Julie A

    2002-11-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To compare the relationship between the degrees of turnout, passive hip external rotation range of motion, and self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury in ballet dancers. Ballet dancers are encouraged to externally rotate their lower extremities (turnout) as far as possible. This may cause stress on the dancers' low back and lower extremities, putting them at risk for injury. Thirty college-level ballet dancers and instructors were evaluated. Each participant completed an injury questionnaire that placed the participant either in a group with a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury or in a group without a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injury. Each dancer's first-position turnout and passive external rotation range of motion for both hips were measured. The comparison between each dancer's first-position turnout and the measured hip external rotation range of motion was called "compensated turnout." A 2-sample test was used to determine if the average compensated turnout was significantly different in the injured and noninjured groups. The mean (+/- SD) compensated turnout values for the injured and noninjured groups were 25.40 degrees (+/- 21.3 degrees) and 4.7 degrees (+/- 16.3 degrees), respectively. This difference was significant at P = 0.006. Based on a self-reported history of low back and lower extremity injuries, ballet dancers have a greater risk of injury if they reach a turnout position that is greater than their available bilateral passive hip external rotation range of motion.

  4. The effect of sex and chronic low back pain on back muscle reflex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Forget, Robert; Vadeboncoeur, Roger; Bilodeau, Martin; Mecheri, Hakim

    2010-07-01

    Different back muscle reflex assessment protocols have shown abnormally longer reflex latency responses of back muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, many confounding variables are difficult to control, such as the load magnitude and the preactivation of trunk muscles. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in 30 subjects with CLBP and 30 healthy controls, the activation levels of back muscles during pre-loading and their reflex responses to sudden loading. After subjected to six practice perturbations, 20 sudden and unexpected forward perturbations of the trunk were applied in 30 CLBP subjects (14 women) and 31 controls (17 women), while attempting to minimize the confounding effect of preactivation level and perturbation amplitude. Reflex latency and amplitudes were computed from the surface EMG signals of four back muscles (bilaterally at L5, L3, L1, T10 vertebral levels). EMG was also collected from abdominal muscles. Subjects with CLBP significantly increased the preactivation of back muscles (abdominal preactivation the same) relative to controls while no sex effect was observed. While adjusting statistically for these differences, reflex amplitude was significantly higher in subjects with CLBP and men, compared to healthy controls and women, respectively. Interestingly, contrary to most of the literature available, no between-group effects were detected for reflex latency, which could potentially be explained by an appropriate control of confounding variables, but this remains to be clarified in future research.

  5. Back pain and body posture evaluation instrument (BackPEI): development, content validation and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Tarragô Candotti, Cláudia; Vieira, Adriane; Fagundes Loss, Jefferson

    2013-08-01

    Following a search conducted in several databases, no instrument was found that jointly evaluates the prevalence of back pain and its associated demographic, social-economic, hereditary, behavioral and postural risk factors. Thus, the present study aims to develop the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument (BackPEI) for school-age children and verify its validity and reproducibility. Twenty-one questions were elaborated to compose the BackPEI instrument, eight experts checked the content validity, and its reproducibility was tested by applying the questionnaire to 260 primary schoolchildren, at two different times with a 7-day interval. The reproducibility data for the first 20 questions, analyzed using the kappa (k) coefficient, were classified as "very good" (k > 0.8) or "good" (0.6 pain intensity question, analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), demonstrated that there was no difference between the averages (p = 0.251) and the responses were highly correlated (ICC = 0.937) for these two tests. The BackPEI constitutes a valid and reproducible instrument which is relevant for the evaluation of back pain and its associated risk factors.

  6. Factors that distinguish serious versus less severe strain and sprain injuries: an analysis of electric utility workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsh, Michael A; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Lau, Edmund C; Mink, Pamela J; Morimoto, Libby M; Lu, Elizabeth T; Yager, Janice W

    2009-03-01

    Occupational sprain and strain injuries are one of the most common types of nonfatal occupational injuries and a significant source of lost workdays. This study examines factors associated with severe work-related sprain/strain injuries to the back, shoulder, and knees. A synthetic case-control study was performed (controls were selected from the same pool of utility workers as cases). Cases included all electric utility workers who had experienced a severe work-related sprain/strain injury to the back, knee, or shoulder. Primary controls were selected from all workers who had sustained a minor injury. Secondary controls were selected from employees with a minor sprain/strain injury to the back, knee, or shoulder. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Workers 41 years and older were more likely to have experienced severe shoulder sprain/strain injuries [Age 41-50: OR = 3.62, 95% CI: 1.71-7.65; age 51 and older: OR = 4.49, 95% CI: 1.89-10.67] and severe back sprain/strain injuries [Age 41-50: OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.33; age 51 and older: OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.90-2.52]. Line workers and maintenance workers had an increased risk of serious sprain/strain injuries. Gender and day of week were not significantly associated with sprain/strain injuries. Though this study is limited by available data, future studies may benefit from this preliminary examination of occupational and demographic characteristics associated with serious sprain/strain injuries among electric utility workers.

  7. Using observation and self-report to predict mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity in heavy industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Catherine; Teschke, Kay; Morrison, Jim; Village, Judy; Johnson, Peter; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2010-07-01

    Occupational injury research depends on the ability to accurately assess workplace exposures for large numbers of workers. This study used mixed modeling to identify observed and self-reported predictors of mean, 90th percentile, and cumulative low back muscle activity to help researchers efficiently assess physical exposures in epidemiological studies. Full-shift low back electromyography (EMG) was measured for 133 worker-days in heavy industry. Additionally, full-shift, 1-min interval work-sampling observations and post-shift interviews assessed exposure to work tasks, trunk postures, and manual materials handling. Data were also collected on demographic and job variables. Regression models using observed variables predicted 31-47% of the variability in the EMG activity measures, while self-reported variables predicted 21-36%. Observation-based models performed better than self-report-based models and may provide an alternative to direct measurement of back injury risk factors.

  8. Physical injury assessment of male versus female chiropractic students when learning and performing various adjustive techniques: a preliminary investigative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Laura L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports of musculoskeletal injuries that some chiropractic students experienced while in the role of adjustor became increasingly evident and developed into the basis of this study. The main objective of this study was to survey a select student population and identify, by gender, the specific types of musculoskeletal injuries they experienced when learning adjustive techniques in the classroom, and performing them in the clinical setting. Methods A survey was developed to record musculoskeletal injuries that students reported to have sustained while practicing chiropractic adjustment set-ups and while delivering adjustments. The survey was modeled from similar instruments used in the university's clinic as well as those used in professional practice. Stratified sampling was used to obtain participants for the study. Data reported the anatomical areas of injury, adjustive technique utilized, the type of injury received, and the recovery time from sustained injuries. The survey also inquired as to the type and area of any past physical injuries as well as the mechanism(s of injury. Results Data obtained from the study identified injuries of the shoulder, wrist, elbow, neck, low back, and mid-back. The low back was the most common injury site reported by females, and the neck was the most common site reported by males. The reported wrist injuries in both genders were 1% male complaints and 17% female complaints. A total of 13% of female respondents reported shoulder injuries, whereas less than 1% of male respondents indicated similar complaints. Conclusion The data collected from the project indicated that obtaining further information on the subject would be worthwhile, and could provide an integral step toward developing methods of behavior modification in an attempt to reduce and/or prevent the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries.

  9. The rodeo athlete: injuries - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Michael C; Laurent, C Matthew

    2010-10-01

    A previous instalment to this review focused on the sport science for rodeo, the history behind the sport and what is currently known about the physical and physiological status, coronary risk profile, strength and power levels, event-specific kinesiological and biomechanical aspects, nutritional habits and psychological indices associated with the rodeo athlete. In regards to injury, rodeo is well known for its high-velocity, high-impact atmosphere where athletes compete against the clock and uncooperative livestock. Considered by many to be a dangerous sport with high vulnerability towards trauma and frequent injuries, animal/human contact events comprise ∼80% of reported injuries. Severe trauma includes fractures, dislocations, subluxations, concussions, ligament ruptures, pneumothorax and various neurapraxias. Head and neck trauma account for 10-29% of total trauma and up to 63% of upper body injuries, with concussion incidence rates of 3.4 per 1000 competitive exposures. The incidence of thoracic, back and abdominal injuries comprise 11-84% of trauma, while shoulder injuries, involving anterior/posterior arthralgia, inflammation, instability and increasing weakness, account for 8-15% of upper extremity cases. Lower extremity trauma accounts for 26-34% of cases, with the majority involving the knee. Many believe that the incidence of trauma is underestimated, with studies hampered by numerous limitations such as a lack of injury awareness, missing data, poor injury recall, an array of reporting sources, delays in subject response and treatment, no uniform definition of injury or reporting system and predisposing factors prior to injury. Primary mechanisms of injuries are attributed to physical immaturity, fatigue, age and experience, behaviour, the violent nature of the sport and lack of adequate medical intervention. Although there is limited adherence to organized conditioning programmes, when properly planned, sport-specific conditioning may enhance

  10. Brief biopsychosocially informed education can improve insurance workers' back pain beliefs: Implications for improving claims management behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beales, Darren; Mitchell, Tim; Pole, Naomi; Weir, James

    2016-11-22

    Biopsychosocially informed education is associated with improved back pain beliefs and positive changes in health care practitioners' practice behaviours. Assess the effect of this type of education for insurance workers who are important non-clinical stakeholders in the rehabilitation of injured workers. Insurance workers operating in the Western Australian workers' compensation system underwent two, 1.5 hour sessions of biopsychosocially informed education focusing on understanding and identifying barriers to recovery of injured workers with musculoskeletal conditions. Back pain beliefs were assessed pre-education, immediately post-education and at three-month follow-up (n = 32). Self-reported and Injury Management Advisor-reported assessment of change in claims management behaviours were collected at the three-month follow-up. There were positive changes in the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (p = 0.009) and Back Beliefs Questionnaire (p = 0.049) immediately following the education that were sustained at three-month follow-up. Positive changes in claims management behaviours were supported by self-reported and Injury Management Advisor-reported data. This study provides preliminary support that a brief biopsychosocially informed education program can positively influence insurance workers' beliefs regarding back pain, with concurrent positive changes in claims management behaviours. Further research is required to ascertain if these changes result in improved claims management outcomes.

  11. FMS™ scores and low-back loading during lifting--whole-body movement screening as an ergonomic tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-05-01

    Previous research suggests that a general whole-body movement screen could be used to identify personal movement attributes that promote potentially injurious low-back loading patterns at work. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) composite scores and the low-back loading response to lifting. Fifteen men who scored greater than 14 on the FMS (high-scorers) and 15 height- and weight-matched low-scorers (FMS axes, but there was a tendency for the lumbar spine to be more deviated in the low-scorers. Using the previously established injury prediction threshold value of 14, the composite FMS score was not related to the peak low-back loading magnitudes in lifting. Though not statistically significant, the tendency for the lumbar spines of low-scorers to be more deviated when the peak low-back compression force was imposed could be biomechanically meaningful because spinal load tolerance varies with posture. Future attempts to modify or reinterpret FMS scoring are warranted given that several previous studies have revealed links between composite FMS scores and musculoskeletal complaints. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ["Round back" in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflid, N; Fragnière, B; Dutoit, M

    2000-10-01

    The hyper-kyphosis or "the postural round back" is one of the most common complaints in orthopedic practice. In the majority of cases, the thoracic kyphosis are painless and flexible. The vertebral bodies are normal on radiograms. This is "the kyphotic attitude" or postural round-back. A medical treatment is not the necessary rule. Life hygiene, sports and simple supervision are needed. Nevertheless, there are still pathological fixed kyphosis, induced in the majority of cases by Scheuermann's disease. The other possible etiologies (congenital, paralytic, post-traumatic, Pott's disease, postradiation, or metabolic origin) are a lot rare ones and will be excluded by clinical examination and imaging studies. The structural hyper-kyphosis require treatment. We will approach successively steps of the diagnosis and treatment of the hyper-kyphosis of the adolescent.

  13. The Cernettes are back at the Hardronic!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN MusiClub

    2017-01-01

    Five years after their last epic performance, at the Hardronic Festival 2012, “Les Horribles Cernettes” (the rockin’ LHC) will be singing and dancing again on the planks of the CERN Festival on July 15th. The band’s comeback is a real challenge, since the four singers are scattered as far as Washington DC and Mauritius, passing through Glasgow and Montecarlo. The backing musicians too, live in Tenerife, Mauritius, London. So to make their comeback this summer, CERN’s favourite High Energy Band needs to raise funds for travel. The good news is, we’re half way there, and if you click on the donate button on their website, you can help make every fan’s dream come true. Get the Cernettes back at CERN!                      www.cernettes.com #cernettescomeback

  14. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...

  15. Cholelithiasis presented as chronic right back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobé-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Muñoz, Griselda; Llor-Vilà, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report presented with chronic right back pain, which is an atypical manifestation of biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. It is important to know about the atypical manifestations of the prevalent illnesses as well as the limits of the diagnostic tests, in order to avoid diagnostic delays which may cause complications that could worsen a patient's prognosis. This case should contribute to the medical knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice, especially in primary care.

  16. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure

    2014-01-01

    strategies were identified for each scenario. Appropriateness of the chosen management strategy was assessed using predetermined "best practice" for each scenario. Consensus was arbitrarily defined as "moderate" when 50- 69% of respondents agreed on the same management choice for a scenario, and "excellent......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investigate...... whether those findings could be reproduced among French chiropractors.Objectives: 1. To assess the level of consensus among French chiropractors regarding management strategies for nine different scenarios of low back pain. 2. To assess whether the management choices of the French chiropractors appeared...

  17. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  18. [External ureteral injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asali, Murad G; Romanowsky, Igor; Kaneti, Jacob

    2007-09-01

    Traumatic ureteral injuries are quite uncommon. Penetrating and non-blunt trauma are the most common cause of ureteral injuries. Most of the blunt ureteral injuries described in the literature are case reports. Simultaneous bilateral ureteral injury is extremely rare. In homodynamic stable patients imaging studies should be conducted when there is suspicion of urinary tract injury. Abdominal computerized tomography with contrast injection and delayed scans are the gold standard for staging such injuries. Excretory urography may be used when computerized tomography is not feasible. When both of these imaging studies are not diagnostic and there is still a high suspicion of injury, a retrograde pyelography would be the next imaging study option. Partial ureteral transection can be managed with ureteral stent placement. Complete ureteral transection and some grade III injuries should be explored and repaired with debridement, placement of ureteral stent and tension-free anastomosis of healthy ureteral ends with absorbable stitches and omental or peritoneal wrap. The type of anastomosis depends on the height of the ureteral injury and whether the contralateral ureter is existent and with no diseases. A high index of suspicion is needed in diagnosing ureteral injury in patients with blunt or penetrating trauma. Delay in diagnosis or inappropriate treatment would lead to serious immediate and delayed complications, from mild hematoma to abscess, sepsis, strictures, obstructive nephropathy, and renal unit loss.

  19. Time-Loss Injuries in Sub-Elite and Emerging Rugby League Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Booth, Rhonda Orr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to 1 investigate the incidence and characteristics of injuries in emerging rugby league players; and 2 explore the differences in injury incidence and characteristics between the various sub-elite competitions. An NRL emerging player development squad (n = 34 was observed from the beginning of pre-season until the finish of competition. Time-loss injury was defined as any physical pain or impairment sustained that resulted in players missing a match. Injuries were categorised according to circumstance, incidence, characteristics, playing position and competition level. Of a total of 196 injuries that were recorded, 45 were time-loss and 151 were transient. The total injury incidence was 7.9/1,000 playing hours. The most common sites for time-loss injuries were the shoulder, ankle/foot and knee. Ligament injuries accounted for the highest number of injuries by type. Forwards sustained the greatest number of injuries. However, backs suffered the greatest injury cost. The majority of time-loss injuries were sustained during competition matches. Injuries sustained during open age matches resulted in significantly higher injury cost to those received at NYC matches. NRL development and emerging rugby league players are exposed to high risk of injury. Lower limb and shoulder injuries to bone or connective tissue are prevalent as a result of contact during match play. Players at this developmental level feed into several different playing squads where disparities in physical development, maturation, playing intensity and training regimes are evident. This presents a challenge in matching physiological capabilities with playing demands for NRL development squads.

  20. Shoulder Injuries in Individuals Who Participate in CrossFit Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summitt, Ryan J; Cotton, Ryan A; Kays, Adam C; Slaven, Emily J

    CrossFit, a sport and fitness program, has become increasingly popular both nationally and internationally. Researchers have recently identified significant improvements in health and wellness due to CrossFit. However, some individuals assert that CrossFit poses an inherent risk of injury, specifically to the shoulder, due to the intensity of training. Currently, there is limited evidence to support this assertion. Exercises performed during CrossFit do not place the shoulder at greater risk for injury. Injury rates are comparable to other sports of similar intensity. Descriptive survey study. Level 5. An electronic survey was developed and dispersed to approximately 980 individuals who trained in CrossFit gyms. The survey identified demographic data, training characteristics, and the prevalence of injury over a 6-month period in individuals who participated in CrossFit training. A total of 187 (19.1%) individuals completed the survey. Forty-four (23.5%) indicated that they had experienced a shoulder injury during CrossFit training over the previous 6 months. Of those who reported injury, 17 (38.6%) stated that this injury was an exacerbation of a previous injury sustained prior to starting CrossFit. There was no significant relationship between several demographic and training variables and shoulder injury. All shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.94 per 1000 hours training, while "new" shoulder injuries occurred at a rate of 1.18 per 1000 hours training. The most commonly attributed causes of injury were improper form (33.3%) and exacerbation of a previous injury (33.3%). Twenty-five (64.1%) of those who experienced injury reported 1 month or less of training reduction due to the injury. Shoulder injury rates during CrossFit training are comparable to other methods of recreational exercise. Clinicians should be aware of training demands of exercises in CrossFit and modifications for these exercises to safely progress their patients back to participation.

  1. Survey of sport participation and sport injury in Calgary and area high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Meeuwisse, Willem H; McAllister, Jenelle R

    2006-01-01

    To examine (1) sport participation and (2) sport injury in adolescents. This was a retrospective survey design. In total, 2873 adolescents were recruited from a random sample of classes from 24 Calgary and area high schools. Each subject completed an in-class questionnaire in March 2004. Overall and sport-specific participation rates (number of sport participants/number of students completing survey). Overall and sport-specific injury rates (number of injuries/number of participants). In the previous 1 year, 94% of students participated in sport. The top 5 sports by participation for males were basketball, hockey, football, snowboarding, and soccer, and for females, basketball, dance, volleyball, snowboarding, and soccer. The injury rate including only injuries requiring medical attention was 40.2 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 38.4-42.1), presenting to a hospital emergency department was 8.1 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 7.1-9.2), resulting in time loss from sport was 49.9 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 48-51.8), and resulting in loss of consciousness was 9.3 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 8.3-10.5). The greatest proportion of injuries occurred in basketball, hockey, soccer, and snowboarding. The top 5 body parts injured were the ankle, knee, head, back, and wrist. The top 5 injury types were sprain, contusion, concussion, fracture, and muscle strain. A previous injury was associated with 49% of the injuries and direct contact with 45% of injuries. Rates of participation in sport and sport injury are high in adolescents. Future research should focus on prevention strategies in sports with high participation and injury rates to maximize population health impact.

  2. Back extrusion of vocadlo-type fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), , 45366-1-45366-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscosity * back extrusion * annular pumping * vocadlo model * Robertson-stiff model Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.592, year: 2013 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/23840225602.368/ApplRheol_23_45366.pdf

  3. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Antić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accept...

  4. BackTrack testing wireless network security

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step format, you will be able to get started in next to no time with minimal effort and zero fuss.BackTrack: Testing Wireless Network Security is for anyone who has an interest in security and who wants to know more about wireless networks.All you need is some experience with networks and computers and you will be ready to go.

  5. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  6. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed insi......, the management strategy of performing an MRI already at the start of the treatment did reduce the duration of treatment and number of contacts with clinicians, thus saving both time and money....

  7. Cholelithiasis Presented as Chronic Right Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bob?-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Mu?oz, Griselda; Llor-Vil?, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report pr...

  8. Injuries in Irish dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Cynthia J; Tyson, Kesley D; Johnson, Victor M; Popoli, David M; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Micheli, Lyle J

    2013-12-01

    Irish dance is growing in popularity and competitiveness; however, very little research has focused specifically on this genre of dance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the types of dance injuries incurred by Irish dancers. A chart review was performed to identify all injuries associated with Irish dance seen in the sports medicine or orthopaedic clinics at the investigators' hospital over an 11-year period. "Injury" was defined as any dance-related pain or disorder that led to evaluation in the clinics. Survey data were also collected from study participants. Ultimately, 255 patients from over 30 different schools of dance were seen with injuries directly related (726 clinic visits) or partially related (199 visits) to Irish dance. Participants ranged in age from 4 to 47, with 95% (243/255) under the age of 19. These 255 patients received 437 diagnoses. Almost 80% of the injuries (348/437) were attributable to overuse, and 20.4% were acute and traumatic injuries (89/437). Ninety-five percent (95.9%) of injuries involved the hip or lower extremity. The most common sites were the foot (33.2%), ankle (22.7%), knee (19.7%), and hip (14.4%). Typical diagnoses were tendon injury (13.3%), apophysitis (11.4%), patellofemoral pain and instability (10.8%), stress injury (10.1%), and muscle injury (7.8%). The majority of traumatic injuries were seen in clinic within 3 weeks, but less than a quarter of overuse injuries were seen that quickly. The most common treatment, prescribed to 84.3% of patients, was physical therapy and home exercises, and the majority of dancers (64.3%) were able to return to full dance activity after injury.

  9. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.

  10. Predictors of Running-Related Injuries Among 930 Novice Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Buist, Ida; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Background: To identify persons at high risk of sustaining running-related injuries, an evidence-based understanding of the risk factors associated with injury is needed. Purpose: To identify demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with running-related injuries. Study Design: Observational prospective cohort study with a 1-year follow-up. Methods: Exposures including sex, age, body mass index (BMI), behavior (Type A Self-Rating Inventory [TASRI]), running experience, other sports activity, previous running-related injuries, and other injuries not related to running were assessed prior to or at baseline. The outcome of interest was a running-related injury, defined as any musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running that restricted the amount of running (volume, duration, pace, or frequency) for at least 1 week. All participants quantified their running volume by global positioning system (GPS) and used a neutral running shoe. Time to first injury for each exposure variable was analyzed using a generalized linear model, with cumulative kilometers of the training sessions as the time scale. Results: A total of 930 individuals were included in the study, of which 254 sustained a running-related injury during a total of 155.318 km of running. By calculating the cumulative injury risk differences (cIRDs) [95% confidence intervals] after 500 km of running, the TASRI Type B behavior (cIRD, 11.9% [−0.5%; 23.3%]; P = .04) was found to be a significant predictor of injury, while age between 45 and 65 years (cIRD, 14.7% [−2.1%; 31.5%]; P = .08) and previous injuries not related to running (cIRD, 11.1% [−0.2%; 22.4%]; P = .05) were considered clinically interesting, although not statistically significant. In addition, χ2 test results across 4 BMI groups also revealed a borderline significant relationship (P = .06). No significant or clinically relevant relationships were found for sex (P = .42), previous running-related injury

  11. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  12. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  13. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  14. Focal traumatic brain stem injury is a rare type of head injury resulting from assault: a forensic neuropathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sarraj, Safa; Fegan-Earl, Ashley; Ugbade, Antonia; Bodi, Istvan; Chapman, Rob; Poole, Simon; Swift, Ben; Jerreat, Peter; Cary, Nat

    2012-04-01

    Brainstem haemorrhage is common in cases of head injury when it is associated with space-occupying lesion and increases in the intracranial pressure (duret haemorrhage), in cases of diffuse axonal injury (in dorso-lateral quadrant) and diffuses vascular injury (in the periventricular tissue). However focal traumatic brainstem injury is rare. We identified 12 cases of focal traumatic brainstem injury from review of 319 case of head injury. The head trauma had been caused by different mechanisms of complex fall from height and assault. 10/12 are associated with skull fracture, 11/12 with contre coup contusions in the frontal and temporal lobes, 5/12 direct contusions to cerebellum, 5/12 haemorrhage in corpus callosum and 2/11 have gliding contusions. None of the cases had pathological evidence of increase in the intracranial pressure. The bleeding in the pons was at the edge in 2/12 and cross the section in 10/12. The majority of patients were unconscious immediately after the incident (10/12) and 9/12 died within one day. Focal traumatic brainstem injury occurs most likely due to direct impact at the back of the head or stretching forces affecting the brainstem in cases of complex fall from height and after assault, particularly those associated with kicks. It is a serious and commonly fatal brain damage, which needed to be differentiated from other causes of brainstem haemorrhages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of low back pain in alpine ski instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nola; Walker, James A; Fogg, Reed; Dudley, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Mailed survey to random sample of a specific population. To examine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors. The lifetime prevalence for back pain is up to 60% among some athletes. Published literature documents back pain among athletes participating in many sports. However, the prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors has not been established. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America. The lifetime and point prevalence were determined by respondents' report regarding history of low back pain and current back pain. Two hundred four (75% of the 272 respondents) reported a history of low back pain. Eighty-five of those who responded (31%) reported current back pain. Over 9% of respondents missed 10 or more days of work because of back pain. The lifetime prevalence of back pain among respondents was similar to the general population. The respondents reported more lifetime prevalence of back pain than athletes of many other sports. The high prevalence of back pain among ski instructors may increase cost and decrease revenue for the employer. Prevention training in this population may decrease the prevalence of back pain and lessen costs to the employer and the alpine ski instructor.

  16. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  17. Exercise and arthritis. Exercise and the back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, W

    1990-11-01

    Some of the positive benefits from participating in aerobic activity have already been addressed. However, an individual's ability to participate in many aerobic activities may be contingent on the ability to maintain a neutral or a stabilized spine. For example, the individual for whom jogging has been painful may be able to jog after he or she has learned trunk stabilization and is able to keep the spine in his or her pain-free position. Although Williams contended that jogging was an inappropriate activity for the individual with a low-back problem, contrary to this notion, White believes that jogging is more apt to protect a person from low-back pain than to cause it. Although no association was found between mileage run and osteoarthritis, jogging is not for all individuals who present with LBP or related arthritic conditions. Moreover, poor biomechanics in running can exacerbate existing low-back problems as well as bring about new ones as compensatory adaptations are made. For example, poor running technique might include excessive forward lean; this must be counterbalanced by contraction of the back extensors, which then may become overly tired or produce high intersegmental forces on the discs. We advocate an upright posture with minimal forward lean. The biomechanics of running also are most important from the perspective of shock absorption. Factors to consider in addition to running within the neutral spine excursion include cushioning footstrike by "giving" at the ankle, knee, and hip joints. In addition to good biomechanics, it would also be important to use an excellent quality training shoe and to run on a soft track as opposed to harder surfaces; hills should probably be avoided for most symptomatic individuals until they become strong. Nachemson indicates that in addition to recommending jogging for LBP, he most commonly recommends backstroke swimming, brisk walking, and stairclimbing. Bicycle riding (stationary or actual) would be another good

  18. Neurological Outcome in Road Traffic Accidents with Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Moslavac, Saša; Džidić, Ivan; Kejla, Zvonko

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate neurological outcome in road traffic accidents (RTA) with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was undertaken in National Spinal Unit of Special Medical Rehabilitation Hospital, in Vara`dinske Toplice, Croatia. Hospital records of 154 inpatient RTA SCI patients, in years 1991–2001 were reviewed. Six groups of patients were formed: car drivers, co-drivers, back seat passengers, motorcycle drivers, bicycle drivers and pedestrians. Neurological ...

  19. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Lessons Learned from Clinical, Sports, and Combat Concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Judy C.; Amerson, Efland H.; Barth, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past forty years, a tremendous amount of information has been gained on the mechanisms and consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries. Using sports as a laboratory to study this phenomenon, a natural recovery curve emerged, along with standards for managing concussions and returning athletes back to play. Although advances have been made in this area, investigation into recovery and return to play continues. With the increase in combat-related traumatic brain injuries in the milit...

  20. Effect of Ankle Mobility and Segment Ratios on Trunk Lean in the Barbell Back Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglsang, Emil I; Telling, Anders S; Sørensen, Henrik

    2017-11-01

    Fuglsang, EI, Telling, AS, and Sørensen, H. Effect of ankle mobility and segment ratios on trunk lean in the barbell back squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3024-3033, 2017-The barbell back squat is a popular exercise used for both performance enhancing and rehabilitation purposes. However, injuries are common, and people with a history of lower back pain are especially vulnerable. Past studies have shown that higher trunk angles (less forward lean) generate less stress on the lower back; thus, it seems appropriate to investigate the factors presumed to influence the trunk angle. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how ankle mobility and the segment ratios between the thoracic spine, thighs, and shanks influence the trunk angle in the back squat. While recorded with motion capture, 11 male subjects performed 3 repetitions at approximately 75% of 1 repetition maximum in the squat to a parallel position (thighs horizontal) or lower. Furthermore, subjects performed a weight bearing lunge test to determine maximal range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint. Segment angles of the shank, thigh, and trunk segments as well as ankle joint angles were calculated by 2-dimensional kinematic analysis. Simple linear and multiple regressions were used to test the correlation between the lower extremity angles, segment ratios, and the trunk angle. On average, subjects had an 11.4 ± 4.4° deficit in dorsiflexion ROM between maximal ROM and ROM in the parallel squat (PS) which was independent of maximal ROM. Ankle mobility showed to significantly negatively correlate with trunk angle, thereby showing that a subject with greater ankle ROM had a more upright torso in the PS position. This study was unable to find a significant correlation between the segment ratios and trunk angle. Furthermore, when combined, no significant relationship between ankle mobility, segment length ratios, and trunk angle were found, although it was noticed that this more complex model showed

  1. Costs of traffic injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the socioeconomic costs of traffic injuries in Denmark, notably the healthcare costs and the productivity costs related to traffic injuries, in a bottom-up, register-based perspective. METHOD: Traffic injury victims were identified using national...... emergency room data and police records. Victims were matched with five controls per case by means of propensity score, nearest-neighbour matching. In the cohort, consisting of the 52 526 individuals that experienced a traffic injury in 2000 and 262 630 matched controls, attributable healthcare costs were...... assessed using Danish national healthcare registers. Productivity costs were computed using duration analysis (Cox regression models). In a subanalysis, cost per severe traffic injury was computed for the 12 995 individuals that experienced a severe injury. RESULTS: The socioeconomic cost of a traffic...

  2. Work injuries and disability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene

    2009-01-01

    of 4,217 male and 4,105 female employees from a national survey were followed up for subsequent DPR. RESULTS AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY AND GOVERNMENT: Having had a work injury was a strong predictor of DPR among men. After control for age, smoking, body mass index, body postures, and physical demands......PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total......, the hazard ratio (HR) among those employees who had ever experienced a work injury was 1.80 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.68). No association was found among women. SUMMARY: Having had a reportable work injury is a strong predictor of subsequent DPR for men....

  3. Paediatric treadmill friction injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremijenko, Luke; Mott, Jonathan; Wallis, Belinda; Kimble, Roy

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the severity and incidence of children injured by treadmills and to promote the implementation of safety standards. This retrospective review of children with treadmill friction injuries was conducted in a single tertiary-level burns centre in Australia between January 1997 and June 2007. The study revealed 37 children who sustained paediatric treadmill friction injuries. This was a presentation of 1% of all burns. Thirty-three (90%) of the injuries occurred in the last 3.5 years (January 2004 to June 2007). The modal age was 3.2 years. Thirty-three (90%) injuries were either full thickness or deep partial friction burns. Eleven (30%) required split thickness skin grafts. Of those who became entrapped, 100% required skin grafting. This study found that paediatric treadmill friction injuries are severe and increasing in incidence. Australian standards should be developed, implemented and mandated to reduce this preventable and severe injury.

  4. Bone stress injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuru, M.J.; Pihlajamaeki, H.K.; Ahovuo, J.A. [Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-05-01

    Bone stress injuries are due to cyclical overuse of the bone. They are relatively common in athletes and military recruits but also among otherwise healthy people who have recently started new or intensive physical activity. Diagnosis of bone stress injuries is based on the patient's history of increased physical activity and on imaging findings. The general symptom of a bone stress injury is stress-related pain. Bone stress injuries are difficult to diagnose based only on a clinical examination because the clinical symptoms may vary depending on the phase of the pathophysiological spectrum in the bone stress injury. Imaging studies are needed to ensure an early and exact diagnosis, because if the diagnosis is not delayed most bone stress injuries heal well without complications.

  5. Soccer injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  6. Ocular Injuries In Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur İNAM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.

  7. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrick, Karen M

    2016-07-01

    Soccer is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport worldwide, with approximately 265 million registered soccer players existing around the world. The popularity of the sport, coupled with the high incidence of 18.8-21.5 head injuries per 1,000 player hours reported, make it essential that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes, have a solid understanding of head injuries. The successful rehabilitation of athletes with head injuries relies upon early and accurate identification strategies and implementation of appropriate return to play measures across all areas in the continuum of care. Soccer is a frequently played sport, and head injuries are common. Therefore, it is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and the athletes themselves have a solid understanding of head injury prevention, diagnosis, and treatment options. The purpose of this article was to provide rehabilitation nurses with current information regarding frequently occurring head injuries in the widespread sport of soccer. © 2015 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  8. Soccer injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)

  9. [LOW BACK PAIN AT NEW WORKING AMBIENT IN ERA OF NEW ECONOMY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ABOUT OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, Nurka; Maleš-Bilić, Ljiljana

    2015-03-01

    Low back pain is the second most common symptom-related reason for physician visits and the first reason of working disability. Low back pain is a ubiquitous complaint, with particularly high prevalence among people in their working years (67%). For many individuals, episodes of back pain are self-limited and resolve without specific therapy. For others, however, back pain is recurrent or chronic, causing significant pain that interferes with employment and quality of life. Many occupations have been anecdotally linked to certain low back pain syndrome. However, the relationship between the work environment and the patient's symptoms, though clearly perceived by the patient to be causative, may be less certain. The injury model of an occupational disorder proposes that specific work activities are the cause of the patient's pain. The injury model for low back pain; implicating a causal connection with specific work activities, is complex and controversial. Determining whether a patient's low back pain is a consequence of his or her occupational activity, and how best to treat symptoms to maximize functionality and potential for a return to full employment capacity, can be challenging. In this systematic review which included patients/employees with low back pain, the following databases were searched: Pub Med, Embase, Medline and Web of science. The role of occupational mechanical exposure e.g. lifting as a risk factors for low back surgery has been debated for several decades. Diagnostic uncertainty exists even for those with back symptoms and well-described findings on scan, as these findings are common even in subjects without back pain, and may be unrelated to the symptoms. As an example, herniated disks can be identified in significant numbers of CT or MRI low back studies in subjects with no back pain. In further analysis, lifestyle factors and occupational psychosocial exposures will be addressed. Many physicians, including those practicing in primary care

  10. Injuries from hovercraft racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattermole, H R

    1997-01-01

    A 31-year-old man presented with a potentially serious neck injury following a racing hovercraft accident. Previous reports of hovercrafting injuries could not be found, and a review of the sport's own records was undertaken. This shows there to be a wide range of injuries sustained from the sport, although most of them are minor. However, there are some worrying trends, and further studies are being undertaking in order to improve the sport's safety record.

  11. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  12. Lower Back Tattoo: OK to Have an Epidural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and delivery, postpartum care Could a lower back tattoo keep me from having an epidural during labor? ... Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A lower back tattoo won't necessarily prevent you from having an ...

  13. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...... than 30 days with low back pain during the follow-up year. This was true for only 9% of the rest of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates correlations between low back pain in childhood/adolescence and low back pain in adulthood. This should lead to a change in focus from the adult...

  14. Injury Patterns in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Barry

    1989-01-01

    Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…

  15. Trunk neuromuscular pattern alterations during a controlled functional task in a low back injured group deemed ready to resume regular activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl; Moreside, Janice M; Quirk, D Adam

    2014-01-01

    Trunk neuromuscular alterations have been found in those with chronic low back pain, but less well studied are whether responses are altered in those deemed recovered following an injury. Furthermore, coordinated trunk muscle responses are deemed important for normal spinal function, but there are no studies of temporal patterns early after a low back injury. Determining whether altered trunk muscle patterns exist early after injury could improve our understanding of recovery by providing an objective assessment of functional recovery and risk of re-injury. To determine if amplitude and temporal characteristics of trunk neuromuscular patterns differ during a dynamic functional task in a group of participants with recent (within 12 weeks) low back injury (LBI), but deemed ready to resume normal activities, when compared to those with no similar history of injury (ASYM). 35 participants in each group (17 females) were matched for age and body mass index (BMI); (ASYM 36 yrs, BMI 26, LBI 39 yrs, BMI 27). Participants performed a controlled lifting task (2.9 kg) in a standing maximum reach position, which altered frontal and sagittal plane moments of force. Electromyographic activity of 24 trunk muscle sites, as well as thoracic and pelvis position via an electromagnetic sensor was collected. Principal component analyses extracted the temporal and amplitude waveform patterns. Mixed model ANOVAs tested for effects (plow pain scores, the temporal and amplitude muscle activation patterns were altered in this LBI group indicating that differences exist compared to a non-low back injured group. The differences are not just relative amplitude differences among muscles but include differences in the temporal response to the flexion moment.

  16. Lawnmower injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, Nora

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Power lawnmowers can pose significant danger of injury to both the operator and the bystander, from direct contact with the rotary blades or missile injury. Our objective was to review our experience with paediatric lawnmower-associated trauma, and the safety recommendations available to operators of power lawnmowers. METHODS: The patient cohort comprised paediatric (<16 years of age) patients treated for lawnmower-associated trauma, by the plastic surgery service, between 1996 and 2003. These patients were identified retrospectively. Age at the time of injury, location and extent of bony and soft tissue injuries sustained, treatment instituted and clinical outcome were recorded. Brochures and instruction manuals of six lawnmower manufacturers were reviewed, and safety recommendations noted. RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified. The majority of injuries occurred from direct contact with the rotary blades (93%); the remaining child sustained a burn injury. Fourteen children (93%) required operative intervention. Seven patients (46%) sustained injuries resulting in amputation, two of whom had major limb amputations. All children, except the burns patient, underwent wound debridement and received antibiotic therapy. Reconstructive methods ranged from primary closure to free tissue transfer. Many patients required multiple procedures. In all instruction manuals, instructions to keep children and pets indoors or out of the yard when mowing were found. CONCLUSIONS: Lawnmower injuries can be devastating, particularly in children. Many victims have lasting deformities as a result of their injuries. Awareness of and stringent adherence to safety precautions during use of power lawnmowers can prevent many of these accidents.

  17. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  18. Head injuries in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, R C

    1996-12-01

    Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.

  19. Does safety climate moderate the influence of staffing adequacy and work conditions on nurse injuries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara A; Hughes, Linda C; Belyea, Michael; Chang, Yunkyung; Hofmann, David; Jones, Cheryl B; Bacon, Cynthia T

    2007-01-01

    Hospital nurses have one of the highest work-related injury rates in the United States. Yet, approaches to improving employee safety have generally focused on attempts to modify individual behavior through enforced compliance with safety rules and mandatory participation in safety training. We examined a theoretical model that investigated the impact on nurse injuries (back injuries and needlesticks) of critical structural variables (staffing adequacy, work engagement, and work conditions) and further tested whether safety climate moderated these effects. A longitudinal, non-experimental, organizational study, conducted in 281 medical-surgical units in 143 general acute care hospitals in the United States. Work engagement and work conditions were positively related to safety climate, but not directly to nurse back injuries or needlesticks. Safety climate moderated the relationship between work engagement and needlesticks, while safety climate moderated the effect of work conditions on both needlesticks and back injuries, although in unexpected ways. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Our findings suggest that positive work engagement and work conditions contribute to enhanced safety climate and can reduce nurse injuries.

  20. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, James H; Fox, James R; Maple, Rhonda; Loretan, Caitlin; Badger, Gary J; Henry, Sharon M; Vizzard, Margaret A; Langevin, Helene M

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP) have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain) during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble). Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007) and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027). Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024). The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted.

  1. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Thoracolumbar Fascia Injury and Movement Restriction in a Porcine Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Bishop

    Full Text Available The persistence of back pain following acute back "sprains" is a serious public health problem with poorly understood pathophysiology. The recent finding that human subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP have increased thickness and decreased mobility of the thoracolumbar fascia measured with ultrasound suggest that the fasciae of the back may be involved in LBP pathophysiology. This study used a porcine model to test the hypothesis that similar ultrasound findings can be produced experimentally in a porcine model by combining a local injury of fascia with movement restriction using a "hobble" device linking one foot to a chest harness for 8 weeks. Ultrasound measurements of thoracolumbar fascia thickness and shear plane mobility (shear strain during passive hip flexion were made at the 8 week time point on the non-intervention side (injury and/or hobble. Injury alone caused both an increase in fascia thickness (p = .007 and a decrease in fascia shear strain on the non-injured side (p = .027. Movement restriction alone did not change fascia thickness but did decrease shear strain on the non-hobble side (p = .024. The combination of injury plus movement restriction had additive effects on reducing fascia mobility with a 52% reduction in shear strain compared with controls and a 28% reduction compared to movement restriction alone. These results suggest that a back injury involving fascia, even when healed, can affect the relative mobility of fascia layers away from the injured area, especially when movement is also restricted.

  2. Low back pain among patients attending rheumatology clinic in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, causes of back pain include osteoarthritis (spondylosis), disc degeneration, osteoporotic fracture, and non-specific low back pain. Objective: To determine the pattern of low back pain among the people living in the South West Nigeria. Design: Prospective study. Methods: All the patients that presented with low ...

  3. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated

  4. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    Exercise therapy is the most widely used type of conservative treatment for low back pain. Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. During the past 5 years, many additional trials have been published on chronic low back pain. This

  5. Occupational low back load assessment using a video analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bonger, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been performed on associations of physical exposures (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) with low back pain (LBP). However, information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP is lacking. Cumulative low back load is significantly

  6. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory fitness of Nigerians with Low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of Nigerians with low back pain (LBP) and apparently healthy counterparts. A total of Seventy (70) subjects participated in the study; 35 of them were low back pain patients, while the remaining 35 were apparently healthy adults. For low back pain ...

  7. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disability and absenteeism from work. Routine imaging is not required when making a diagnosis of non-specific or simple low back pain. A comprehensive history and physical examination usually suffice. This contrasts with back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis, or back pain associated with serious ...

  8. Prevalence and variance of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lee D; Flanigan, David C; Norwig, John; Jost, Patrick; Bradley, James

    2005-08-01

    Shoulder injuries are the fourth most common musculoskeletal injury encountered in American football players. There is little information in the literature on the role of playing position in the type of shoulder injuries seen. There is a high prevalence of shoulder injuries in elite collegiate American football players, with type of injury varying by playing position. Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 3. A total of 336 elite collegiate American football players were invited to the National Football League Combine for physical testing and medical evaluation. Current and historical data were evaluated for the purpose of this study, and all players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain radiographs and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All shoulder pathological conditions and shoulder surgical procedures were recorded. Players were categorized by position for the analysis of position-specific trends. Of the players, 50% had a history of shoulder injuries, with a total of 226 shoulder injuries (1.3 injuries per player injured); 56 players (34%) had a total of 73 surgeries. The most common injuries were acromioclavicular separation (41%), anterior instability (20%), rotator cuff injury (12%), clavicle fracture (4%), and posterior instability (4%). The most common surgeries performed were anterior instability reconstruction (48%), Mumford/Weaver-Dunn surgery (15%), posterior instability surgery (10%), and rotator cuff surgery (10%). Shoulder injuries were more common in quarterbacks and defensive backs. Surgery was more common in linebackers or linemen. A history of anterior instability was more common in defensive players, with surgery required 76% of the time. Linemen had more rotator cuff injuries and posterior instability than players in other positions. Shoulder injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, with one-third undergoing surgical procedures. There are definitive trends in the types of injuries

  9. Penetrating brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Prashad Sharma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years, there has been an increase in the incidence of head injuries caused by gunshot wounds.  Penetrating brain injury is a traumatic brain injury caused by high-velocity projectiles or low-velocity sharp objects. A wound in which the projectile breaches the cranium but does not exit is referred as a penetrating wound, and an injury in which the projectile passes entirely through the head, leaving both entrance  and exit wounds, is referred to as a perforating wound. A large number of these patients who survive their initial wounding will nevertheless expire shortly after admission to the hospital. Until the introduction of aseptic surgery in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, penetrating missile injuries of the brain were almost universally fatal. We have learned a great deal about gunshot wounds and their management from military experience gained during times of war, when a large number of firearm-related casualties are treated in a short period of time. Newly designed protective body armor has reduced the incidence of penetrating brain injuries significantly. Many of the victims in the vicinity of a cased explosive or an improvised explosive device will incur injuries by fragments. Blast injury is a common mechanism of traumatic brain injury among soldiers serving in war zone. Each war has had different lessons to teach. World War I for example, proved the efficacy of vigorous surgical intervention. During World War II, the importance of initial dural repair and antibiotic medication was first, debated, then acknowledged, and finally, universally accepted. The incidence of blast-induced traumatic brain injury has increased substantially in recent military conflicts. Blast-induced neurotrauma is the term given to describe an injury to the brain that occurs after exposure to a blast. Resent conflict has exposed military personnel to sophisticated explosive devices generating blast overpressure that results in

  10. A reliable approach to the closure of large acquired midline defects of the back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casas, L.A.; Lewis, V.L. Jr. (Northwestern Univ. Medical School, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-10-01

    A systematic regionalized approach for the reconstruction of acquired thoracic and lumbar midline defects of the back is described. Twenty-three patients with wounds resulting from pressure necrosis, radiation injury, and postoperative wound infection and dehiscence were successfully reconstructed. The latissimus dorsi, trapezius, gluteus maximus, and paraspinous muscles are utilized individually or in combination as advancement, rotation, island, unipedicle, turnover, or bipedicle flaps. All flaps are designed so that their vascular pedicles are out of the field of injury. After thorough debridement, large, deep wounds are closed with two layers of muscle, while smaller, more superficial wounds are reconstructed with one layer. The trapezius muscle is utilized in the high thoracic area for the deep wound layer, while the paraspinous muscle is used for this layer in the thoracic and lumbar regions. Superficial layer and small wounds in the high thoracic area are reconstructed with either latissimus dorsi or trapezius muscle. Corresponding wounds in the thoracic and lumbar areas are closed with latissimus dorsi muscle alone or in combination with gluteus maximus muscle. The rationale for systematic regionalized reconstruction of acquired midline back wounds is described.

  11. Catastrophic injuries in pole vaulters: a prospective 9-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Barry P; Boden, Matthew G; Peter, Rebecca G; Mueller, Fred O; Johnson, Jan E

    2012-07-01

    A prior review of catastrophic pole vaulting injuries from 1982 through 1998 revealed an average of 2.0 injuries per year, with 69% (1.38 per year) of the injuries secondary to athletes landing off the sides or back of the landing pad and 25% (0.5 per year) from athletes landing in the vault box. In 2003, several rule changes for the sport of pole vaulting were mandated, including enlarging the minimum dimensions of the landing pad. Our goals were to (1) identify the post-2003 rule change incidence and profile of catastrophic pole vaulting injuries through 2011 and compare them, where possible, with the prior incidence and profile and (2) determine, via a questionnaire, the frequency with which pole vaulters land in the vault box. We hypothesized that the new, larger landing pads would reduce the number of catastrophic injuries. Descriptive epidemiology study. We prospectively reviewed all catastrophic pole vaulting injuries (ie, brain hemorrhage; skull, spine, or pelvic fracture; substantial pulmonary or intra-abdominal injury) in the United States from 2003 through 2011, surveyed 3335 pole vaulters to determine the frequency of landing in the vault box, and compared results with those in the literature. From 2003 to 2011, 19 catastrophic injuries occurred (average of 2.1 per year), with the majority (n = 14, 74%, 1.55 per year) landing in or around the vault box. Four (21%, 0.44 per year) injuries occurred when an athlete landed off the sides or back of the landing pad and 1 (5%) when the pole broke. There were 11 (58%) major head injuries (1 fatality), 4 (21%) spine fractures (1 with paraplegia), 2 (11%) pelvic fractures (both with intra-abdominal injuries), 1 (5%) brain stem injury (fatal), and 1 (5%) thoracic injury (rib fractures and pneumothorax). The annual fatality rate fell from 1.0 in the prior study to 0.22 in the current study. According to the pole vaulters survey, during their careers, 77.12% (n = 2572) landed in the vault box 1 to 3 times, 15.92% (n

  12. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology....... An open-switch fault in the NPC rectifier of the back-to-back converter leads to the distortion of the input current and torque vibration in the system. Additionally, an open-switch fault in the NPC inverter of the back-to-back converter causes the distortion of the output current. Furthermore, the WTG...... system can break down in the worst case scenario. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method for back-to-back converters using the NPC topology is required. This study analyzes effects of inner and outer open-switch faults of the NPC rectifier and inverter...

  13. Injury incidence and injury patterns in professional football: the UEFA injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, J; Hägglund, M; Waldén, M

    2011-06-01

    To study the injury characteristics in professional football and to follow the variation of injury incidence during a match, during a season and over consecutive seasons. Prospective cohort study where teams were followed for seven consecutive seasons. Team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries from 2001 to 2008. European professional men's football. The first team squads of 23 teams selected by the Union of European Football Associations as belonging to the 50 best European teams. Injury incidence. 4483 injuries occurred during 566 000 h of exposure, giving an injury incidence of 8.0 injuries/1000 h. The injury incidence during matches was higher than in training (27.5 vs 4.1, pinjuries per season, and a team with typically 25 players can thus expect about 50 injuries each season. The single most common injury subtype was thigh strain, representing 17% of all injuries. Re-injuries constituted 12% of all injuries, and they caused longer absences than non re-injuries (24 vs 18 days, pincidence of match injuries showed an increasing injury tendency over time in both the first and second halves (pinjuries and hamstring strains were more frequent during the competitive season, while overuse injuries were common during the preseason. Training and match injury incidences were stable over the period with no significant differences between seasons. The training and match injury incidences were stable over seven seasons. The risk of injury increased with time in each half of matches.

  14. Injuries in Cricket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Varshney, Ankit V

    Cricket is a popular global sport that requires a combination of physical fitness, skill, and strategy. Although a noncontact sport, overuse and impact injuries are common since players engage in a wide range of physical activities, including running, throwing, batting, bowling, catching, and diving. Significant or match time-loss injuries are defined as those that either prevent a player from being fully available for selection in a major match, or during a major match, cause a player to be unable to bat, bowl, or keep wicket when required by either the rules or the team's captain. This review describes the various region-wise injuries sustained in cricket along with their epidemiology, biomechanics, treatment, and prevention. Data were collected from peer-reviewed articles (obtained via PubMed search) published through November 2016 that involved the medical, biomechanical, and epidemiological aspects of cricket injuries. Clinical review. Level 4. Cricket was one of the first sports to publish recommended methods for injury surveillance in 2005 from England, South Africa, Australia, the West Indies, and India. While the incidence of injuries is about the same, the prevalence of injuries has increased due to game format changes, increasing number of matches played, and decreased rest between matches. Bowling (41.3%), fielding, and wicket keeping (28.6%) account for most injuries. Acute injuries are most common (64%-76%), followed by acute-on-chronic (16%-22.8%) and chronic ones (8%-22%). The most common modern-day cricket injury is hamstring strain, and the most severe is lumbar stress fracture in young fast bowlers. With improved understanding of the scientific and medical aspects of cricket, along with advances in surgical and nonsurgical treatment techniques, the time to return to play has shortened considerably. While the prevalence of cricket injuries has increased, their severity has decreased over the past decades.

  15. Furniture injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.

  16. War liver injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Nebojša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To provide a retrospective analysis of our results and experience in primary surgical treatment of subjects with war liver injuries. Methods. From July 1991 to December 1999, 204 subjects with war liver injuries were treated. A total of 82.8% of the injured were with the liver injuries combined with the injuries of other organs. In 93.7%, the injuries were caused by fragments of explosive devices or bullets of various calibers. In 140 (68.6% of the injured there were minor lesions (grade I to II, treated with simple repair or drainage. There were complex injuries of the liver (grade III-V in 64 (31.4% of the injured. Those injuries required complex repair (hepatorrhaphy, hepatotomy, resection debridement, resection, packing alone. The technique of perihepatic packing and planned reoperation had a crucial and life-saving role when severe bleeding was present. Routine peritoneal drainage was applied in all of the injured. Primary management of 74.0% of the injured was performed in war hospitals. Results. After primary treatment, 72 (35.3% of the injured were with postoperative complications. Reoperation was done in 66 injured. Total mortality rate in 204 injured was 18.1%. All the deceased had significant combined injuries. Mortality rates due to the liver injury of the grade III, IV and V were 16.6%, 70.0% and 83.3%, respectively. Conclusion. Complex liver injuries caused very high mortality rate and the management of the injured was delicate under war circumstances (if the injured reached the hospital alive. Our experience under war circumstances and with war surgeons of limited knowledge of the liver surgery and war surgery, confirmed that it was necessary to apply compressive abdominal packing alone or in combination with other techniques for hemostasis in the treatment of liver injuries grade III-V, resuscitation and rapid transportation to specialized hospitals.

  17. Effects of back warming in cocoon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnison, J.R.; Williams, I.P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that dust shells frequently surround young stars, and attempts have been made to determine some of the properties of these shells. It is probable that the dust absorbs the outgoing radiation from the star and re-emits it in the infrared. If the dust shell does absorb radiation both its inner and outer surfaces will re-emit a certain proportion and some radiation will return to the central star, causing what amounts to 'warming of its own back'. It is interesting to consider how such a star evolves, compared with evolution of a normal pre-main-sequence star. A model for a contracting star that is receiving radiation from an external source has been developed by the authors in connection with the evolution of Jupiter within the radiation field of the Sun (Astrophys. Space Sci., 29:387 (1974)), and this model is here applied to the situation just described. It is emphasised that the discussion is concerned only with the evolution of the central star, the dust being regarded merely as a means of redirecting radiation back on to the surface of this star. Amongst conclusions reached is that a thin shell will cause no significant change in the structure and evolution of the central star, whilst the presence of a thick shell has a substantial effect on the star, slowing down is evolution. Whilst a dust shell is present the star cannot be seen, but only the dust shell emitting in the infrared, but once the dust shell clears the star is seen in a position and with an age that differs considerably from what it would have had if it had evolved without 'back warming' from the dust shell. (U.K.)

  18. Low back pain among school teachers in Botswana, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erick, Patience N; Smith, Derek R

    2014-10-30

    Although low back pain (LBP) represents a common occupational problem, few epidemiological studies have investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LBP among school teachers, particularly in Africa. School teachers are known to represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of LBP. The objective of this study was, therefore, to conduct one of the first epidemiological investigations of LBP among teachers in Botswana. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers in Botswana using self-administered questionnaires which were distributed to 3100 randomly selected school teachers and collected over a five-month period between July and November 2012. The questionnaire included low back pain information, demographic data, lifestyle, work-related characteristics and psychosocial factors. Data were analysed using Chi-squared and logistic regression models. The 12 month prevalence and LBP disability and associated risk factors were also analysed. A total of 1747 teachers returned completed questionnaires, yielding a response rate of 56.3%. The 12-month prevalence of LBP was 55.7%, with 67.1% of them reporting minimal disability. The results of logistic regression analysis revealed that female gender [OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.14-2.00] and previous back injury [OR: 9.67, 95% CI: 4.94-18.93] were positively correlated to LBP. Awkward arm position [OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.24-2.62] and high psychological job demands [OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.02-1.93] were also significantly associated with LBP. Regular physical exercise was negatively associated with LBP [OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43-0.93]. Female gender [OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-3.99] and previous back injury [OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.92-4.74] were also positively associated with LBP disability. The prevalence of LBP appears to be high among school teachers in Botswana. A wide variety of LBP risk factors were identified in this study. Female gender and previous injury were both associated with LBP presence

  19. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  20. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, B.; Hendricks, O.; Horslev-Petersen, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inflammatory back pain (IBP) characteristics and analyse the discriminative value of IBP relative to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. METHOD: Patients who had low back pain...... the pain characteristics included in the Calin, Berlin, and ASAS IBP definitions. RESULTS: Of the 759 included patients, 99% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98-100] had at least one IBP characteristic. The prevalence of the single IBP characteristics ranged from 10% (95% CI 7-12) for 'pain worst...... value was low, as IBP could not differentiate patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria from patients with other causes of back pain....

  1. Injuries in women's professional soccer

    OpenAIRE

    Giza, E; Mithofer, K; Farrell, L; Zarins, B; Gill, T; Drawer, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The injury data from the first two seasons of the Women's United Soccer Association (WUSA) were analysed to determine the injury incidence, anatomic location of injuries, and relation of player position.

  2. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  3. Self-Injury in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Self-Injury In Adolescents No. 73; July 2013 Self-injury is the ... to have become more popular lately, especially in adolescents. The causes and severity of self-injury can ...

  4. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript in your browser. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot What Is a Sesamoid? A sesamoid is a ... contributing factor. Types of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of sesamoid injuries in ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Child Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco ... Child Injury Prevention Protect the Ones You Love Color Me Safe Child Injury: What You Need to ...

  6. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Herrera J, McGuire LC, Gilchrist J. Trends in sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries treated in US emergency departments: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) ...

  7. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  8. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  9. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  10. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  11. Back to the Future of Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Our students are like beacons, a bright light on the horizon, but with some way to go. Our educational methods that bring them safely into harbour have seen the test of time, but do we allow them enough freedom and creativity to sail their boats in the climate change of the digital era? Our students are chosen because they are smart and capable and we hope will bring credit to our institutions, but do we maximize their potential educationally? We need to go back to the future to begin to consider this. PMID:27688345

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago play_arrow What is ... What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heather Taylor, PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, ... Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT Mary Jane Mulcahey, PhD, OTR/L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering the Patient After Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ...

  15. Healing of Genital Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  16. Equestrian injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Alex G; Wiggins, Alexandra; Chen, Mike K; Kays, David W; Islam, Saleem; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2009-01-01

    Equestrian activities are regarded by some as high-risk sports, and our recent experience suggested this to be true. We undertook this study to review our experience with pediatric equestrian injuries. After institutional review board approval, we reviewed emergency department and hospital admissions for children 0 to 18 years, with equestrian trauma, over an 11-year period. There were 164 encounters with 135 girls and 29 boys. Most injuries (82%) occurred after falling or being thrown from the animal, and only 12% occurred during jumping or rodeo competitions. The remaining injuries were secondary to being trampled, kicked, or trapped under the animal. Eighty-seven children required hospital admission. Lacerations and contusions (58%) or orthopedic injuries (31%) were most common in the emergency department cohort. In the admission cohort, injury sites included orthopedic (34%), head (23%), abdomen (21%), and chest (11%). Multiple injuries occurred in 13%. A significant number of children required surgical interventions, including 19 orthopedic procedures, 4 laparotomies, 3 facial reconstructions, and 2 craniotomies. The average length of stay was nearly 4 days, with 60% of the children requiring intensive care admission. There were no deaths. One child was discharged to rehab, the rest were sent home. In our experience, more than one third of the children admitted after sustaining injuries in horse-related sports required surgical interventions. Children participating in equestrian activities are at risk for substantial injury, and pediatric care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when evaluating these children.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord ... by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions ... PhD Michelle Meade, PhD Jonathon Rose, PhD The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS ...

  19. Overuse injuries in running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Rasmussen, Sten; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2016-01-01

    What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence.......What is an overuse injury in running? This question is a corner stone of clinical documentation and research based evidence....

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...